LISTER APPENDICES


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Issue Date 14/11/2020.


Section 1 printed 25/2/2002
Section 2 Printed from original source
Section 6 Printed from original file.


LISTER APPENDICES 1

1.        The Broseley Anti-Felons 1-1

2.        John Wilkinson and the Early Iron Barges 2-8

3.        COLLIERIES OF THE UNITED KINGDOM AT WORK IN 1869 3-1

CHESHIRE, SHROPSHIRE, CHESHIRE 3-1

SOUTH STAFFORDSHIRE and WORCESTERSHIRE 3-2

4.        All Saints Broseley (St Leonard's) 4-1

The Birchmeadow Chapel 4-1

5.        Industrialization and Canals: Britain 5-1

6.        Appendix 8: Broseley Directories 6-1

Piggott’s Directory 1822-3 6-1

Tibnam's Directory, 1828 6-5

BROSELEY. 6-5

COALBROOKDALE 6-5

MADELEY 6-5

Directory of Shropshire Staffordshire etc. Pigot 1829 6-9

Pigots 1835. 6-17

7.        Appendix 10:  SOME MINING INCIDENTS IN THE BROSELEY FIELD 7-1

8.        Creation of the Engine Business at Soho 8-1

9.        Poor Law in Rural Communities 1601 - 1834 9-1

Introduction 9-1

Background 9-1

Poor law 1601 - 1834 9-2

Legal Settlement 9-2

Holding a Parish Office. 9-2

Parish Apprentices 9-3

Illegitimacy 9-3

Parish Relief 9-4

After 1834 9-4

Mental Illness 9-5

Removal Orders 9-12

Clothing Receipts and Bills 9-26

Settlement Examinations 9-29

Hardship Letters 9-51

10.      BRITISH HISTORY ONLINE Extracts 10-1

WROCKWARDINE 10-1

WROCKWARDINE WOOD 10-28

Broseley 10-33

Benthall 10-92

11.      Burgesses and Freemen. 11-1

12.      Changes: 3

 


Appendix 1:

1.     The Broseley Anti-Felons

 

By JOHN CRAGG

This article was originally published in the Wilkinson Journals 9 and 11 - 1981&83
“The Anti-Felons” was the name by which they were popularly known. Their full title was “The Broseley Association for the Prosecution of Felons”. They were one of many such associations existing in the 18th, 19th and well into the 20th centuries, which originally had the sole purpose of bringing petty criminals to justice. They flourished in the days prior to the compulsory establishment of borough and county police forces.
In his “Portrait of an Age Victorian England”, G.M. Young says that in 1840 there were in England “five hundred associations for the prosecution of felons; but there were no county police; and the mainstay of the public police was not the (parish) constable but the yeoman, and behind the yeoman, though cautiously and reluctantly employed, the soldier”.
More than one Shropshire town had its Anti-Felon Association. Ludlow had one, rivalling Broseley’s in its long years of existence. There was one in Louth, Lincolnshire. George Eliot, in “Scenes of Clerical Life”, writing of the 1830 period, has a farmer, Mr. Hackit, “presiding at the annual dinner of the Association for the Prosecution of Felons at the Oldinfort Arms”, in the Nuneaton area. Arnold Bennett writes in “These Twain” of an architect living in the Five Towns during the late 19th century:
“Osmond Orgreave had never related himself to the crowds. He was not a Freemason; he had never had municipal office; he had never been President of the Society for the Prosecution of Felons”.
But between the days of Hackit and Orgreave Anti-Felons everywhere were more concerned with the pleasures of social gatherings than with the pursuit of justice.
Nevertheless, in recent years there has been something like a revival of the activities of the original Anti-Felons. The prevalence of theft of cattle and sheep has caused farmers in some parts of the country to act independently of the police. In December 1978, for example, farmers in Dorset banded together, each subscribing £5 annually in order to finance a system of payment for information leading to the arrest of sheep and cattle rustlers.
Precisely such a system of rewards was fundamental to the formation of the Broseley Anti-Felons. Members of the Association were owners of various kinds of property; a house, an estate, a mine, a quarry, a farm, craft on the river, an iron-works, a pottery, a shop or a public house. They each paid a membership fee and an annual subscription, and the money subscribed served to provide rewards for information leading to the arrest and successful prosecution of persons responsible for thefts and acts of damage to property. The money was also to be used to pay lawyers’ fees.
There was a fixed scale of rewards, payable after conviction of the felon. In 1837, a reward of 5 guineas was offered in cases of burglary, highway robbery, arson, stealing horses and cattle; 2 guineas when pigs, poultry, hay, straw had been stolen; one guinea in the case of theft of timber, gates, fencing, of fruit and vegetables, and in the event of wilful damage to wagons, ploughs etc.; “or any kind of felony whatsoever”. In 1860 the same scale of rewards applied as in 1837.
In 1860 membership of the Association was “general for any person living within the Several parishes of Broseley, Benthall, Madeley, Willey, Linley., Barrow and Posenhall” ; the Association provided “Protection on property lying within the said parishes. Membership fee was one guinea, the annual subscription 5 shillings.
The Rules and Articles of the Broseley Association, including the scale of rewards, were publicly displayed, as were handbills relating to specific offences and offering appropriate payment for information. One such handbill, dated October 14th 1914, was referred to by Mr. I.J. Brown in his article on page 4 of the Society’s Journal No. 8. The felon was there described as “some evilly-disposed person” who had damaged equipment in a Benthall mineshaft.
A more recent handbill (undated) and one of more general application, reads
“ONE GUINEA REWARD”
“The above reward will be paid to anyone giving such information as will Lead to the conviction of any person or persona trespassing upon or damaging this property.”
W. E. PRICE
(Secretary - Treasurer, Broseley Association for the Prosecution of Felons)
Arthur Meredith, Printer, Broseley.
The Broseley Anti-Felons wound up their affairs at the Lion Hotel, on July 30th, 1959. No such precise knowledge, so far as I am aware, is available about the Association’s beginnings.
Two minute-books have survived, the earlier one opening on page one, with an account of a meeting of Members held on October 9th, 1789, with a rough draft of proceedings written on the fly-leaf facing page one. It is apparent that the Association was already a flourishing concern; indeed there is later evidence that it existed in 1775.
The entries in the book are mostly clearly written, but there are some words, which I could not decipher; and the spelling is variable.
The 1789 meeting was “Held at the House of Mr. John Cleobury at The Fox Inn in Broseley.

Presant:

Mr.

Thos Mytton

Mr.

Jno. Onions

 

 

Jno. Morris

 

Tho. Baker

 

 

Jno. Rose

 

Ben Haines

 

 

Jno. Perry

 

Fr. Baker

 

 

Elias Prestwick

 

Saml. Scale

 

Mr.

Jno. Morris (junior)

 

Ed. Owen

 

Mr.

Tho. Bryan

 

Jno. Guest

 

 

Jno. B. Corbet

 

Jno. Boden

 

 

Geo. Hartshorne

 

J. Cleobury

 

 

Jno. Weaver

 

Ch. Guest

Agreed: That Mr. John Rose be paid four shillings for the expence of a serch warrant for serching after persons suspected of stealing six geese the same to be paid by Mr. J. Guest, Treasurer.

That this Association be advertised in the Shrewsbury Cronicle immidiataly after each meeting setting forth the several rewards to be paid for the different Fellonise and misdemeanours and that a copy of the said advertisement be published in two Hand Bills.
By order of the Meeting. Jno. Guest.”
Some well-known names appear in this list of Members. The Guests are probably the most famous. They belonged to an old Broseley family, and for many years were prominent iron-makers and coal-owners. Randall mentions a John Guest who was born in Broseley in 1522, and had a son Andrew who was buried there in 1609. A branch of the family established itself in South Wales at Dowlais in the mid-18th century and laid the foundations of a great industrial firm, which developed into to-day’s G.K.N.
Charles Guest was a trustee of the turnpike road running through Cuckoo Oak, where the principal tollhouse stood. He was a subscriber to the building of the Preens Eddy Bridge at Coalport; and he and John Guest also subscribed to the building of the Iron Bridge. John Guest “paid half the cost of the Birch Meadow Baptist Chapel, Broseley, in 1801” (The Industrial Revolution in Shropshire, B. Trinder, p. 201), and he and John Onions were buried in the Chapel graveyard.
The Norris family had an interest in limestone quarries in the Wyke-Tickwood area. Thos. Bryan had a half share with William Reynolds in the Tuckies estate at Jackfield. John Onions was an ironmaster with interests in the area and for many miles around. He was a partner with William Banks and with Francis Blithe Harries of Benthall Hall, in the Benthall Ironworks. Edward Owen was a barge-owner. The Hartshornes, the Corbets, the Barbers were coal-owners. Samuel Seale was the parish constable at Willey.
Thomas Mytton was a lawyer. At a meeting of the Association on September 30th, 1791 it was resolved by the members present that he should be “the only person in his profession that shall commence proceedings in Law against any person or persons that shall commit any depredations upon the property of any one of them or their servants”. Later, in the 19th century, the Association was to carry this “closed-shop” attitude to extremes.
The Prestwich family were vintners. Early in the 19th century they left Broseley for London where their trade flourished. Joseph Prestwich married Catherine Blakeway in 1809 in Broseley. They had a son Joseph who became Professor of Geology at Oxford and was the author of a well-known work on “The Coalbrookdale Coalfield”. After the departure of the Prestwich family for London their business in Broseley was taken over by the Listers.
Reference was made in the Minute Book entry for October 9th, 1789 to the theft of six geese belonging to John Rose. This John Rose was the father of John Roe the manufacturer of porcelain at Caughley and Coalport. John Rose senior was a farmer, living at Swinney Farm near Caughley, in the parish of Barrow. He died in 1792 when his son John at the age of 20 was about to end his apprenticeship with Thomas Turner and join Edward Blakeway at Jackfield.
After the meeting held in October 1789, the next one reported at The Fox Inn was on March 26th, 1790, at which the firm of Banks & Onions with works in Broseley and Benthall, was admitted to the Association in joint membership. It was agreed also that a future payment of one pound eleven shillings and sixpence be made for dinner at The Fox Inn. This was presumably the total cost of the meal for the whole company.
On April 1st, 1791 at the next meeting recorded, again held at The Fox Inn, Mr. Samuel Seale, the Parish Constable of Willey, “produced a number of keys and three Chissils which he found in the house of Mr. Matthew Morris of the Parish of Willey in execution of a serch warrant on his house and it being represented to this society that Mr. Richd. Wilkes of Linley a member thereof can prove one or more of the same keys his property”. It was resolved “that the Treasurer (John Guest) be requested to wait upon Mr. Wilkes and recommend to him immediately to prosecute the offender if he is in possession of any profe which may be the means of conviction”.
At a meeting held on May 11th, 1792 it was resolved Mr. Scale be paid expenses incurred in prosecuting Sarah Moore and Edward Howels in separate actions, the nature of the offences going unrecorded. There is a reference to a disallowed claim for expenses from a Mr. Morris; Mr. Thomas Wilkinson, submitted a bill for prosecuting John Martin; a Mr. Morris was to be paid £ 6. 13. 8. “for his activity in bringing forward a prosecution against Elizabeth Brazier”. This last case must have been a serious one in view of the size of the reward, but no details are given in the Minute Book; they doubtless could be found in legal records if these have survived.
There were meetings of the Association in April 1793, October 1793, and October 1794. On the last occasion a Mr. Bennett submitted a bill for prosecuting John Peach and this it was agreed “be alowd, also that his man Thomas Merrick be alowd l0/6d for taking him”.
In March 1795 Mr. Bernard Colley was paid seven shillings for handbills and for the constable’s expenses “aprehending George Egerton”. In the following October Mr. Mytton was allowed four pounds nineteen shillings for the conviction of George Egerton. Again, the nature of the offence is not stated.
On April 1st 1796 Rob. Mills was paid 6/9 “for aprehending John Wheeler’s aprentice for stealing bricks” and it was agreed that “J. Holmes be paid 2/6 for being the active person in the business in order to bring him to justice”.
Mr. Prichard succeeded Thomas Mytton as the Association’s solicitor at a meeting held on March 31st 1797. Prichard was required to go into action at once on the application of a Mr. Simkis to prosecute Mary Roper who had stolen his window lights.
At a general meeting held on March 28th 1800 the Association’s Treasurer must have expressed some concern about members who were defaulting on the payment of subscriptions. It was agreed “that the Treasurer be directed to send to every member of this society who is at present in arrears to pay the and in case of refusal - that the Treasurer be directed to prosecute such person for the recovery of such arrears in the Court of Requests at Broseley -and in case of Nonsuit that the expences of the same be defrayed by the Society”.
It is clear from a minute dated March 26th 1802 that the Association’s meetings were not held haphazardly or only when there was business to transact. It was resolved at this meeting that the Society should meet on the second Thursday after Michaelmas and on the first Thursday after Ladyday.
At the meeting held on September 30th 1802 it was agreed that Mr. Prichard’s bill be allowed “for the different prosecutions, except Mr. Collins’ journey to Posnal to examine Eliza Ray”. Another tantalising reference to an event about which we are left completely in the dark.
From 1802 up to 1820 entries in the first of the two surviving minute books contain little of interest for us. John Guest was still Treasurer and the minutes are still in his handwriting. But he had not much longer to serve the Association. New names appear in a list of committee members appointed at the 1820 spring meeting, alongside one or two old ones. The Anti-Felons functioned much as before, but changes were to appear in the following thirty or so years which were due to events in the country at large.
At the Anti-Felons’ meeting held on April 20th, 1820, at the Fox Inn, Broseley, a new committee was formed consisting of: Mr. A. Brodie, Mr W. Hazeldine (represented by Mr. Thomson), Mr. W. Fifield, Mr. Thos. Roberts, Mr. Jno. Lister, Mr. Abr. Wyke, Mr. Samuel Roden, Mr. Geo. Hartshorne. Any four of these men could act in conjunction with the Treasurer who had been in office since before 1789.
There are some well-known Broseley names in the above list: Hartshorne, Wyke, Roden, Lister. Brodie and Hazeldine were comparative newcomers.
Alexander Brodie lived at the Rock House, Jackfield. He was the nephew of another Alexander Brodie, a Scot who became a figure almost as important as Wilkinson. Alexander senior bought the Calcutt mines, furnaces and forges in 1786 and made a national reputation for producing high-quality iron, for steam pumps and other engines, for cannon accurately bored, and for such by-products as coke and tar. He died in 1811 and his nephew took over the Calcutt works.
William Hazeldine of Shrewsbury, where he owned a foundry, had taken over the Calcutt works from Brodie by 1817, when in the aftermath of the recent Wars trade was sluggish. Under the supervision of his friend Telford, Hazeldine constructed the Menai Suspension Bridge and was constructor also of the ironwork for the Pontcysyllte and Chirk Aqueducts.
William Fifield is described in Pigot’s Directory as a Surgeon. A Mrs. Fifield was living in 1851 at Barratt’s Hill, possibly in what is still called “Fifield House”, which was a Doctor’s residence until recently.
In May 1822 there is a Minute about expenses allowed to Messrs. John Rose & Co. “in the prosecutions of Griffiths and Nevitt”. No details are given.
The Minutes of a meeting held on October 24th, 1822 were signed by 17 members who included John Onions, George Hartshorne, William Roden (“for father” ), John Lister, Thomas Rose. John Onions and his father John, who died in 1819, are two of the great ironmasters and mine-owners of the age, owning furnaces in whole or in part at Lilleshall, Benthall, Broseley (Coneybury) and Brierley Hill. John junior lived at Whitehall (Church Street) in 1851. He died in 1859. Thomas Rose was the brother of John Rose. He had been a partner in the porcelain firm of Reynolds, Horton & Rose in 1803 when Robert Anstice purchased the share holding of his late cousin William Reynolds. In 1814 John Rose bought up Anstice, Horton & Rose and brother Thomas thus found himself subordinate to John and as we see attended meetings of the Anti-Felons as a representative of the firm.
Amongst the names of subscribers to the Association in May 1824 appear the Hon. Lord Forester and the Rev. Townshend Forester who later became a Canon of Worcester Cathedral.
At the meeting of April 14th 1824 “the Society (felt) itself much obliged by the services of the late Mr. John Guest as Treasurer of the Association for a period of fifty years and upwards last past”. According to this tribute John Guest became Treasurer of the Anti-Felons in or about 1774, some 15 years before the first meeting recorded in the surviving Minute Books.
John Guest was succeeded by Mr. John Onions who was “unanimously elected” and “was good enough to accept the appointment”. Traces of pride, gratification and deference here. Alexander Brodie signed this Minute as Chairman.
There is a reference in Minutes of a meeting in April 1826 to prosecutions on behalf of four members of the Association: John Hartshorne, William Bennett, Samuel Roden and Abraham Aston. A Mr. Ashwood “was allowed expenses for advertising a robbery at his mill”. Pigot’s Directory records that in 1842 Jeremiah Ashwood was a miller and “Postmaster” in Broseley. He was also a maltster and an agent for the Globe Fire Insurance Company. In April 1827 Mr. Ashwood is said to have lost “his lead pump”. Rewards for information were agreed on in cases of window breaking and a theft of fowls. In November 1827 a “robbery of sheep” in mentioned.
At a meeting held on April 17th 1828, Mr. Onions expressed his “determination to resign” the Treasurership. Unfortunately no reason for this is given in the Minute Book. Mr. J. Lister was appointed in his place.
The meeting of October 19th 1837 decided on a new scale of rewards for information leading to successful prosecutions.
In 1844 the Association had funds of over £100 in hand and the annual subscription was reduced from 5/- to 3/6, the entrance subscription dropping to half a guinea from one guinea. In 1853 the annual subscription was again cut, to 2/6.
In 1849 there occurs the first reference to meetings being held at the Pheasant Inn instead of at the Fox. In 1859 the Pheasant was closed, for no stated reason, and it was decided that meetings in future were to be held at the Lion.
The mid-l9th century is a convenient time to look at national developments in the field of law and order. In country parishes maintenance of order was the duty of constables appointed usually by two justices of the peace. These constables often delegated their duties to deputies who were in many cases inefficient and corrupt. General dissatisfaction led to attempts to reform the system. In 1839 an Act of Parliament was passed empowering Justices in Quarter Sessions to establish a paid constabulary in the counties. This Act was only permissive and another followed it in 1856, which made it compulsory to create county police forces.
These enactments caused no immediate change in the affairs of the Broseley Association for the Prosecution of Felons, or at least in the reports contained in their Minute Books. The system of rewards for information leading to successful prosecutions continued, and the scales of payment published in 1837 were re-issued almost unchanged in 1860.
When the names of Police Constables do eventually appear (and these men were already paid by the County Police authority) they are recorded as receiving the appropriate reward listed in the Association’s scale of payments. P.C. Becket in 1881 received 10/6 for giving information leading to the conviction of Edward Doughty for the theft of coal from the pits of Messrs. Ealey & Sons (Exley?). P.C. Daniel Brew had the same amount for his share in the conviction of Annie Hill and William Purrier who had stolen “underwood belonging to Lord Forester”. In 1883 P.C. Perry of Jackfield was rewarded for the apprehension of Mary Heighway who was found guilty of stealing potatoes and turnips belonging to Mr. James Barnet of Woodhouse Farm.
Several other cases are recorded of similar rewards given to policemen. It is never apparent if they were or were not acting during their hours of official duty. Some other convictions were obtained as the result of action by members of the public, but such cases seem to have been fewer than those involving the police. In 1884, for instance, Mr. Henry Sergeant was rewarded for reporting that Richard Griffiths had stolen “peasticks the property of Lord Forester”.
During the latter half of the 19th century a change took place in the occupations and interests of the leading personalities amongst the Anti-Felons. Earlier on, the prominent men, the Guests, the Onions, Hartshornes, Hazeldines, Listers, Rodens etc., were industrialists, shopkeepers, and landowners. (John Wilkinson is never mentioned in the Minute Books, nor is Lord Dundonald, nor Alexander Brodie senior, though they may have been members). About the middle of the century men of other occupations begin to appear as Chairmen and Treasurers. Lawyers and doctors for instance, occasionally a clergyman, together with some landowners, tradesmen, small manufacturers and farmers.
In 1851 the Chairman was Robert Evans, a brick and tile manufacturer and a J.P., living at the Dunge. In 1853 Evans had died and his place was occupied by Mr. G. Pritchard, a solicitor and banker. The Treasurer was Dr. Richard Thursfield. According to Pigot’s Directory (1842), while George Pritchard was the leading “attorney” in Broseley, George Potts was an attorney in Ironbridge. George Pritchard was very highly regarded in Broseley, as a benefactor to the poor, to orphans and widows, and “an able and upright magistrate”. The Pritchard Memorial which once stood in Broseley Square was erected by public subscription to perpetuate his memory.
Bagshaw’s Directory of 1851 states that in that year George Potts was Clerk to the Borough of Wenlock and to Madeley County Court. He lived at “The Green” in Broseley.
George Pritchard died in 1861. Already, in 1860, George Potts was Chairman of the Association. He was also Solicitor to the Association. Richard Thursfield, the Treasurer, had died. At a meeting held on October 3rd 1860, George Potts was elected Treasurer in place of Thursfield. Edward Bagnall Potts was elected Solicitor of the Association in place of George Potts.
The Potts were energetic, ambitious and tenacious. The family name recurs up to the end of the century and beyond, though entries in the Minute Books become shorter and more infrequent. The Potts’ influence was, however, of shorter duration than that of the faithful John Guest.
In 1887 a reward of 10/6 was given to P.C. Banks “for extra diligence which led to the conviction of a man for stealing a hat”. The Chairman on this occasion was Frederick H. Potts. The hat belonged to Mr. G.B. Potts. At the same meeting a Mr. Carter was rewarded for obtaining the conviction of James Barrett who had stolen plants belonging to Mrs. Bathurst. In 1851 Henry Martyn Bathurst, headmaster of the National School, lived on Barratt’ s Hill, perhaps some relation of Mrs. Bathurst who was thus robbed. In 1887 also, three men were convicted of stealing “old iron”.
Most meetings during these years were held at the Lion, but there was an attempt, briefly successful, to move back to the Pheasant. On October 26th 1870, Edward Roden supported by Rev. R. H. Cobbold, proposed that the meetings in the following year be held at the Pheasant.
In 1873 the name Thursfield appears again. Thomas Greville Thursfield was elected Treasurer. Edward Potts was Chairman. On November 15th 1882, F.H. Potts was elected Treasurer in place of Dr. Thursfield who resigned for reasons of ill health. At this meeting, held at the Lion, a reward of 10/6 was given to P.C. Tomkins of Bridgnorth for the apprehension and conviction of Thomas James who had stolen rope belonging to John Burroughs of Bridgnorth. Perhaps Thomas James was a Broseley man; otherwise this seems not to have been a Broseley matter. There are also references in 1882 and again in 1883 to the theft of artificial manure from Mr. G. W. Wheeler of Posenhall.
Rewards continued to be offered to policemen for services rendered to members of the Association until after 1900. On December 16th 1901 P.C. Davies was given one guinea “for extra diligence” in obtaining the conviction of Eliza Aston and Elizabeth Sargeant for stealing coal belonging to Mr. G. Davies senior. In the same month P.C. Bower received 10/6 “for diligence” in connection with the conviction of Frederick Sherwood “for stealing beansticks and stakes the property of Lord Forester”. For supplying information in this prosecution Mr. G. Boden was given one guinea.
No further examples of policemen receiving monetary rewards occur in the Minute Books. But in 1907 the Police Constables of Broseley and Jackfield were each given a goose for Christmas from the Association’s funds.
The last reference in the Minute Books to payment for information received concerning an alleged crime appears in a Minute dated January 12th 1934 when an application for such a reward was made on behalf of George Sherwood for reporting that Samuel Watson and Albert J. Thomas, in pursuit of rabbits, trespassed “on land in occupation of Mr. E.A. Powell of the Dean Farm. A reward of one guinea was allowed”. Not the most heinous of crimes, even supposing that trespass was a crime in 1934.
Annual Dinners for members of the Association were not unknown in the early days; there is reference to such events in the 1790 entry in the Minute Book. But little mention of them is made until we come to 1901. On December 11th in that year a dinner was provided by Messrs. Haughton for 43 members at a total cost of £5. 7. 6., plus £5. 1. 5. for wine and tobacco and 10/0 for the waiters. In 1914 dinner at the Pheasant for an unspecified number of members cost in total £6. 9. 0., plus £4. 1. 0. for wine and cigars. This event was something of a social occasion in the town. However, after 1914 there is understandably a blank in the record of the Associations’s activities, but it lasted, according to the Minute Books, until 1932.
On December 16th 1932 a dinner for 34 members and visitors was held at the Forester Arms. The Rev. C.S. Jackson was at this time Chairman, W.E. Price was Secretary and Treasurer and the Committee members were : J.T. Mear, J.H. Matthews, C.R. Jones, A.H. Dixon, T. Jones, W. Oakley, F.W. Davis, T. Marlow. J. Nicklin and W. Edge joined the Committee later on. Most, if not all, of these men will be remembered by many people in Broseley today. I imagine that with the Rector of Broseley in the chair a more tolerant attitude would be shown towards the kind of petty offences, which had so often been reported and punished in the past.
Newcomers to the town and district were not slow to join the Association. Doctors Tom and Sherlock Hoy became members in 1933 not long after their arrival here.
The Association’s accumulated funds were drawn on quite liberally over a period of years after 1934 in support of various institutions and charities. The Cricket Club benefited, the Horticultural Society also; a gift was made in aid of the local unemployed at Christmas in 1932, and a similar donation was contributed to a fund for men and women in the Forces at Christmas in 1940. In 1946 people who suffered loss and damage in the Severn floods were helped. More substantial grants were made in 1946 to the Broseley Church Tower Fund (£150) and to the Baptist, Congregational and Methodist Churches (£50 each).
On July 30th 1959 the Association’s affairs were wound up. Mr. Arthur Garbett and Mr. Will Oakley as Trustees arranged the final disbursement of money from the remaining funds. £20 in each case was given to Broseley Church, to the Methodist, Baptist and Congregational Churches and to Mrs. Boy’s Gymkhana Club, which was raising money for the Town Hall.
I am indebted to the late Ern. Harris who suggested that I should write this account and give a talk on the Broseley Association for the Prosecution of Felons; to Arthur Garbett for giving me initial guidance and for providing copies of correspondence; to Barrie Trinder‘s splendid “Industrial Revolution in Shropshire” with its wealth of information on many aspects of this area a history; to Pigot’s and Bagahaw’s Directories; and to Randall’s still fascinating “Broseley and its Surroundings “.


