Admiral Sir Frederick Lewis Maitland
Issue Date: 24/9/2001 (Changes at end) Home Page FREDRICK LEWIS MAITLAND "Admiral, of Rankeillor," Rear Admiral Sir, KCB Received the surrender of Napoleon in June 1815 while in command of HMS Bellerphon. Born 7/9/1777, Collessie OPR's 416/1 "The Hon Captain Fredrick Maitland of Rankeillor a son 11 September 1777 Fredrick Lewis." Married: Cork, 4/1804, Catherine Connor, dau of D. Connor of Ballybricken. Died 30/11/1839. Made James Maitland, son of brother Charles, his heir. Extract From Peerage of Scotland, 1813 by John Phillip Wood. "... who was appointed captain of the Royal Navy, 1801; signalised himself highly when as commander of the Loire Frigate, 1803-06, particularly in Muros Bay, 4/6/1805; a circumstantial detail of which appeared in the London Gazette, justly entitling him to the distinction of one of the 1st officers in the service. He married at Cork, April 1804, Catherine, second daughter of D. Connor of Ballybricken. * Footnote in O'Byrne (1849): Sir Fred. Lewis Maitland was born in 1776. He served as Midshipman of the SOUTHAMPTON 32 in Lord Howe's action 1 June 1794; was employed, while holding the rank of Commander, in the expedition to Egypt in 1801; attained Post-rank in the course of that year; and had command, during the late war, of the LOIRE and EMERALD frigates (see Capt Charles Bertram), GOLIATH 58, BOYNE 98, and BELLEROPHON 74. In the ship last mentioned, he had the honour of receiving Napoleon Buonaparte when he surrendered after the battle of Waterloo. During the peace, he commanded the VENGEUR, GENOA, and WELLESLEY 74's. He was nominated a C.B. in 1815; advanced to Flag-rank in July 1830; and created a K.C.B. in the following November. He filled the office of Admiral-Superintendent at Portsmouth from July, 1832, until July, 1837; and that of Commander-in- Chief in the East Indies from the latter period until the date of his death, 30 November, 1839. Bellerophon was next commanded by Capt James Water Isaac Dallamore. FLM Son Fredrick Lewis Maitland Expanded Details: 1795 Andromeda (Lt) 1806 Voluntaire Venerable (6:4) 1806 Emerald 1797 Kingfisher Brig (1) 1813 Goliath 1798 Victory 1815 Boyne 1799 Camelion Sloop Bellerophon 1800 Wassinair (sp?) 1819 Vengeur Dragon 1821 Genoa 1801 Carrere 1827 Wellesley 1802 Loire 1837 Wellesley Lt 3/4/1795, CR 14/6/1799, CA 21/3/1801, RAB 22/7/1830 (@ Portsmouth 32-37), RAR 10/1/1837, D 30/11/1839. CB 1815, KCB 23/1/1831. Also John Maitland 1794-1814 RA 20/1/1821 ADM107/19 f57. FLM jnr passed for Lt 2/4/1795: .... he has served six years at sea, and has been rated two of the said six years as midshipman, or mate, in some of his majesties ships; and that he does produce regular journals, and with good Certificates from the Commanders he has served with, of his sobriety, Diligence and Qualifications of an Able Seaman; and that upon your own examination, you find he has obtained to a sufficient knowledge, both in the Practick Part and Theory of Navigation, and you shall be satisfied that he is not under twenty years of age, you are then to give him a certificate, expressing therein his particular Qualifications. Service: Entry Discharge Y M W D Pr Augusta 16/7/85 Capt Svnt 16/12/86 1 5 2 0 (father's ship) Ganges 20/4/87 " 15/12/87 8 2 2 Elizabeth 24/1/88 " 1/5/89 1 3 2 Martin 3/5/92 Ord 26/1/93 9 2 3 Nemesis 27/1/93 Ord 14/2/93 2 5 Royal William 16/2/93 Supern 19/3/93 1 4 Falcon 24/3/93 Mid 17/4/93 3 4 Southampton 22/4/93 Mid 30/3/95 1 12 1 0 6 3 4 This Certificate shows ch at Collesie 14/9/73, then 8 days old, signed by Andrew Walker, minister, and Math. Walker, Elder. Similar Lieutenant exams show that others had similarly varied experiences and applied for Lt as soon as they had completed 6 years. http://www.gleaden.plus.com/landmarks/keppel.htm EXTRACTS: (Internet http://www.st-and.ac.uk/~md4/maitland.html)
Frederick Lewis Maitland was born at Rankeillour, near Cupar in Fife, on the 7th of September 1777, the third son of Captain the Hon. Frederick Lewis Maitland and his wife Margaret Dick.
The family had a tradition of Royal service which stretched back to Mary Queen of Scots. His father, had commanded the Elizabeth, 74, during the American revolution and when Lewis entered the Navy in July 1785, aged eight , it was aboard the Royal Yacht Princess Augusta captained by his father.
[There was a practice at this period of entering boys on ships books even though they weren't actually on board. This was to make it appear that they had seen sea service for a longer period than they had -to sit a Lt. exam you had to have had 6 years sea service]
His career as Lieutenant of the Kingfisher sloop of war started well, but ended in disaster. In January 1798 acting as prize master he took the French privateer La Betsey safely in to Lisbon, and out of the prize proceeds the Kingfishers crew presented him with a sword. However in December of the same year he had risen to the command of the Kingfisher, and was taking her down the River Tagus, at Lisbon, when she ran aground and was wrecked.
The court-martial which followed, court-martials always followed the loss of a vessel even there was obviously no blame attached to the commander, found him not guilty and he was immediately appointed flag-lieutenant to Lord St.Vincent.
The evidence given in the court-martial stated that instead of passing an island, in the Tagus, by the usual south channel that Maitland, desiring to get to sea as fast as possible, there was a French privateer off the coast, suggested to the pilot they take the faster northern passage, which they did, with the subsequent wrecking of the vessel. The Portuguese authorities wouldn't let the pilot appear before the court, presumably because they felt he wouldn't get a fair hearing. If indeed Maitland was at fault, and reading the evidence it appears so, then he redeemed himself for he was commended for
"conducting himself with great skill and prudence in saving the crew and attempting to save the brig and stores"
His subsequent career fully justified the confidence the court- martial board had in him. The next incident of note occurred in the following July and is a demonstration not only of the sense of honour but of the chivalry which was still present in warfare of the period.
On the 7th July 1799, while the French and Spanish combined fleets were passing the Straits of Gibraltar, some of the ships amused themselves with firing at two vessels belonging to the Algerines, and then steering close in with the African shore.
Lord St.Vincent who was on board the 44-gun ship Argo, at anchor in the bay of Gibraltar, dispatched the hired cutter Penelope, of 16 or 18 guns, Lieutenant Frederick Lewis Maitland, to ascertain the cause of the firing. Having stretched across the bay with very light winds during the night, Lieutenant Maitland, at daybreak on the 8th, found himself nearly within gunshot of Admiral Massaredo's advanced ships, the boats of which in the prevailing calm, were ordered to tow the 14-gun brig-corvette Vivo towards the Penelope. The latter, however, on approaching the British cutter, received so warm a salute, that she soon dropped astern. A breeze now springing up, the Spanish 34-gun frigate Del Carmen ran down, and placing herself about a cable's length on the Penelope's weather beam, opened a heavy fire, by which the cutter was soon unrigged and compelled to surrender. An officer from the Vivo now boarded the Penelope, and demanded her commander's sword; but Lieutenant Maitland refused to deliver it, alleging that the British colours had been struck to the frigate. Shortly afterwards, one of the Carmen's boats boarded and took possession of the Penelope, and sent away the boat of the Vivo. The Penelope, when thus suddenly ordered from Gibraltar, had on board a considerable sum of specie, intended for the Island of Minorca, but which had not been removed. "When her crew found there was no chance of escape from the combined fleets, they made an attempt to plunder the treasure, which Lieutenant Maitland most honourably and successfully resisted, alleging that, as public property, it was lawful prize of the captors" Such was the temper of the times that the Spanish Admiral was so impressed by Maitland's behaviour that he gave him his freedom without the need to be exchanged.
Lord St.Vincent returned to England in August 1799, accompanied by Maitland.
On reaching England he heard of the explosion of shells which had taken place in May on board the Theseus , 74, resulting in the death of her commander Captain Ralph Willet Miller.
A vacancy had thus occurred in the Mediterranean before the admiral had quitted that station. He used his privilege as commander -in-chief and promoted Maitland to the rank of commander in the Cameleon sloop-of-war, the promotion dated from June 14. Maitland at once went out to join his new ship, which was then on the coast of Egypt under Sir Sidney Smith. After the signing of the convention of El Arish he was sent home with despatches.
He returned and regained his ship, in which he made several captures.
On December 10, 1800, he was appointed by Lord Keith to the Wassenaar, 64. As she was then lying at Malta unfit for service, he obtained permission to accompany Sir Ralph Abercromby’s expedition to Egypt.
The fleet anchored in Aboukir bay on the 2nd March 1801. On the 8th, Abercromby effected a landing in face of a large and strongly posted French force.
To Maitland fell the duty of commanding the armed launches employed to cover the landing. The enemy were driven from their positions, and retired towards Alexandria with the loss of seven guns. Abercromby at once followed them up, and advanced on the neck of land lying between the sea and the Lake of Aboukir, leaving a distance of about four miles between the British and French camps.
On the 13th he again attacked the French, and forced them back upon their lines before Alexandria. The right flank of the British force rested upon the sea, the left on the Lake of Aboukir, and the flanks were covered by a naval flotila, the boats on the sea being under Maitland’s command, and those of the lake under that of Captain James Hillyar.
Seven days later Sir Sydney Smith, who commanded the naval battalion serving on shore, received from a friendly Arab sheikh a letter informing him that it was General Menou’s intention to attack the British camp the next morning.
The news was thought too good to be true, as in a few days Abercromby would have been compelled to attack the lines of Alexandria under every tactical disadvantage. It was however, confirmed, and on the 21st of March the battle of Alexandria was fought, and the fate of Egypt was decided, and Abercromby received his death wound.
Maitland again covered the British right flank from the sea.
In the detailed plan of the battle given in Sir Robert Wilson’s History of the British Expedition to Egypt, Maitland’s flottila is shown a little to the west of the ruins of Nicopolis, in a position to enfilade the French attack.
For his services on the 8th, 13th, and 21st Maitland received the thanks of the naval and military commanders-in-chief, and on March 22, the day after the battle, Sir Sidney Smith wrote to Lord Keith warmly commending Maitland’s conduct.
Maitland’s post commission was confirmed by the Admiralty on the day of the battle of Alexandria. In the ensuing month he was appointed to the Dragon, 74, and shortly afterwards to the Carrere, a French 40-gun frigate taken near Elba. He remained in command of her in the Mediterranean till the Peace of Amiens.
The Carrere was paid off on October 4, 1802. Eleven days afterwards Maitland was appointed by Lord St.Vincent to the Loire, a fine 46-gun frigate. War broke out again on May 18, 1803 and the Loire started on a brilliant career of captures, which included the 10 gun brig Venteux, cut out from under the Isle of Bas by two of the Loire’s boats, the Braave privateer, and the 30-gun frigate Blonde, captured in August 1804 after a pursuit of 24 hours and a desperate running fight.
[The frigates offensive capability lay not only with its guns but also as a weapons platform, using its boats to launch attacks on coastal installations and "cutting" vessels out of harbours. A description of such an action is given by Maitland in the following dispatch.]
Loire, Muros Road, Spain, 4 June, 1805.
To Rear-Admiral Dury, Cork.
Being informed that there was a French privateer of 26 guns, fitting out at Muros, and nearly ready for sea, it struck me, from my recollection of the bay, (having been in it formerly, when Lieutenant of the Kingsfisher,) as being practicable either to bring her out or destroy her, with the ship I have the honour to command.
I accordingly prepared yesterday evening for engaging at anchor, and appointed Mr.Yeo, with Lieutenants Mallock and Douglas, of the marines, and amounting, officers included, to 50 men, (being all that could be spared from anchoring the ship and working the guns) in landing and storming the fort, though I then had no idea its strength was to prove so great as it has proved.
At nine this morning, on the sea breeze setting in, I stood for the bay in the ship, the men previously prepared, being in the boats ready to shove off. On hauling close round the point of the road, a small battery of 2 guns opened a fire on the ship; a few shot were returned; but perceiving it would annoy us considerably, form its situation, I desired Mr. Yeo to push on shore and spike the guns: reminding the men of its being the anniversary of their Sovereign's birth, and that, for his sake, as well as their own credit, their utmost exertions must be used. Though such an injunction was unnecessary, it had a great efffect in animating and raising the spirits of the people.
As the ship drew in, and more fully opened the bay, I perceived a very long corvette, of 26 ports, apparently ready for sea, and a large brig of 20 ports, in a state of fitting; but neither of them firing, led me to conclude they had not their guns on board, and left no other object to occupy my attention, but a heavy fort, which at this moment opened to our view, within less that a quarter of a mile, and began a wonderfully well-directed fire, almost every shot taking place in the hull.
Perceiving that by standing further on, more guns would be brought to bear upon us, without our being enabled to near the fort so much as I wished, I ordered the helm to be put down; and when from the way she had, we had gained an advantageous position, anchored with a spring, and commenced firing. Although I have little doubt that, before long we should have silenced the fort, yet from the specimen they gave us, and being completely embrasured, it must have cost us many lives, and caused great injury to the ship, had not Mr. Yeo's gallantry and good conduct soon put an end to their fire.
I must now revert to him and the party under his command. Having landed under the small battery on the point, it was instantly abandoned; but hardly had he time to spike the guns, when at the distance of a quarter of a mile, he perceived a regular fort, ditched and with a gate, which the enemy (fortunately never suspecting our landing) had neglected to secure, open a fire upon the ship; without waiting for orders he pushed forward, and was opposed at the inner gate by the Governor, with such troops as were in the town, and the crews of the French privateers.
From the testimony of the prisoners, as well as our own men, it appears that Mr.Yeo was first to enter the fort; with one blow laid the Governor dead at his feet, and broke his own sabre in two; the other officers were dispatched by such officers and men of ours as were most advanced, and the narrowness of the gate would permit to push forward: the remainder instantly fled to the further end of the fort, and from the ship we could perceive many of them leap from the embrasures upon the rocks, a height of above 25 feet: such as laid down their arms received quarter.
For a more particular account of Mr. Yeo and his party, I beg leave to refer you to his letter enclosed herewith, and I have to request you will be pleased to recommend him to the notice of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty; being a very old officer[?]; and in the two late instances he has displayed as much gallantry as ever fell to the lot of any man. He speaks in the strongest language of the officers and men under his commanded on shore: and I feel it but justice to attribute our success wholly to their exertions; for, although the fire from the ship was admirably directed, the enemy were so completely covered by their embrasures, as to render the grape almost ineffectual.
The instant the Union was displayed at the fort, I sent and took possession of the enemies' vessels in the Road, consisting of the Confiance French ship privateer, pierced for 26 twelves and nines, none of which, however were on board; the Belier, French privateer brig, pierced for 20 eighteen pounder carronades; and a Spanish merchant brig in ballast. I then hoisted a flag of truce, and sent to inform the inhabitants of the town, that if they would deliver up such stores of the ship as were on shore, there would be no further molestation. The proposal was thankfully agreed to.
I did not think it advisable to allow the people to remain long enough to embark the guns, their being a large body of troops in the vicinity. A great many small vessels are in the bay, and hauled up on the beach. None of them having cargoes of any value, I conceive it an act of inhumanity to deprive the poorer inhabitants of the means of gaining their livelihood, and shall not molest them. On inspecting the brig, as she had only the lower rigging over head, and was not in a state of forwardness, I found it impracticable to bring her away, and therefore set fire to her; she is now burnt to the water's edge. I cannot conclude my letter without giving the portion of credit that is their due to the officers and men aboard the ship. His report continues to mention those onboard the Loire who merited particular praise.
On November 28, 1806, Maitland was appointed to the Emerald, a 36-gun frigate. During the whole of her commission he cruised with ceaseless activity and made a very great number of captures. He was present with Lord Gambier’s fleet outside Aix Roads in April 1809, when Cochrane made his famous fire-ship attack on the French fleet. The Emerald was one of the few ships which, on the 12th, were sent by Gambier, much against his will, to support Cochrane in the Imperieuse. One can well imagine that her gallant commander shared Cochrane’s indignation at seeing so daring an enterprise shorn of its fruits by the weakness and irresolution of their chief.
Maitland’s next appointment, dated June 3, 1813, was to the Goliath, a cut-down 74. He commanded her for twelve months on the Halifax and West Indies stations. Having been found seriously defective, she was paid off at Catham in October 1814.
In the following month Maitland was appointed to the Boyne, then fitting at Portsmouth for the flag of Sir Alexander Cochrane, commander-in-chief on the coast of America.
In January 1815 he was at Cork, and had collected a large fleet of transports had merchant vessels bound for America. The fleet was ready to sail, but was detained at Cove by a succession of strong westerly winds. Before the wind changed the news came that Napoleon had escaped from Elba.
Maitland’s orders were at once countermanded, and he was removed to the ship with which his namewill always be associated, the Bellerophon
[As there is so great an interest in Napoleon I include the following lengthy extract which covers the details surrounding his surrender to Captain Maitland]
On Wednesday the 24th of May, 1815, I sailed from Cawsand bay, in command of His Majesty’s ship Bellerophon, and under the orders of Rear-Admiral Sir Henry Hotham, whose flag was hoisted in the Superb. I received sealed instructions, part of which were to be opened on getting to sea, and part only to be examined in the event of my being separated from the Admiral. Those which I opened contained directions to detain, and send into port, all armed vessels belonging to the government of France.
On Sunday the 28th May, we joined His Majesty’s ships Astrea and Telegraph, stationed off Isle Dieu, on a secret service; and the following day, three transports, under the charge of Helicon, arrived from Britain, having on board arms and ammunition, to supply the Royalists in La Vendee, for whose support and assistance I now found the squadron, of which Bellerophon formed one, was destined.
On Tuesday the 30 May, I received orders from Sir Henry Hotham, to take the Eridanus under my command, and proceed off Rochefort, for the purpose of preventing a corvette from putting to sea, which, according to information received by the British Government, was to carry proposals from Buonaparte to the West India Colonies, to declare in his favour. I had likewise orders to reconnoitre the Roadstead of Rochefort, and report to the Admiral the number and state of the ships of war lying there.
Accordingly, on the 31 May, I ran into Basque Roads, and found at anchor, under Isle d’Aix, two large frigates, a ship corvette, and a large brig, all ready for sea, which I afterwards ascertained to be the Medusa, Saale, Balladiere, and Epervier.
Nothing occurred worth mentioning until the 9th June, when the Vesuve French corvette came in from the northward, and got into Rochefort, notwithstanding every effort made to prevent her; the ships under my orders having been driven southward, during the night, by a strong northerly wind , accompanied by a southerly current.
She was from Guadaloupe, and immediately on passing the Chasseron light-house, hoisted the tricoloured flag.
On the 18th June, I detained and sent to Sir Henry Hotham, the Aeneas French store-ship, commanded by a lieutenant of the navy, with a crew of fifty men, loaded with ship-timber for the arsenal of Rochefort; but he being of the opinion that she did not come within the intention of the order, liberated her.
On the 21st June, I detained and sent to the Admiral, under the charge of the Eridanus, the Marianne French transport, from Martinique, having on board 220 of the 9th regiment of light infantry, coming to France to join the army under Buonaparte. The Eridanus was sent to England with her, and did not return to me, being employed on other service.
On the 27th June, the Cephalus joined us, bringing with her the declaration of war against France; after which we were employed several days, taking and destroying chasse-marees, and other small coasting vessels.
On the 28th of June, I received intelligence, from one of the vessels captured, of Napoleons’s defeat at Waterloo; and on the 30th, a boat came off from Bordeaux, bringing the following letter, without date or subscription, written on very thin paper in English, and concealed within a quill.
I give the contents verbatim.
With great degree of certainty, being informed that Buonaparte might have come last night through this city from Paris, with the new Mayor of Bordeaux, with a view to flight, by the mouth of the river, or La Teste, the author of the last note sent by Mr - hastily drops these few lines, to give the British Admiral advice of such intention, that he may instantly take the necessary steps, in order to seize the man.
His ideas will certainly have brought him to think it natural, that the British stations will be less upon their guard in this quarter than any where else.
The writer benefits by this opportunity to inform the Admiral that, since the last note, some alteration has taken place with regard to the troops spread in these two divisions; in lieu of 800 to 1000 in the city, there are now 5000, which is supposed owing to the intention of compressing the minds of this populace in this decisive instant.
It is supposed that the British Admiral is already informed that the Grand Army being totally defeated and destroyed, the abdication of Buonaparte, and the arrival of the allies near the capital.
An attempt should be made on this Coast, with no less than 8000 men altogether. Immediate steps are wanted to put a stop to the supposed flight.
Should the attempt be made on the Coast from La Teste to Bordeaux, an immediate diversion should be made on this side; the success is beyond any doubt.
A sharp eye must be kept on all American vessels, and particularly on the Susquehannah, of Philadelphia, captain Caleb Cushing; Generla Bertand and another goes with him. The two entrances of Bordeaux and La Teste must be kept close; a line or two is expected, on return of the bearer from the Admiral, or Chief Officer on the Station.
As this is writing, the news is spread generally, that the Duc de Berri and Lord Wellington are in Paris.
The note alluded to had been received, and forwarded unopened, to the Admiral in Quiberon Bay.
Though my attention was called so strongly to Bordeaux, or La Teste d’Arcasson, as the parts of the coast from whence Buonaparte would probably attempt to escape, it was my decided opinion that Rochefort was much more likely to be the port where the trial would be made. I therefor sent the Myrmidon off to Bordeaux, the Celhalus to Arcasson, and remained with only the Bellerophon, off Rochefort.
From this period, until my return to England, the ship was never, by day or night, more than three miles from land.
Considering it of much importance to communicate the intelligence contained in the letter from Bordeaux, to my commanding officer with as little delay as possible; as I had no vessel left with me, after detaching the two ships under my orders, I sent the Bellerophon’s barge, under the charge of a lieutenant, with directions to endeveour to join some one of the cruisers stationed off Isle Dieu. I gave him an order, addressed to the Captain of any of His Majesty’s ships he might fall in with to proceed without loss of time, to join the Admiral in Quiberon Bay, with the despatch accompanying it.
This boat was fortunate enough to fall in with His Majesty’s ship Cyrus, Captain Carrol; who, in consequence, after hoisting in the barge, Proceeded to Quiberon Bay.
[He then relates how they spotted a object in the sea which turned out to be two boys who had drifted out to sea in a punt. They had been at sea for 36 hours and were in a bad way - they were taken aboard and both they and the punt returned to overjoyed parents.]
On the first of July, we spoke with a ship from Rochefort, the master of which gave information, that the frigates in Aix Roads had taken in their powder, and were in all respects ready to put to sea; also, that several gentlemen in plain clothes, and some ladies, supposed to form part of Buonaparte’s suite, had arrived at Isle d’Aix: in short, upon the whole, that there was little doubt of its being his attention to effect his escape, if possible, from that place, in the frigates.
On receiving this information, I anchored the Bellerophon as close to the French squadron as the batteries would permit, kept guard boats rowing all night, and prepared my ships’s company for the description of action in which I thought it was probable they would be engaged.
I trained one hundred of the stoutest men, selecting them from the different stations in the ship; it being my intention, after firing into and silencing one frigate, to run Bellerophon alongside of her, throw that party in, and then, leaving her in charge of the first lieutenant, to have proceeded in chase of the other.
His Majesty’s ship Phoebe joined us this evening, and brought with her Bellerophon’s barge. Captain Hillyar having orders to take station off Bordeaux, I recalled Myrmidon from that service.
On the 7th July, I received a letter from Sir Henry Hotham, together with fresh orders, from which the following are extracts:
from Rear Admiral Henry Hotham to Captain Maitland HMS Bellerophon, dated Quiberon Bay, July 6, 1815.
It is impossible to tell which information respecting Buonaparte’s flight may be correct; but, in the uncertainty, it is right to attach a certain degree of credit to all: that which I now act on, is received this morning, from the chief of the Royalists, between the Loire and the Vilaine.
Although the force of the Bellerophon would be sufficient for the ships at Isle d’Aix, if they were to give you an opportunity of bringing them to action together, you cannot stop them both, if the frigates separate; I am, therefore, now anxious you should have a frigate with you: therefore if any of them should be with you, keep her for the time I have specified; but if you have no frigate, and this should be brought to you by a twenty-gun ship, keep her with you for the same time; she will do to keep sight of the French frigate, although she could not stop her.
If this is brought to you by Lord John Hay of the Opossum, do not detain him, as her force would be of no use to you, and I want him particularly, to examine vessels which sail from the Loire.
From Rear Admiral Henry Hotham to Captain Maitland HMS Bellerophon, dated Superb, Quiberon Bay, July 6, 1815.
Having this morning received information that it is believed Napoleon Buonaparte has taken road from Paris for Rochefort, to embark from thence for the United States of America, I have to direct you will use your best endeavours to prevent him from making his escape in either of the frigates at Isle d’Aix; for which purpose you are not withstanding former orders, to keep any frigate which may be with you, at the time you receive this letter, in company with the ship you command, for the space of ten days, to enable you to intercept them in case they should put to sea together: but if you should have no frigate with you at the above time, you will keep the ship delivering this, ( which will probably be the Slaney or Cyrus,) in company with the Bellerophon, ten days, and then allow her to proceed in execution of the orders her Captain has received from me.
The Slaney brought the letter and order, parts of which are extracted above, and having no frigate in company, I detained her as part of the force under my command, though she was, on the 8th, sent down to the Mamusson passage, with orders for Captain Green of the Daphne, and did not return until the evening of the 11th.
On the 8th July, I was joined by a chasse-maree bringing a letter from Sir Henry Hotham, part of which is as follows:
from Rear Admiral Henry Hotham to Captain Maitland HMS Bellerophon, dated Superb Quiberon Bay, July7, 1815. Having sent every ship and vessel out from this bay, to endeavour to intercept Buonaparte, I am obliged to send the chasse-mareer, which has been employed in my communications with the Royalists, with this letter, to acquaint you that the Ferret brought me information last evening, after the Opossum had left me, from Lord Keith, that Government had received, on the night of the 30th, an application from the rulers of France, for a passport and safe conduct for Buonaparte to America, which had been answered in the negative, and therefore, directing an increase of vigilance to intercept him: but it remains uncertain where he will embark; and, although it would appear by the measures adopted at home, that its is expected he will sail from one of the northern ports, I am of the opinion he will go from one of the southern places, and I think the information I sent you yesterday by the Opossum is very likely correct; namely, that he had taken the road to Rochefort; and that he will probably embark in the frigates at Isle d’Aix; for which reason I am very anxious you should have force enough to stop them both, as the Bellerophon could only take one, if they separated, and that might not be the one he would be on board of. I have no frigate to send you; if one should join me in time, I will send her to you, and I hope you will have two twenty gun ships with you.