 

2.     John Wilkinson and the Early Iron Barges


Hard Copy only in file – printed from Wilkinsin Society Jounal, No 15, 1987

 


Appendix 2:

3.     COLLIERIES OF THE UNITED KINGDOM AT WORK IN 1869

ENGLAND

LIST OF MINES 1869

 


CHESHIRE, SHROPSHIRE, CHESHIRE

 

COLLIERY

SITUATION

OWNER

Adlington

Adlington nr, Stockport

Jonathan Jowett.

Astley

Dukinfield

Dunkirk Coal Co.

Back Spends

Lymem Prestbury

Wm. Hewitt.

Bakestone Dale

Pott Shrigley, Macclesfield.

William Gardiner.

Banks End

Disley

L&E Hall.

Bayley Field

Hyde

J Jas. and John Ashton.

Beard and Bugsworth

Hayfield

Levi and E Hall.

Burned Edge

ditto

ditto

Bredbury

Stockport

The Bredbury Coal Co.

Dukinfield

Dukinfield, Stockport

Dukinfield Coal Co.

ditto

ditto

Dunkirk Coal Co.

Dunkirk

ditto

ditto

Eddisbury

Rainow

Jonathan Hulley.

Fire Clay Colliery

Dukinfield

John Hall and Son.

Horse Lesson

Dawley

Wm. Dainty.

Hough Hole Day Eye

Rainow, Macclesfield

Wm. Mellor.

Hyde

Htde

Leigh and Bradbury.

Little Neston

Neston-on-Dee

B Chandlor.

Lymer Clough

Rainow, Macclesfield

 

Middle Cale

High Lane, Stockport

Isaac Brocklehurst and Co.

Norbury

Norbury, nr. Stockport.

Clayton and Brooke.

Potts Brick Works

Pott Shrigley, Macclesfield.

George Lambert

Poynton and Worth

Poynton nr. Stockport

Lord Vernon.

Robinsclough

Wildboarclough

William and Harold Hand.

Roe Wood

Macclesfield

George Needham.

Sponds

Lyme Handley

James Jackson.

SHROPSHIRE

COLLIERY

SITUATION

OWNER

Ascott New Colliery

Longdon

J Proctor.

Asterley

Shrewsbury

H Gardener and Co.

ditto New

ditto

Cooke, Cox and Co.

Benthall

Broseley

Benthall Pottery Co.

ditto

ditto

James Evans and W Gought.

Billingsley

Bridgenorth

Wm Birchley.

Black Lion

Shrewsbury

George Fenn.

British

Owestry

Wm. O Savin.

Broseley

Broseley

William Exley.

ditto

Wellington

Hill and Aston.

ditto

ditto

ditto

ditto

ditto

WO Foster.

ditto

ditto

 

ditto

ditto

Coalbrookdale Co.

Calcuts

ironbridge

WO Foster.

Castle Place

Shrewsbury

? Wilds.

Clee Hills

Ludlow

Beriah Botsfield.

Coed-y-goe

Owestry

Wm. O Savin.

Conisbury

Brosley

Thomas Pimley.

Dark Lane

Wellington

Leighton and Grenfel.

Dawley Green

Dawley

Henry Cooke.

ditto Bank

ditto

Coalbrookdale Co.

Donnington Wood

ditto

Lilleshall Co.

Drill

Owestry

John and Richard F Croxon.

Frodesly

Shrewsbury

Ed Sheppard.

Granville

Newport

Lilleshall Co.

Hadley

Wellington

ditto

Harcourt

Arley

Robert Jones.

Haycop

Broseley

H Hill and Jas. Aston.

ditto Hill

ditto

ditto

Horsehays

Wellington

Coalbrookdale Co.

Hinks Hay

Dawley

Leighton and Grenfell.

Ifton

Owestry

JJ Holdsworth and John B Booth.

Ketley

Wellington

Poole and Co.

ditto

ditto

Ketley Co.

ditto

ditto

ditto

Knowbury

Ludlow

T&W Pearson.

Langley Fields

Dawley

Leighton and Grenfell.

Lawley

ditto

Coalbrookdale Co.

ditto Bank

ditto

ditto

Lightmoor

ditto

ditto

Lodge

Wellington

Lilleshall Co.

Lebotwood

Shrewsbury

R Preen.

Madeley Court

Ironbridge

WO Foster.

ditto Wood

ditto

Anstice and Co.

Malinslee and Stritchley or Old Park

Dawley

Old Park Co

Moreton Hall

ditto

Woodcock, Sons and Eckersley.

Moat Hall

Shrewsbury

T Jones.

Penylan

Owestry

Messrs Croxon.

Preswynne

ditto

Moreton Hall and Presgwyn Colliery Co.

Priorslee

Wellington

Lilleshall Co.

Quinta

Owestry

Quinta Colliery Co.

Rock

Broseley

WO Foster.

Saint Georges

Shiffnall

Lilleshall Co.

Shorthill

Shrewsbury

John Atherton.

Trefonen

Owestry

T Walmsley and Co.

Woodhouse

Shiffnall

Lilleshall Co.

Wombridge

Wellingto

A Peplow.

Ditto

Ditto

John Bennett and Co.

 

SOUTH STAFFORDSHIRE and WORCESTERSHIRE

Rugeley, Wyrley, Walsall, Darlston, Bilston, Willenhall, Wolverhampton, Sedgeley, Tipton, Rowley Regis, Oldbury, West Bromwich, Wednesbury, Corngreaves, Dudley, Stourport, Brierley Hill, Bewdley (Worcester), Bridgenorth.

Rugeley

COLLIERY

SITUATION

OWNER

Brereton

Rugeley

Earl of Shrewsbury and Talbot.

Cannock and Rugeley

ditto

Cannock and Rugeley Colliery Co.

Cannock Chase

ditto

JR McLean and Co.

The Hayes

ditto

Earl of Shrewsbury and Talbot.

Hednesdord

ditto

Pigott and Co

Wyrley

COLLIERY

SITUATION

OWNER

Brownsfield

Wyrley

Bernard Gilpin.

Cathedral

ditto

W Harrison.

Cheslyn Hay, New

ditto

F Gilpin.

Conduit

ditto

Conduit Colliery Co.

Hatherton

ditto

R Gilpin.

Lady Wood

ditto

William Thomas.

Long House

ditto

Lord Hatherton.

New Brownhills

ditto

Conduit Colliery Co.

Old Brownhills

ditto

Wm. Harrison.

ditto

ditto

J Owen.

Old Coppice

ditto

J Hawkins.

Old Falls

ditto

ditto

Puynors

ditto

Exors. of H Poynor.

Rugeley School

ditto

R Gilpin.

Sayers Colliery

ditto

C Quinton.

Sling

ditto

E Sayer.

Wyrley

ditto

Wyrley Cannock Co.

ditto Town

ditto

T Bantock.

ditto New

ditto

G Bird.

ditto

ditto

F Gilpin.

Walsall

COLLIERY

SITUATION

OWNER

Ash Field

Walsall

Messrs Bloomer.

Bentley

ditto

Barker and Co.

ditto Bridge

ditto

R Thomas.

ditto Park

ditto

Jno. Bagnall and Sons.

Beech Dale

ditto

D Davis and Co.

Birchills

ditto

Various.

ditto Old

ditto

Hunt and Co.

ditto Union

ditto

Exors of John Stubbs.

Bloxwich

ditto

John Brayford.

ditto

ditto

W Birch.

Camhay

ditto

J Brayford.

Station

ditto

J Lindop and Co.

Clangaer

ditto

W Harrison.

Coal Pool

ditto

Exors of John Stubbs.

Copy Hall

ditto

J Williams and Co.

Croxstalls

ditto

J Smallman.

Deep Moor

ditto

Bagnall and Co.

Essington Snead Lane

ditto

Wm. Pedley.

Fishley

ditto

WH Sparrow and Co.

Four Crosses

ditto

Thomas Checkley.

Farm

ditto

Deeley and Dulston.

Goscote Hall

ditto

GB Cale and Co.

Harden

ditto

T Checkley and Co.

ditto

ditto

E Crapper.

ditto

ditto

WH Sparrow and Co.

Hatherton

ditto

Messrs Thomas.

Horse and Jockey

ditto

Mainwaring and Co.

Leamore Bridge

ditto

Charles Rowley.

Moat

ditto

W Hanbury.

New Field

ditto

Bagnall and Co.

New Invention

ditto

J Brewer.

Norton Green

ditto

Conduit Colliery Co.

Park Brook

ditto

John Bagnall and Co.

Pelsall

ditto

R Gilpin.

ditto Hall

ditto

Pearson and Co.

ditto Common

ditto

Bloomer and Sons.

ditto Wood

ditto

ditto

Reeds Wood

ditto

Various.

Rough Wood

ditto

Charles Perry.

Russian

ditto

J Mason.

Rycroft

ditto

S Smith.

Ryders Hays

ditto

W Harrison.

Short Heath

ditto

Smallman Bros.

Snead Lane

ditto

Caddick and Co.

ditto

ditto

Jas. Smallman.

ditto

ditto

Bloomer and Sons.

Sneyd

ditto

Dutson and Co.

Sneyd Turn

ditto

Johnson and Grey.

The Charity

ditto

Williams Bros.

The Manor

ditto

Richard Thomas.

Wall End

ditto

Edward Milner.

ditto New

ditto

E Milner.

ditto Bloxwich

ditto

Ed. Thomas.

Ward

ditto

J Bagnall and Co.

Wood Farm

ditto

Jeavons and Mitchell.

ditto Well

ditto

Messrs Bloomer and Son.

Darlston

COLLIERY

SITUATION

OWNER

Albert

Darlaston

David Rose.

Bescot

ditto

Darlaston Steel and Iron Co.

Dalaston Green

ditto

ditto

ditto

ditto

James Sanders.

ditto

ditto

Geo. Oates.

Greens Farm

ditto

Greens Farm Colliery Co.

Herberts Park

ditto

David James.

James Bridge

ditto

J Banganll and Sons.

North-western

ditto

J Simpson.

Rough Hay

ditto

Addenbrooke and Co.

Victoria

ditto

John Dutson.

Bilston

COLLIERY

SITUATION

OWNER

Bank

Bilston

J Yardley and Co, in Darlaston.

Bankfield

ditto

Groucott and Sons.

Barbors Field

ditto

Barbors Field Co.

Batmans Hill

ditto

Williams Bros.

Barn Farm

ditto

Various.

Bilston

ditto

Johnson and Co.

ditto New

ditto

P Williams and Sons.

Boverax

ditto

W Baldwin and Co.

Bradley

ditto

Thornycroft and Co.

ditto Lodge

ditto

Hawkins and Millington.

ditto

ditto

Bagnall and Co.

ditto

ditto

B Gibbons jnr.

Broadwaters

ditto

J Bagnall and Sons.

Buggins Lane

ditto

F Lane.

Bunkers Hill

ditto

Firmstone and Co

ditto

ditto

W Shale.

ditto

ditto

Barker and Co.

Brierley

ditto

J Yardley.

Capponfield

ditto

Jno. Bagnall and Sons.

ditto

ditto

Barker and Co.

Cold Lanes

ditto

M Frost and Co.

Deepfields

ditto

P Williams and Sons.

ditto

ditto

Bantock and Co.

Ettingshall Lodge

ditto

Harper and Co.

ditto

ditto

W Banks.

ditto

ditto

W Smith.

Greaves

ditto

Exors of T&J Badger.

Hall Park

ditto

Various.

Havacre

ditto

B Gibbons.

Highfield

ditto

Fowler and Co.

Hincks

ditto

Cadman and Co.

Hitchens

ditto

Groucott and Sons.

Holyhead Road

ditto

John Bate.

Hoo Marsh

ditto

Various.

Kempson

ditto

Harper and Co.

Kitsfield

ditto

Kitsfield Co.

Ladymoor

ditto

T Holcroft.

Lunt

ditto

Dodd and Southan.

ditto

ditto

T Lester and Co.

Mabbs Bank

ditto

Williams Bros.

Meadows

ditto

W Bradburn.

ditto

ditto

Williams Bros.

Middlefield

ditto

Wm. Shale.

Millfield

ditto

J Sparrow.

Moorcroft Old

ditto

D Skidmore.

Mosley Hole

ditto

WH Sparrow and Co.

ditto

ditto

Edwards and Co.

Mount Pleasant

ditto

H&A Hickman.

Moxley

ditto

Groucott and Sons.

Pages Croft

ditto

A Wright.

Priestfield

ditto

Wm. Ward and Sons.

Proud Lane

ditto

T Roper and Co.

Quarry

ditto

WH Sparrow and Co.

ditto

ditto

Geo. Jones.

ditto

ditto

J Hickman.

Rookery

ditto

Geo. Jones.

ditto

ditto

Various.

ditto

ditto

G Bloomer and Co.

Spring Vale

ditto

Harper and Bantock.

Stonefield

ditto

H&A Hickman.

Todmoor

ditto

T Holcroft.

Toll Gate

ditto

R Gibbons.

Union Street

ditto

Job Hickman.

Wall Butts

ditto

W Baldwin and other Props.

Yew Tree

ditto

Messrs Turley.

Willenhall

COLLIERY

SITUATION

OWNER

Albion

Willenhall

Harper and Co.

Anson

ditto

Earl of Lichfield.

Barr Croft

ditto

J Hill and Co.

Bomans Harbour

ditto

HB Whitehouse.

Boltoney Bay

ditto

J Yardley and Co.

Bull Pleck

ditto

Messrs Groucott.

Coppice

ditto

J Bagnall and Sons.

Crescent

ditto

ditto

ditto

ditto

Addenbrook and Co.

Lane Head

ditto

W Mannix and Bate.

ditto Bridge

ditto

Joseph Hawkins.

Little London

ditto

Trentham Colliery Co.

Moat Field

ditto

Dodd and Southan.

Moseley Hole

ditto

Chillington Co and Others

Neachells

ditto

Messrs Croucott.

ditto

ditto

John Sparrow.

ditto

ditto

Barbersfield Co.

ditto

ditto

HB Whitehouse.

ditto New

ditto

P Williams and Co.

New Cross

ditto

HB Whitehouse.

Nimmins

ditto

Dodd and Southan.

Noose Lane

ditto

Bate and Son.

Pool Hayes

ditto

Messrs Fenn.

ditto Meadow

ditto

Chillington Co.

Porto Bello

ditto

H Ward.

ditto Bridge

ditto

Fletcher, Solly and Urwick.

ditto ditto New

ditto

ditto

Priestfields New

ditto

Wm. Ward and Son.

Robin Hood

ditto

J Simpkin.

Rose Hill

ditto

Chillingto Co.

ditto

ditto

Brown and Spittle.

Sand Beds

ditto

Fletcher, Solly and Urwick.

Somerford

ditto

Messrs Barker.

Tame Mill

ditto

Johnson and Co.

Trentham

ditto

Isiah Hill and Co.

Welsh End

ditto

ditto

Willenhall

ditto

Wm Ward and Sons.

ditto

ditto

John Yardley.

Wolverhampton

COLLIERY

SITUATION

OWNER

Bridge

Wolverhampton

L Lloyd.

Buggins Lane

ditto

P Williams and Co.

ditto

ditto

Creditors of Whithouse and Poole.

Chillington

ditto

Foster, Jones and Barker.

ditto

ditto

George Jones.

Cleveland

ditto

Exors of John Hill.

Cockshutts

ditto

Aston and Shaw.

Essington Wood

ditto

Darlaston Iron and Steel Co.

Ettingshall (Blackenhall)

ditto

J Cadman.

ditto

ditto

Henry Hill.

Frosts Field

ditto

M Frost and Co.

Lock House

ditto

Aston and Co,

Monmore Green

ditto

Corbett and Hartsthorne.

Osier Bed

ditto

W&JJ Sparrow and Co.

Parkfield

ditto

Parkfield Co.

Peascroft

ditto

W&JJ Sparrow and Co.

Rough Hills

ditto

Aston and Shaw.

ditto

ditto

James Cadman.

Stow Heath

ditto

W&JJ Sparrow and Co.

Wednesfield

ditto

WF Fryer.

ditto

ditto

J Round.

Wednesfield Heath

ditto

H Caswell and Co.

ditto

ditto

New British Iron Co.

New Deans

ditto

WF Fryer.

Willenhall Road

ditto

J Edge and Co.

Wolverhampton

ditto

Aston and Shaw.

Sedgeley

COLLIERY

SITUATION

OWNER

Battyfield

Sedgeley

T Pemberton.

Caponfield

ditto

Bagnall and Sons.

Cow Lane

ditto

TH Pemberton.

Coopers Bak

ditto

Oakes and Co.

ditto

ditto

Smith and Taylor.

ditto

ditto

William Perry.

ditto

ditto

Thomas Webb.

Ettingshall New

ditto

Smith and Guy.

Graveyard

ditto

Messrs Hughes.

Hockley

ditto

Benjamin Johnson.

Priory Field

ditto

Wade and Hampton.

Riddings

ditto

TH Pemberton.

Sedgeley Park

ditto

S Cole and Co.

ditto

ditto

Messrs Perry.

Spring Vale

ditto

Bagnall and Sons.

ditto

ditto

WT Smith.

Woodsetton

ditto

Thomas King.

ditto

ditto

Z Mason.

Tipton

COLLIERY

SITUATION

OWNER

Ash Meadows

Tipton

Williams and Whitehouse.

Bloomfield

ditto

Fowler and Co.

Coneygre

ditto

Earl of Dudley.

Cop Hall

ditto

Messrs. Bagnall.

Cotterills Farm

ditto

Daralston Steel and Iron Co Ltd.

Denbigh Hall

ditto

Denbigh Hall Co.

ditto

ditto

J&E Nocks.

Doe Bank

ditto

Jas. Bagnall and Sons.

Dudley Port

ditto

Amphlett and Bedford.

ditto

ditto

Hopkins and Bradley.

ditto

ditto

F Giles.

Eagle

ditto

J Cleyton.

Factory

ditto

Welch and Burrows.

Fox Yards

ditto

Earl of Dudley.

Gospel Oak

ditto

Grazbrooks and Aston.

High Leasows

ditto

John Millard.

Horsley

ditto

Dixon and Co.