I imagine, from what you said in your letter by your barge, that you would not have kept the Edymion with you, especially as the Myrmidon would have rejoined you, by the arrangements I sent down by Phoebe for Sir John Sinclair to take her place off the Mamusson; therefore, I trust that my last order to Captain Hope will not have deprived you of his assistance, but hope it may have put him a better situation than before.
The Liffey is seventy or eighty miles west from Bordeaux, and the Pactolus, after landing some person in the Gironde, goes off Cape Finisterre, where the Swiftsure is also gone; and many ships are looking out in the Channel and about the latitude of Ushant.
Buonaparte is certainly not yet gone; and I presume he would naturally await the answer from our Government, which only left London on the 1st; my own opinion is, that he will either go with a force which will afford him some kind of security, or in a merchant vessel to avoid suspicion.
The orders from the Admiralty, received last evening, are, that the ships which are looking out for him, should remain on that service till further orders, or til they know he is taken, and not regard the time of ten days or a fortnight, which they first named: therfore you will govern yourself by that, and keep any ship you have with you till one of those evenys occurs, with out attending to the ten days I specified in my letter to you by Opossum yesterday, and make the same known to any ship you may communicate with.
The information you sent me, which had been transmitted from Bordeaux, is now proved to be erroneous, by our knowing that Buonaparte was at Paris as late as the 30th June, and that paper must have been written on the 29th, as you received it on the 30th. The Eridanus will not rejoin you; she has been stationed, by Lord Keith, off Brest.
Let me know by return of the chasse-maree, particularly, what ships you have with you, and where the other ships are, as far as you know, and what position you keep in. If you had ships enough to guard Basque Roads, and the Channel between Isle d’Oleron and the long sand (where a frigate may pass), you would be sure of keeping them in, by anchoring; but that would afford you little chance of taking Buonaparte, which is the thing to be desired; therefore I think you would be better off the light-house, where I dare say you keep your-self; and on that particular subject I do not think it necessary to give you any instructions, as I depend on your using the best means that can be adopted to intercept the fugitive; on whose captivity the repose of Europe appears to depend.
If he should be taken, he is to be brought to me in this bay as I have orders for his disposal; he is to be removed from the ship in which he may be found, to one of His Majesty’s ships.
Nothing of consequence occurred on the 9th; but on the 10th July at daylight, the officer of the watch informed me that a small schooner was standing out from the French squadron towards the ship: upon which I ordered everything to be ready for making sail in chase, supposing she might be sent for the purpose of reconnoitring.
On approaching, she hoisted a flag of truce, and joined us at seven a.m. She proved to be the Mouche, tender to the ships of war at Isle d’Aix and had on board, general Savary Duc de Rovigo, and Count Las Cases, chamberlain to Buonaparte, charged with a letter from Count Bertrand (Grand Marechal de Palais) addressed to the Admiral commanding the British cruisers before the port of Rochefort.
Soon after the Mouche arrived, I was joined by the Falmouth, bringing me a letter from Sir Henry Hotham, some extracts from which I shall insert for the better understanding what follows, previous to entering into what passed with Buonaparte’s attendants.
From Rear Admiral Henry Hotham to Captain Maitland HMS Bellerophon, undated, but must have been written, July 8, 1815.
I sent a chasse-maree to you yesterday with a letter, and you will now receive by the Falmouth, officially, the orders which I therein made you acquainted with.
I send you four late and very interesting French papers, by which you will see all that has been done and said on the subject of providing for Buonaparte’s escape from France: you will see that the Minister of Marine had been directed to prepare ships of war for that purpose; that they were placed at Buonaparte’s disposal; and that two frigates in particular had been provided for him: also that it was announced to the two Chambers, that he left Paris at four o’clock on the 29th; likewise that it was believed in Paris, he had taken the road by Orleans to Rochefort; and I have no doubt that the two frigates at Isle d’Aix are intended for him, and I hope you will think so too, and I am sure you will use your utmost endeavours to intercept him.
I am sorry I have not a frigate to send you; I have literally none but the Endymion under my orders.
Captain Paterson is off Brest, by Lord Keith’s order; and the Phoebe is also ordered to that station, when the Hebrus arrives off the Gironde.
The attention at home appears to be pain chiefly to ports in the Channel, but I have received no additional means whatever to guard those of the bay. I have long been expecting a frigate from the Irish station, but none has yet appeared; and I have written to Lord Keith for two frigates; but they cannot join me in time, I fear.
Order from Rear Admiral Henry Hotham to Captain Maitland HMS Bellerophon, dated Superb Quiberon Bay, July 8, 1815.
The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty having every reason to believe that Napoleon Buonaparte meditates his escape, with his family, from France to America, you are hereby required and directed, in pursuance of orders from their Lordships, signified to me by Admiral the Right Honourable Viscount Keith, to keep the most vigilant look-out for the purpose of intercepting him; and to make the strictest search of any vessel you may fall in with; and if you should be so fortunate as to intercept him, you are to transfer him and his family to the ship you command, and keeping him in careful custody, return to the nearest port in England (going into Torbay in preference to Plymouth) with all possible expedition; and on your arrival you are not to permit any communication whatever with the shore, except as herein after directed; and you will be held responsible for keeping the whole transaction a profound secret, until you receive their Lordship’s further orders.
In case you should arrive at a port where there is a flag-officer, you are to send to acquaint him with the circumstances, strictly charging the officer sent on shore with your letter, not to divulge its contents: and if there should be no flag-officer at the port where you arrive, you are to send one letter express to the Secretary of the Admiralty, and another to Admiral Lord Keith, with strict injunctions of secrecy to each officer who may be the bearer of them.
Messrs Savary and Las Cases, who came on board, from the schooner above mentioned, at seven o’clock on the 10th of July presented the following letter to me.
The Emperor Napoleon having abdicated the throne of France, and chosen the United states of America as a retreat, is, with his suite, at present embarked on board the two frigates which are in this port, for the purpose of proceeding to his destination. He expects a passport from the British government, which has been promised to him, and which induces me to send the present flag of truce, to demand of you, Sir, if you have any knowledge of the above mentioned passport, or if you think it is the intention of the British Government to throw any impediment in the way of our voyage to the United States.
I shall feel much obliged by your giving me any information you may possess on the subject.
I have directed the bearers of this letter to present to you my thanks, and to apologise for the trouble it may cause.
I have the honour to be,
Your Excellency’s most obedient,
Grand Marschal Count Bertrand
The bearers of the letter had instructions to demand of me, whether I would prevent Buonaparte from proceeding in a neutral vessel, provided I could not permit the frigates to pass with him on board.
Having received, in my orders, the strictest injunctions to secrecy, and feeling that the force on the coast, at my disposal, was insufficient to guard the different ports and passages from which an escape might be effected, particularly should the plan be adopted of putting to sea in a small vessel; I wrote the following reply to the above communication; hoping, by that means, to induce Napoleon to remain for the Admiral’s answer, which would give time for the arrival of reinforcements.
off Rochefort, July 10th 1815.
I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of yesterday’s date, addressed to the Admiral commanding the English cruisers before Rochefort, acquainting me that the Emperor, having abdicated the throne of France, and chosen the United States of America as an asylum, is now embarked on board the frigates, to proceed for that destination, and awaits a passport from the English Government; and requesting to know if I have any knowledge of such passport; or if I think it is the intention of the English Government to prevent the Emperor’s voyage.
In reply, I have to acquaint you, that I cannot say what the intentions of my Government may be; but, the two countries being at present in a state of war, it is impossible for me to permit any ship of war to put to sea from the port of Rochefort.
As to the proposal made by the Duc de Rovigo and Count Las Cases, of allowing the Emperor to proceed in a merchant vessel; it is out of my power, - without the sanction of my commanding officer, Sir Henry Hotham, who is at present in Quiberon bay, and to whom I have forwarded your despatch, - to allow any vessel, under whatever flag she may be, to pass with a personage of such consequence.
I have the honour to be.
Your very humble servant,
Captain Fred. L, Maitland, Captain of HMS Bellerophon
The Duke of Rovigo and Count Las Cases remained on board between two and three hours, during which time I had a great deal of conversation with them, on the state of affairs in France; in which they did all they could to impress me with the idea that Buonaparte was not reduced to the necessity of quitting Europe; but that, in doing so, he was actuated solely by motives of humanity; being unwilling, they said, that any further effusion of blood should take place on his account.
They declared also, that his party was still very formidable in the centre and south of France, and that, if he chose to protract the war, he might still give a great deal of trouble; and that, although his ultimate success might not be probable, there was still a possibility of fortune turning in his favour, and therefore they argued it was in the interest of England to allow him to proceed to America.
To all this I could give little or no reply, being quite ignorant of what had occurred in France, further than the decisive victory obtained by the Duke of Wellington at Waterloo. During the time the Frenchmen were with me, I received some French newspapers from Sir Henry Hotham; but my time was so fully occupied in writing to him.
And in discussions with my visitors, that it was not in my power to read them; I therefore drew them back to the subject that occasioned their visit, and said
"Supposing the British Government should be induced to grant a passport for Buonaparte’s going to America, what pledge could he give that he would not return, and put England, as well as all Europe, to the same expense of blood and treasure that has just been incurred?"
General Savary made the following reply:
"When the Emperor first abdicated the throne of France, his removal was brought about by a faction, at the head of which was Talleyrand, and the sense of the nation was not consulted: but in the present instance he has voluntarily resigned the power. The influence he once had over the French people is past; a very considerable change has taken place in their sentiments towards him since he went to Elba; and he could never again regain the power he had over their minds: therefore he would prefer retiring into obscurity, where he might end his days in peace and tranquillity; and where he solicited to ascend the throne again, he would decline it."
"If that is the case", I said "why not ask an asylum in England?" he answered, "There are many reasons for his not wishing to reside in England: the climate is too damp and cold; it is too near France; he would be, as it were, in the centre of every change and revolution that might take place there, and would be subject to suspicion; he has been accustomed to consider the English as his most inveterate enemies, and they have been induced to look upon him as a monster, without one of the virtues of a human being."
This conversation took place while I was writing my despatches to Sir Henry Hotham; and the Frenchmen were walking in the cabin, frequently interrupting me, to enforce their statement of Buonaparte’s situation being by no means so desperate as might be supposed; from which I took the liberty of drawing a conclusion directly opposite to the one they were desirous of impressing on my mind.
Captain Knight, of Falmouth, who carried my despatches to the Admiral, was present during the whole of this conversation, but did not join in it. This was the first certain information I had received of Buonaparte’s position since the battle of Waterloo.
Tuesday, the 11th.[July] About noon, a small boat came off from the Island of Oleron, to where the ship was at anchor in Basque Roads, rowed by four men, in which sat two respectable-looking countrymen, who asked for the Captain; and upon my being pointed out to them, requested to speak to me in private.
When shown into the cabin, where I went accompanied by Captain Gambier, of the Myrmidon, they acquainted me, that a message had been sent from Isle d’Aix, early that morning, for a man who was considered the best pilot on the island for the Mamusson passage, being the only person that had ever taken a frigate through; that a large sum of money had been offered to him to pilot a vessel to sea from that passage, and that it certainly was Buonaparte’s intention to escape from thence; either in the corvette, which had moved down some days before, or in a Danish brig, which was then lying at anchor near the entrance.
On receiving this information, I immediately got under weigh, and though the flood-tide had just made in, beat the ships out of the Pertuis d’Antioche before it was dark, when I sent the Myrmidon off the Mamusson, with orders to anchor close in with the entrance, when the weather would admit of it; while I remained with the Bellerophon and Slaney, which rejoined me that evening, under weigh between the light-houses.
On the 12th of July, the Cyrus being seen in the offing, I ordered her by telegraph to take a position close in with the Baleine light-house, and to examine strictly every vessel that might attempt to put to sea from the Pertuis de Breton, as Buonaparte was on the spot, endeavouring to escape to America.
The same evening, the white flag made its appearance for the first time on the towers of Rochelle; on seeing which, I felt it my duty to run into Basque Roads, accompanied by the Slaney; and having anchored, I hoisted the Bourbon colours at the main-top-gallant mast-head, and fired a royal salute.
During the whole of this afternoon, however, two tri-coloured flags were kept flying in Rochelle; and before sun-set all the white flags were struck and every where replaced by those of Buonaparte.
On the 13th July, nothing of importance occurred, except the white flag being once more hoisted all over Rochelle, as well as on the Isle of Oleron, to the entire exclusion of the tri-coloured ensign.
We could plainly perceive, that the frigates, from whom we were distant about three miles, were perfectly ready to put to sea, should an opportunity offer; having their sterns covered with vegetables, their top-gallant yards across, studding sail gear rove, and numerous boats passing between them and the island the whole day:- all indications, well known to professional men, of preparing for sea.
The ships under my command were accordingly kept with slip buoys on their cables, and, as soon as it was dark, the top-sail and top-gallant yards were swayed to the mast-heads, the sails stopt with rope yarns, and every thing kept ready to make sail at a moment's warning.
Guard-boats were also kept rowing all night, as near the frigates as they could venture, having signals established to show in the enemy getting under sail.
On the 14th of July, at day-break, the officer of the watch informed me, that the Mouche was standing out from the Isle d’Aix, bearing a flag of truce, which I ordered to be accepted. Here it is necessary to mention, that the British flag of truce, being a white flag at the fore-top-gallant mast-head, which was also hoisted as a matter of course when Buonaparte was received on board, has by some persons been construed as the Bourbon flag, and thence into an intentional insult to him. It never was my intention, nor do I believe it could have been that of any British officer, to treat with insult any fallen enemy, much less one who had shown such confidence as to throw himself on the protection of his former foe.
When the schooner, the Mouche, reached the ship, Count Las Cases came on board, attended by General Count Lallemand.
This meeting was highly interesting to me, as Lallemand had been a prisoner for three weeks in the Camelion under my command in Egypt, with Junot, whose Aid-de-Camp he then was; and General Savary, who accompanied Count Las Cases in his first visit to the Bellerophon, had lived nearly as long at Sir Sydney Smith’s table with me, at the Turkish camp at El Arish, when the convention, which takes its name from that place, was under discussion, being Aid-de-Camp to General Desaix, who negotiated on the part of the French.
On their coming on board, I made the signal for the captain of the Slaney, being desirous of having a witness to any conversation that might pass, as our communications were chiefly verbal: he arrived while we were at breakfast.
When Count Las Cases came on the quarter-deck, he informed me that he was sent off to learn wheter I had received a answer from the Admiral to the letter he had brought off on the 10th instant. I told him I had not, but, in consequence of the despatch which I had forwarded to him, I had not a doubt he would immediately repair here in person, and I was hourly in expectation of seeing him, adding, "If that was the only reason you had for sending off a flag of truce, it was quite unnecessary, as I informed you, when last here, that the Admiral’s answer, when it arrived, should be forwarded to the frigates by one of the Bellerophon’s boats; and I did not approve of frequent communications with an enemy by means of flags of truce"
I then went into the cabin and ordered breakfast, to prevent further disussion until the arrival of Captain Sartorius.
When breakfast was over, we retired to the after cabin. Count Las Cases then said, "The Emperor is so anxious to spare the further effusion of human blood, that he will proceed to America in any way the British Government chooses to sanction, either in a French ship of war, a vessel arned en flute, a merchant vessel, or even in a Britsih ship of war." To this I answered, "Ihave no authority to agree to any arrangement of that sort, nor do I believe my Government would consent to it; but I think I may venture to receive him into this ship, and convey him to England: if, however, "I added," he adopts that plan, I cannot enter into any promise, as to the reception he may meet with, as even in the case I have mentioned, I shall be acting on my own responsibility , and cannot be sure that it would meet with the approbation of the British Government."
There was a great deal of conversation on this subject, in the course Lucien Buonaparte’s name was mentioned, and the manner in which he had lived in England alluded to; but I invariably assured Las Cases most explicitly, that I had no authority to make conditions of any sort, as to Napoleon’s reception in England.
In fact I could not have done otherwise, since, with the exception of the order inserted at page 24, [see earlier], I had no instructions for my guidance, and was, of course, in total ignorance of the intentions of His Majesty’s ministers as to his future disposal.
One of the last observations Las Cases made before quitting the ship was, "Under all circumstances, I have little doubt that you will see the Emperor on board the Bellerophon;" and, in fact, Buonaparte must have determined on that step before Las Cases came on board, as his letter to His Royal Highness the Prince Regent is dated the 13th of July, the day before this conversation.
During the above-mentioned conversation, I asked Las Cases where Buonaparte then was ? He replied, "At Rochefort; I left him there yesterday evening". Generral Lallemand then said, "The Emperor lives at the Hotel in the Grand Palace, and is now so popular there, that the inhabitants assemble every evening in front of the house, for the purpose of seeing him," and crying "Vive L’Empereur!"
I then asked how long it would take to go there: Las Cases answered, "As the tide will be against us, it will require five or six hours."
Why these false statements were made, I cannot pretend to say; but it is very certain that Buonaparte never quitted the frigates or Isle d’Aix, after his arrival there on the 3rd of July.
General Lallemand took occasion to ask me if I thought there would be any risk of the people, who might accompany Buonaparte, being given up to the Government of France: I replied, "Certainly not; the British Government never could think of doing so, under the circumstances contemplated in the present arrangement."
They left me about half-past nine A.M. In the course of the day, I was joined by the Myrmidon, Captain Gambier, who had been sent to me by Captain Green, of the Daphne, with a letter he had received from Captain Aylmer, of Pactolus, in the Grionde, bringing information that it was the intention of Buonaparte to escape from Rochefort in a Danish sloop, concealed in a cask stowed in the ballast, with tubes so constructed as to convey air for his breathing.
I afterwards inquired of General Savary, if there had been any foundation for such a report; when he informed me that the plan had been thought of, and the vessel in some measure prepared; but it was considered too hazardous; for had we detained the vessel for a day or two, he would have been obliged to make his situation known, and thereby forfeited all claims to the good treatment he hoped to ensure by a voluntary surrender.
The two Captains dined with me, and afterwards went on board the Myrmidon, to take up position to the north-east of the Bellerophon, to prevent vessels from passing close inshore, and thus to render the blockade of the port more complete.
Soon after they left me, a barge was perceived rowing off from the frigates towards the Bellerophon with a flag-of-truce up; on which I recalled Captains Sartorius and Gambier, by signal, that they might be present at any communication that was made.
The boat got along-side about seven P.M and brought Count Las Cases, accompanied by General Baron Gourgaud, one of Buonaparte’s Aid-de-Camps. On their coming on deck, I immediately addressed Las Cases, saying, "It is impossible you could have been at Rochefort, and returned, since you left me this morning." He replied, "No; it was not necessary; I found the Emperor at Isle d’Aix, on my arrival there." He then told me, he was charged with a letter from General Bertrand. We walked into the cabin, when he delivered it to me; it was as follows:-
Count Las Cases has reported to the Emperor the conversation which he had with you this morning. His Majesty will proceed on board your ship with the ebb tide to-morrow morning, between four and five o’clock. I send the Count Las Cases, Counsellor of State, doing the duty of Marchel de Logis, with the list of persons composing His majesty’s suite.
If the Admiral, in consequence of the despatch you forwarded to him, should send the paassport fro the United States therein demanded, His Majesty will be happy to repair to America; but should the passport be withheld, he will willingly proceed to England, as a private individual, there to enjoy the protection of the laws of your country.
His Majesty has despatched Major-General Baron Gourgaud to the Prince Regent with a letter, a copy of which I have the honour to enclose, requesting that you will forward it to such one of the ministers as you may think it necessary to send that general officer, that he may have the honour of delivering the letter with which he is charged to the Prince Regent.
I have the honour to be, Sir,
Your humble servant,
[list of those who comprised the suite]
Enclosed was likewise a copy of the well-known letter addressed by Buonaparte to His Royal Highness the Prince Regent.
Rochefort, July 13th, 1815.
Your Royal highness,
A victim to the factions which distract my country, and to the enmity of the greatest powers of Europe, I have terminated my political career, and I come, like Themistocles, to throw myself upon the hospitality of the British people. I put myself under the protection of their laws; which I claim from your Royal Highness, as the most powerful, the most constant, and the most generous of my enemies.
On reading the above, I told Monsieur Las Cases that I would receive Buonaparte on board, and immediately forward General Gourgaud to England by the Slaney, along with my despatches to the Admiralty; but that he would not be allowed to land until permission was received from London, or the sanction of the Admiral at the port he might arrive obtained.
I assured him, however, that the copy of the letter with which he was charged would be forwarded without loss of time, and presented by the Ministers to His Royal highness, Count Las Cases then asked fro paper, that he might communicate by letter to Bertrand my acquiescence in the proposal he had brought, for my receiving, and conveying to England, Buonaparte and his suite.
When General Gourgaud was about to write the letter, to prevent any future misunderstanding, I said, "Monsieur Las Cases, you will recollect that I am not authorised to stipulate as to the reception of Buonaparte in England, but that he must consider himself entirely at the disposal of His Royal Highness the Prince Regent." He answered, "I am perfectly aware of that, and have already acquainted the Emperor with what you said on that subject".
It might, perhaps, have been better if this declaration had been given in an official written form; and could I have foreseen the discussions which afterwards took place, and which will appear in the sequel, I undoubtedly should have done so; but as I repeatedly made it in the presence of witnesses, it did not occur to me as being necessary; and how could a stronger proof be adduced, that no stipulations were agreed to respecting the reception of Buonaparte in England, than the fact of their not being in writing? Which certainly would have been the case had any favourable terms been demanded on the part of Monsieur Las Cases, and agreed to by me.
The French boat was soon after despatched with the letter from Bertrand, in charge of a French naval officer, who had attended Las Cases on board; and as soon as I had finished the following despatch to the Secretary of the Admiralty, I sent Captain Sartorious, of the Slaney, to England, accompanied by General Gourgaud.
Extract of a letter from Captain Maitland, of His Majesty’s ship Bellerophon, addressed to the Secretary of the Admiralty, dated in Basque Roads, 14th July, 1815.
For the information of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, I have to acquaint you that the Count Las Cases and General Lallemand this day came on board His Majesty’s ship under my command, with a proposal from Count Bertrand for me to receive on board Napoleon Buonaparte, for the purpose of throwing himself on the generosity of the Prince Regent.
Conceiving myself authorised by their Lordships’ secret order, I have accede to the proposal, and he is embark on board this ship tomorrow morning.
That no misunderstanding should arise, I have explicitly and clearly explained to Count Las Cases, that I have no authority whatever for granting terms of any sort, but that all I can do is to carry him and his suite to England, to be received in such a manner as his Royal Highness may deem expedient.
At Napoleon Buonaparte’s request, and that their Lordships may be in possesion of the transaction at as early a period as possible, I despatch the Slaney ( with General Gourgaud, his Aid de Camp), directing Capatin Sartorious to put into the nearest port, and forward this letter by his first lieutenant, and shall in compliance with their Lordships’ orders proceed to Torbay, to await such directions as the Admiralty shall think proper to give.
Enclosed, I transmit a copy of the letter with which General Gourgaud is charged, to his Royal Highness the Prince Regent, and request that you will acquaint their Lordships, that the General informs me, he is entrusted with further particulars, which he is anxious to communicate to his Royal Highness.
When these gentlemen had left the ship, as well as the Saale’s barge, I said to Monsieur Las Cases, I propose dividing the after-cabin in two, that the ladies may have the use of part of it. "If you allow me to give an opinion," said he, "the Emperor will be better pleased to have the whole after cabin to himself, as he is fond of walking about, and will by that means be able to take more exercise." I answered, "As it is my wish to treat him with every possible consideration while he is on board the ship I command, I shall make any arrangement you think will be most agreeable to him."
This is the only conversation that ever passed on the subject of the cabin; and I am the more particular in stating it, as Buonaparte has been described, in some public Journals, as having taken possession of it in the most brutal way, saying, "Tout ou rien pour moi:"- All or nothing for me.
I here therefore, once for all, beg to state most distinctly, that, from the time of his coming on board my ship, to the period of his quitting her, his conduct was invariably that of a gentleman; and in no one instance do Irecollect him to have made use of a rude expression, or to have been guilty of ill-breeding.
As the ship had for some time been kept clear for action, with all the bulkheads down, it became necessary to prepare for the reception of so many guests, by putting the cabins up again: inconsequence of making the requisite arrangements, it was past one o’clock in the morning before I could get to bed.
About ten at night, the officer of the watch informed me that a boat from the shore had asked permission to come alongside. A man being allowed to come on board from her; "I am sent off from Rochelle," said he, "to inform you that Buonaparte this morning passed that town in a chassee-maree, with another in company, for the purpose of escaping to sea by the Pertuis de Breton: he is now in that passage, and means to set sail this night." I told him, "that I doubted his information, having at that moment one of his attendants on board, who had come with a proposal for me to receive him into the ship. I then asked him how he came by his intelligence ? he answered, "The vessels passed close to a boat I was in; and I saw a man wrapped up in a sailor’s great coat, whom one of the people with me asserted to be him: for my part, I am not aquatinted with his appearance, never having seen him; but when the owner of the vessels attempted to go on board one of them, he was kept off, and told that they would be required for two or three days, when they would be restored with ample payment."
He told his story so circumstantially, and with such confidence, that I feared there must be just grounds for what he stated; and the anxiety of my situation can easily be conceived, when it is recollected that I had sent off a ship for England with despatches, announcing the intention of Buonaparte to embark the following morning in the Bellerophon.
After a little consideration, I determined to inform Las Cases abruptly of the intelligence I had received, and endeavour to judge by the effect it had on his countenance, whether there was any truth in the report or not.
I accordingly went into the cabin and did so; he seemed perfectly calm and collected, saying, "pray at what hour does your informant state the Emperor to have passed Rochelle ?"
"At ten A.M."
"Then I can safely assert, on my honour, that he was not in either of these vessels. I left him at half-past five this evening, when it was his full intention to come on board this ship tomorrow morning; what he may have done since that hour, I cannot be responsible for." I answered, "As you give your word of honour that Buonaparte had not left the Isle d’Aix when you quitted it, I shall trust to what you say, and take no steps in consequence of the information that has been brought to me, but concluded it has originated in some mistake."
About three in the morning, the officer of the watch awoke me, and said that another boat wished to come alongside. I rose and found that she brought the same intelligence from another quarter; and they both eventually proved correct, to a certain extent; for two
Napoleon on board the Bellerophon
Left to Right.
Planat,Montholon,Maingaut,Las Cases,Savary,Lallemand,Bertrand and young Las Cases. <>
[The narrative continues with details of the period spent on board the Bellerophon prior to Napoleon being transferred to the Northumberland for the passage to St Helena. There is considerable detail concerning the views of Napoleon’s suite particularly concerning the rumour of exile to St. Helena. However for that I recommend the reader to the volume from which this extract has been taken:
The Surrender of Napoleon: being the narrative of the surrender of Buonaparte, and of his residence on board H.M.S. Bellerophon, with a detail of the principal events that occurred in that ship between the 24th of May and the 8th August 1815.
Rear Admiral Sir Frederick Lewis Maitland , K.C.B. a new edition edited, with a memoir of the author, by William Kirk Dickson.