Hurst

ditto

Samuel Rowley.

Moat

ditto

Moat Colliery Co.

Monway

ditto

Sir H St Paul.

Moors

ditto

J Whitehouse.

Park Lane

ditto

W Hopkins

ditto

ditto

J Colbourn and Sons.

Princes End

ditto

Barbors Field Co.

Rounds Hill

ditto

Earl of Dudley.

Tibbington

ditto

J Howl.

Tipton

ditto

John Colbourn and Sons.

ditto Green

ditto

Various.

ditto Hall

ditto

Welch and Durrows

ditto Meadow

ditto

J Bailey and Co.

Wednesbury Oak

ditto

F Williams and Co.

Willingsworth

ditto

T Jones and others.

Rowley Regis

COLLIERY

SITUATION

OWNER

Blackheath

Rowley Regis

WH Dawes.

Bourne Hill

ditto

Nock and Co.

Brades

ditto

Messrs Hunt.

Ditto Hall

ditto

Wright and North.

Burnt Trees

ditto

Joseph Ashton.

Cricket

ditto

S Bennett.

Gawn

ditto

Messrs. Hingley.

Gorst Hill

ditto

Wm. Mills.

Grace Mary

ditto

S Minton.

Granville

ditto

Swindell and Collis.

Hail Stone

ditto

Wright and Co.

Hange

ditto

D&G Round.

Haydon Hill

ditto

W Bassano and Co.

Hyatts

ditto

Nook and Co.

Manor House

ditto

J Dawes.

Old Hill

ditto

James Holcroft.

ditto

ditto

D Rose.

Portway Hall

ditto

WH Dawes.

Ramrod Hall

ditto

Earl of Dudley.

Rattle Chain

ditto

Job and Henry Haines.

Rowley Hall

ditto

Wright and North

Scotwell

ditto

Stevens and Co.

Sutherland

ditto

Hopkins and Bradley.

Tividale Hall

ditto

ditto

ditto New

ditto

Earl of Dudley.

ditto

ditto

S Bradley and Co.

ditto

ditto

HB Whitehouse.

Withey Moor

ditto

WH Dawes

ditto

ditto

Nock and Co.

Oldbury

COLLIERY

SITUATION

OWNER

Albion

Oldbury

Walter Williams.

Alston

ditto

Z Mason and Co.

Big Meadow

ditto

W Bennett.

Birchley Lane

ditto

Parrish and Lewis.

Birchley Fields

ditto

Darbey and Jones.

Birchleyfield Lane

ditto

Gregory and Co.

Bradley Hall

ditto

S Bradley.

Bromford Lane

ditto

Johnson and Mason.

Causeway Green

ditto

Josh. Hackett.

Coppice

ditto

B Johnson.

Cutlers End

ditto

Bennitt and Williams.

Flash

ditto

W Bennitt.

Grange

ditto

Parkes and Co.

Hillyfield

ditto

Guest and Co.

Newbury Lane

ditto

Bennitt and Taylor.

ditto

ditto

Taylor and Farley.

Oldbury

ditto

Josh. Hackett.

Park Hall

ditto

Mason and Co.

Parkhouse Lane

ditto

John Williams.

ditto

ditto

Collins and Co.

Rounds Green

ditto

Z Mason and Co.

ditto

ditto

W Bennitt.

Rowhay

ditto

Hopkins and Walton.

The Holt

ditto

Harper and Moore.

Titford Holt

ditto

Joseph Bennitt.

ditto Bridge

ditto

HB Whitehouse.

ditto Meadow

ditto

Jas. Hackett.

Whimsey

ditto

Various.

Springfield

ditto

S Rowley and Co.

West Bromwich

COLLIERY

SITUATION

OWNER

Balls Hill

West Bromwich

T Millership.

Black Lane

ditto

B Whitehouse.

Bulls Barn

ditto

Simkiss and Co.

Church Lane

ditto

B Whitehouse.

ditto (Oak Tree)

ditto

ditto

Claypit Lane

ditto

Eagle Co.

ditto

ditto

Homer and Co.

Cobbs Burn

ditto

B Whitehouse.

Coppice

ditto

John Hartland jnr.

ditto

ditto

H Parrish.

Crab Tree

ditto

Bagnall and Sons.

ditto

ditto

Various

ditto

ditto

Various.

Cutlers End

ditto

Williams and Smith.

Dunkirk

ditto

Taylor and Farley.

ditto

ditto

P Williams and Sons.

ditto Mill

ditto

Hartland and Co.

Ebenezer

ditto

R Whitehouse.

Far Close

ditto

Hawkins and Co.

Friar Park

ditto

WH Dawes.

Golds Green

ditto

J Bagnall and Sons.

ditto

ditto

Jno. Naylor.

Groveland

ditto

J Bagnall and Sons.

Greets Green

ditto

Jno. Batson.

Hall End

ditto

Parker and Halford.

ditto

ditto

Harland and Co.

Harvills Hawthorn

ditto

R Whitehouse.

Hateley Heath

ditto

T Millership.

Heath

ditto

Earl Dartmouth.

Ireland Green

ditto

Parrish and Lewis.

ditto

ditto

T Cox and Co.

ditto

ditto

ditto

Jervoise

ditto

Jno. Tildsley

Keeling

ditto

H Wythes.

Lewisham

ditto

Earl Dartmouth.

Lodge

ditto

ditto

Lyttleton Hall

ditto

WH Dawes.

Marsh Lane

ditto

Jno. Spittle.

ditto

ditto

J Simpkin.

Mill Field

ditto

T Millership.

Mill Pool

ditto

Messrs Millington.

Mount Pleasant

ditto

J Dawes.

Moor Lands

ditto

Bagnall and Sons.

New Mine

ditto

Parker and Halford.

New Whyley

ditto

J Percy.

Old House

ditto

ditto

Oldbury Lane

ditto

W Williams.

Old Whyley

ditto

J Percy.

Piercey

ditto

T Cox and Co.

Pump House

ditto

Bagnall and Son.

Rowhay

ditto

P Williams and Co.

ditto

ditto

Haines and Son.

Springfield

ditto

Eagle Coal and Iron Co.

Squarefield

ditto

ditto

Stone Cross

ditto

J Spittle.

Swan Meadow

ditto

Stourbridge Banking Co.

Tantany

sitto

Field and Davis.

Union

ditto

P Williams and Sons.

Victoria

ditto

WH Dawes.

Wednesbury New Mine

ditto

R Whitehouse.

Whitehall

ditto

K Kendrick.

Whites Farm

ditto

Jno. Spittle

Wednesbury

COLLIERY

SITUATION

OWNER

Bradley

Walsall

Phillip Williams and Sons.

Broadwaters

ditto

J Bagnall and Sons.

ditto

ditto

Sir H St Paul.

Doe Bank

ditto

Haines and Underhill.

Fallings

ditto

W Grove.

Kings Hill

ditto

Josh. Butler.

ditto

ditto

Samuel Mills.

ditto

ditto

Morris and Batley.

Lea Brook

ditto

W Hodkins.

Misty Croft

ditto

Williams and Co.

New Field

ditto

Botteley and co.

Oakes Well

ditto

J Horton.

Ocker Hill

ditto

Haines and Underhill.

Old Field

ditto

R Morgan.

Old Park

ditto

Lloyds, Fosters and Co.

Potters Lane

ditto

W Hodgkins.

Steers Meadow

ditto

WE Jones.

Vicarage

ditto

J Bateson and Co.

ditto

ditto

Tart and Co.

Wednesbury Park

ditto

Lloyds, Fosters and Co.

Corngreaves

COLLIERY

SITUATION

OWNER

Ash Tree

Corngreaves

James Holcroft.

Bear Moor

ditto

NB Iron Co.

Black Waggon

ditto

ditto

Blue Well

ditto

T&G Badger.

Cradley Heath

ditto

Parsons and Cooper.

Cradley

ditto

A Sparrow.

Corngreaves (incuding part of Hayden Hill)

ditto

J King and Co.

Dudley Wood

ditto

Job Taylor.

Eagle

ditto

William Mills.

Fidoes Engine

ditto

Lloyd and Co.

Fly

ditto

NB Iron Co.

Fox Oak

ditto

Cartwright and Co.

Garretts Lane

ditto

T&J Badger

Haden Hill

ditto

Brettel and Co.

Hawne

ditto

NB Iron Co.

Hawn New

ditto

ditto

Hayes

ditto

Fisher Bros.

Hay Green

ditto

Messrs Hickman.

High Harker

ditto

H Barrs

ditto

ditto

Jno. Hall.

Knowle

ditto

S Evers and Sons.

Lion

ditto

NB Iron Co.

Lloydsfield

ditto

Purser.

Lye, Hungry Hill and New Farm

ditto

FT Rufford.

Misty Croft

ditto

Tart and Co.

Netherend

ditto

Josh. JKng

ditto

ditto

ditto

ditto

ditto

Perrins and Co.

Redall

ditto

Kendrick and Co.

Riddings

ditto

Waldron and Co.

Saltwell

ditto

Earl of Dudley.

Shepheards Brook

ditto

Messrs Evans

Tandys

ditto

T&J Evans

Waterfall Lane

ditto

Wm. Mills.

Whitehall

ditto

George Dudley.

Dudley

COLLIERY

SITUATION

OWNER

Baptist End

ditto

Thos. Crew.

ditto

ditto

Messrs Dunn.

Barrow Hill

ditto

Earl of Dudley.

Bird Leasows

ditto

Richard Mills.

Barrow Hill

ditto

Earl of Dudley

Blakemoor

ditto

Robinson and Jones.

Blakemoor

ditto

NB Iron Co.

ditto

ditto

J Ray.

Blowers Green

ditto

Brettel and Cartwright.

ditto

ditto

Messrs Grazebrook.

Brooks

ditto

B Gibbons.

Buffery Old

ditto

Thos. Crew and others.

ditto New

ditto

Wm. Haden.

Common Side

ditto

T&G Badger.

Corbyn Hall

ditto

R Gibbons

Court House

ditto

ditto

Culling

ditto

Mrs. Davis.

ditto

ditto

Birch and Co.

Dixons Green

ditto

Knowles and Crew.

Furnace Field

ditto

Joshua Horton.

Gornhall Wood

ditto

Thos. Taylor.

Harts Hill

ditto

Plant and Co.

ditto

ditto

Evers and Martin.

Holly Hall

ditto

ditto.

Hurst

ditto

Messrs Cochrane.

Kneelings

ditto

B Gibbons.

Level

ditto

Hall, Holcroft and

Netherton

ditto

N Hingley and Sons.

ditto

ditto

Messrs Grazebrook.

Oak Farm

ditto

W Walker.

ditto

ditto

Sir Stephen R Glynne.

Old Park

ditto

Earl of Dudley.

Old Level

ditto

Hall, Holcroft Co.

Orchard

ditto

Earl of Dudley.

Parkhead

ditto

Evers and Martin.

Pensnett

ditto

Earl od Dudley.

Planet

ditto

J Raybould.

Prestwood

ditto

R Gibbons.

Prince of Wales

ditto

J Taylor and Haines.

Queens Cross

ditto

S Garratt.

Russells Hall

ditto

Bradley and Co.

Shut End

ditto

John Bradley and Co.

ditto New

ditto

AB Cochrane and Co.

Stallings

ditto

FW Pierson.

Tansey Green

ditto

Woodhall and Co.

Tansey Hall

ditto

Job Taylor.

Wallows

ditto

Garrett and Co.

ditto

ditto

Earl of Dudley.

Widewaters

ditto

J&C Cochrane.

Woodside

ditto

Cochrane and Co

Yew Tree

ditto

B Gibbons.

Stourport

COLLIERY

SITUATION

OWNER

Abberley and Pool House

Stourport

J Jones

Hollyacre

ditto

W Norwood

Old Hall

NW Worcester

Sir Edward Blount.

Pensax

Stourport

Pensax Colliery Co.

Brierley Hill

COLLIERY

SITUATION

OWNER

Amblecote

Brierley Hill

Hill and Co.

ditto

ditto

W Norwood.

Bank

ditto

Matthews and Woodcock.

Bell-Isle

ditto

Fothergill and Co.

Brettel Lane

ditto

Bache and Co.

ditto

ditto

Haines and Co.

Bridge End

ditto

J Raybould.

Bromley Hall

ditto

Hunt, Brown and Co.

Bromley Lane

ditto

R Dolphin.

ditto New

ditto

Pearson and Co.

Chapel Hill

ditto

Earl of Dudley.

Clattershall

ditto

J Bowen.

Coal Leasows

ditto

Parrish and Pearson.

ditto

ditto

W Watkins.

Corbyn Hall

ditto

Matthews and Boud.

Cricket Field

ditto

Worcester and County Banking Co.

Daisy Hill

ditto

Matthews and Bond.

Delph

ditto

Harpers and Moore.

Elm Tree

ditto

Elm Tree Co.

Lays

ditto

WM Blair.

Lower Moor

ditto

Mathews and Cooper.

Moor Lane

ditto

Thomas Crew.

ditto

ditto

E Baker and Co.

Nagersfield

ditto

Firmstone and Co.

Shattersford

ditto

Harris and Co.

Tiled House

ditto

Matthews and Bond.

Timberfield

ditto

T Skidmore.

Bewdley (Worcester)

COLLIERY

SITUATION

OWNER

Arley

Bewdley, Worcester

Captain Pedley.

Blakemoor

ditto

Mrs. davies.

Gib House

ditto

W Hanbury.

Mamble

ditto

SG Blunt.

Old Hall

Ditto

Messrs Hopcott.

Bridgenorth

COLLIERY

SITUATION

OWNER

Hurdington

Bridgenorth

Mrs. Deper

 

 


 

Appendix 5:

4.     All Saints Broseley (St Leonard's)


Originally known as St Leonards Broseley’s Parish Church, dedicated to All Saints, stands in what was once the centre of the village, but as the town grew the population settled further from the church building.
In the early 1700's, what was probably the original church, was completely rebuilt bring complete by 1716. This church was in turn demolished the present Victorian edifice being completed in 1845 at a cost of £9,000. It is constructed of stone from Grinshill about 25 miles away. It was at this time that the name was changed from St Leonard's to All Saints.
Its architectural design is based on the great wool churches of the south and west of England, although it does not touch their glory. The most noteworthy feature is the tower, which since Broseley overlooks the Severn Gorge, is a prominent landmark from the opposite side of the river.
When a new building was proposed there was a suggestion that it be built of local brick the building committee being headed by Mr William Exley a local brick manufacturer. The then Rector, the Hon. & Rev. O.W.W. Forester, a Canon of York and later 4th Baron Forester, however, rejected the idea, The architect was of Worcester.
The church contains a window by Kempe, and a rerados by Bodley. There are a number of memorials to local worthies, including one telling a Cinderella story. The silver, which has been removed for safe keeping, dates form the late 17th century. There is a coat of arms of Queen Ann. The bells were cast by Mears of London in 1844, and are six in number.
There is also a Parsons Sanctus bell dating from 1642.
Broseley was a centre of iron making, and there are some fascinating iron tomb "stones” in the churchyard. The church railings too are fine examples of local craftsmanship. An ancient yew stands in the church grounds.
The registers go back to 1570, and are available in local libraries.


Appendix 6 2002:

The Birchmeadow Chapel

 is also now a community centre owned by the  Town Council. It was built as a Baptist Chapel in 1803 jointly by John Guest (of the GKN steel company) and George Crompton (draper). In more recent times it has been the Elite Cinema, a night-club and during WW2 it was used by the local APR and Home Guard.





Appendix 7:

5.     Industrialization and Canals: Britain


While your questions are fresh, e-mail rneill@upei.ca

The upsurge in construction of roads and canals in eighteenth and early nineteenth century Britain was a response to demand growing from prior developments in agriculture and manufacturing. The sailing ship and the steam locomotive railway, in periods preceding and following the Canal Era, generated quantum leaps in transportation capability. They opened up new lands which till then had not been encompassed by European economic development. For this reason they created the illusion that they were the cause of development and growth. In the case of canals that illusion is absent.
The point is of over-reaching importance in the Canadian case. If innovations in transportation and consequent commercial development were the foundation and continuing mainstays of the Canadian economy, then the substance of the economy was to be found in long-run factors in its integration. The economic concomitants of the canoe and the railway, that is the fur trade and the wheat trade, were integrating. If, on the contrary, non-staple-export agriculture and manufacturing were the foundation and continuing mainstays of the Canadian economy, then the substance of the economy was to be found in long run factors in its disintegration.
Harold Innis wrote the history of Canadian economic development in response to the question `What have been the very long run factors in the integration of Canada?'. He perceived that in the Age of Sail and in the Railway Epoch, transportation improved first, markets expanded, and general economic development followed. In his view, this was the process of economic development in general, that is, the process of development that was evident in Europe and in the rest of world as a whole. In his view, it was also the process of economic development in Canada. For this reason, he focused his attention on the sailing ship, the canoe, and the railway. The `alchemy of fur and wheat' was the alchemy of the canoe and the railway, an alchemy that worked for the integration of Canada. The sequence in development was, first, technical advance in transportation, second, expansion of commerce, and, third, development of agriculture and manufacturing. This was the underlying paradigm of his Staple Thesis. It was Innis' economic explanation of Canadian unity.
Whatever the sequence of events in the general development of the world as a whole, in Britain's Industrial Revolution, 1750--1840, the sequence was not transportation and commerce first, and agriculture and manufacturing later. It was agriculture and manufacturing first, in that order, and expansion of transportation, in the form of roads and canals, as a consequence. Insofar as the geographic spread of the Industrial Revolution, east to Europe and west to America, was the migration of this sequence of events, the Innisian sequence was not followed, even in Canada. Further, to the extent that the Industrial Revolution settled unevenly across Canada, different growth paths emerged in different regions of the country. Not only was the integrating force of improvement in transportation relegated to a secondary place in the Canal Era, but the type of development commonly associated with it, development based on staple exports, was reduced in importance. Integrating factors in Canadian economic development became secondary, and the substance of development became a disintegrating force.
To say all this does not imply that acceptance of a temporal sequence, or any linear ordering of events, is the only way to understand economic development. A question could be asked, for example, that would make it convenient to assert that all sectors, developed in mutual interdependence, with recurring disequilibria of one sort of another bringing one or another sector to the fore as the fastest growing, and seemingly initiating sector. It does mean, however, that when Canadian economic development is recounted in response to a question other than Innis' question, the Innisian sequence of events in development is irrelevant to the answer.
The question here is, `What have been the very long run economic factors in the disintegration of Canada?'.
The Industrial Revolution: 1750--1850
Europe's Industrial Revolution was constituted by a shift in focus of attention (on the part of entrepreneurs and the public at the time, and on the part of economic historians ever since) from commercial developments related to the sailing ship and world trade to industrial developments related to the mechanization of manufacturing, the rise of factory towns, and the adjustment of overland transportation and commerce to accommodate the beginning of mass production of heavy, bulky commodities. The Industrial Revolution was accompanied by an upswing in the pace of economic activity in general, by a deepening of capital commitment in economic activity, and by a lengthening of planning time horizons.
The Industrial Revolution occurred first in England in the last half of the eighteenth century. It spread across Europe in the first half of the nineteenth century, reaching Russia in the 1860s. It migrated to America over the turn of the century. Given unquestionable evidence of the migration of information and activities, what happened in England can be taken, at the very least, as a crude approximation of what happened subsequently elsewhere. In Russia, distant in time, space, and circumstance from Britain, the similarities need substantial qualification. In the United States, frontier conditions have to be taken into account. But if Russia and the United States repeated the experience of British industrialization, in whatever qualified sense, then so did Canada.
Industrialization: the Informational Environment
It is universally asserted by historians that seventeenth and eighteenth century Europe witnessed the triumph of a capitalist mentality. That is to say, those who owned wealth came to perceive that either it should be turned to the making of more wealth, or it should be let out to someone who would turn it to the making of more wealth. Wealth surperceded social status, and bought social status, in the minds of those who wanted to excel. Energy, pouring into whatever pursuit, was increasingly expected to pass through a market. This change in mentality can be attributed to changes in the informational environment, which, in turn, can be attributed to changes in instruments forming the informational environment, primarily innovations stemming from the invention of paper and the printing press.
By 1500, paper made from rags had replaced parchment as a medium for written communication. Paper was considerably cheaper to manufacture, and the supply of rags exceeded that of sheep hides. In fact, the increasing manufacture and use of cotton textiles that was an element of the Industrial Revolution increased the supply of worn clothing. Making paper became a way of recycling a costlessly increasing supply of otherwise useless material. As in other upswings in innovation, one thing led to another. Cheap paper, in part, was a byproduct of the sixteenth and seventeenth century clothing revolution.
Under the influence of mercantilist policies at the beginning of the eighteenth century, paper making migrated from France to England. Demand for paper was such that, by 1725, there were 150 mills in England; by 1800, 500. In 1799, when hand processes in manufacturing paper were stretched to the limit, a paper making machine was invented in France. Its use spread rapidly throughout Europe.
The environment of economic decision making, a critical factor in the triumph of the capitalist mentality, interacted with the growing use of paper. Cheap paper facilitated the keeping of business accounts. It generated a revolution in business communication. It changed and multiplied the principal instruments of information storage. These changes, in turn, increased the demand for paper.
Paper, combined with the invention of the printing press, in 1440, created a publishing industry that completely escaped guild control. It was capitalistic from the start. With a view to financial gain, capitalistic publishers undertook production of relatively large quantities of vernacularizations of classic texts. The vernacular bible was just one among many such commercial ventures.
The effect on religious organization was the Protestant Reformation, but that was just one dimension of what happened to society in general. Having itself escaped feudalism, the publishing industry liberated the rest of society. Reading, writing, information, and education became relatively inexpensive, and more common outside ecclesiastical and monarchical administrations. New kinds of knowledge, including technical and business related information, entered into information exchange and accumulation. There was a Renaissance of pre-Christian Greek and Roman thought. Economic activity was most profoundly affected because, whatever else they had in common, `the bourgeois bought books and sent their sons to school' (Clough, p.~92.).
Perhaps most important of all, paper and the printing press generated pamphlets, weekly newspapers and, eventually, dailies. As early as 1716, in England, pamphlets were being replaced by lead articles in weeklies, which, with the advent of lower postal rates, achieved a wider circulation. About the time that coffee and tea replaced gin as a popular beverage, the exchange of news and the availability of newspapers in tea and coffee houses increasingly became a facilitator of business. The London Stock Exchange came into existence, in 1773, when the city's brokers moved from Jonathan's Coffee House to the Stock Exchange Coffee House. In the last quarter of the eighteenth century daily papers replaced weeklies. Between 1777 and 1784, the number of daily mail coaches out of London, carrying the daily papers, rose from 0 to 16.
The industrial revolution in England was much more than a new emphasis in and on manufacturing. It was, as the members of the German Historical School said, a new perception of the world. It was a new behavioral style, and a new economic system. It was a new attitude formed in a newspaper and print informational environment. It affected enterprise in agriculture, manufacturing, commerce, and finance alike.
Industrialization: Agricultural Support
Over the 1750--1850 period in Britain, improvements in agriculture were primarily organizational adjustments constituting and reacting to an increasingly pervasive market nexus. Production was restructured towards individual and regional specialization, that is, towards production for markets emerging in growing factory and commercial towns. Cash crops, and money relationships between landowners, peasants, and the land itself became the rule as the enclosure movement exhausted its remaining possibilities.
Enclosure of land for individual ownership was ongoing from the fourteenth century. From 1500 to 1650, most enclosures absorbed manorial and village commons, permitting market oriented nobility to move into production and sale of wool. In that period 8% to 10% of all land was enclosed. Between 1600 and 1750, when reduction of feudal dues to simple quit-rents permitted peasants to husband their lands as they saw fit, enclosures of all kinds continued. Between 1740 and 1850, the period of the industrial revolution, further enclosures of woods, wastes and commons occurred, to the financial benefit of landlords and engrossing tenants who consolidated scattered strips into larger, contiguous holdings. Between 1800 and 1850, an additional 25% of all land was enclosed.
Throughout this period, but particularly after the Glorious Revolution of 1688, Parliament, dominated by land owning nobility and land owning bourgeois, facilitated the enclosure process, creating at the same time a landless proletariat, a working class available for factory employment.
There were technical improvements in farming in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. They were more frequent in the nineteenth century when the development of manufacturing fed back into farming in the form of horse-drawn mechanization and scientific husbandry, particularly with respect to the use of fertilizers. In general, in the eighteen century, England led the way in agricultural advance by borrowing from others: clover from Spain, the plow from Holland, the horseshoe from Languedoc, the turnip from Belgium. Agricultural technique became a subject for discussion among the nobility in England first. Eventually it became the hobby passion of princes and kings throughout Europe. Among lesser folk it became a subject of interest in clubs and societies. By the nineteenth century, rational agriculture, culling the customs and traditions of the feudal past, had trickled down to the mass of those who worked the land.
The Eighteen Thirties and Forties witnessed mechanical improvements: artificial fertilizers, better iron and steel plows, the seed drill that made seeding more effective by spacing seed for growth and for cultivation, iron toothed harrows, and disk cultivators, mechanical reapers and threshers (all of which were drawn by horses, or were associated with equipment drawn by horses), the use of alfalfa, clover, turnips, and corn (for stock feed and to allow constant-use rotation of fields), wide acceptance of the potato, and, as a consequence of the Napoleonic Blockade, development of the sugar beet.
This revolution in agricultural organization and technique spread from Britain to continental Europe after 1800. French enclosures, following the French Revolution, were centrally organized and more favourable to tenants, granting them fully two/thirds of the land. In Germany, particularly in Prussia, larger estates dominated. In Russia larger estates emerged but feudalism deepened in practice until legal abolition in the 1860s. Whether by disrupting practice, as in Britain, or by formal, legal reformation, as in France and Russia, the feudal system, as a matter of agricultural practice, was terminated in Europe by 1870.
English agricultural policy favoured economic rationalization. To prevent local famines and gluts, a national market was created by national tariffs. Parliament placed tariffs on imports, when prices were low, and removed them when prices were high. This stabilized and expanded production by creating and ensuring a relatively large home market. After 1800, particularly after the defeat of Napoleon, these `Corn Laws' worked to keep the price of food stuffs high, and drained a surplus off the returns from manufacturing by keeping wages high in real terms. So legislation that had encouraged an agricultural revolution, a revolution that had provided workers and food for workers in the Industrial Revolution of the eighteenth century, came to inhibit industrial development in the nineteenth century. Specifically, it made manufacturing more expensive by obstructing importation of less expensive grain from America. Britain's modification of the Corn Laws with respect to grains from Canada, in the first half of the nineteenth century, and its abolition of the Corn Laws and adoption of general free trade by 1850, readjusted the situation.
Industrialization: Technological Change
The industrial revolution was most evidently a revolution in manufacturing technique. Processes using machines and engines replaced hand-made processes and human muscle power. Human and animal power, and water and wind power had been used from ancient times. With the invention of the steam engine industry was liberated from the uncontrollable limitations of these natural forces. Energy, itself, became a manufactured input in the manufacturing process.
Use of machines and steam engines in manufacturing increased demand for coal, iron, and steel, well beyond the increase in demand for these products that had preceded the industrial revolution.
Demand for metal grew with the relatively slow increase in the use of tools of various kinds up to the eleventh century. Gunpowder arrived in Europe from China in the twelfth century. In the fourteenth century it became a factor in war with the use of cannon to attack stone fortifications after 1325. Cannon were an important factor in the rise of the nation state over formerly impregnable feudal strongholds. Demand for arms generated a greater demand for iron and steel. The shoulder gun, not yet a rifle, appeared about 1450. The metal lathe, invented in 1789, and the mechanical metal bore, made barrel size, rifling, and the projection of shot a matter of precision. Wood lathes, plains and drills appeared at the same time. Breach-loading and percussion lock guns did not appear until 1807. The revolver was invented in 1836, in time for the opening of the American west. In general, the mechanization of war and industry generated enormous increases in the demand for metal, particularly for iron and steel.
Demand for wood, for general use and to make charcoal for metal smelting, for glass works, and for salt works, depleted British supplies in the course of the seventeenth century. Britain had adequate supplies of coal, but its use had to be learned, and it was not as ubiquitous as wood had been. It required transport. In the eighteenth century, with the discovery of coking processes that eliminated impurities, coal replaced wood in metal making. By the end of the eighteenth century the use of coke, combined with puddling and rolling mill techniques, made it possible to produce steel of good quality in much larger quantities than had been possible with charcoal techniques.
Technical, economic, and political elements in the industrial revolution fed on one another. Efficient steam engines required precision built, replaceable metal parts. Making machine tools to make the parts required efficient steam engines. So, one thing generated a demand for another. The consequent increase in commerce generated a demand for transportation. Road systems were improved and extended. Navigable rivers were joined by canals. James Watt's steam engine, invented for use in coal mines, in 1764, found general use in industry, especially after 1775. Increasing use of the steam engine, the American Revolution, and Adam Smith's writing of The Wealth of Nations occurred at the same time.. In 1807, the steam boat Clermont began regular service between New York and Albany, and, by 1814, Stephanson had proven the worth of the steam locomotive. Demands for mechanical and metal goods, (the iron bridge after 1779, the iron boat after 1787) grew rapidly.
Industrialization inaugurated the age of iron, coal and steam, long before 1850.
More than anywhere else the effects of industrialization appeared in the manufacture of textiles. Cotton replaced wool in some uses, but demand for textiles grew with the growth of wealth in general. Population increased, and a larger portion of people did not live on farms. There was a growing market to be exploited, and the textile manufacturing process could be mechanized. Between 1733 and 1800, the flying shuttle, the spinning jenny, Crompton's mule, and use of steam power in factories eliminated the `putting out' system in England. England became the inventor of the factory and the factory town. It became textile manufacturer for the world.
This was the beginning of modern industrialism. Once the revolution was accomplished, England's principle advantage lay in being the first to understand and use the new techniques. Migration of industries was not new in the late eighteenth century, but from then on, not just industries, but the process of industrialization spread with the spread of knowledge.
None of this would have been possible, however, if there had not been cheap transport for heavy, bulky goods such as coal and iron ore. Neither the agricultural development necessary for industrialization, nor industrialization itself, would have been possible if the demand they generated for better transport had not been met.
Industrialization: Transportation
From the first, coal transport had been a dominant factor in the canal movement. The fuel famine of the eighteenth century would have stopped the growth not solely of industry but of population, in many districts, had not means been devised for overcoming it. The Duke of Bridgewater was a coal-owner and his canal had halved the price of coal in Manchester. Eight years later the first section of the old Birmingham Canal had done much the same for Birmingham (Clapham, p.~78.).
Important as was the movement of fuel along the inland waterways, on the chief through routes it was subordinate to that of general merchandise. There was a huge local coal trade on the Black Country, South Lancashire, and Yorkshire canal systems; but between those areas coal obviously would not move. The manufacturing districts now brought such of their raw materials as were not locally produced, and sent away the bulk of their finished produce, by water. London drew in immenser quantities of manufactures, building materials, and agricultural produce by way of the Thames basin navigation systems and the Grand Junction Canal. Owing to her unique shipping, she was relatively, a more important distributing centre than she became later. Not merely her own fine finished goods and imported colonial wares, but such raw materials as wool, tin and cotton were regularly shipped to the manufacturing Midlands and the North along the Grand Junction Canal. Throughout the country, stone for building, paving and road making; bricks, tiles and timber; limestone for the builder, farmer or blast furnace owner; beasts and cattle; corn hay and straw; manure from the London mews and the mountainous London dust heaps; the heavy castings which were coming into use for bridge-building and other structural purposes--all these, and whatever other bulky wares there may be, moved along the new waterways over what, half a century earlier, had been impossible routes or impossible distances (Clapham, p.~79.).
Lipson`s account is instructive (pp.~229--233).
In the middle of the eighteenth century it took the Edinburgh coach fourteen days, the Manchester coach and the York coach each four days, to reach London. The London-Oxford coach in a journey of fifty-five miles started at 7 am. and arrived on the evening of the following day....
The manifold consequences of this situation did not escape attention. It was recognized that defective communications hampered economic progress and rendered the carriage of commodities by land both difficult and costly. Henry Homer in 1767 wrote: `The trade of the kingdom languished under these impediments. The natural produce of the country was with difficulty circulated to supply the necessities of those counties and trading towns which wanted [them].' The imperfections of the existing methods gave rise to the turnpike system which embodied the principle that every person, other than foot passengers, ought to contribute to the repair of roads in proportion to the use he made of them.
Turnpike roads were constructed by private trusts that recouped their expenses plus a profit from collecting tolls. Under the aegis of these enterprises, road making became part of engineering.
Ultimately public opinion awoke to the fact that for centuries the methods of improving communications had been to suit the traffic to the roads instead of suiting the roads to the traffic: hence the attempts of the legislature to regulate the character of the vehicles and the weight of their loads. No real progress was possible until highways were constructed and maintained on scientific principles. Development on these lines is associated with Telford, one of the leading British engineers, and McAdam. The latter won a great reputation as a road repairer who sought to cover the surface with an impenetrable crust by spreading over it small broken stones uniform in size, which under the pressure of traffic would consolidate to form a smooth and hard surface.
McAdam's surface also had the very desirable quality of remaining smooth and hard in wet weather.
The universal discontent with the condition of the roads inspired attempts to utilize as much as possible an alternative method of transport, namely, the rivers. Experience, however, showed that river navigation was attended by serious drawbacks: rivers suffered either from an excess or from a deficiency of water, their course was irregular, they were not evenly distributed throughout the kingdom. Hence in the second half of the eighteenth century artificial waterways were made. They had certain advantages over natural waterways: they did not suffer from floods or droughts and they could be built where they were wanted [to some extent]. In view of the superiority of canals the delay in their construction requires some explanation. So long as corn and timber were the chief commodities for which carriage was needed, it did not seem profitable to embark upon expensive undertakings; moreover the necessary capital was not readily available in earlier times. In the eighteenth century the situation changed in both respects. The expansion of coal-mining and the iron industry made new methods of transport indispensable; and the accumulation of capital together with the advances provided by London bankers furnished the means for costly enterprises.
In their origin railways, like canals, were connected with the coal industry. When coal began to be consumed in increasing quantities, one obstacle to its production lay in the difficulty of getting the mineral from the pits to the river. The first attempt to deal with the situation was by the construction of wooden rails. This was the starting-point of the railway as it was known in the sixteenth century. To secure traction four-wheeled waggons were drawn by a horse, sometimes preceded by a man with a bundle of hay which he held just in front of the horse to stimulate it to greater exertions. The next stage in the evolution of the railway was the substitution of steam engines for horses. A stationary engine was placed at the top of a slope and drew up or controlled the descent of the loads. This was the beginning of steam-power on the railways. The third development occurred when the Surrey Iron Railway between Croydon and the River Thames, a `public' railway not connected with either collieries or canal navigation, was built in 1801. The trucks were drawn by horses, mules or donkeys. The company did not own the trucks, the notion being that railways were to be treated like canals -- that is, the company provided the route and the users supplied the wagons or barges and paid tolls. Then came the Stockton and Darlington Railway opened in 1825: it furnished wagons for goods traffic and coaches for passengers. At first horse-power was contemplated, but the company was persuaded by George Stephenson to employ locomotive engines ... .
Between 1750 and 1850, mail and passenger services were improved by means of improved roads. Bulk transport still relied largely on canals, less so, of course, in Britain, than else where, though Britain's lead in steam locomotive railways was not more than twenty years, and perhaps less.
The improvement of road surfaces increased the speed of travel.... by 1830 the fast mail and passenger coaches had an average speed of 1--10 miles per hour, about double what it had been prior to 1750. The London to Manchester journey had taken four and one half days in 1754, but by 1830 it was reduced to 20 hours. Increased speed of travel, together with the growing specialization of production, multiplied the volume of passenger travel. In 1801 seven coaches left Chester daily, but in 1831 twenty-six. Wagons carrying goods travelled, of course, much more slowly. Even the `fly wagons' went only two and one half miles per hour on the average. It is probable that road-rates for goods had changed but little (Smith, p.~153--54.).
The first few British canals showed great profits. Great profits were followed by over building. The first canal of the Era was the Newry Canal, built in northern Ireland, in 1742. By 1760, there were 1,400 miles of canals in Britain. By 1790, `canal mania' had set in. There were 3,691 miles of canals, and London, Bristol, Birmingham, Manchester and Leeds were linked by inland navigation. England was crossed diagonally in two ways, and horizontally from London to Bristol. Then, suddenly, the great expansion was over. The year 1814 brought losses and government regulation to canal companies. Between 1815 and 1850, only 330 miles of new canals were built, while England, Scotland (south of Edinburgh and Glasgow), and northeastern Ireland were netted with railways.
Continental European Beginnings.
The swinging miter-gate, the technical advance defining a modern canal, was invented by Leonardo Da Vinci. Its first significant commercial use was a product of national policy in seventeenth century, mercantilist France. In 1642 the Canal du Briare traversed 36 miles between the Loire and the Seine, creating a navigable horseshoe inland from Nantes on the Atlantic and back out to Le Havre to the north. Between 1666 and 1681, under Colbert, the Languedoc, or Canal du Midi was build across southern France from Bordeaux on the Atlantic to Narbonne on the Mediterranean. It was considered the greatest work of engineering in Europe since the fall of the Roman Empire. (Until increases and advances in road building in the late eighteenth century, the basic road system of Europe, including England, was Roman.) By 1692, the Loire and the Seine had been connected again by the Orleans Canal running from Orleans to Paris.
In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Western Europe did not generate the rapid expansion of canals that occurred in Britain. In part, the Industrial Revolution came later in continental Europe, so the level of demand was lower. In part, the geography of Europe militated against canal transportation. Rivers run east to west, and are separated by forbidding heights of land. Transportation tended to run along, rather than between rivers.
The Canal Era in General
The nature of canal building varied from nation to nation with the character of industrialization, but similarities were substantial. The Russian experience of 1800--1850 may have been more like that of England than were the experiences of the United States or Canada. Russia built its canals in long settled areas to meet pre-existing demand. The United States and Canada built canals in relation to an expanding agricultural frontier. Still, in America the canals were built in areas already settled, and the canals were to facilitate intra-regional commerce related to the beginning of industrialization, as well as to facilitate extra regional transport related to frontier expansion. But, therein lies the critical question. Was the process of economic development in America substantially that of England, or, was it fundamentally different because of the presence of an open frontier and related exports of primary products? In a simpler form the question is, did the general development of the economy precede and occasion the building of canals in America as in Britain?
There were, of course, great differences between the economies of Britain, Russia, the United States and Canada at the end of the Canal Era. In 1850 Britain was the most advanced industrial nation in the world. In 1854, Russia, defeated in the Crimean War, was forced to admit, as it had under Peter the Great, that, compared to the nations of western Europe, it was underdeveloped. The United States, approaching the end of its `catch up' period, was about to build the first transcontinental, industrialized nation. Canada, confederated in 1867 without a national economy, was about to launch a National Policy intended to build one.
References
Clapham, J.H., 1950, An Economic History of Modern
Britain: the the Early Railway Age, 1820--1850

Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Innis, H.A., 1951, `The English Publishing Trade in the
Eighteenth Century', in H.A. Innis, The Bias of Communication,
University of Toronto Press, Toronto, pp.~142--155.
1956, `Significant Factors in Canadian Economic Development',
in H.A. Innis, Essays in Canadian Economic History,
University of Toronto Press, Toronto, pp.~200--210.
1956, `Transportation as a Factor in Canadian Economic History',
in H.A. Innis, Essays in Canadian Economic History,
University of Toronto Press, Toronto, pp.~62--77.
Lipson, E., 1949, the Growth of English Society,
Adam & Charles Black, London.
Smith, W., 1949, An Economic Geography of Great Britain,
Methuen \& Co. Ltd., London.


6.     Appendix 8: Broseley Directories

This Section printed from original file.

Tibnam's Directory, 1828

Directory of Shropshire Staffordshire etc. Pigot 1829

 Pigots 1835.

 

Piggott’s Directory 1822-3

BROSELEY COALBROOK-DALE, COALPORT,

IRON-BRIDGE AND MADELEY.


BROSELEY a market-town. in the county of Salop. is parted from Madeley by the river Severn, and is a very populous parish, consisting of about 1500 houses and contains according to the last census 4014 inha­bitants. Beneath the surface of the earth is a continued bed of coal, which is dug, and appropriated on the spot to various iron furnaces, potteries, &c. and great quantities are sent to different towns by means of the Severn, which divide, also this-parish from Coalbrook-dale. It is noted for a manufactory of glazed pipes; and baa a court of request for assail debts. Broseley is distant from London 146 miles, 13 from Shrewsbury, and 25 from Ludlow. The market is held on Wednesday,—Fairs, last Tuesday in April and October 28th

Hannah Guest is Post Mistress.- The Post leaves for Shifnal (where it meets the London and Holyhead mails) every morning at a quarter before five, and returns every evening at half past four o’clock.:


COALBROOK-DALE situated about two miles from Madeley, is a winding glen, between two vast hills which break into various forms with beautiful hanging woods. Here and in the neighbourhood, are the most considerable iron works in England; the forges mills and steam engines with all their vast machinery, the flaming furnaces, and smoking lime kilns, form. a spectacle, horribly sublime; while the stupendous iron arch, striding over the Severn, gives these scenes a yet nearer resemblance to the ideas in romance. This famous bridge was built in the year 1779, the whole having been previously cast in open sand; all the principal parts were erected in three months, without any accident to the work or workmen, or the least obstruction to the navigation of the river.


COALPORT two miles from hence is chiefly noted for its celebrated china manufactory which is well wor­thy the minute inspection of the visitant; as indeed is the whole of this curious and romantic neighbour­hood. About two miles from hence arc the ruins of Buildwas abbey.

The market-day is Friday, and is held at Iron bridge. The fairs held at Madeley, two miles from hence, are January 26, May 29th, and October 12th. The parish contains according to the last returns 5379 inhabitants.

William Smith, Post Master.-The Post same as Broseley, only a quarter of an hour later in time morning, and quarter of an hour sooner in the evening.

 

Attorney

Griffiths James Broseley                        Harper Edward, Madeley

Pritchard and Sons, Broseley                    Ridding William, Coalbrookdale

 

Auctioneers

Hartshorne; George Broseley                     Walter Samuel Elliott, Iron-bridge

 

Bakers and Flour Dealers                        Everall, Peter Broseley

Gwyn. George, Broseley                    Miller George, Iron-bridge

Moore Thomas, Coalport                         

 

Bankers

Coalbrook Dale Company, Coalbrook-dale          Vickers, Pritchard and Pritchard

 

Broseley Booksellers and Printers.

Smith William, Iron-bridge                      Watery S. E. Iron-bridge

 

Boot and Shoe Makers.                          

Franklin Edward, Iron-bridge Parson. Edward, Broseley Woodruff James, Iron-bridge

Yates — John, Iron-bridge                            

 

Braziers & TinPlate Workers.

Barnett George, Iron-bridge.                    Fenton Johns Iron-bridge

Parker Widow; Broseley                   

Brick and Tile Makers.

Amphlitt and Co. Broseley                       Blaze Thomas Broseley

Booth Henry Broseley                            Davies Thomas, Broseley

Hartshorne, J. Broseley                   Palmer Robert, Madeley-wood

Roden Samuel, (& potter) Broseley               Smith Samuel and Co. Madeley

 

Builders

Jenks William. Iron-bridge                      Smith Samuel, Madeley..

 

Cabinet Makers.

Edwards Edward, Iron-bridge                     Garbett John. Broseley

Hartshorne George, jun. Broseley                Perks George, Madeley

 

Coal Masters.

Evans and Son, Broseley                         Guest John, Broseley

 

China Manufacturers

Rose John and Co. Coalport and No. 9, Thanet-place, Temple-bar, London

 

Coopers.

Haynes Richard, Iron-bridge                     Rogers Thomas, Iron-bridge

 

Curriers.

Brown Henry, Iron-bridge                        Cock Roger, Iron-bridge

Cotton Richard, iron-bridge

 

Fire Offices

Globe, Abraham Wyke, Broseley             Salop, Stephen Jones, Benthall

 

Grocers, Tea Dealers, &c.

Bailey William, Coalbrook-dale                  Chune George, jun. Iron-bridge

Evans Richard, Broseley                   Fletcher Mary, Coalbrook-dale

Fletcher Sarah, Coalbrook-dale                  Glazebrook James, Iron-bridge

Guest, John, Broseley                           Hanley Nathaniel, Iron-bridge

Jones William, Broseley                   Milner Betsey, Iron-bridge.