Published: Edinburgh and London, 1904.]
FREDERICK LEWIS MAITLAND'S SHIPSANDROMEDA,32 (1784 Liverpool. HS 1808) 1787 Capt. H.R.H. Prince WILLIAM HENRY. ANDROMEDA anchored at Port Royal on 15 November 1788. The whole House of Assembly waited on him with its congratulations and on 2nd of December they voted 1000 pounds for the purchase of an elegant star encrusted with diamonds "as a humble testimony to the very high respect and esteem the island entertained for his eminent virtues." (Subsequently the same body voted 3000 guineas for a piece of plate for H.R.H. for "his great parliamentary services relative to the African slave trade.") On 19 May 1789 he was created Duke of Clarence and moved to command VALIANT. 1793 Capt. J. SALISBURY. 1794 Capt. J. SOTHERBY. North Sea. He was appointed to the BOMBAY CASTLE on 1 June 1795. 1795 Capt. William TAYLOR, who served on the coast of Scotland, at Newfoundland, at Halifax and in the Channel until the spring of 1799 when he moved to MAGNANIME. 1799 Capt. Henry INMAN, 1/99, Sheerness. During the evening of 4 May 1800, while ANDROMEDA was saluting in Margate Roads, some powder blew up in the cabin, wounding fourteen men and depriving them of their sight. Some of them recovered After spending some time blockading Dunkirk Capt. INMAN decided that it was possible to destroy or capture the enemy ships at anchor there. His plan was approved and he was joined by the necessary reinforcements on 27 June 1800. Due to contrary winds the attack did not take place until 7 July and this gave the French an opportunity to prepare to receive the large squadron of fire ships, cutters and luggers ranged against them. Mr. SCOTT, first Lieutenant of ANDROMEDA took command of the boats in a gig with Mr COCHRANE, third Lieutenant, in another boat. The second Lieutenant, Mr Andrew KING was left in charge of ANDROMEDA. The French frigate DESIREE, mounting 40 guns, with long 24-pounders on the main deck, and a complement of 30 men was captured by Cdr. Patrick CAMPBELL of the DART sloop but, although the captains of the fire ships remained on board until their vessels were enveloped in flames, the other four escaped by cutting and standing down the inner channel inside the Braak sands. They regained their old anchorage in the morning. (See DART for more details.) To observe the atttack Capt. INMAN had boarded the VIGILANT cutter and during the night he had a narrow escapo when his vessel was mistaken for a French gunboat. Fortunately the broadside fired at him was aimed too high and the crew lost no time in calling out the pass-word. Capt. INMAN sent a cutter with some of the more badly wounded officers and men from DESIREE under flag of truce to the commander of the French squadron. ANDROMEDA sailed from Portsmouth for the West Indies on 1 December 1800 with Lord Lavington on board. 1801 Capt. J. BRADBY, West Indies. Capt. Edward Durnford KING removed to ANDROMEDA from LEVIATHAN and commanded her until the end of the war when he was obliged to return home due to bad health 1802 Capt. Charles FEILDING brought ANDROMEDA home. She sailed from Fort Royal, Martinique, on 21 August 1802 and arrived in Portsmouth on 24 September. She paid off on 8 October and was laid up. 1803- out of commission at Portsmouth. VENERABLE,74. (1784 Blackwall. Wrecked 1804) 1794 Capt. Sir John 0RDE. 1795 Capt. W. H0PE, 1/95. Shortly after Vice Ad. A. DUNCAN hoisted his flag in her. Capt. J. BISSET was appointed his flag captain in September. 1796 Capt. Sir W.G. FAIRFAX, 11/96. At the beginning of 0ctober 1797 VENERABLE anchored off Yarmouth after a cruise which had lasted nineteen weeks. 0n the 9th the SPECULAT0R lugger brought the news that the Dutch were at sea and Ad. DUNCAN sailed with 11 of his line-of-battle ships. He met with VESTAL and ACTIVE who confirmed that De WINTER had sailed two days earlier from the Texel with 16 sail of the line, 5 frigates and 5 brigs and had followed a course along the Dutch coast. CAMELEON,18. (1795 Rotherhithe. BU 1811) 1799 J STILES, Spithead for Lisbon. With TIGRE,80 and THESEUS,74, formed Lord Nelson's squadron off Alexandria under Sir Sidney Smith. 1800 Lieut. J. DALYRIMPLE. On 28 April 1800 he joined Nelson off Malta with dispatches. CAMELEON, under Lieut. JACKSON as acting captain, was employed with the 5th Rate SANTA DOROTEA and the Neapolitan brig STROMBOLO on the blockade of Savona. Their boats rowed guard for 41 nights before the 800 men in the fortress capitulated due to famine. 1801 Edward O'BRYEN, Mediterranean. With TARTARUS, FURY, PETREL, MINORCA and a number of cutters and gun vessels, CAMELEON covered the landings at Abourkir Bay which started at 9 AM on 8 March 1801. Lieut. SPENCER of CAMELION commanded one of the armed launches which followed up the lake on the flank of the army. The initial assault by 60OO troops and 100O seamen drove back the French from the beach. 1801 Frederick Lewis MAITLAND. In September 1801 CAMELEON's cutter and jolly boat commanded by Lieut. Charles SPENCER and master's mate Charles ROYER succeeded in bringing off from the beach near Tarragona a Spanish felucca mounting two 6-pdr guns and two swivels. The guns of two others were thrown overboard when it was found impossible to get them afloat under musket fire from soldiers on the beach. The three had run themselves ashore when threatened by the single 6-oared cutter, Mr ROYER not having come up with Lieut. SPENCER at the time. 1803 Thomas STAINES, 5/02, (confirmed 7/02) Mediterranean. On 28 June 1803 CAMELEON joined Lord Nelson off Toulon and was then sent to Barcelona, ostensibly to buy bullocks, but actually to obtain information on Spanish intentions. She returned to the Toulon blockade on 2 August and captured 9 merchantmen and also a French packet which was sailing from Corsica to Toulon. On 29 August her boats attempted to capture 5 vessels protected by batteries at Rimasol. Lieut. Thomas BENNETT had his clothes and hat shot through and every person in his boat, except for himself, two men and a boy, was either killed or wounded. On 16 November, while lying nearly becalmed off Cape Corse, Capt. STAINES discovered an armed schooner escorting a transport. CAMELEON's boats were manned and succeeded in capturing the schooner, the 12-gun RENARD, which was afterwards commissioned as a British cruiser. From this period until August 1804 CAMELEON was employed on the coast between Genoa and Marseilles. Off the later place she chased a large corvette and a brig back to their anchorage. During the cruise she captured 10 vessels, one was destroyed at Port Maurice and she assisted at the capture of 3 others. From September 1804 she spent an unproductive 3 months cruising in the Adriatic and from December 1804 to April 1805 she was employed protecting the Levant trade and escorted a large convoy from the eastern Mediterranean to Gibraltar. On 15 June 1805, while lying becalmed, she was attacked by a flotilla of gunboats but they retreated when CAMELEON got out her sweeps. When stationed off Cartagena with BEAGLE, Capt. STAINES tried to cut out 6 merchantmen protected by a guarda-costa but they were too well armed and his boats had to return with 5 killed wounded and missing. On 15 August 1805 Capt. STAINES was forced to throw carronades, shot and stores overboard to escape from a Spanish 74-gun ship. When capture seemed imminent he was saved by the appearance of four British brigs. In the summer of 1805 CAMELEON, being worn out, was ordered home and she paid off at Portsmouth in September. 1806- out of commission at Portsmouth. WASSANAER,64. (Captured at Camperdown on 11 0ct. 1797 by Ad. DUNCAN's fleet. BU 1818) 1798 Capt. C. CRAVEN, 6/98. Flagship of Ad. PEYT0N in 0ctober. 1800 armed Ien flutei, Chatham for Lisbon. 1803- Powder hulk at Chatham DRAGON,74. (1798 Rotherhithe. BU 1850) 1798- Capt. G. CAMPBELL, 4/98, with the Channel fleet. On 11 June 1800 she sailed with KENT for the Straits with a large supply of naval and military stores. 1801 Capt. John AYLMER, Plymouth for the Cadiz station with Sir John WARREN's squadron. Early in the year Rear Ad. Gautheaume sailed from Brest and arrived safely in Toulon on 19 February. Sir John, supposing they were heading for Egypt, followed them through the Straits, refitted at Minorca and sailed from there on 24 February but was forced to put back again after his ships were damaged in a storm the following night. On 4 March the squadron sailed for Palermo and Naples then for Toulon. On passage for the latter destination the Admiral learned from the SALAMINE brig that the French had sailed on the 19th, six days earlier, with 4000 troops. He immediately altered course to the eastward and, on the 26th, gave chase to the enemy between Sardinia and Maritimo. The following night was foggy and the French were no longer in sight in the morning so Sir John made for Alexandria. In October 1801 Capt. Frederick Lewis MAITLAND was appointed to the temporary command of DRAGON and he remained in her until the following August. On 6 October 1802 DRAGON, in company with GIBRALTAR, SUPERB and TRIUMPH, was on passage from Gibraltar to Malta to rejoin Ad. BICKERTON, when mutineers took possession of GIBRALTAR and ran her under the sterns of the other vessels, cheering them, in the hope that the crews would join. Disappointed, the mutineers became panic-struck and were easily overpowered by the ship's officers assisted by the detachment of marines. L0IRE,40. (Taken by Capt. DURHAM in ANS0N off Cape Clear on 18 0ctober 1798. BU 1818) Capt. James N. NEWMAN, 5/99. (From MERMAID) Channel. 0n 10 December 1799 she sailed from Plymouth for a cruise 0n 7 January 1800 L0IRE was coming in to Plymouth when ATLAS, using a jury rudder, went ashore near the east ridge of Drake's Island. Capt. NEWMAN, who was ill, directed his first lieutenant, Mr RAYNER, to get a hawser aboard ATLAS and she was swung off into deep water. L0IRE sailed on a cruise on 30 January with DANAE and RAILLEUR to search for a frigate escorting a convoy from St. Marlo to Brest and on 6 February the sloops FAIRY and HARPY decoyed the French frigate PALLAS towards them off Cape Frehel. She was captured after a close action of over two hours. Two seamen aboard L0IRE were killed and sixteen wounded, one of whom died of his wounds. Midshipmen Watkins 0liver PELL, Francis William EVES and John Allen MEDWAY were also wounded. PALLAS lost sixty men killed and wounded and was badly disabled with her top-main- mast over the side. Lieut. RAYNER went on board as prizemaster and L0IRE and RAILLEUR accompanied PALLAS towards Plymouth. 0n the 7th they fell in with a trawler off the Eddystone. The master put a pilot on board PALLAS and the three ships bore away for Falmouth. With the wind blowing hard from the south-east PALLAS finished up at Penzance and L0IRE and RAILLEUR were driven as far as C0RK. L0IRE arrived back in Plymouth on the 20th and three days later she went into the Barnpool to repair the damage she had received in the action with PALLAS. 0n 1 April L0IRE sailed for Torbay with stores for the fleet and was back in Plymouth on the 11th. 0n 18 April she sailed from Plymouth with 150 French prisoners for Portsmouth. With a good S.W. wind she arrived the following day. L0IRE sailed on 3 May to escort a large convoy for the Mediterranean through the Channel and At the end of July she brought the Lisbon and 0porto fleet back up the Channel. After her arrival at Spithead she was cleared of quarantine on 31 July After her arrival at Spithead she was cleared of quarantine on 31 July and went into harbour on Friday 1 August. A fine privateer schooner she had captured arrived in Plymouth on 2 August. 0n 15 0ctober L0IRE refitted at Plymouth and sailed for Guernsey on the afternoon of the 21st. At the beginning of November a hurricane caused a great deal of damage in the Channel Islands. L0IRE parted all her cables and during a pitch dark night passed over a ridge of rocks at high tide, she arrived safely at Spithead on the 6th. (HAVICK, PELICAN and LI0N were all driven ashore) L0IRE and T0PAZE left Portsmouth on 28 December to cruise off L'Havre and L0IRE returned for ten days on 3 January. She arrived in Plymouth on 18 February. Three days later she sailed to return to Portsmouth. 0n the morning of 11 April L0IRE sighted a vessel making signals of distress and Capt. NEWMAN sent a boat to investigate. She proved to be the BEAVER, Capt. 0'Connor, bound for London with wine from 0porto. She had been captured by the French privateer BRAAVE the previous day and 0'Connor and boy had been left on board with a prize-master and four privateers. The captain had managed to lock the prize-master in the cabin, knocked the steersman overboard and, by threatening them with a gun, forced the other three to remain in the rigging. Thus he spent an anxious night, BEAVER being leaky and making little headway. An officer and eight men from L0IRE brought her safely into Plymouth on the 15th. Towards the end of June there were reports that L0IRE had gone ashore on the French coast and been captured. She had actually been reconnoitering close in shore and had missed one tide before returning. 1803 Capt. Frederick MAITLAND, 15/10/02, from CARRERE, a French frigate taken near Elba on 3 0ctober 1801. L0IRE sailed from Portsmouth for Guernsey late on the night of 11 March 1803. 