Parker Joshua, Madeley                    Smith William, Iron-bridge

Sankey Susanna, Coalbrook-dale                  Stanley William, Horshays

Wilkinson William, Iron-bridge                       

 

Hop and Seed Merchants.

Guest Charles, Broseley                   Lister John and Son, Broseley

 

Inns.

Lion, John Farnall, Broseley                    Swan, Benjamin Lloyd Iron-bridge

Tontine, W. Colwick, Iron-bridge                     

 

Iron and Coal Masters.

Addenbrook, Pidcock &Co. Lightmoor        Botfield. W. and B. Coalport

Bryan and Martin, (coal only) Tuckies-House     Coalbrook-dale Co. Coalbrook-dale

Foster James, Barnett’s Leasow                  Hazeldine William, Calcuts

Madeley Wood Co. Madeley-wood             Onions John, Broseley

 

Iron Founders                      

Ball Benjamin, Willey-wharf                     Hill Stephen, Benthall

 

Iron Mongers.    

Davies Richard, Iron-bridge                     Parker Widow, Broseley

Wilkinson William, Iron-bridge                       

 

Lime Masters.

Patten John, Benthall                           Tranter John, Benthall

 

Linen and Woolen Drapers and Mercers.

Bryan Arnold, Iron-bridge                       Bailey William, Coalbrook-dale

Blanthorn J. (& tailor) Iron-bridge             Charlton-Humphrey, Iron-bridge

Chune George, Iron-bridge                       Edwards, Edward Iron-bridge

Fletcher. Mary, Coalbrookdale             Guest Josiah. J, (and stamp office) Broseley

Home J. Madeley                           Roberts Thomas, Broseley

 

Maltster.

Blase Thomas, Broseley                    Blanthorn James, Iron-bridge

Bill William, Broseley                    Boycott Richard, Iron-bridge

Cook Benjamin, Broseley                   Crump Edward, Broseley

Davies Charles, Broseley                        Eustice William, Madeley

Gough Thomas, Broseley                    Guest Charles, Broseley

Jones John, Broseley                            Jones Richard, Madeley

Lister John and Son, Broseley             Lloyd Benjamin, Iron-bridge

Lumley William, Madeley                         Perry Thomas, Broseley

Onions Jane, Broseley                     Onions Thomas, Broseley

Parker James, Iron-bridge                       Smith Samuel, Madeley

Tranter John, Broseley                    Painters

Crowder Leonard, Iron-bridge              Crowder Thomas, Broseley

 

Pipe Makers.                 

Legg Richard, Broseley                    Owen Francis Coalbrook-dale

Roden Noah, Broseley                     

 

Plumbers and Glaziers. 

Crowder Thomas, Broseley                        Evans Thomas, Iron-bridge

Jenks William, Iron-bridge                      Pritchard John, Broseley

Russell Charles, Coalbrook-dale                 Yates Adam, Iron-bridge

 

Saddlers.

Davies Benjamin, Broseley                       Grosvener Samuel, Iron-bridge

Richards Thomas, Broseley                       Rogers Robert, Madeley

 

Straw Hat Makers.

Dyas MaryAnn, Iron-bridge                       Raby Seth, Iron-bridge

 

Surgeons.

Edwards William, Coalbrook-dale                 Fifield William, Broseley

Procter Richard, Iron-bridge                    Rowland Hugh, Iron-bridge

Thursfield and Gwynn, Broseley                  Wyke and Ashwood, Broseley

 

Taverns and Public House..

Coopers’ Arms, R. Haynes, Iron-bridge           Hodge Bower, R. Cock, Iron-bridge

Rodney, John Owen, Iron-bridge                  Royal Oak, Stn. Davies, Iron-bridge.

Talbot, Sarah Bycott, Iron-bridge               White Hart, J. Mantle, Iron-bridge

 

Tallow Chandlers

Evans Richard, Broseley                   Goodwin Benjamin, Iron-bridge

Haywood and Jones, Iron-bridge                  Jones John, Broseley

 

Timber Merchants.

Chune Geo. & Son, Coalbrook-dale                Davies Stephen. Iron-bridge

Griffiths James, Coalport                       Nock Thomas, Coalbrook-dale

Smith Samuel, Madeley                    

 

Wharfinger

Reynolds Joseph, Esq. Coalport                 

 

Wine & Spirit Merchants

Lister John and Son, Broseley            

 

Wire Worker

Haywood John, Iron-bridge

 

Miscellaneous

Bell and Poole, potters, Broseley               Easthope J. cheese mgr. Bent-hall

Edge Benjamin, Pit-chain & pattern ring maker, Coalport

Embery Jas salt dealer, Iron-bridge             Gething J. tailor &c Iron-bridge

Griffiths Robt. wheelwrt. Broseley              Gwynn James, basket maker, &c, Broseley

Jones C.C. . rope maker, Coalport               Onions John, hat manuf. Broseley

Reynolds Richard, hairdresser, &c. Iron-bridge  Stodd F. boat builder, Iron-bridge

Stormont John, patten ring maker, Iron-bridge  

 

Carriers

LONDON, Crowley, Hicklin &Co. Wed. and Saturday, Iron-bridge

LONDON John Jolly, from Geo. Hartshorne’s, Broseley, Tuesday.

SHRESBURY, Parry, from the Swan, Iron-bridge, and the Crown, Broseley, Tuesday and Friday

CONVEYANCE

BRISTOL, and all the line of the Severn, Ames and Jones, from Coalport warehouse every spring tide

BRISTOL, Wm. Devey, from Coalport warehouse, every spring tide

SHREWSBURY. Wm. Goodwin, from his own house, Iron-bridge every spring tide.

SHREWSBURY and Droitwich, Samuel Poole, from his own house, Iron-bridge.

STOURPORT, g. Lloyd, from the Swan Inn, Iron-Bridge, every week.

Coaches

FROM THE TONTINE INN, IRON-BRIDGE & THE LION BROSELEY

WORCESTER, every day (except Sunday) at half-past nine in the morning.

WORCESTER Mon. Wed. & Friday mornings at half past eight

 

 


Tibnam's Directory, 1828

BROSELEY.

A market-town in the franchise of Wenlock, contain­ing 1019 houses, and 4814 inhabitants. Here, and in the neighbourhood, are many coal and iron mines ; and is much noted for the manufacturing of glazed pipes. The market is held on Wednesday. Broseley is distant from London 146 miles, from Shrewsbury 14 miles, and from Ludlow 25 miles.

Mr. Isaiah Guest, Post .Master,-The Post arrives from Wenlock in Broseley every Morning at half-past three o'clock, and returns the same evening.-From Shiffnal to Broseley every Morning at hall past four.

COALBROOKDALE

Celebrated for its iron bridge over the Severn, is a winding glen between two vast hills, which are covered with hanging trees, and is situated about a mile from Madeley. Here are the most considerable iron works in England; the forges, mills, and steam engines, with all their vast machinery,-the flaming furnaces, and smoking lime kilns, present a horribly sublime spectacle. The stupendous iron bridge was erected in 1779, the whole having been cast in open sand ; all the principal parts were erected in three months, without any accident to the work or work­men, or the least obstruction to the navigation of the river : the span of the arch is 100 feet, 6 inches,­ the height, from the base line to the centre, is 40 feet, and the whole weight of iron is near 379 tons.

There is no Post-office at COALBROOK-DALE, COALPORT, (which is chiefly noted for its china manufactory), or Madeley, the principal place in the parish being Iron-bridge, where the office is kept by Mr. Smith, Bookseller, Market-place

The Post arrives at the Iron-bridge about four in the Morning, and returns at four in the Evening,

MADELEY

Stands in an elevated situation, fifteen miles from Shrewsbury, and contains 1081 houses, and upwards of 5370 inhabitants. It has a market on Friday, called Madeley Wood market, which is generally well supplied with provisions, and is of late become a con­siderable mart for corn. Two miles from Madeley, church, in a south-easterly direction is Coalport,* which takes its name from the termination of the Shropshire canal, which is seven miles in length, The coals brought by this conveyance, from the extensive mines of Ketley, Dawley, and other places, are landed on the banks of the river Severn, and are thence forwarded in barges to different parts of the counties of Worcester and Gloucester, to the average amount of fifty thousand tons annually.

* At Coalport, the large and flourishing Porcelain Manufacture of J.

Ross AND Co. is carried on to a great extent, and is the only one of the bind u, the county. This article in the beauty of its composition,-the superior taste displayed on its surface, and the elegance of the workman. ship, is no a here excelled.

Attornies

Matthew Court, Iron-bridge

James Griffiths, Broseley

Pritchard and Sons, Broseley

William Ridding, Coalbrook-dale

John Wase, Iron-bridge

Auctioneers.

George Hartshorne, Broseley

Samuel Elliott Walter, (and printer) Iron-bridge

Samuel Smith, Madeley

Bakers and Flour Dealers,

Peter Everall, Broseley

George Gwynn, Broseley

Thomas Harris, Coalbrook-dale

Edward Jones, Iron-bridge

George Miller, Iron-bridge

Thomas Moore, Coalport

John Onions, Madeley

Bankers.

Darby and Co. Coalbrook-dale

J. G. and J. Pritchard, Broseley

Bookseller, Stationer, Printer, and Bookbinder.

William Smith, (and post-master) Iron-bridge

Boot and Shoe Makers.

Edward Franklin, Ditto

Ford and Lewis, Iron-bridge

- Howard, Iron-bridge

Edward Parsons, Broseley

James Woodruff Iron-bridge

John Yates, Ditto

Braziers, and Tin-Plate Workers.

George Barnett, Ironbridge

James Bartlem, Ditto John Fenton, Ditto

Widow Parker, Broseley

Brick and Tile Manufacturers.

Amphlitt and Co. Broseley

Thomas Blase, Ditto

Henry Booth, Ditto

Roger Cock, Madeley Wood

Thomas Davies, Broseley

J. Hartshorne, Ditto

Samuel Roden, (and potter) Ditto

Samuel Smith and Co. Madeley

Builders.

William Jenks, Iron-bridge

Samuel Smith, Madeley

Cabinet Makers.

Brooke Cox, Madeley Wood

Edward Edwards, Iron-bridge

Robert Evans, sen. Madeley

Robert Evans,.jun. Ditto

John Gurbett, Broseley

George Hartshorne, jun. Ditto

George Perks, Madeley

Thomas Rogers, Iron-bridge

Coal Masters.

Coalbrook-dale Company

Evans and Son, Broseley

John Guest, Ditto

Madeley Wood Company

China Manufacturers.

John Rose and Co. Coalport, and No. 9, Thanet Place, Temple Bar, London

Coopers.

Richard Haynes, Iron-bridge

Thomas Rogers, Ditto

Carriers and Leather Sellers.

Henry Brown, Ironbridge

Roger Cock, Ditto

Richard Cotton, Ditto

Fire Offices.

Alliance, Thomas Graham, Ironbridge

Globe, Abraham Wyke, Broseley

Salop, Stephen Jones, Benthall

Grocers, Tea-Dealers, &c.

Richard Armstrong, Iron-bridge

William Bailey, Coalbrook-dale

Leonard Crowther, Iron-bridge

George Chune, sen. Coalbrook-dale

Richard Evans, Broseley

Sarah Fletcher, Iron-bridge

James Glazebrook, Ditto

John Guest, Broseley

Margaret Hanley, Iron-bridge

William Jones, Broseley

Betsy Milner, Iron-bridge

Joshua Parker, Madeley

William Smith, Iron-bridge

Henry Smith, Ditto

William Stanley, Horshays

Benjamin Wright, Coalbrook-dale

Henry Wilcox, Ironbridge

Hatters.

John Onions, Broseley

William Shinglar, Iron-bridge

Hop and Seed Merchants.

Charles Guest, Broseley

John Lister and Son, Ditto

Inns.

Lion, Benjamin Law, Broseley

Swan, Benjamin Lloyd, Iron-bridge

Tontine, J. Turton, Ditto

Talbot, R. Boycott, Ditto

White Hart, Fanny Mantle, Ditto

Iron and Coal Masters.

Addenbrook, Pidcock, and Co. Lightmoor

T. W. and B. Botfield, Coalport

Coalbrook-dale Company, Coalbrook-dale

James Foster, Barnett's Leasow

William Hazledine, Calcuts

Madeley Wood Company, Madeley. Wood

John Onions, Broseley

Iron Founders.

Benjamin Ball, Willey-wharf

Stephen Hill, Benthall

Ironmongers.

Richard Davies, Iron-bridge

Richard Davies, Broseley

John Fenton, Iron-bridge

John Haywood, Ditto

William Smith, Ditto

Lime Masters.

John Patten, Benthall

John Tranter, Ditto

Smith aid Jarvis, Coalbrook-dale

Linen and Woollen Drapers.

William Bailey, Coalbrook-dale

J. Blanthorn, (and tailor), Iron-bridge

Henry Charlton, Ditto

George Chune, Ditto

Edward Edwards, Ditto

James Gething, (woollen only) Coalbrook-dale

James Glazebrooke, Iron-bridge

John Heaford, (woollen only) Coalbrook-dale

John Pace, Madeley

Thomas Roberts, Broseley

William Weare, Iron-bridge

Benjamin Wright, Coalbrook-dale

Maltsters.

Thomas Blase, Broseley

J. Blanthorn, Iron-bridge

William Bill, Broseley

R. Boycott, Iron-bridge

W. Broughall, Madeley

Benjamin Cook, Broseley

Edward Crump, Ditto

Charles Davies, Ditto

W. Enstice, Madeley

Thomas Gough, Broseley

Charles Guest, Ditto

John Jones, Ditto

J. Lister & Son, Broseley

B. Lloyd, Iron-bridge

B. Lloyd, Coalbrook-dale

W. Lumley, Madeley

Thomas Perry, Broseley

Jane Onions, Ditto

Thomas Onions, Ditto

J. Parker, Iron-bridge

Samuel Smith, Madeley

John Tranter, Broseley

B. Wright, Coalbrook-dale

Painters,

Leonard Crowder, iron-bridge

Thomas Crowder, Broseley

Robert Evans, Madeley

William Jenks, Iron-bridge

Adam Yates, The Lloyds

Pipe Makers

Richard Legg, Broseley

Francis Owen, Coalbrook-dale

Noah Roden, Broseley

Edward Shaw, Benthall

Plumbers and Glaziers.

Thomas Crowder, Broseley

Thomas Evans, Iron-bridge

William Jenks, Ditto

John Pritchard, Broseley

John Tilley, Coalbrook-dale

Adam Yates, Iron-bridge

Salt-Dealers..

Samuel Poole, Iron-bridge

Francis Yates, Ditto

Saddlers.

Benjamin Davies, Broseley

Benjamin Davies, Iron-bridge

Samuel Grosvener, Iron-bridge

- Lloyd, Madeley

Thomas Richards, Broseley

Robert Roberts, Madeley

Straw Hat Makers.

Mary Ann Acton, Iron-bridge

Seth Raby, Ditto

Surgeons.

John Ashwood, Broseley,

William Edwards, Coalbrook-dale

William Fifield, Broseley

Richard Thursfield, Ditto

Richard Proctor, Iron-bridge

Rowlands and Son, Iron-bridge

Rowland and Hazlehurst, Dawley Green

Tailors.

Blodwell and Son, Ironbridge

J. Gething, ditto

Tallow Chandlers.

Benjamin Goodwin, Iron-bridge
Richard Evans, Broseley

John Jones, Ditto

Robert Evans, Ditto

Timber Merchants.

George Chune and Son, Coalbrook-dale

Stephen Davies, Iron-bridge

James Griffiths, Coalport

Thomas Nock, Coalbrook-dale

Samuel Smith, Madeley

Warfingers.

Benjamin Lloyd, Coalbrook-dale

Joseph Reynolds, Esq, Coalport

MISCELLANEOUS.

Bell and Poole, potters, Broseley

J. Easthope, cheese monger, Benthall

Benjamin Edge, manufacturer of flat chains for coal pits, pattern ring;, &c. Coalport

Robert Griffith, wheelwright, Broseley

James Gwynn, basket-maker, Ditto

John Haywood, wire-worker, Iron-bridge

Charles C. Jones, rope-maker, Coalport

John Lister and Son, wine and spirit merchants, Broseley

John Robinson, manufacturer of linens, Coalbrook-dale

Richard Reynolds, hair-dresser, iron-bridge

William Smith, drawing-master, Coalbrook-dale

Francis Stodd, boat-builder, Iron-bridge

John Stormont, patten-ring-maker, Iron-bridge

TAVERNS and PUBLIC-HOUSES.

Coopers' Arms,-R. Haynes, Iron-bridge

Golden Ball-Brooke Cox, Madeley

George and Dragon,--Matthew Thompson, Ditto.

Hodge Bower,-R. Cock, Iron-bridge

Horse and Hoes,-Dirs. Lees, Madeley

Rodney,-Samuel Shuker, Iron-bridge

Royal Oak,-Stephen Davies, Ditto

CARRIERS.

To London, Crowley, Hicklin, and Co. from the Iron-bridge, every Wednesday and Saturday.

To London, John Jolly, from George Hartshorne's, Broseley, every Tuesday.

To Shrewsbury, Parry, from the Swan Inn, Iron-bridge, and from the Crown lnn, Broseley, every Tuesday and Friday

BY WATER.

To Bristol, and all the line of the Severn, Ames and Jones, from Coalport Warehouse, every spring tide.

To Bristol, William Devey, from Coalport, every spring tide.

To Shrewsbury, William Goodwin, from his own house, Iron-bridge every spring tide.

To Shrewsbury and Droitwich, Samuel Poole, from his own house, Iron-bridge, every spring tide.

To Stourport, G. Lloyd, from the Swan, Iron-bridge, every week.

COACHES.

FROM THE TONTINE, IRON-BRIDGE, AND THE LION, BROSELEY.

To London, The Prince of Wales, every morning at nine o'clock

To London, from the White Hart, The Emerald, every day at ten o'clock.

To Worcester, every day, (Sundays excepted)

To Shrewsbury, The Emerald, every afternoon, at three o'clock.

 

 

 

Directory of Shropshire Staffordshire etc. Pigot 1829

BROSELEY, MADELEY,

COALBROOK.DALE, COALPORT, IRON-BRIDGE, BENTHALL & NEIGHBOURHOODS.

BROSELEY, a market town and parish, in the, liberties of Wenlock, is 146 miles from London, 25 from Ludlow, and 13 from Shrewsbury, situated on die Severn, which river separates it from Madeley, Ironbridge and Coalbrook-dale. The mines of coal here are very extensive, which are worked and appropriated on the spot to various iron furnaces, potteries, &c. as well as to the manufacture of glazed pipes, which it has been long noted. A court of requests is ­held here for the recovery of small debts. Here is one church under the establishment, and three dissenting chapels; the benefice of the former is a vicarage, in the incumbency of the Rev. Townend Forester, The market day is on Wednesday, and the fairs are the last Tuesday in April, and October the 28th. The population if Broseley parish contained, in 1811, 4,850 inhabitants, and in 1821, 4,814, the reduced population being attributed to the depression of the iron trade.

MADELEY, or Madeley Market is a parish and market town, in the same liberties as Broseley; the­ town extending to COALBROOKDAI.E, which is accounted a part of it, and connected therewith in its trade and history. The iron works of this parish are supposed to be the most considerable of any in England; the forges, mills and steam engines, with all their vast machinery, the flaming furnaces and smoking lime kilns, form a spectacle horribly sublime, while the stupendous iron arch, striding over the Severn gives these scenes a yet nearer resemblance to the ideas in romance. This famous bridge was built in the year 1779, the whole baring been previously cast in open sand; all the principal parts were erected in three months, without any accident to the work or workmen, or the least obstruction to the navigation of the river. This great work, which has for given name to a part of the parish IRONBRIDGE, has every claim to attention as an effort of great mechanical genius, and is only surpassed by the bridge at Bishop’s-Wearmouth.

At COALPORT, two miles from Ironbridge, are the celebrated china manufactories, which are well worth the minute inspection of the visitant, as indeed is the whole of this curious and romantic neighbourhood; where may be seen winding glens, vast hills and hanging woods; while the bosom of the noble Severn, that so essentially contributes to the prosperity of this district, in bearing away the articles of trade produced here, adds also to the general beauty of the country through which it glides. The market-day is on Friday, held at Ironbridge, and the fairs, which are held at Madeley, are January 26th, May 29th and October the 12th. The parish of Madeley, by the last census,. contained 5,379 Inhabitants.

BENTHALL, a parish and village, 2 miles and a half north of Much Wenlock, has a population of about 600 inhabitants, who are chiefly supported by potteries, established here.

POST OFFICE, BROSELEY, Hannah Guest, Post Mistress.—A horse post is dispatched to Shiffnall every morning at a quarter before four with letters for the North and LONDON Mails, and arrives as half-past four in the afternoon. -_IRONBRIDGE, William Smith, Post Master—A horse post is despatched to SHIFFNALL every morning at four with letters for the North and LONDOM Mails, and arrives at bar in the afternoon.

NOBILITY, GENTRY AND CLERGY

Bartlett Rev. John, Madeley               Brown —, gent. Iron bridge

Cowper Rev. John, Madeley                 Embrey Edward, gent. Iron bridge

Forester Dr. Townend, Broseley            Forester Lord, Willey park

Harries F. B. esq. Benthall               Hartshorne Rev. Charles, Broseley

Lacon Walter L. esq. Linley hall          Thomason Mrs. Madeley

William, Rev. John, Broseley              Yates Mrs. Madeley

ACADEMIES & SCHOOLS.

Now otherwise described as Day Schools.

Child William, Broseley                  
Cowper Rev. John (gent’s. brdng.) Madeley

Fell Robert, Iron bridge                 

Micklewright Thos. Madeley

Onions Mrs. (ladies’ day & brdng.) Broseley

Taylor Mrs. & Miss(ladies’ brdng.) [Lincoln’s hill

Thomas Wm. Broseley

Wyke Misses (ladies’ brdg.)Broseley

ATTORNEYS.

Court Matthew, iron bridge                Pritchard &Sons, Broseley

Riding Wm.. Coalbrook dale                Wase John, Madeley

AUCTIONEERS

Hartshorne George, Broseley               Smith Samuel, Madeley

Walter Sand. Elliott, Iron bridge         BAKERS & CONFECTIONERS.

Harries Thos. Coalbrook dale

Jones Edward, Iron bridge

Milner George, Iron bridge

BANKERS.

Darby& Co. Coalbrook dale.—(draw on Sir Jan. Esdaile& Co. London)

Pritchard J. G. & J. Broseley— (draw on Barnetts, Hoare & Co. London)

BLACKSMITHS

Davies Thomas, Broseley

Edge Benjamin, Coalport

Edwards John, Iron bridge

Handley Francis, Coalbrook dale

Jones John, Broseley~

Jones John, Madeley

Parker John Coalbrook dale

Stormont Joint (and patten maker) Iron bridge

Wallet Thomas, Coalport

Walton Richard, Iron bridge

BOOKSELLER, STATIONER AND PRINTER

Smith William, Iron bridge

BOOT MAKERS.& SHOE

Bailey John, Coalbrook dale

Booth John, Broseley

Dodd Thomas, Iron bridge

Franklin Edward, Iron bridge

Howard William, Iron bridge

Parsons Edward, Broseley

Roberts John, Coalbrook dale

Stodd Wm. Coalbrook dale..

Williams William, Broseley

Woodruff James, Iron bridge

Yates Richard, Madeley wood


BRAZIERS AND TIN-PLATE WORKERS

Bartlam Charles, Iron bridge

Fenton John, Iron bridge.

BRICK AND TILE MAKERS

Beard Richard, Madeley

Burton John (fire) Broseley

Cock Roger (white) iron bridge

Davies Abraham, Lightmore

Davies George, Broseley

Davies James (fire) Broseley

Davies Thomas, Broseley

Edwards Edward, Iron bridge

Harrington & Greenwood, Broseley

Hartshorne Hezekiah, Broseley

Lumley & Co. Broseley

Onions John, Broseley

Poole Richard, Broseley

Roden John & Thos. Broseley

Smith Saml. & Co. Madeley wood

Thompson John, Lightmoor

BRICKLAYERS

Fowler Thomas, Broseley

Legg Francis, Broseley .

Legg William, Broseley

Nevet John, Iron bridge

Nevet Samuel, Iron bridge

Nevvt Thomas, Iron bridge

Perkins Thomas, Broseley

Pugh George, Broseley

Pugh John, Broseley

Pugh William, Broseley

Smith Charles, Broseley

Smith John, Broseley

Smith William, Broseley

Thompson Thomas, Iron bridge

BUTCHERS..

Barrett Thomas, Iron bridge

Booth Henry, Broseley

Bowdler Henry, Madeley

Cartwright Charles, Broseley

Cartwright George, Broseley

Cartwright James, Broseley

Cartwright John, Broseley

Colley Richard, Broseley

Corfield John, Broseley

Corfield William, Broseley

Cox John, Coalbrook

Crump Edward, Broseley

Crump William, Broseley

Delves Joseph, Coalbrook dale

Delves Thomas, Coalbrook dale

Gough Thomas, Broseley

Harris James, Madeley

Harris James, Madeley

Holyoake Thomas, Broseley

Jones Jeremiah, Iron bridge

Knowles George, Broseley.

Page John, Iron bridge

Pearce Thomas, Broseley

Smith Charles, Broseley

Taylor William, Broseley

Wilcocks John, Madeley

CABINET MAKERS.

Edwards Edward, Iron bridge

Hartshorne George Broseley

Perks Geo.(& upholsterer) Madeley

CHINA MANUFACTURERS.

Rose Jno. & Co. Coalport. & 9 New castle street, Strand, London

COOPERS.

Haynes Richard. Iron bridge

Jones Richard. Broseley

Rogers Thomas, Iron bridge

Williams William, Iron bridge

CORN MILLERS.

Ashwood Jeremiah, Broseley

Morgan George, Coalbrook dale

Morgan William, Benthall

Nock William, Broseley

CURRIERS.

Brown Henry. Iron bridge

Cock Roger, Iron bridge

Cotton Richard, Iron bridge

FIRE, &c. OFTICE AGENTS.

ALLIANCE, Thomas Graham, Coalbrook dale

GLOBE, Abraham Wyke, Broseley

SALOP, Stephen Jones, Broseley

GROCERS AND TEA DEALERS

Bailey William, Coalbrook dale

Bell William, Broseley

Bright Benjamin, Coalbrook dale

Chune George, Coalbrook dale

Crowder Leonard, Iron bridge

Evans Richard, Broseley

Glazebrooke James, Iron bridge

Hanley Mary, Iron bridge

Hartshorne Hezekiah, Broseley

Icke & Pace, Madeley

Inett Thomas, Coalbrook dale

Jones Stephen, Broseley

Miliner Betsy, Iron bridge

O’Adams Ths. (& druggist) Broseley

Parker Joshua Madeley

Smith Henry, Iron bridge

Smith William, Iran bridge -

Wilcox Thomas, Madeley green

HOP & SEED DEALER

Guest Charles, Broseley

Lister John &.Son (and wine and spirit) Broseley

Parker James, Madeley.

Parker Jas, (&nurseryman) Iron bdg

INNS

Red Lion, John Law, Broseley

Tontine(and posting) John Evans, Ironbridge

IRON FOUNDERS

Ball Benjamin, Willey. wharf

Hill Stephen, Benthall

IRON MASTERS.

Addenbrook, Pidcock & Co. Lightmore­

COALBROOK-DALE COMPANY, Coal­brook dale

Foster James, Barnetts Leason (Leassow)

Hazeldine Wm. Calcuts

MADELEY WOOD COMPANY, Madeley wood

Onions John, Broseley

IRONMONGERS

Davies .Richard, Iron bridge and Broseley

Haywood John (and wire-worker) Iron bridge

JOINERS & CARPENTERS

Bailey William, Madeley green

Cox Brooke, Madeley green

Cox Joseph,. Broseley

Davies John, Broseley

Evans Thos. jun. Madeley green

Evans Thomas, sen. (and builder) Madeley green

Jenks Wm. (& builder) Iron bridge

Lloyd John, Iron bridge

Smith Saml. (& builder) Madeley

Turley William, Broseley

LIME BURNERS.

Patten John, Benthall

Smith & Jarvis, Lincoln’s hill

Tranter John, Benthall

LINEN & WOOLLEN DRAPRS,

Bailey William, Coalbrook dale

Bright Benjamin, Coalbrook dale

Charlton Henry, Iron bridge

Collier William, Broseley

Edwards Edward, Iron bridge

Glazebrooke James, Iron bridge

Guest Isaiah John, Broseley

Jones Mary, Broseley

Roberts Ts.(& excise office)Broseley

Weare William, Iron bridge

Wilcox Thomas, Madeley green

MALTSTERS.

Anstice William, iron budge

Birch Thomas, Broseley

Blaize Walker, Broseley

Blanthorn James, Iron bridge

Boycott Richard, Iron bridge

Bright Benjamin, Coalbrook date

Broughall Joseph, Madeley

Burton John, Broseley

Chune George, Iron bridge

Crump Edward, Broseley

Davies Charles, Broseley

Davies Samuel, Iron bridge

Dickenson Bernard, Coalbrook dale

Gough Thomas, Broseley

Guest Charles, Broseley

Jones John, Broseley

Home Thomas, Madeley

Lane Mary, Broseley

Lloyd Benjamin, Coalbrook dale

Matthews Samuel, Broseley

Parker James, Iron bridge

Perry Thomas, Madeley

Smith Samuel, Iron bridge

Spruce Bernard, Madeley

Wellings John, Broseley

Yates Francis & John, Iron bridge

NAIL MAKERS

Andrew, Richard, Iron bridge

Armstrong Richard, Iron bridge

Jones Benjamin, Iron bridge

Peters Richard, Broseley

PAINTERS, PLUMBERS AND GLAZIERS

Crowder Leonard, Iron bridge

Crowder Thomas, Broseley

Evans Robert, Madeley

Evans Thomas, Madeley green

Jenks Wm. Iron bridge

Tilley John, Coalbrook dale

Yates Adam, Madeley green

PIPE MAKERS.

Bradley John, Benthall

Bryan Wm. Broseley

Gething John, Benthall

Legg Richard, Broseley

Pennor Samuel, Broseley

Roden Noah, Broseley

Roden Sarah, Broseley

Shaw Richard, Benthall

Southern Wm. Broseley

POTTERS. .

Bell& Poole, Benthall

Farnall John, Benthall

SADDLERS.

Davies Benjamin, Iron bridge

Grosvenor Samuel, Iron bridge

Lloyd Andrew, Madeley

Milner Benjamin, Madeley

Richards Thomas, Broseley

SALT DEALERS

Goodwin George, Iron bridge

Poole Samuel, Iron bridge

Roden Samuel, Benthall

Yaws Francis. Iron bridge

SHOPKEEPERS & DEALERS IN SUNDRIES.

Armstrong Richard, Iron bridge

Bartly James, Madeley

Blocksidge John, Coalport

Barnet Wm. Broseley

Clemson Wm, Madeley

Davies John, Broseley

Fletcher Sarah, Coalbrook date

Inston John, Broseley

Millward Wm. Broseley

Parker Joshua, Madeley wood

Pearce Thomas., Broseley

STRAW HAT MAKERS.

Aston John Iron bridge

Delves Elizabeth, Iron bridge.

Raby Seth, Iron bridge

SURGEONS.

Ashwood John Nicholls, Broseley

Edwards & Sons, Coalbrook dale

Firfield Wm. Broseley

Gourley Daniel, Madeley

Proctor Richard, Iron bridge

Rowland & Son, Iron bridge

Thursfield Richard, Broseley

TAILORS.

Blanthorn Jas. (& draper) Iron bdge

Blodwell Edward, Iron bridge

Davies Edward, Coalbrook dale

Delves Thomas, Iron bridge

George John, Broseley

Gethin Jas. (& draper) Coalbrook dale

Heaford Wm. Coalbrook dale

Johnson James, Broseley

Jones Stephen, Broseley

‘Thomas Nathaniel, Broseley

TALLOW CHANDLERS.

Carrington Wm. Broseley

Goodwin Benjamin, Iron bridge

Jones John, Broseley

TAVERNS PUBLIC HOUSES

Ash Tree, John Williams, Broseley

Ball, Thos. Jones, Coalbrook dale

Black Swan, Win. Oakes, Broseley

Block House Rock, John Till Madeley wood

Bull’s Head, Saml. Preen, Broseley

Cape of Good Hope, John Turton, Broseley

Coalport Inn, Saml. Price, Coalport

Coopers’ Arms, Richard Haynes Iron bridge

Craven Arms, Ann Owen, Horsehay

Crown, Saint. Matthews, Broseley

Crown & Anchor, Mary Higgins, Broseley

Dog, John Geary, Broseley

Duke Wellington, Rt. Jones, Broseley

Elephant, John Bradley, Broseley

Fox, Richard Poole, Broseley

George.& Dragon, Matt Thompson, Madeley wood

Golden Ball, Brooke Cox, Madeley wood

­Hammer, Thos. Home, Madeley

Hat & Lamb, William Shingler, Madeley wood

Hodge Bower, Roger Cock, Madeley wood

Hole in the Wall, Geo. Wilkes, Broseley

Horse, Win. Darnell, Madeley

King’s Head, Win. Bill, Broseley

Labour in Vain, Thomas Morris, Horsehay

Lake Head, Benjamin Bennett, Madeley wood

Lloyd’s Head, Ts. Evanson, Broseley

Lord Hill, Benj. Cooke, Broseley

Lord Nelson, M. Jones, Broseley

May-pole, Charles Jones, Broseley

New Inn, Eliz. Lloyd, Benthall

Old Crown, Richd. Wyre, Broseley

Old Red Lion, Wm. Wilson, Broseley

Pheasant, Saml. Pugh, Broseley

Plough, Thos. Challoner, Broseley

Queen’s Head, Harriet Fowler, Iron bridge

Robin Hood, James Owen, Madeley wood

Rodney, Saml. Shuker, Coalbrookdale

Royal Oak, Stephen Davies, Iron bridge

Royal Oak, Robt. Richards, Broseley

Severn Trow, Chas. Lloyd ,Broseley

Ship, Martha Jones, Broseley

Spotted Leopard, Ts .Jones, Benthall

Swan, Benj. Lloyd, Coalbrook dale

Talbot; Richd. Boycott, Coalbrook dale

Three Horse Shoes Sarah Lees, Madeley

Three Tuns. John Lister, Iron bdge

Tumbling Sailors, Js. Lloyd, Broseley

Turk’s Head, Francis Griffiths, Broseley

Victualler, Bernard Spruce, Madeley wood

Wheat Sheaf, Geo. Lloyd, Broseley

Whelps, Richd. Beard, Broseley

White Hart, Margt. Mantle, Iron bridge

TIMBER MERCHANTS

Chane Geo. St Sons, Iron bridge

Davies Stephen, Iron bridge

Griffiths John & Edw. Coalport

Horton Wm. (& seed crusher) Coalport

Nock Thomas, Coalbrook dale

WATCH & CLOCK MAKERS.

Farr James, Iron bridge

Lister William, Iron bridge

WHEELWRIGHTS

Farr James, Madeley

Griffiths Robert, Broseley-

Poole Richard, Broseley

MISCELLANEOUS

Burnet Henry, smallware dealer, Broseley

Guest Isaiah John, sub-distributor of stamps, Broseley

Guynn James, basket maker, Broseley

Harper John, chemist & druggist, Iron bridge

Jones Chas. rope maker, Coalport

Lloyd Paul, land surveyor, Broseley

Mellor James, clothes dlr. Madeley

Norris Wm, china & earthenware dealer, Iron bridge

Onions John, hat manufr .Broseley

Reynolds Joe, wharfinger, Coalport

Shingler William, pawnbroker and hatter, Madeley green

Slack Saml patten mkr, Iron bdge.

Wilson Jno. supervisor, Broseley

COACHES.

To BIRMINGHAM, the Emerald (from Shrewsbury) calls at the White Hart, Iron bridge, every morning at tea.

T. CHELTENHAM, the Old Worcester (from Shrewsbury) cells at the Tontine Inn, Iron bridge, every Monday Wednesday; & Friday morning at eight, and at the Red ion, Broseley, about. half­-past eight the same mornings; goes through Worcester.

To SHIFNALL, the Prince, every morning at quarter past nine.

to SHREWSBURY, the Emerald (from Birmingham) calls at the White hart,. every afternoon at three—and the Old Warrior (from Cheltenham) calls at the Red Lion, Broseley, every Tuesday, Thursday & Saturday afternoon at half past four, end at the Tontine inn, Iron bridge, at five the same afternoons..

CARRIERS.

To LONDON, Crowley, Hicklin & Co. from Iron bridge every week—&c John Jolly, from Geo. Hartshorne’s, Broseley every Tuesday.

To SHREWSBURY, Richd. Parry from the Swan Inn, Iron bridge, and the Crown, Broseley, every Tues & Friday

CONVEYANCE BY WATER.

To BRISTOL, & all intermediate places, John Jones, from Coalport warehouse every spring tide.

To DROITWICH, Samuel Poole, from Iron bridge, once a month.

To STOCKPORT, Geo. Lloyd, from the Swan, Iron bridge, once a week.

 

 

Pigots 1835.

BROSLEY AND MADELEY

WITH COALBRROK-DALE, COALPORT, IRONBRIDGE, BENTHALL & NEIGHBOURHOODS

BROSELEY is a market-town, in the parish of its name, and franchise of Wenlock ; 146 miles N.W. from London, 25 N. E. from Ludlow, 13 S. E. from Shrews­bury, and 4 E. from Wenlock ; situate on the Severn, which river separates it from Madeley, Ironbridge, and Colebrook-Dale; and on the road from Worcester to Shrewsbury. In ancient records it is written Bur­wardesley, probably deriving that appellation from a family of the name of Burward, to which it formerly belonged. It consists principally of one long street, with smaller ones branching off irregularly, leading to the different collieries and other works ; the former of which are extensive. Their produce is chiefly ap­propriated on the spot to various iron furnaces, pot­teries, &c. as well as to the manufacture of glazed pipes (for which it has been long noted), fire-bricks, tiles, &c. The town is within the jurisdiction of the borough of Wenlock : courts-leet for the manor are held in the town-ball, in April and October; at the latter of which four constables are appointed : and a court of requests, for the recovery of debts under 40s.is held generally every alternate Wednesday. The places of worship are, the parish church, a chapel of ease at Jackfield (in this parish), two chapels for Baptists, and one for the Wesleyan Methodists. The church, which is dedicated to St. Leonard, has, with the exception of the tower (which is of stone,) been rebuilt of brick. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Blythe family: the Rev. Townsend Forester is the present incumbent. The market is held on Wednesday; and the fairs on the last Tues­day in April, and the 28th of October. The parish of Broseley contained, in 1811, 4,850 inhabitants; in 1821, 4,814; and in 1831, 4,299; the reduced population being attributed to the depression of the iron trade.

MADELEY, or Madeley Market, is a parish and mar­ket town, in the same liberties as Broseley ; the town extending to COALBROOK-DALE, which is accounted a part of it, and connected therewith in its trade and history. The iron-works of this parish are consider­able; the forges, mills, and steam-engines, with all their vast machinery, and the flaming furnaces and smoking lime-kilns, form a spectacle horribly sub­lime; while the stupendous iron arch, bestriding the Severn, gives these scenes a yet nearer resemblance to the ideas in romance. This famous bridge was built

in the year 1779, the whole having been previously cast in open sand ; all the principal parts were erected in three months, without any accident to the work or workmen, or the least obstruction to the navigation of the river. The span of the arch is one hundred feet six inches, and the height, from the base line to the centre, forty feet ; the total weight of iron being three hundred and seventy-eight tons. This great work, which has given name to a part of the parish, IRONBRIDGE, has every claim to attention as an effort of great mechanical genius. The places of worship are, the parish church, dedicated to All Saints, chapels for Wesleyan Methodists, and one for Roman Catholics. A new church is about to be erected for the accom­modation of the inhabitants of Ironbridge. The living of Madeley is a discharged vicarage, in the patronage of Sir Edward Kynaston, Bart.: the Rev. George Edmonds is the present incumbent. The house of in­dustry, erected in 1797, at an expense of about £1,100. is a commodious building. At COALPORT, two miles from Ironbridge, are the china manufactories, which are well worth the minute inspection of the visitant; as indeed is the whole of this curious and romantic neighbourhood; where may be seen winding glens, vast hills, and hanging woods: while the bosom of the noble Severn, which so essentially contributes to the prosperity of this district, in bearing away the ar­ticles of trade produced here, adds also to the general beauty of the country through which it glides. The market is held on Friday at Ironbridge ; and the fairs at Madeley, on the 26th of January, the 29th of May, and the 12th of October. The parish of Madeley con­tained, by the census of 1821, 5,379 inhabitants, and by that for 1831, 5,822.

BENTHALL is a village, in the parish of its name, within the liberties of Wenlock, situate two miles and a half N.N.E. from that town. There are two pottery works in this neighbourhood, which give employment to many of, the inhabitants; and the river Severn, which flows through the parish, provides the means of distributing the articles manufactured to various parts. The church is dedicated to St. Bartholomew ; and the living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the vicar of Much Wenlock. The population of the parish at the last census (1831) was 525, being fewer by 111 than it contained in the year 1801.

POST OFFICE, Broseley, Hannah Guest, Post Mistress.- Letters from LONDON and all parts arrive every day at ten minutes past twelve, and are despatched every afternoon at twenty minutes before 3.

POST OFFICE, IRONBRIDGE, William Smith, Post Mater.-Letters from LONDON, &c. arrive every day at twelve, and are despatched every afternoon at three.-Letters from BIRMINGHAM arrive every evening at six, and are despatched every morning at a quarter past eight. ­-­Letters from SHREWSBURY arrive every morning at quarter past eight, and are dispatched every evening at six.

NOBILITY, GENTRY AND CLERGY,

Barnes Rev. William, Madeley

Bartlett Rev. John, Marnwood

Darby Richard, esq. Coalbrook-Dale

Dutton Mr. John, Madeley

Edmonds Mrs. Ann, Madeley

Edmonds Rev. George, Madeley

Edmonds William, esq. Madeley

Ferriday Miss Ann, Madeley

Ferriday Robert, esq. Madeley

Forester Lord John George Weld, Willey park

Forester Rev. Townsend, Rectory

Jeffries Rev. Clement, Madeley

Jones Rev. Daniel, Broseley

Jones Rev. Thomas, Broseley

Patrick Mrs. May Ann, Madeley

Williams Rev. John, Broseley

Yates the Misses -, Madeley

ACADEMIES & SCHOOLS.

Not otherwise described are Day Schools.

Aston Mary, Coalbrook-Dale

Baylis Ann, Ironbridge

Baylis John Cox, Ironbridge

Bonner William, Broseley

Carter Mary, Madeley

Evans George, Broseley

Greathead Mary, Ironbridge

Harvey William, Ironbridge

INFANTS' SCHOOL, Coalbrook-Dale Ellen Evison, mistress

INFANTS' SCHOOL, Madeley-the Young Ladies of the Village mistresses

INFANTS' SCHOOL, Ironbridge­ Sarah Nickless, mistress

Jones Rev. Thomas (gentleman's boarding) Broseley

LANCASTERIAN SCHOOL (girls'), Coalbrook-Dale-Martha Michael, mistress

Micklewright Thos. Madeley wood

Onions Jane, Broseley

Onions Samuel, Little Dawley

Taylor Ann, Ironbridge

Thomas John, Broseley


AGENTS.

(See ales Fire, &c.. Office Agents.)

Baylis William (to the MADELEY WOOD Co.) Coalport

James George (to T, W. & B. Bot­field) Coalport

Smith William (to the MADELEY WOOD Co.) Lloyds

ARCHITECTS & SURVEYORS,

Smith Samuel & Son, Madeley

ATTORNEYS.

Anstice William Reynolds, Madeley

Court Matthew, Ironbridge

Pritchard & Sons, Broseley

Tanner John, Ironbridge

AUCTIONEERS.

Bywater George, Ironbridge

Hartshorne George, Broseley

Smith Samuel, Madeley

Walter Samuel Elliot, Ironbridge

BAKERS & CONFECTIONERS.

Barclay John, Ironbridge

Everall Mary, Broseley

Jones Edward, Ironbridge

Jones Stephen, Ironbridge

Milner George Jacob Ironbridge

Onions James Madeley

Rogers Mary, Ironbridge

BANKERS.