0n the evening of the 27 June a French national gun-brig was discovered at anchor under a shore battery in the Isle de Bas Roads. Two boats manned with volunteers from L0IRE and commanded by Lieuts. Francis TEMPLE and John B0WEN managed to get alongside before daylight and, although they came under heavy fire from both ship and shore, after an hour and a half's hard fighting they brought off their prize. Several of the French officers were killed and about 17 of the crew were killed or wounded for no loss to L0IRE save for one warrent officer and 5 men wounded. The wounded from both ships were landed at Plymouth on 2 July. The prize, the VENT0UR armed with four long 18-pounders and six 42-pound carronades, was taken up the Hamoaze. After a refit L0IRE returned to her station off the Isle de Bas on the 14th. She sent the MARIA of Hamburg from Havana into Plymouth on 20 August. L0IRE arrived in Plymouth on 9 January 1804 after a severe overnight gale with the loss of her mizen-mast, carried away during the chase of a large French frigate off Scilly. During a further severe gale on Thursday the 21st, B0ADICEA ran foul of L0IRE in Cawsand Bay. L0IRE had to cut away her fore-mast and bowsprit and L0IRE let go another anchor before being brought up safely under Withy Hedge although she was rolling gunnel and sometimes head under water. The following day she got up a stump of a jury fore-mast and went up to the harbour to refit. She was full of naval stores of all descriptions for the squadron on the Irish station and these had to be taken off for transfer to another frigate. After the refit she sailed on a cruise on 22 February. 0n the night of 16 March 1804 L0IRE captured the French ship privateer BRAAVE after a chase of seven hours. She was armed with sixteen 12- and 6- pounders and carried a crew of 110 men. In the three weeks she had been cruising out of L'0rient she had made no captures. L0IRE returned to Plymouth from her cruise off the coast of Ireland on 10 May for a refit. 0n her next cruise in August L0IRE captured the French ship privateer BL0NDE of Bordeaux after a chase of 36 hours. Armed with thirty 9- pounder guns she carried a crew of 260 men and had sailed from Vigo but had not made any captures in the few days she had been at sea. L0IRE had a midshipman and five of her crew wounded during the running fight, two seriously. She brought her prize into Plymouth on 29 August. (The BL0NDE was frigate built and belonged to Bordeaux. 0n 28 March 1804 she sank the 13 gun W0LVERENE, which was escorting a convoy to Newfoundland, with the loss of 5 killed and 10 wounded.) In the summer of 1805 L0IRE was stationed off Cape Finisterre and on 12 May when she was some 500 miles out into the Atlantic she sighted a squadron of 10 French vessels including one 3-decker, four 2-deckers and three frigates. At dark Capt. MAITLAND made for Ferrol and four days later joined Sir Robert CALDER in an unsuccessful search for the enemy. 0n 17 May L0IRE was ordered to join the fleet off Brest. 0n 1 June 1805, while regaining her station after delivering dispatches from Lord GARDNER to Sir Rober CALDER, L0IRE sighted a small vessel standing into the Bay of Camarinas to the eastward of the Cape. Capt. MAITLAND sent in the launch and two cutters under the first lieutenant, Mr James Lucas YE0, with Marine Lieut. MALL0CK, master's mate, Mr Charles CLINCH and Messrs. HERBERT and MILDRIDGE, midshipmen, numbering 35 in all. to bring her out. At daybreak they found two small privateers moored under a battery of 10 guns. The launch under Mr CLINCH boarded and carried the smaller, a lugger, but since she was close under the guns she had to be abandoned. The two cutters carried the larger, a felucca armed with three 18-pounders and four 4-pounders and fifty men. 0nly three men from L0IRE, William TURNER, Quarter Master James GARDNER and Marine John MAYNES, were wounded. Nineteen of the enemy were missing, some had jumped overboard, the others killed. The felucca was the ESPERAMZA (alias SAN PEDR0) of Corunna, victualled for a cruise of one month. Three small merchant vessels carrying wine for the enemy squadron at Ferrol were destroyed on the way out. 0n the morning of the 4 June L0IRE stood into the bay at Muros to engage a French privateer fitting out there. Mr YE0, Marine Lieuts. MALL0CKS and D0UGLAS, and Mr CLINCH with a force of about fifty were ready to land and storm any forts. As they entered the bay two guns in a small battery opened fire on them and Mr YE0 landed to spike the guns. Further on they found a corvette with 26 ports apparently ready for sea and a brig with 20 ports neither of which opened fire so it was assumed that they had no guns on board, however they came under accurate fire from a large fort with twelve 18-pounders at a range of less than a quarter of a mile. Mr CLEVERLY, the master, brought L0IRE to anchor with a spring so that her broadside could return the fire, the purser, Mr SHEA, being in charge of the quarter deck carronades. Meanwhile Lieut. YE0, hearing the firing, pushed forward the quarter of a mile to the fort and entered it through a gate that the enemy had left open. Here he killed the governor who had brought troops from the town and the crews of the privateers to the inner gate. Those that were not killed fled into the fort and some jumped from the embrazures on to the rocks. Twelve of the enemy were killed and 30 wounded. As soon as the fort was taken, Capt. MAITLAND took possession of the C0NFIANCE, 116 ft long and about 450 tons, a French ship privateer pierced for 26 guns but having none on board, which was due to sail for India in a few days. He then arranged with the inhabitants of the town to deliver up the guns and stores of the ship in return for a promise of no further molestation. The BELIER brig, a privateer pierced for twenty 18-pounders was in an early stage of refitting so he burnt her. The small vessels in the bay and on the beach that belonged to the local inhabitants he left unmolested. The guns in the fort were spiked and thrown over the parapet, forty barrels of gunpowder, two small brass guns and some small arms were brought on board and L0IRE sailed out of the bay as soon as a land wind sprang up. The wounded in the shore party were:- Lieut. LE0; Mr CLINCH, seamen Henry GRAY, Martin HENDRICKS0N, John PAYNE and marine John LE0NARD. 0n board seamen James CALDWELL and John WITEC0MB were seriously wounded; Magnus J0HNS0N lost his right leg above the knee and Christian WILS0N had the calf of his leg shot off. Seamen John PLUMMER, Mark ARCHER, Thomas LL0YD, John M0ULDS and James GILLETT were also wounded. The Spanish and French privateers were brought into Cork by L0IRE on 13 June. 0n 25 June she gave chase to the VALIANT of Bordeaux, a privateer frigate, about 200 miles west of Cape Clear. After 12 hours the enemy was forced to bear up by the appearance of MELAMPUS and BRILLIANTon the weather bow. VALIANT was very fast and carried twenty-four 18-pounders on the main deck but the six 6-pounders on the quarter deck had been thrown overboard during the chase. Victualled for a four month's cruise she had made only one capture, the Halifax packet SIR CHARLES SPENCER. L0IRE brought her in to Cork on 29 June. 0n 13 December 1805 L0IRE and ALCMENE fell in with the French squadron from Rochefort consisting of six sail of the line and six frigates and corvettes. Capt. MAITLAND sent ALCMENE to the fleet off Brest and shadowed the French ships, at times during the night being so close that he could hear orders being passed. He was chased away during the following day but closed up again at night. During the night of 16/17th. he found himself between two enemy squadrons and had to make sail to escape from them. The new ships were from Brest and reached San Domingo in February, they had apparently not recognised the Rochefort ships which returned to port soon after. L0IRE and EGYPTIENNE captured the French 40-gun frigate LIBRE off Rochefort on 24 December after an obstinate resistance. The French lost 20 men killed and wounded, L0IRE had no casualties and EGYPTIENNE had 8 wounded, one mortally. LIBRE was badly damaged and lost her masts so Loire took her in tow and reached Plymouth with her on 4 January 1806. The Spanish privateer schooner PRINCESS 0F PEACE was captured on the evening of 22 April 1806 about 100 miles south-west of Cape Clear. Although pierced for 14 guns she was only carrying one large 24-pounder. She was five days out on her first cruise without taking any prizes. L0IRE brought her in to Cork on the 28th. 0n 24 July 1806 L0IRE attempted to close with a squadron of four French frigates but the enemy hauled to the wind so Capt. MAITLAND made for Sir Richard KEATS squadron 150 miles west of Belleisle. He reported the enemy on the 27th and the following evening MARS was able to cut off the French frigate RHIN,44. Capt. MAITLAND was appointed to EMERALD on 28 November. L0IRE was in ordinary at Deptford at the beginning of 1807 and later in the year Capt. Alexander Wilmot SCH0MBERG, 10/07, was appointed to her as she fitted out at Woolwich. Early in the spring of 1808 he was sent, with Capt. AYSC0UGH in SUCCESS under his orders, to protect the fisheries in Arctic waters. Although the ships were only fitted for service in the Channel they pressed on to the edge of the ice north of Spitzbergen. 0n 4 June they reached 77 deg 30 min N. V0LUNTEER,14. gun vessel. (Purchased 1804. Sold 1812) 1805- Sheerness EMERALD,36. (1795 Northfleet. BU 1836) Capt. V.C. BERKLEY, 12/95. Capt. Jacob WALLER, Mediterranean. On 26 April 1797 EMERALD accompanied IRRESISTABLE when two Spanish 36-gun frigates, ELENA and NIMFA, were captured in Conil Bay, near Cape Trafalgar. ELENA ran ashore, she was got off but was so damaged that she had to be destroyed. In July 1797 THESEUS, CULLODON, ZEALOUS, LEANDER, SEAHORSE, EMERALD, TERPSICHORE and the FOX, cutter, were detached by Earl ST. VINCENT to join Sir Horatio NELSON in an attack on Santa Cruz, where it was rumoured that some treasure ships had arrived from South America on their way to Cadiz. The attack took place on the night of the 24th. Capt. WALLER landed with Capt. TROUBRIDGE of CULLODEN under a battery close to the south end of the citadel. Most of their ammunition was ruined in the surf and they lost their scaling ladders for attacking the citadel. They were unable to find the Rear Admiral but did join up with Capts. HOOD and MILLER of ZEALOUS and THESEUS, 80 marines, 80 seamen with pikes and 150 with small arms. The streets were commanded by field pieces, with several thousand Spanish and 100 French troops, so Capt. TROUBRIDGE sent to say that he would set the town on fire if his people were not allowed to re-embark. The Spanish acceded to his proposal and agreed to take the wounded into hospital. After the battle in Aboukir Bay EMERALD was part of a squadron detached by Lord Nelson to watch the coast of Egypt for supplies being brought in from France. On 2 September 1798 EMERALD made a signal for a sail bearing E by S, and a cutter was seen standing towards the shore. EMERALD fired several shot to bring her to but she persisted and ran aground near the tower of Marabou. On board were General Carmin, Capt. Valette, a courier, some soldiers and a crew of 60 under Capt. Gardon. As soon as they landed they were attacked by Arabs who stripped them and slaughtered several including the three first mentioned. EMERALD`s boats immediately pulled inshore and her people, including midshipman Francis FANE, swam ashore with a ropes and barrels, and managed to save Capt. Gardon and four of the crew, who had escaped naked to the beach. The rest of the Frenchmen were taken off as prisoners by the Arabs. Capt. Lord PROBY, 12/97. Capt.T.M. WALLER, 4/98. On 7 April 1800 LEVIATHAN and EMERALD captured the Spanish frigates CARMEN and FLORENTIA, bound for Lima with 3000 qintals of mercury, and took them into Gibraltar on the 10th. INCENDIARY captured two of the ships they were convoying. 1803 Captain James O`BRYEN. On 10 August 1803 EMERALD and HEUREUX captured the Dutch ship SURINAM PLANTER, from Surinam to Amsterdam, laden with 922 hogsheads of sugar, 342 bales of cotton and 70,000 lb of coffee. In 1804 EMERALD was off St. Pierre in Martinique. On the morning of 13 March he sent his first lieutenant, Mr Forrest, with 30 volunteers on board the armed sloop FORT DIAMOND to weather the Pearl rock and bear down on an armed schooner anchored under the battery at Seron. The ship`s boats were sent in the opposite direction as a distraction. The schooner, the privateer MOSAMBIQUE of ten 18-pdr carronades from Guadaloupe, was boarded under heavy fire and taken. Her crew of 60 escaped ashore. On the evening of 20 April Lieut. GREGORY, with EMERALD`s boats, attempted to bring out a sloop and a schooner from Port-au-Diable. When he was unable, he set them on fire and destroyed them. On 26 April EMERALD was lying off the bar at Surinam and Capt. O`BRYEN was ordered, in conjunction with Brigadier-General Hughes, to gain possession of Braam`s Point. He pushed over the bar and anchored close to a battery of seven 8-pounders, followed by PANDOUR and DRAKE. The fort was silenced by a few broadsides from EMERALD and 43 officers and men were captured. EMERALD then forced her way though the mud of the river in three feet less than she drew, to bring up near the forts covering the Colony. The governor of Surinam agreed to surrender. In August she captured the Leghorn ship AUGUSTA laden with merchandise. 5 April 1805 EMERALD was with the SWIFTSURE,74, and the LEVIATHAN,74 bearing the flag of Rear Ad. DUCKWORTH, near the Gut of Gibraltar. During the following two days they captured two Spanish 36-gun frigates, both having on board 3000 quintals of quicksilver, and eleven sail of merchantmen. The prizes were all taken into Gibraltar. 1805 Portsmouth. 