Darby and Co. Coalbrook-Dale­ (draw on Sir Japes Esdaile and Co. London)

Pritchard John, George and John Broseley-(draw on Barnetts, Hoare & Co. London)

SAVINGS' BANK, Ironbridge­ William Smith, actuary- (attend­ance monthly)

BLACKSMITHS.

Davies Francis, Broseley

Davies Richard, Ironbridge

Edwards John, Ironbridge

Edwards Joseph, Broseley

Felton William, Madeley

Handley Francis, Coalbrook-Dale

Jones Rebecca, Madeley

Parker John, Coalbrook-Dale

Parsons William, Broseley

Wallett Thomas, Coalport

Walton Richard, Ironbridge

Wilkinson Sarah, Broseley

BOAT BUILDERS.

Gother Francis, Benthall

Grice Peter, Madeley Wood

Griffiths John and Edwin Francis, Coalport

BOOKSELLERS, STATIONERS AND PRINTERS.

Smith William, Ironbridge

Walter Samuel Elliot, Ironbridge

BOOT AND SHOE MAKERS.

Bailey John, Coalbrook-Dale

Barker John, Madeley

Betton Richard, Ironbridge

Blocksidge John, Coalport

Booth John, Broseley

Burnt James, Broseley

Crowder John, Broseley

Cureton Edward, Madeley Wood

Dodd Thomas, Ironbridge

Dovey Richard, Madeley

Franklin Edward, Ironbridge

Franks Thomas, Madeley Wood

Garbett Thomas, Benthall

Howard William, Ironbridge

Lewis & Ford, Ironbridge

Parsons Edward, Broseley

Price John, Madeley

Roberts John, Coalbrook-Dale

Stodd William, Coalbrook-Dale

Weeks Richard, Broseley

Williams William, Broseley

Woodruff James, Ironbridge

Yates Francis, Madeley Wood

Yates Richard, Madeley Wood

BRAZIERS AND TIN-PLATE WORKERS.

Bartlam Charles, Ironbridge

Fenton J no., Broseley & Ironbridge

BRICK AND TILE MAKERS.

Barton John & Edwd. Ironbridge

Cock Roger, Hodge Bower

Davies George, Madeley Wood

Davies Thomas, Lloyd's head

Davies William, Lloyd's head

Edwards Edward, Ironbridge

Evans Robert, Broseley Hartshorne

Hezekiah, Broseley

Onions John, Broseley

Poole Richard, Broseley

Roden John &Thomas, Jackfield

Roden Samuel, Broseley

Smith Samuel & Co. Madeley

Thompson James, Lightmoor

BRICKLAYERS.

Barclay John, Ironbridge

Legg Francis, Broseley

Legg William, Broseley

Nevett John, Ironbridge

Nevett Samuel, Ironbridge

Nevett Thomas, Ironbridge

Nickless James, Madeley Wood

Smith Charles, Broseley

Smith John, Broseley

Smythyman John, Broseley

Squires Richard, Broseley

Thompson Thomas, Madeley Wood

BUTCHERS.

Barnett Thomas, Ironbridge

Booth Henry, Broseley

Cartwright Charles, Broseley

Cartwright George, Broseley

Cartwright James, Broseley

Cartwright James, jun. Broseley

Cox John, Coalbrook-Dale

Crump William, Broseley

Delves Joseph, Coalbrook-Dale

Delves Thomas, Ironbridge

Gough Thomas, Broseley

Harris James, Madeley

Harris James, jun. Madeley

Knowles George, Broseley

Page John, Ironbridge

Page Thomas, Broseley

Pearce Thomas, Broseley

Raby John, Madeley Wood

Wilcox John, Madeley

Wilcox William, Madeley

CABINET MAKERS.

Edwards Edward, Ironbridge

Hartshorne George, Broseley

Lloyd John, Ironbridge

Perks George, Madeley

Poole Thomas, Broseley

CHAIN CABLE MANUFACTURE

Edge Benjamin, Coalport

CHINA MANUFACTURERS.

Rose John & Co. Coalport

CHYMISTS AND DRUGGISTS.

Oakley Jesse, Broseley

Wheeler Richard, Ironbridge

COOPERS.

Cannadine Isaac, Ironbridge

Rogers Thomas, Ironbridge

Williams William, Ironbridge

CURRIERS.

Brown Henry, Ironbridge

Cock Roger, Hodge Bower

Cotton Richard, Ironbridge

FIRE, &c. OFFICE AGENTS.

ALLIANCE, Thomas Graham, Coal­brook-Dale

BIRMINGHAM Jno.Harvey, Broseley

GLOBE, Humphy. Charlton, Broseley

NORWICH UNION, Edward Smith, Lloyds

SALOP, John Jones, Benthall

SUN, John Tanner, Ironbridge

GROCERS & TEA DEALERS.

(See also Shopkeepers, &c.)

Bailey William, Coalbrook-Dale

Franks Benjamin, Madeley Wood

Glazebrook James, Ironbridge

Inett Thomas, Coalbrook-Dale

Milner Betsey, Ironbridge

Oakley Jesse, Broseley

Rose Samuel, Coalbrook-Dale

Smith Charles William, Ironbridge

Smith Henry(& cheese factor) Ironbridge

Wild Thomas, Broseley

Wright Benjamin, Coalbrook-Dale

HAIR DRESSERS.

Baugh George, Ironbridge

Poole Thomas, Ironbridge

HAT MANUFACTURERS.

Shingler and Son, Ironbridge and Madeley Wood

HOP AND SEED DEALERS.

Guest Charles, Broseley

Lister Thomas, Broseley

Smith Henry, Ironbridge .

INN.

Tontine (& posting house) Thomas Jones, Ironbridge

IRON FOUNDERS.

Clayton Charles, Madeley

Hill Stephen, Benthall

IRON MASTERS.

Addenbrook, Pidcock & Co. Lightmoor

Botfield Thomas William & Briah, Coalport

COALBROOK-DALE COMPANY, Coal­brook-Dale

MADELEY WOOD CO. Madeley Wood

Onions John, Broseley

IRONMONGERS.

Davies Richard, Ironbridge

Ha wood John (& wire worker)Ironbridge

Smith Charles William, Ironbridge

JOINERS &CARPENTERS.

Bailey William, Madeley Wood

Burnet Abraham, Broseley

Cox Brooke, Madeley Wood

Davies John, Broseley

Evans Thomas, Madeley Wood

Hartshorne George, Broseley

Jenks Thomas, Ironbridge

Lloyd John, Ironbridge

Nickless William, Ironbridge

Smith Samuel & Son (& builders) Madeley

Turley William, Broseley

LIME BURNERS.

Patten John, Benthall

Smith William &Co. Lloyds

LINEN &s WOOLLEN DRAPERS

Baker Jeremiah, Broseley

Charlton Henry, Ironbridge

Edwards Edward, Ironbridge

Ford John, Ironbridge

Glazebrook James, Ironbridge

Mellor James (woollen) Madeley

Perrin William, Broseley

Weare William, Ironbridge

Wright Benjamin, Coalbrook-Dale

MALTSTERS.

Ashwood Jeremiah, Broseley

Birch Thomas, Broseley

Blanthorn James, Ironbridge

Blaze John Walker, Broseley

Boycott Richard, Ironbridge

Bronghall Joseph, Madeley

Burton John & Edwd. Ironbridge

Chune George, Coalbrook-Dale

Davies Stephen, Ironbridge

Dickinson Barnard, Coalbrook-Dale

Dyas Charles, Madeley

Gough Thomas, Broseley

Guest Charles, Broseley

Lister Thomas, Broseley

Lloyd Benjamin, Coalbrook-Dale

Lloyd Thomas, Jackfield

Lumley Charles, Coalport

Morgan William, Benthall

Page Thomas, Broseley

Smith Edward, Lloyds

Smith Samuel & Son, Madeley

Till Thomas, Madeley Wood

Wellings & Onions, Coalport

Wright Benjamin, Coalbrook-Dale

Yates John & Francis, Ironbridge

MILLERS.

Ashwood Jeremiah, Broseley

Morgan George, Coalbrook-Dale

Morgan William, Broseley

MILLINERS & DRESS MAKERS

Armstrong Mary Ann, Ironbridge

Griffiths Martha, Broseley

Sanders Martha & Matilda, Ironbridge

NAIL MAKERS.

Andrews Richard, Madeley Wood

Jones Benjamin, Madeley Wood

Jones Thomas, Madeley Wood

Peters Richard, Broseley

Weston William, Madeley Wood

PAINTERS, PLUMBERS, AND GLAZIERS.

Brandford Thomas, Coalbrook-Dale

Crowder Leonard, Ironbridge

Evans Robert, Madeley Wood

Evans Thomas, Madeley Wood

Hinsley John, Madeley Wood

Jenks Edward, Ironbridge

Jones Richard, Broseley

Smith James, Broseley

PIPE MAKERS.

Bryan Widow, Broseley

Legg Richard, Broseley

Pinner Samuel, Broseley

Roden John, Broseley

Roden Noah, Broseley

Roden Samuel, Broseley

Roden Sarah, Broseley

Shaw Richard, Broseley

Southorn William (manufacturer of the most superior quality of pipes) Broseley

POTTERS.

Farnell John, Benthall

Lloyd John & Co. Benthall

Myatt John, Jackfield

SADDLERS.

Lloyd Andrew, Madeley

Owen Thomas, Madeley

Richards Thomas, Broseley Wood

Edward, Ironbridge

SALT DEALERS

Burton Jno. & Edward, Ironbridge

Goodwin George, Ironbridge

Roden Samuel, Benthall

SHOPKEEPERS& DEALERS IN GROCERIES & SUNDRIES.

Bartley Thomas, Madeley

Blocksidge John, Coalport

Burnet Abraham, Broseley

Burnet William, Broseley

Clark William, Ironbridge

Crowther John, Broseley

Davies John, Broseley

Davies Thomas, Lloyd's head

Evans Thomas, Ironbridge

Fennell Thomas, Coal port

Fletcher Sarah, Coalbrook-Dale

Harper William, Madeley

Hartshorne Hezekiah, Broseley

Harvey John, Broseley

Instone John, Broseley

Jones John, Madeley

Lees John, Madeley

Lloyd John, Broseley

Lloyd Thomas, Madeley Wood

Lloyd Thomas, Lloyd's head

Nevett Enoch, Broseley

Page Mary, Broseley

Pearce Thomas, Broseley

Picken Thomas, Madeley

Putts Thomas, Lloyd's head

Poultney Samuel, Broseley

Roden Samuel, Benthall

Rushton Valentine, Madeley

Speak Thomas, Broseley

Weaver Charles, Broseley

Wilcox Henry, Ironbridge

Wilcox 'Thomas, Madeley Wood

Williams William, Broseley

STRAW HAT MAKERS

Aston Mary Ann, Ironbridge

Delves Jane, Ironbridge

Patten Elizabeth, Benthall

Raby Seth, Ironbridge

SURGEONS.

Brookes John, Madeley

Edwards Edward, Coalbrook-Dale

Fifield William, Broseley

Gourley Daniel, M. D. Madeley

Lister John Matthews, Broseley

Procter Richard, Ironbridge

Rowland Hugh & Son, Ironbridge

Thursfield Richard, Broseley

Wyke Richard, Broseley

TAILORS.

Blanthorn James, Ironbridge

Blodwell James, Madeley Wood

Delves Thomas, Madeley Wood

Fowler James, Broseley

George John, Broseley

Gething James, Coalbrook-Dale

Hammersley Isaac, Ironbridge

Heaford William, Coalbrook-Dale

Humphreys William, Ironbridge

Johnson John, Broseley

Jones Stephen, Broseley

Morgan Philip, Madeley

Shotton Richard, Madeley Wood

Thomas Thomas, Broseley

TALLOW CHANDLERS.

Carrington William, Broseley

Evans Richard, Broseley

Goodwin Benjamin, Ironbridge

TAVERNS & PUBLIC HOUSES.

Albion, John Lloyd, Broseley

Ash Tree, William Travis, Jackfield

Black Swan, William Potts. Jackfield

Block House, John Davies, Madeley

Wood Bridge House, John Wellings, Coalport

Cape of Good Hope,J ohn Turton, Broseley

Coalport Inn, Samuel Price, Coalport

Coopers' Arms, John Owen, Ironbridge

Craven Arms, Robert Owen, Horsehay

Crown, Roger Cock, Hodge bower

Crown, Samuel Matthews, Broseley

Crown, Sarah Reynolds, Madeley Wood

Dog & Duck, Edward Williams, Lloyds

Dog, Samuel Amphlet, Broseley

Duke of Cumberland, Thos. Davies, Broseley

Duke of Wellington, Martha Jones ,Broseley

Duke of York, Thomas Rutland, Broseley

Elephant & Castle, Edwd. Lister, Broseley

Foresters' Arms, Wm. Edwards, Broseley

Fox, John Davies, Broseley

George and Dragon, Matthew Thompson, Madeley Wood

Golden Ball, Brooke Cox, Madeley Wood

Grove, John Ferrington, Coalbrook-Dale

Half Moon, George Richards, Salt house

Hammer, Samuel Jones, Madeley Wood

Hand and Tankard, John Smythyman Broseley

Hat & Lamb. William Shingler, Madeley Wood

Hole-in-the-Wall, George Wilks, Broseley

King's Head, Ann Higgins, Broseley

Labour-in-Vain, Thos. Morris, Horse hay

Lake Head, Joseph Cope, Madeley Wood

Letters, Ann Jones, Coalbrook-Dale

Lion, John Law Broseley

Lloyd's Head, John Transom, Lloyd's head

Lord Hill, John Burgess, Broseley

Lord Nelson, Noah Hill, Broseley

May Pole, Charles Jones, Broseley

Meadow House Geo. James, the Meadow

New Hill Pitt, &s. Till, Madeley Wood

New Inn, Elizabeth Lloyd, Benthall

Old Crown, Thomas Holloway, Broseley

Old Red Lion, William Wilson, Broseley

Park Tavern, Mary Ward, Madeley

Pheasant, Adam Jones, Broseley

Plough, John Smith, Broseley

Queen's Head, Harriet Fowler, Ironbridge

Robin Hood, James Bailey, Madeley Wood

Rodney, George Lloyd, Coalbrook-Date

Royal Oak, Charles Dyes, Madeley

Royal Oak, Robert Richards, Jackfield

Royal Oak, Thomas Wild, Ironbridge

Severn Trow, Ann Lloyd, Jackfield

Ship, Ann Adams the Werps

Spirit Vaults, Thomas Lister, Ironbridge

Spotted Leopard, Robert Jones, Benthall

Swan, Benjamin Lloyd, Coalbrook-Dale

Talbot, George Boycott, Ironbridge

Three Horse Shoes, Sarah Lees, Madeley

Three Tuns, Richd. Boycott, Ironbridge

Tumbling Sailors, Elizabeth Richards Lloyd's head

Turk's Head, Francis Richards, Madeley Wood

Werps, Thomas Beard, the Werps

White Hart, Sophia Mantle, Ironbridge

Retailers of Beer.

Bailey John, Coalbrook-Dale

Davies John, Broseley

Edwards Edward, Ironbridge

Evans George, Ironbridge

Gather Francis, Benthall

Hargreaves Rebecca, Coalport

Harris Thomas, Ironbridge

Holt Richard, Madeley

Law Elizabeth, Madeley

Lloyd Edmund, Lloyd's head

Lloyd Thomas, Madeley Wood

Lloyd William, Broseley

Lisseter William, Ironbridge

Millington Elizabeth, Broseley

Oakes Thomas, Salt house

Poole Thomas, Ironbridge

Poole John, Broseley

Rogers Thomas, Ironbridge

Williams John, Madeley

Williams William, Broseley

TIMBER MERCHANTS.

Chune George & Joseph (& timber surveyors) Coalbrook-Dale

Griffiths John and Edwin Francis, Coalport

Griffiths Robert & John, Broseley

Horton Samuel, Coalport Smith Samuel & Son, Madeley

WATCH & CLOCK MAKERS.

Blakeway Thomas, Broseley

Burroughs James, Ironbridge

Lisseter William, Ironbridge

WHEELWRIGHTS.

Broadhurst Thomas, Broseley

Farr James, Madeley

Griffiths Robert & John, Broseley

Hill Edward, Ironbridge

WINE & SPIRIT MERCHANT.

Lister Thomas, Broseley

Miscellaneous.

Brown John, turner, Madeley Wood

Brown Samuel, hosier, Ironbridge

Burnet Henry, smallware dealer, Broseley

Gwynn James, basket maker, Broseley

Musgrave William, wharfinger, Coalport

Parker Elizabeth, nursery and seed dealer, Ironbridge

Smith Edward, porter dealer,

Lloyds Smith J no. Home, drawing master, Broseley

Stormont John, patten maker, Ironbridge

Weager Israel, block and pump maker, Madeley Wood

Madeley-John Powis, master WORKHOUSE,

COACHES.

From the IRONBRIDGE.

To LONDON, the Salopian (from Shrews­bury) calls at the White Hart, every morning at ten; goes through Shiffnall, Wolverhampton, Birmingham, Strat­ford-upon-Avon, Oxford, Henley-on­-Thames, Maidenhead and Slough.

To BIRMINGHAM, the Royal Mail (from Shrewsbury) calls at the Ton­tine, every morning at half-past eight; goes thro' Shiffnall & Wolverhampton.

To CHELTENHAM, the Hawk (from Shrewsbury) calls at the Tontine, every forenoon (Sunday exceted)at half-past eleven-the Hibernia (from Liverpool) calls at the Swan, and the L'Hirondell, calls at the Tontine, both every after­noon (Sunday excepted) at half-past two; all go through Bridgnorth, Kid­derminster and Worcester..

To LIVERPOOL, the Hibernia (from Cheltenham) calls at the Swan, even forenoon (Sunday excepted) at half-past eleven; goes thro' Shrewsbury, Wem Whitchurch and Chester-and the' L'Hirondell, calls at the Tontine, at the same hour ; goes through Shrews­bury, Wrexham and Chester.

To SHREWSBURY, the Royal Mail (from Birmingham) calls at the Tontine, every evening at half-past six-the Hawk (from Cheltenham) calls at the Tontine, every evening (Sunday excepted) at half-past five-and the Salopian (from London) calls at the White Hart, every evening at six.

CARRIERS.

To BIRMINGHAM & WOLVERHAMPTON, Pickford and Co., and Crowley Hicklin, Batty & Co. from the Coopers' Arms, Ironbridge, every Wed. and Sat

To LUDLOW, William Marston, from the Three Tuns, every Wednesday.

To SHREWSBURY, Richard Parry, from the Crown, Broseley, every Tues. & Fri.

To WENLOCK, William Marston, from the Three Tuns, every Wednesday.

CONVEYANCE BY WATER.

To BRIDGNORTH, BEWDLEY, GLOUCESTER, STOURPORT, TEWKESBURY & WORCESTER, John Lloyd and George Goodwin, from Coalport and Ironbridge, daily, to meet the Fly Boats of Ames and Co. who forward goods to all parts of the Kingdom.

To SHREWSBURY, the same Carriers, weekly.

 




7.     Appendix 10:  SOME MINING INCIDENTS IN THE BROSELEY FIELD


(downloaded from internet 19/11/2002)


By Ivor Brown
This article was originally published in the Wilkinson Journal No.8 1980

The one thing that has always struck the writer when considering the Broseley part of the Coalbrookdale Coalfield has been the primitive nature of the equipment used even during this century. This was probably due to the fact that there were never any large mines; the clay industry, with its low - value raw material, was dominant and the seams of mineral present were few, thin and shallow. The following article is a collection of notes culled from various sources, all of which indicate not only the primitiveness of the industry but also the variety of techniques in use. Some of the incidents described are tragic, some comic: they also show the local miners to have been frequently ingenious but with, at the younger end, a considerable degree of carelessness.

In 1891 the following mines[1][1] were still operating in the area (diameter and depth of shafts are given in brackets in feet) :-

Mine

Shaft

Shaft

Shaft

 

Diameter

Depth

Diameter

Depth

Diameter

Depth

Broseley Wood Fireclay

300

6

105

 

 

Deer Leap Coal

6

48

(adit 2ft x 2ft)

 

 

Benthall Fireclay

(adit 5ft x 4ft)

4

23

 

 

Bells Rough Coal

5

30

5

30

 

 

Pottery Pit Fireclay

5

54

6

48

 

 

Deep Pit Coal

420

5½;

420

 

 

Turners Yard Coal

5

108

5

108

 

 

Tuckies Red Clay and Coal

7

195

6

210

 

 

Calcutts Red Clay

6

60

6

60

 

 

Green Pit Red Clay

5

30

 

 

 

 

White Level Fireclay

(adit 4½ft x 4½ft)

5

24

 

 

Coneybury Coal

420

4

420

 

 

Prestage Trial Red Clay

8

135

 

 

 

 

Dunge Coal & Clay

5

66

5

70

4

57

Doughty’s Red Clay

6

100

4

105

 

 

Exley’s Nos. 1 & 2 Red Clay

105

105

 

 

Gitchfield Clay

(adit)

 

 

 

 

Broad Meadow Coal

4

24

 

 

 

 

 

All the pits were “naturally ventilated” except Deep Pit which had a firelamp suspended in the shaft, the Tuckies which used ‘exhaust steam’ from pipes in the upcast shaft and Coneybury which had a furnace at the surface. Each type of heat source caused the air to circulate through the mine using convection currents, Of course, several small mines have opened since 1891 but most of these were short-lived ventures.
By 1930 only the following remained at work (the numbers of men being employed underground is given) :-

Alders Meadow (Doughty’s)

5 men,      closed 1940       (NGR 682029)

Benthall Lane Fireclay

4 men,      closed 1942       (Part re-opened as Viger Drift)

Gitchfield Red Clay (Exleys)

10 men, closed 1950     (NGR 707014)

Ladywood Clay (3 pits)

Total 7 men, closed 1939 (NGR 679029)

Broseley (Milburgh) Tile Clay

      (Prestage)

5 men,      closed 1940

Deep Pit Clay (Prestage)

4 men,      closed 1940 (NGR 683016)

Turners Yard Fireclay (Prestage)

14 men, closed 1955 ?   (NGR 693001)

 

In 1948 only Turners Yard (11 men), Gitchfield (3 men) and the Viger Drift (part of Benthall Mines) (2 men) remained in operation, and, although there was some drift mining in the 1950s around Caughley, by 1960 all mining had ceased in the Broseley area.