1806 Frederick Lewis MAITLAND. He was appointed on 28 November. In April 1807 he captured the French privateer AUSTERLITZ of 14 guns and 60 men and a Spanish polacre from La Guira. He also recaptured the ZULEMA, an American ship which had been taken by a French privateer. The following July he took an American ship having 90 men belonging to the French ships in the Chesapeake. On 13 March 1808 Capt. MAITLAND attempted to cut a large French schooner out of Vivero harbour. They came under heavy fire from the forts before they were taken by landing parties and the guns spiked. The schooner was captured but went on shore at high water and a large body of infantry opened fire on the men trying to get her off. Lieut. BERTRAM persevered for several hours but, finally had to blow her up. She was the French corvette APROPOS mounting eight 12-pdr carronades. EMERALD had nine killed and sixteen wounded. EMERALD was with Rear Ad. STOPFORD`s squadron (CEASAR, DEFIANCE, DONEGAL and NAIAD) anchored off the Chassiron lighthouse on 23 February 1809, with AMETHYST acting as lookout to the N.W., when eight sail of the line and two frigates, flying French colours, were seen in the eastward. STOPFORD chased them into the Pertuis d`Antioche and sent NAIAD to warn Ad. GAMBIER. Leaving EMERALD and AMETHYST to watch the enemy, he attacked three French frigates, ITALIENNE, CALYPSO and CYBELE, which had anchored in the Sable d`Olonne under shore batteries. They were driven ashore and wrecked. More British ships arrived and the French squadron of 11 sail of the line and 4 frigates was blockaded in the Basque Roads by 7 sail of the line and 5 frigates. Four French ships were destroyed and others driven ashore in an attack on 11 April. More would have been accomplished if GAMBIER had supported Lord COCHRANE when he signalled that the enemy ships ashore could be easily destroyed. EMERALD captured the French privateer brig INCOMPARABLE of St Malo, with eight 6-pounders and 60 men, on the morning of 8 October 1809. She had been out four days without making any captures but was running down to take an English brig when sighted. At half past nine on the morning of 22 March 1810 a sail was sighted from the masthead and after a chase in a strong breeze which lasted for nearly 12 hours a fine letter of marque ship, the BELLE ETOILE of Marseilles, was captured. She had left Bayonne four days previously bound for the Isle of France with a cargo of wine, oil and flour. She was carrying 56 men and 8 guns (although pierced for 20), four of these, her water and some of her provisions were thrown overboard in the latter part of the chase. She was 350 tons, 15 months old and had made one trip to Guadaloupe. On 6 April 1811 EMERALD captured the French ship privateer AUGUSTO, with 18 guns and 126 men. She had been three days out from Brest without making any captures. 1812- Portsmouth, as a hulk until she was broken up in 1836 G0LIATH,74. (1781 Deptford. 58 gun in 1812. BU 1815) Commanded in February 1796 and 1797 by Capt. Sir Charles Henry KN0WLES. 1797 Capt. T. F0LEY, 8/97. 1799 Mediterranean. 1800 Portsmouth - Channel fleet. She, with ELEPHANT, CAPTAIN, GANGES and BRUNSWICK, was detached from the Channel fleet and they arrived at Port Royal, Jamaica, on 26 November. G0LIATH returned to be docked for repairs. 1802 Capt. C. BRISBANE, 7/02, Jamaica station. G0LIATH and CALYPS0 escorted a homeward bound convoy in the summer. The fleet was dispersed in a gale off the Western isles on 30 July during which CALYPS0 was sunk after being run down by one of the merchantmen with the loss of all on board. G0LIATH delivered her charges to the Downs and arrived at Portsmouth on 26 August. 0n 7 November G0LIATH made the signal for a convoy to the Mediterranean. 1803 In the West Indies, with a squadron under Commodore H.W. BAYTUN in CUMBERLAND. 0ff San Domingo on 28 June Capt. BRISBANE gave chase to two ships which had been sighted by the squadron and was fortunate enough to carry up the breeze to the sternmost, which had got becalmed close under Cape St. Nicholas. She hauled down hwer colours after exchanging a few shot and proved to be a remarkably fast-sailing ship corvette, the MIGN0NNE, of sixteen long 18-pounders (six of which she had landed), commanded by a Capitaine de Fregate J.P. BARGEAUD, with 80 men. She was two days from Les Cayes and on her way to France. The previous evening he sent a boat, manned and armed, after a small schooner and found her to be a Frenchman, asailing from Santiago de Cuba to Port-au-Prince with a cargo of sugar and some 2476 dollars in cash. She had three guns and some swivels mounted. In January 1804 G0LIATH was selected by the Admiralty to join HIBERNIA, THUNDERER, PRINCESS R0YAL, PRINCE 0F 0RANGE and RAIS0NABLE in protecting the coast of Ireland. A Dutch West Indiaman with a cargo of coffee, prize to G0LIATH arrived in Plymouth on 30 January 1804. G0LIATH, Capt. DIX0N, warped out of Cawsand Bay on 23 March and sailed with DEFIANCE to join the fleet off Ferrol. She returned to refit on 18 July. 0n 31 July the officers of G0LIATH gave Capt. BRISBANE a grand dinner at the Pope's Head Inn Hotel. After a round of loyal toasts the evening concluded with 'Rule Britannia' and 'God save the King.' 1805 Capt. Robert BART0N, Channel fleet. At the end of 1804 she, with HIBERNIA, THUNDERER, PRINCESS R0YAL, PRINCE 0F 0RANGE and RAIS0NABLE, was employed in the defence of the coast of Ireland. 0n 15 August 1805 while standing in for Ferrol in accordance with the orders she had received from Ad. C0RNWALLIS on the 11th, G0LIATH fell in with and captured the brig corvette FAUNE,16. She had been chased by CAMILLA, which was in company, since the previous evening and was from Martinique bound to any part of the coast she could make. She had on board 22 men belonging to the BLANCHE,36, which had been taken and burnt by a French squadron in the West Indies on 19 July. The prize was sent into Portsmouth under the charge of CAMILLA. The following morning, while standing in for Cape Prior, three sail were seen to be in chase of them so G0LIATH tacked and stood towards them. By eight in the evening they had captured the French national corvette T0RCHE,18, carrying another 52 of BLANCHE's crew. The 44-gun T0PAZE escaped in the gathering darkness. The other vessel was probably the DEPARTEMENT DES LANDES, all four had taken part in the capture of BLANCHE. 1807 Repairing at Plymouth. Capt. P. PUGET, Sheerness. 1808 ditto, Baltic expedition. 1811- out of commission at Chatham. 0riginally a 74 of the smallest class, she was cut down in 1812 to mount twenty-eight long 32-pounders, the same number of 42-pounder carronades, and two long 12-pounders, making 58 guns on two decks. 1813 Capt. Frederick Lewis MAITLAND, 6/13, Halifax and West Indies stations for 12 months, before G0LIAH was found to be very defective and was paid off at Chatham in 0ctober 1814. BOYNE,98. (181O Portsmouth. 1834 EXCELLENT. BU 1861) 1811 Capt. Henry Hume SPENCE, Portsmouth. Flagship of Vice Ad. G. BERKELY. Capt. J.M. HANCHETT, Basque Roads. Flagship of Rear Ad. Sir H. NEALE. 1812 Capt. O. JONES, Channel fleet. Flagship of Rear Ad. Harry NEALE off Ushant. 1814 Capt. J. BURTON, Mediterranean. In November 1813 BOYNE was with Sir Edward PELLEW's squadron off Toulon. For eight days the beginning of the month they were blown off station by gales and it was only on the 5th that they could get back inshore. The French, with 14 sail-of-the-line and 7 frigates came out for exercise and a sudden change of wind gave hope that it wouldbe possible to bring the rear to action. CALEDONIA, BOYNE and SAN JOSEF tried to reach the leewardmost ship but only a partial firing took place as they passed on opposite tacks. BOYNE had one man slightly wounded. A few minutes after daylight on 13 February three French sail-of-the- line and three frigates standing to the southward were seen by the squadron off Toulon. BOYNE led CALEDONIA in chasing after them as the enemy stood towards Porquerolle and pressed to go through the Grand and Petit passes to Toulon. BOYNE brought ROMULUS, the sternmost ship, to action, and also received the fire of the other ships crossing her ahead. Since the enemy was running before the wind at 10 knots near the rocks, Sir Edward PELLEW was forced to signal Capt. BURTON to haul to the wind and break off the action although ROMULUS was obviously disabled. BOYNE lost George TERRY, midshipman, and William COLLINS, armourers mate, killed and 40 wounded, including Samuel SAUNDERS, midshipman. On 17 April Vice Ad. Sir Edward PELLEW arrived off Genoa with CALEDONIA, BOYNE, UNION, PRINCE OF WALES and PEMBROKE, as the attack was launched to drive the enemy from their positions outside the town. 1815 Capt. Frederick MAITLAND, 11/14, Spithead, where she was fitting out as flagship of Sir Alexander COCHRANE who was to have transferred to a two-decker on arrival in America. BOYNE sailed for Cork in January 1815 and collected a large fleet of transports and merchant vessels but adverse winds detained them until Napoleon returned from Elba and her orders were countermanded. Capt. MAITLAND removed to BELLEROPHON to watch Rochefort and he was replaced by Capt. James BRISBANE in the Mediterranean where BOYNE became the flagship of Ad. Lord EXMOUTH, who re-assumed the command in the Mediterranean. Lord EXMOUTH made arragements to co-operate with the allied army approaching Naples. BOYNE arrived off Civita Vecchia on the evening of the 18 May and reached Naples on the 20th to find TREMENDOUS and ALCMENE at anchor close to the mole. The following day the marines were landed and took possession of the forts and the Castle of St. Elmo. With the help of the civic guard they maintained the peace in the city until the Austrians arrived on the 23rd, when the marines were re-embarked. BOYNE sailed north with IMPREGNABLE, BOMBAY and PILOT, landed the first division of the Austrian troops at Livorno, and arrived off Genoa on 3 July. 3500 troops from the garrison embarked in the transports while BOYNE with Major Gen. Sir Hudson Lowe sailed for Marseilles with IMPREGNABLE, POMPEE and BOMBAY. They arrived in the Roads on the 10th and the Admiral and the Major General went ashore to meet the members of the royal committee. The transports arrived on the 13th under convoy of ABOUKIR and the troops were landed, together with 500 marines from the squadron, to a general welcome from the populace BELLEROPHON,74. (1786 Frindsbury. Hulk 1815) 1793 Capt. T. PASLEY 1794 Capt. William Johnstone HOPE, 1/94. Bearing first the pendant and then the flag of Rear Ad. PASLEY, commanding a division of Earl HOWE's fleet in the West Indies. On 28 May the French fleet was discovered to windward and in the evening BELLEROPHON brought the REVOLUTIONNAIRE,110, to action for an hour before any British ships could get up in support. Disabled, she joined the main body of the fleet, and darkness put an end to the partial actions that had taken place. The following day, with the fleets drawn up in order of battle, BELLEROPHON, on the signal to break the enemy line, passed between the 5th and 6th ships in the enemy rear. She was accompanied by QUEEN CHARLOTTE and LEVIATHAN, the latter also crippled, with the rest of the British fleet passing to leeward. When the French wore to succour their disabled vessels, Lord HOWE was unable to frustrate them and finally a thick fog prevented a renewal of the action. BELLEROPHON took part in the Battle of the Glorious First of June and lost no more than 4 killed and 27 wounded during the long and bloody battle. Capt. HOPE was awarded a gold medal. Rear Ad. PASLEY lost a leg and was made a baronet with a pension of 1000 pounds per annum. He died in 1808, aged 75 years. Capt. HOPE continued to command BELLEROPHON until January 1795. 1795 Capt. Lord CRANSTOUN. On 3O May 1795 Vice Ad. CORNWALLIS sailed from Spithead to cruise off the Penmarks with a squadron of five sail of the line, BRUNSWICK, ROYAL SOVEREIGN, BELLEROPHON, TRIUMPH and MARS, and two frigates. On the 8th they chased eight small vessels into Palais Road, Belle Isle and blockaded them there. On the 12th a squadron sailed from Brest and formed a junction on the 15th with Rear Ad. Vence off Groix. When CORNWALLIS received news from PHAETON that an enemy force was in sight to leeward, he stood on towards them, assuming them to be frigates. The French fleet now consisted of thirteen sail of the line, fourteen frigates, two brigs and a cutter, under the command of Vice Ad. Joyeuse, so, when he found that he was outnumbered 3O to 7, he immediately hauled off, hotly pursued by the enemy. At first the Admiral led in ROYAL SOVEREIGN but with daylight he ordered BRUNSWICK and BELLEROPHON, both heavy sailers, to lead, with MARS and TRIUMPH forming the rear. The latter two, with the flagship, under easy sail, were constantly engaged with the French ships which kept up a long range cannonnade, but the former two were forced to throw anchors, launches and part of their ballast overboard to keep their place. CORNWALLIS signalled PHAETON to send a boat and when the young Francis BEAUMONT (later Ad. Sir Francis BEAUMONT, Hydrographer to the Admiralty) cimbed up the flagship's side he was met by the Admiral's foot in his face and ordered to return and tell his captain, Robert STOPFORD, to run ahead of the squadron and make signals for a fleet. Some 9 or 1O hours later PHAETON let fly her top-gallant sheets and fired a lee gun. She then used the tabular signals, of which the French had a copy, to announce that the approaching fleet was English and the Dutch ensign (the recall flag) to bring them into the squadron. Some French officers said later that they were convinced that Lord BRIDPORT's fleet was approaching but they continued to engage MARS until she was in such a disabled state that ROYAL SOVEREIGN had to wear out of line to protect her. The appearance of the three-decker was decisive and after a while the French hauled to the wind and gave up the chase. On the 22nd they did come in sight of Lord BRIDPORT's 17 sail of the line and were brought to action. 1796 Capt. J. LORING, 5/96. Capt. Henry D'Esterre DARBY, 1O/96, Mediterranean. On 7 June 1799 BELLEROPHON with nine other ships-of-the- line joined Rear Ad. NELSON off Toulon and five days later he steered for Corsica in search of the French fleet which had sailed from Toulon in May. On 19 July, still without news, they put into Syracuse to water. The French were discovered near Alexandria on 1 August. BELLEROPHON was ninth in line as they attacked the French in Aboukir Bay. She brought up by the stern close to the French admiral's ship, the ORIENT, and became exposed to that ships tremendous broadsides. Capt. DARBY was wounded early in the action and forced to quit the deck, Lieut. DANIEL was killed by the falling mainmast and command devolved on the 24 year old Lieut. Robert CATHCART. ORIENT caught fire and, after an hour, blew up. Only about seventy of her people were saved, mainly picked up by British boats. When the fire spread to BELLEROPHON Lieut. CATHCART cut her cable and, totally dismasted, she drifted some miles before being brought up with the kedge, her only anchor. She received a broadside from TONNANT and a few distant shots from HEUREUX as she drifted along the rear of the French line. Her losses were 49 killed and 148 wounded. By using wreckage floating around in Aboukir Bay for the contruction of jury masts she was ready for action three days after the Battle. At one point during the battle, when BELLEROPHON was standing out of action under her fore-sail and fore-top-sail, and with no lights displayed, she was mistaken for an enemy by SWIFTSURE. Capt. HALLOWELL, being aware of the difficulty of breaking men off from the guns once they have begun to use them, refrained from firing into her, having decided to wait until he was anchored in his station. BELLEROPHON went to Gibraltar for a refit. She returned to Portsmouth on 2 April 1800 and remained under quarantine for three days before being cleared. Some 400 miles west of Lisbon she had met the ship REGULUS of London on 20 March and taken out of her Capt. GRANGER and Lieut. Tudor TUCKER who were carrying dispatches from the Cape. She went into harbour to paid off on the 16th. 1801 Capt. Lord Viscount GARLIES. (later Earl of Galloway) She sailed to join the Channel fleet on 21 August. BELLEROPHON was employed in the blockade of Brest until the end of hostilities. 1802 Capt. J. LORING, 11/O1. At the end of January, along with five other 747s BELLEROPHON was ordered to be victualled and stored for six months. The PRINCE OF WALES discharged all her spare provisions into BELLEROPHON and IRRESISTABLE. They sailed with sealed orders from Torbay in February and on 7 March the fleet was becalmed off the Eddystone as they sailed to the westward. When the wind freshened they were clear of the land by sunset. They arrived in the West Indies at the end of March and on 5 April BELLEROPHON and AUDACIOUS sailed from Martinique to Jamaica to join Vice Ad. Sir T. DUCKWORTH with 15 sail-of-the- line. BELLEROPHON, GOLIATH and MAJESTIC overshot Plymouth in a gale on 12 September 1802 and finished up in Torbay as they returned from Jamaica after a passage of six weeks. They were paid off at Plymouth. 18O3 Back in Jamaica with Rear Ad. Sir John DUCKWORTH. While at Jamaica she lost several officers and more than 1OO of her crew from fever. The officers who died included Mr John HEWITT, Mr MAXWELL, midshipman and Mr YOUNG, surgeon. On 9 September 1803 BELLEROPHON captured the American schooner LITTLE SARAH laden with coffee, and on 13 October she and the squadron took the American ship ELK. BELLEROPHON was off Cape Francois in San Domingo in November 18O3 when she received a communication from General Rochambeau who commanded the French forces besieged there by the black General Dessalines. He proposed to evacuate his four of five hundred men if they could be sent to France without being considered prisoners of war. This was rejected by Capt. LORING who sent Capt. MOSS of DESIREE ashore. He found that the French general had entered into a prior capitulation with Dessalines to deliver up the Cape to him reckoning that the tremendous weather that the British squadron had been experiencing would offer an opportunity for escape. On 23 November Lieut. Robert PILCH commanded the launches of BELLEROPHON and ELEPHANT at the capture of the French national schooner DECOUVERTE, armed with six long 6-pounders and six swivels, lying in the Caracol Passage near Cape Francois. In spite of being under fire from both great guns and small arms there were no British casualties. The French had two wounded. On 30 November Capt. LORING sent Capt. BLIGH to see Dessalines but, as he entered the harbour, the French Commodore Barre pressed him to go on board SURVEILLANTE and enter into a form of capitulation that would put the French under British protection and prevent the blacks from sinking them with red-hot shot. Capt. BLIGH accepted their proposals with some small modifications and informed Dessalines that all the vessels in the harbour had surrendered to his Majesty. As soon as the wind was favourable they sailed out under French colours but, on a shot being fired across them, the warships emptied their broadsides and lowered their colours. CLORINDE, a 38-gun frigate, took the ground and damaged her rudder. She was forced to throw most of her guns overboard before she was saved by Lieut. WILLOUGHBY and the boats of HERCULE. Capt. LORING, after securing the prizes, left THESEUS and HERCULE to attend to CLORINDE. The French ships were overcrowded and without provisions so he sailed with them to Jamaica, arriving on 5 December. The schooner OLIVE BRANCH was recaptured by BELLEROPHON in the spring of 1804. 18O5 Capt. John COOKE (1), Mediterranean. BELLEROPHON was in Vice Ad. COLLINGWOOD's Lee Division at the Battle of Trafalgar. BELLEROPHON broke through the Spanish line under the stern of the MONARCA,74, and, while hauling up to engage her to leeward, she ran on board the French AIGLE in the smoke. The French ship being much higher and full of troops, BELLEROPHON suffered a lot of casualties from musket fire and, by depressing the guns on the main and lower decks, efforts were made to blow up the enemy's decks. Capt. COOKE was killed by a shot in the right breast while he was reloading his pistols and Lieut. William Price CUMBY took over command. He fired several broadsides into AIGLE's stern as she fell of and then forced MONARCA to surrender. BELLEROPHON lost 27 officers and men killed and 123 wounded. In the gales after the battle the badly damaged BELLEROPHON rolled so much that the wounded were suffering as they were thrown around. A midshipman, Mr Daniel WOODRIFF, nailed capstan bars along the deck of the captain's cabin to hold the beds until the wounded could be moved to the hospital in Gibraltar. Capt. Edward ROTHERAM of ROYAL SOVEREIGN was appointed to succeed Capt. CUMBY. BELLEROPHON was employed in the blockade of Brest. In October 18O7 the petty officers and crew of BELLEROPHON were turned over to the BEDFORD,74, so that she could sail for Lisbon. Later in year BELLEROPHON was the flagship of Rear Ad. BERTIE at Plymouth. 18O8 Capt. Samuel WARREN, flagship of Rear Ad. GARDNER off Flushing. 18O9 Baltic under Ad. SAUMAREZ. The fleet left Gothenburg on 24 May and reached Karlskrona on 4 June. BELLEROPHON and MINOTAUR sailed for the Gulf of Finland where they were joined by the rest of the fleet on the 29th. On 2O June BELLEROPHON, following a signal from MINOTAUR, discovered a lugger and two other vessels at anchor within the islands at Hango. Her boats under Lieut. PILCH took possession then abandoned them when they were found to be worthless. However they were found to be under the protection of four strong Russian batteries. To ensure a safe return to the ship, the nearest battery mounting four 24-pounders was attacked and the garrison of 103 men forced to retreat to the other side of the island where they escaped in boats. The guns were spiked and the magazine destroyed. BELLERPHON lost five wounded. Lieuts. SHERIDAN and BENTHAM, the carpenter, Mr MART, and Lieut. Carrington of the royal marines took part. A flotilla of Russian ships under Percola Point at Aspo near Fredrikshamm was attacked by the boats of IMPLACABLE, BELLEROPHON, MELPOMENE and PROMETHEUS on the night of 7 July. The enemy had taken up a position with two rocks to cover their wings from which they could pour a destructive fire of grape on the attackers. Nevertheless, out of 8 gunboats, each mounting a 32 and a 24-pounder with 46 men, six were brought out and one sunk. The 12 vessels laden with powder and provisions that they were protecting were also captured. Lieut. HAWKEY of IMPLACABLE, who led the attack, was killed by grape while boarding a second gunboat and his place was taken by Lieut. Charles ALLEN of BELLEROPHON who was promoted immediately after the action. Lieut. John SKEKEL commanded one of BELLEROPHON's boats. The four ships lost 17 killed and 37 wounded, two thirds of the Russians were killed, wounded or driven overboard. 1811 Capt. John HALSTED, flagship of Rear Ad. John FERRIER, on the North Sea station. 1813 Capt. Edward HAWKER, Vice Ad. Sir R.G. KEATS, Spithead for Newfoundland. While proceeding there in December she captured the French privateer GENIE of 16 guns and 73 men. In the Downs in the spring of 1815. 181 Capt. F.W. MAITLAND. After escaping from the field of Waterloo on 18 June Napoleon arrived in in Rochefort on 3 July hoping to find a passport for the United States. On the 8th he boarded the SAALE frigate. Meanwhile the Royal Navy was searching for him. BELLEROPHON had been sent with a squadron to Quiberon Bay and on 10 July messengers from Napoleon arrived on board her to enquire about passports. MAITLAND informed them that there were none and that no French ships would be permitted to sail. While the emissaries were still on board FALMOUTH arrived with orders that Napoleon should be brought to Torquay. On 15 July MAITLAND, seeing HOTHAM`s flagship SUPERB coming in, sent his barge to bring Napoleon on board BELLEROPHON. BELLEROPHON reach Torbay on 24 July and two days later was ordered round to Plymouth where Ad. KEITH came on board to inform Napoleon that he would now be addressed as General Bonaparte. and that no communication would be permitted with the shore. BELLEROPHON anchored off the breakwater and was surrounded by small craft packed with people hoping to catch a glimpse of the prisoner. On 6 August BELLEROPHON, TONNANT, EUROTAS, NORTHUMBERLAND, CEYLON and BUCEPHALUS anchored off Berry Head. The following day Napoleon removed to NORTHUMBERLAND and BELLEROPHON took those of his staff who did not wish to follow him round to Spithead. 1816 out of commission at Sheerness. VENGEUR,74. (1810 Harwich. BU 1843) 1811 Capt. Thomas BR0WN, Lisbon. 0ff Cherbourg in 0ctober. 1812 Capt. James BRISBANE, off Cherbourg. 1814 Capt. T.R. RICKETS, with Commodore P. MALC0LM in the Channel fleet. 1815 Capt. RICKETS, to America with troops. 1816 Capt. Thomas ALEXANDER, 8/15, Portsmouth. 1819 Capt. Frederick Lewis MAITLAND, 9/18, South America. In 1820 VENGEUR took Lord BERESF0RD from Rio to Lisbon and the King of the Two Sicilies from Naples to Livorno. 1824- Receiving ship at Sheerness. GEN0A,78. Taken 1814 at Genoa. BU 1838) 1821 Capt. Frederick Lewis MAITLAND commissioned GEN0A as guardship at Sheerness on 18 May. Capt. Sir Thomas LIVINGST0NE, 10/21, Sheerness. 1827 Capt. Walter BATHURST, Mediterranean. In the summer of 1827 an Anglo-Franco-Russian fleet assembled in the Mediterranean. Their purpose was to ensure that the Greeks were protected from the cruelties practised on them by the Turks. 0n 3 September an Egyptian fleet entered the harbour of Navarinand on the 25th a conference Ibrahim Pasha agreed that hostilities should be suspended and that the fleet would remain in Navarin. Part of the allied squadron went to Malta to refit, the French to Milo, Vice Ad. C0DRINGT0N took his ships to Zante but had to return when DARTM0UTH signalled that the Turks had put to sea. ARMIDE managed to turn back the French and the Turkish and Egyptian frigates returned to Navarin. 0n the evening of the 19 0ctober Vice Ad. C0DRINGT0N issued instructions for the allied ships to enter the harbour. The combined fleet fleet stood into the harbour at about half past one on the afternoon of the 20th. The flagship ASIA anchored alongside a ship of the line flying the flag of the Capitan Bey. The GEN0A, next astern, brought up alongside a double-banked frigate and was closely engaged during the whole of the battle. The Turks fired high and so many marines were killed on her poop that it considered prudent to remove the remainder to the quarter deck. Capt. BATHURST was wounded early on by a splinter which lacerated his face but later was mortally wounded by a shot which passed through his body and and hit the opposite bulwark. The command devolved on Commander Richard DICKINS0N after the captain was taken down to the cockpit. Captain BATHURST died at about 3 o'clock on 21 April. GEN0A lost Messrs. P. BR0WN and Charles BUSSELL, midshipmen, Mr A.J.T. R0WE, master's assistant, and 22 seamen and marines killed. Lieut. Richard STURT, Capt. Thomas Moore, R.M., Mr Herbert Blatchford GREY, midshipman, Mr James CHAMBER, 1st class volunteer, and 29 men wounded, many severely. 0n the 11th day after the battle the petty officers, seamen and marines of GEN0A petitioned the Commander in Chief to allow Cdr. DICKINS0N to remain in command and take the ship home, but Cdr. Lewis DAVIES of R0SE was appointed to the vacancy but ordered to continue in command of R0SE and take dispatches to Smyrna. GEN0A returned home under the command of Capt. Hon Charles Leonard IRBY, 15/11/27, and she paid off at Plymouth on 21 January 1828. WELLESLEY,74. (1815 Bombay. Sunk 1940) WINCHESTER,52. (1822 Woolwich. C0NWAY 1861. Sold 1921) 1822- Chatham. 1829 Capt. Charles J. AUSTEN, 10/29, Jamaica. 1831 Capt. Lord William PAGET, 5/31, West Indies. 1833 out of commission at Chatham. 1834 Capt. Edward SPARSH0TT, 6/34, East Indies. 1837 Flagship of Rear Ad. Sir Frederick MAITLAND, East Indies. She was ordered home in 1838. 1840 Capt. John PARKER, flagship of Vice Ad. Sir Thomas HARVEY, N.A.W.I. station. 1842 Capt. Thomas W. CARTER, 8/41, N.A.W.I. station. 1844 Capt. Charles EDEN, 3/42, Cape of Good Hope. Changes: 24/9/2001: edited, added ship data, added life history above.