Reports of incidents in the mines come from a variety of sources. In 1889 two men were suffocated in a mine at Broseley when they climbed down to retrieve a hat which had fallen when they looked down the shaft during a Sunday walk. In a similar incident about 1948 two youths were suffocated on entering an adit during a walk. At the Dunge Pit in 1904 an overman was injured when two youths, who were lowering him down a shaft, lost control of the windlass; - the younger youth, who was 17, let go of the handle and the other youth could not control it. During Sunday October 11th, 1914 “some evilly-disposed person removed the covering of a coalpit shaft at Benthall, Salop and threw the covering together with a chain and wire rope down the shaft, causing serious damage to Messrs. C.R. Jones & Sons and endangering the public”. A reward of one guinea was offered by the “Broseley association for the Prosecution of Felons to any person giving such information as shall lead to the conviction of the offender” [2][2]. In the 1930s the cover of a shaft beneath the George Pritchard Memorial caved in and the shaft was filled and grouted. This shaft had opened up suddenly some years previously and a small boy named James Nock fell in and was drowned[3][3]. John Randall recorded a similar mishap in his book ‘Old Sports and Sportsmen’ when Tom Moody, the celebrated ‘Whipper-in’, fell into a pitshaft. “His halloo to the dogs brought him assistance, and he was extricated” [4][4].

The Mines of the Broseley area were often featured in the Annual Reports of the Inspector of Mines. For example, in 1902 at the Wallace Pit a clay miner was struck by something falling down the shaft as he was standing at the bottom waiting to be hauled up. At Tuckies Pit a gunpowder shot had missed-fire and a miner cut away the clay from around it; then, when withdrawing the charge, he accidentally ignited it with his candle. Similarly, at Doughtys Pit a miner was burned when he accidentally ignited two bobbins of compressed powder explosive with his candle as he carried it to his working place.

The writer has also tried to record incidents that have occurred within recent years by interviewing former mine-workers. The late Mr. W. Yates related his experiences in the Gitchfield Mine to the writer in 1967. Mr. Yates began work there in 1892 at 13 years of age. It was an adit mine and his first job was ‘mobbying’, hauling clay, two tubs at a time, while crawling on hands and knees with a hauling chain between his legs and attached to a heavy leather belt at his waist. For this work he got 1 shilling per day out of which he had to pay 2½d per week toll to cross the Coalport Bridge. The clay was got by hand from pillar and stall workings, with ventilation from a shaft half a mile away in Tarbatch Dingle. Carbon dioxide gas was a problem, causing difficulty in keeping candles alight, and in such places they “burned better when kept horizontal”. The mine was very wet. As well as the red clay, fire clay was obtained from a seam about 25ft below it. In 1920 the red clay and the fireclay were being mixed in the proportion 4 red to one of fireclay. The mine produced about 300 tons of clay per week with about 10 men.

The Deep Pit has been described by F.R. Gameson in the Shropshire Magazine, March 1952: “An 8-man pit and an historic engine”. When the mine closed in 1940 it was believed to have been in operation for over 200 years, the same steam engine having been used for over 130 of these years. Attempts were made to get the engine preserved, but a Science Museum expert described it as consisting entirely of ‘all spare parts’ and in 1951 it was scrapped. The mine was very extensive and ventilation was a major problem, both a furnace and a firelamp being used at various times. The Deep Pit produced red clay and fireclay, and ‘fat grey glacial clay’ was obtained from a quarry near one of the shafts. In 1924 the mine was producing 24 tons of tile clay per week which was weathered for about 3 months and then mixed with glacial clay in the proportion two of red to one of glacial clay.

The late J. Roberts described graphically the mine surface to the writer in 1965. “There was a stable where the donkey stood looking through the door till the cage came up, then he would walk out on his own and stand in front of the drought or skip (wagon) to be hooked on to the clay, about 8 to 10 cwt, to take up to the tip. Then he would walk back again and wait for the next. One part of the stable was kept for straw, hay and chaff. The head gear had a crosspiece on top to keep it square, with screws to tighten the guides. Nearby was the furnace chimney: the fire was above the ground in one half of the chimney, and its flue was the other half; it went down under ground to an old shaft. A round building at the surface was a cabin, which, my father told me, over 60 years ago, was built in that shape because the miners knew they would have a lot of waste when they sank the pits and not much room for it. So they heaped it all up around the cabin to the top; if this had been of square sides the waste would have pushed them in.    The shape took the pressure all around, so they knew what they were doing, as it stood the test for over 200 years. Inside there were two long seats for the men to sit on to eat their food, a coffer for corn, fuse, axe, saw etc., while the candles were hung in the centre so that the mice could not get them. Oil lamps were used for lighting. There was also a blacksmith’s shop with leather bellows, a forge, anvil and vice etc.” Mr. Roberts was good with his hands and often repaired the sledges and blow georges (ventilating fans) of for other mines. He remembered, too, that when sinking new shafts, the miners would run drain pipes down the outside of the brickwork and put the ‘air bags’ in these. His father often provided the steam engine to drive the blow the george at these mines.

Another interesting description has been provided by the family of the late T. Jones, a coal and clay entrepreneur and for a time Managing Director of C.R. Jones & Sons Ltd., Ladywood Tileworks. This has been published in full in the Shropshire Mining Club Journal, 1973/4, and describes interesting incidents at Colleys Dingle, Broad Meadow, Benthall and at the mine by the Old,   Ironbridge (Viger Drift); also at the Crawstone Levels by the Hairpin Bend (from which ochrous water still flows), the Pennystone Pit near the Red Church, the Deer Leap and the Fiery Fields.

Of the recent workings at Viger Drift and Turners Yard some documentary and field evidence can still be seen. The Viger Drift was part of a complex of old adits in the woods on the opposite side of Benthall Bank to the Old Mill at the Ironbridge. One of the brick lined adits can still be seen by the roadside, as can a corrugated sheet covered adit entrance, now collapsed, a few feet above. Nearby there is also a corrugated sheet covered miners’ cabin. These workings were described by T. Jones in the article referred to above, and in 1920 they were still being worked by a modified longwall method. At various times they have been connected to the Benthall Lane Mine behind the Benthall Firebrick Works near the Ironbridge Toll House. This consisted of a row of  four adits on the 224 ft. OD contour. One of these was steel-arched and still visible until recently destroyed by Telford Development Corporation ‘landscaping’. The clay was brought by wagons out of the adits, down an incline and across a bridge over the Severn Valley Line, before closure in 1942. Several mine plans survive, showing the workings at the mines here.[5][5]

Alas, very little has been written of the Turners Yard Mine and Caughley drift mines, which closed in 1940 and in the 1950s respectively, or even of the Milburgh Mines of Prestage and Broseley Tileries (also closed 1940), from which the steam engine has recently been removed to Blists Hill Museum. The writer, and the Society, would like to hear from anyone who has memories of from these or any other Broseley Mines.

In 2001 some of the landmarks mentioned in the article still exist:



App 11: CHAPTER SEVEN (downloaded 23/11/2002  www.history.rochester. edu/steam/marshall/chapter7.html)

8.     Creation of the Engine Business at Soho

Behold yon mansion flank'd by crowding trees Grace the green slope, and court the southern breeze, Genius and worth with Boulton there reside, Boulton, of arts the patron and the pride I Commerce with rev'rence at thy name shall bow, Thou fam'd creator of the fam'd Soho ! “J. MORFITT.

WORK was started at once on two engines, one for Bloomfield Colliery, some fourteen miles out of Birmingham, and the other for John Wilkinson's ironworks at Broseley, in the Wrekin district. On the success of these engines depended the future of the whole enter prise. The world of industry was watching anxiously to see whether this new power would show itself to be a sound investment. Re membering how he had been hampered in his earlier experiments by bad workmanship, Watt was in terror lest some ill-executed part might ruin the effect of the first public trials. He could trust Boulton to see that all the more delicate pieces of mechanism, the valves, controls, con denser and so forth, which were manufactured at Soho, were made accurately to his designs, but the heavy iron parts, and especially the cylinder, had to be cast elsewhere. When conducting his earlier experiments with Small, Boulton had got his cylinders from Coalbrookdale, the famous ironworks belonging to the Darby family, the originators of the practice of smelting with coke in place of charcoal. But they did no better than Carron, and the castings were found to be “unsound, and totally useless, and done over with some stuff to conceal their defects."
   The situation was saved by John Wilkinson, the biggest figure in the history of the British iron industry. Wilkinson, who had inherited his father's works at Bersham, in Denbighshire, and then started a new foundry at Broseley, next door to the Darby works at Coalbrookdale, had a consuming passion for iron. His vision of the future was a world in which everything would be constructed of iron. He made an iron pulpit for his parish church, iron writing tablets for the village school children, in which they wrote in sand with an iron pen, and finally left directions that he was to be buried in an iron coffin. Shortly before Watt joined Boulton at Soho Wilkinson had invented a new way of boring cylinders. In the old method the tools could not be kept rigid and so, although the diameter of the cylinder remained constant throughout, the bore did not proceed from end to end along a straight line. There was a subtle curve in the walls of the cylinder which caused the piston to jam. Wilkinson remedied this defect, and so contributed the last factor needed to make the manufacture of steam-engines a commercial possibility.
   In these two first engines the small parts were made at Soho, the big by Wilkinson, and the erection of the engine was supervised by Watt. When he went to Broseley, Boulton forbade him to let the engine make a single stroke until he was certain it would work without a hitch, “and then, in the name of God, fall to and do your best.” The whole beauty of the machine must be revealed to the spectators in one miraculous moment. The stratagem was entirely successful and the impression created was profound. The Bloomfield engine was “opened “with great ceremony in March I776. The trial took place in the presence of the proprietors of the colliery and, as the Birmingham Gazette informs us, of “a Number of Scientific Gentlemen whose Curiosity was excited to see the first Movements of so singular and so powerful a Machine; and whose Expectations were fully gratified by the Excellence of its performance. The Workmanship of the Whole did not pass unnoticed, nor unadmired.... The liberal Spirit shown by the Proprietors of Bloomfield in ordering this, the first large engine of the Kind that hath ever been made, and in rejecting a common one which they had begun to erect, entitle them to the thanks of the public; for by this Example the Doubts of the Inexperienced are dispelled, and the Importance and Usefulness of the Invention is finally decided.” There followed in the same year an engine for a Warwickshire colliery and another for a distillery at Stratford-le-Bow.
   Watt had been away from Soho a good deal, first in London about the Act of Parliament, then at Broseley, setting up the engine, and finally in the summer of I776 he went to Glasgow to get married. Boulton corresponded with him regularly, and his letters give a lively picture of life at the factory. At first, in the absence of the master mind, progress was slow. “The engine goes marvellously bad,” he wrote. “It made eight strokes per minute; but upon Joseph's endeavouring to mend it, it stood still. Nor do I at present see sufficient cause for its dulness.” Then follow full accounts of the subsequent, and more successful, experiments. Meanwhile the factory was growing. “The new forging-shop looks very formidable; the roof is nearly put on, and the hearths are both built.” As the factory grew, so did his ambitions. “I have fixed my mind upon making from twelve to fifteen reciprocating, and fifty rotative engines per annum. The Empress of Russia is now at my house, and a charming woman she is."
Of Watt's second marriage we are told by his biographer that, “having found that the burden of domestic affairs and the care of his children interfered seriously with his other pursuits, which had now become vitally important, he, after having remained for some years a widower, married a second time.” It sounds a calculating and unromantic affair, and certainly Anne Macgregor, who became the second Mrs. Watt, appears as an obscure and somewhat sinister background, rather than as a leading actress, in the scenes of his later life. Her father consented to the match, but wished to know the value of his son-in-law's share in the engine business. Apparently no formal deed of partnership had been drawn up, but, at Watt's request, Boulton prepared a statement containing the various points on which they had agreed, which he “extracted from our mutual missives.” It amounted to this. Boulton held two-thirds of the property in the patent, and undertook to pay all expenses of past and future experiments, without claiming interest on his money. He was to provide all the capital for the business of manufacture, and on this to receive lawful interest. The profits were to be divided in the proportions of two-thirds to him and onethird to Watt. Watt was to make all the drawings and to give directions for the work of construction.
During the next five years the attention of the firm was almost entirely occupied with the demands of the Cornish mines. This district seemed to offer the most favourable conditions for expansion. Inquiries from factories were usually for a “rotary “engine, one that would drive a wheel; but Soho was at present only producing “reciprocating “enginesÑengines that worked a vertical rod up and down, and were suitable for application to pumps and bellows. Factory owners were therefore told that the rotary engine was not yet perfected, and were advised to use a water-wheel, supplying it with water by means of a reciprocating engine and a pump. This was naturally put out of court as an unsound investment if a rotary engine was likely to be soon on the market. So there was not much business to be done in factories. The engine was effective for blowing furnaces, but the majority of ironworks still used charcoal, and therefore did not require a powerful blast. There were one or two city waterworks where an engine might be used, but this demand was almost confined to the London area. There remained only the pumping of mines. It might be expected that the engine would be most useful in the coalmines, since fuel was to be had on the spot for nothing. In reality, that is precisely the reason why the engines were not first introduced there. The most obvious advantage of Watt's engine over Newcomen's was its saving of coal. Where coal was very cheap that saving was not enough to compensate for the expense of in stalling the new machine. In addition to this, the majority of the coal-mines were not in urgent need of a more powerful engine. The coal area was extensive, and the immense increase in demand, produced largely by the spread of the engine itself, which was to drive the miners to burrow ever more deeply into the bowels of the earth, had as yet hardly begun. An old-fashioned atmospheric engine was good enough to drain the shallower workings.
In Cornwall the case was different. The rich mining district round Redruth had long been honeycombed with diggings, and there was hardly an acre that had not been tried for ore. "The spot we are at,” wrote Mrs. Watt, when staying with her husband at Chacewater, "is the most disagreeable in the whole county. The face of the earth is broken up in ten thousand heaps of rubbish, and there is scarce a tree to be seen.”  The surface deposits of tin had been exhausted and copper was found only at a considerable depth. If the industry was to expand, it could only expand downwards. Deeper and deeper worked the miners, fighting the water as they went. At times the pits were drowned and had to be abandoned. Then Newcomen's pumpingengine gave them a new lease of life. But the water was getting too strong for it, and more than once of late it had failed to "fork” a flooded mine. Two engines might succeed where one I20 failed, but the cost of transporting coal by sea to Cornwall and then inland to the mines was prohibitive. As trade declined and profits fell, the miners clamoured for more power and less expenditure of fuel. This was exactly what the new engine professed to be able to give.

The first definite order came from Ting-Tang Mine in November, I776 and it was at once followed by another from Wheal Busy, near Chacewater. The parts of the Chacewater engine were the first to be ready, and Watt went down to Cornwall to see them put together. He was not very well received. The building and repairing of steam-engines had been a regular business there for a long time, and there were families which had been in the trade for two generations. If the newcomer from Glasgow was successful, their livelihood would be threatened. But they were not very frightened. They found it hard to believe that any one could know more about steam-engines than they did, who had handled them all their lives. The most prominent of them was Jonathan Hornblower, son of Joseph who had come to Cornwall to build engines fifty years ago. Watt found him pleasant and honest enough, but entirely sceptical about the value of the new invention. It was Jonathan's son, Jabez (they all began with a J. His brothers were called Jesse and Jethro), who was destined to give so much trouble in after years. There was also a clever mechanic called Bonze, who absolutely refused to touch any work connected with Watt's engine. Watt found the Cornishmen ill-natured and treacherous. “Certainly,”  he said, “they have the most ungracious manners of any people I have ever yet been amongst.” They tried to injure him by spreading false rumours. “I have already been accused of making several speeches at Wheal Virgin, where, to the best of my memory, I have only talked about eating, drinking, and the weather.” When the Chacewater engine was ready, great crowds came to see it start, many of them hoping for a fiasco. But the trial was an overwhelming success. It did more work than a common engine, and with one-third of the coal. “The velocity, violence, magnitude, and horrible noise of the engine,” wrote Watt, "give universal satisfaction to all beholders, believers or not. I have once or twice trimmed the engine to end its stroke gently, and to make less noise; but Mr. Wilson [the manager] cannot sleep unless it seems quite furious, so I have left it to the enginemen; and, by the by, the noise seems to convey great ideas of its power to the ignorant, who seem to be no more taken with modest merit in an engine than in a man."
The Wheal Busy engine made as many converts as a Methodist meeting and inspired them with as great a fever of enthusiasm. Soho was hard put to it to keep pace with the orders. In December I778Watt wrote from Redruth to his old friend Black: “Our success here has equalled our most sanguine expectations; we have succeeded in saving three-fourths of the fuel over the engines here, which are the best of the old kind in the island.
"A universal confidence of the whole county in the abilities of the engine is now fully established, and we have executed agreements for several others, one of which will pay us better still, and is also to do the work of two other engines larger than itself. Several mines, formerly abandoned, are likely to go to work again through virtue of our engines; we have five engines of various sizes actually going here now in this county, and have eight more in contemplation, so that our affairs wear a most smiling aspect to human eyes.
“Our affairs in other parts of England go on very well; but no part can or will pay us so well as Cornwall, and we have luckily come among them when they were almost at their wits' end how to go deeper with their mines."
But Watt was, for a change, unduly optimistic. There were still many obstacles in the path. Labour continued to be a difficulty. The policy adopted at Soho was one of specialisation. Each workman confined himself to one process until he became an expert at it. “We are systematising the business of engine-making,” wrote Boulton to Smeaton in I778~~ as as we have done before in the button manufactory; we are training up workmen, and making tools and machines to form the different parts of Mr. Watt's engines with more accuracy, and at a cheaper rate than can possibly be done by the ordinary methods of working. Our workshop and apparatus will be of sufficient extent to execute all the engines that are likely to be soon wanted in this country.” But it was a slow business, and rich in disappointments. Some men were untrainable; others, when trained, were enticed away by other employers with offers of higher pay. Perfection of workmanship was not achieved at once, and many of the parts continued to be manufactured by other firms.
When the parts were finished, the engine had to be put together on the spot. This also required skilled labour, and there was very little of it. Men could not be kept in the employ of the firm for this type of work; they had to be found when wanted. Watt complained that it was not at all easy to discover “operative engineers, who can put engines together according to plan as clockmakers do clocks.” On another occasion he was searching for “forty pair of Smiths “to set up the engine at Wheal Virgin, and searching in vain, “for in all the mines where we are concerned I find a scarcity of these animals."
Far scarcer still were men capable of superintending the installation of an engine, teaching the local engineers how to treat it, and setting it right when their clumsy handling had upset its delicate constitution. Watt had at first to do the bulk of this work himself, and he had a hectic time flying backwards and forwards from the factory to the various centres where operations were in progress. Soon Boulton provided him with a small staff of men to relieve him of the strain, who acted under his minute instructions. But they made mistakes. Watt was the sort of man who could not forgive a mistake, and he wrote fierce letters to Boulton demanding their instant dismissal. Boulton quietly shifted them on to other jobs till the air cleared, and sent Joseph, the Soho foreman, down to Cornwall. But even Joseph had his little weaknesses, and another querulous letter arrived from Watt. “Joseph has pursued his old practice of drinking in a scandalous manner, until the very enginemen turned him into ridicule.... I have not heard how he behaved in the west; excepting that he gave the ale there a bad character.” But Joseph was a good workman and much could be forgiven him. Besides, as Watt reported, “A1though Joseph has attended to his drinking, he has done much good at his leisure hours,” and he soon had the engines in proper order.
Joseph had an even more remarkable successor in William Murdock, who entered the service of the firm in I777. He was a big brawny Scot, of immense industry and dog-like devotion to his employers. He was endowed with originality of mind as well as dexterity of hand, and on his first appearance in Cornwall in I779 he at once won his way to Watt's heart. He then performed the more remarkable feat of winning the affection of the Cornish miners. Whenever anything went wrong with an engine the miners asked for William, and were manifestly disappointed if Watt came instead. The mineowners offered him £Iooo a year if he would stay with them, engineers asked him to go into partnership with them, but he stuck to the firm in which he was an employee at twenty shillings a week. He was the maker of the first working model of a steam locomotive ever seen in this country, he invented gas lighting and made valuable contributions to the design of the steam-engine. But he never allowed his own researches to interfere with his duty to his employers. He lived on terms of close friendship with Boulton and Watt, but was not put on the footing of a partner until the business had passed to their sons.
In spite of the rapidity of the progress he was making, Boulton's financial position was causing him much anxiety. His outlay had been enormous, and his income was very precarious. When the engines were new and still had to prove their worth, he was obliged to supply them on very easy terms. Very few firms were sanguine enough, or rich enough, when buying an engine, to pay down a sum that would cover the cost of production, compensate for the outlay on experiment and provide Watt with a fair reward for his invention. Boulton therefore adopted the following plan. Customers paid for the parts of the engine, some of which were made at Soho others elsewhere, and for the work of installation and the patentees secured a return on the value of the invention by charging a rent for the use of the engine so long as the exclusive privileges of the patent lasted. This scheme had occurred to him as early as the spring of I775 and he had tentatively suggested to the proprietors of the Cornish mines, who were asking about terms, that he would guarantee that his engines would save half the fuel used by the old engines, provided that they paid him a sum equal to the value of what it saved beyond that half. The proposal to fix his rent according to the economy in fuel was very ingenious. It was distinctly favourable to purchasers, as, once they had met the initial cost of manufacture they were given a guarantee that the engine would yield them an annual profit. They could not possibly be out of pocket by it. The risk was not on their shoulders. And it was fairly satisfactory for Boulton. It enabled him to sell more engines than he could in any other way have done, and it gave him the best chance of getting the money that was due to him. He obtained a share in that increasing prosperity which he was confident that his engines would bring to industry.
When business actually began, the form of agreement adopted was slightly different from that first sketched by Boulton. The engine was built and erected at the expense of the purchasers, and they then undertook to pay annually a sum equal to one-third of the value of the fuel saved by the engine as compared with a common engine. Watt invented an ingenious meter, which was kept under lock and key, and told him faithfully what that saving was. The whole affair is so clearly described in a letter of Boulton to the Carron Ironworks, when erecting an engine there that it is worth quoting at some length.
"We do not aim at profits in engine building,” writes Boulton, “but shall take our profits out of the saving of fuel; so that if we save nothing we shall take nothing. Our terms are as follows: we will make all the necessary plans, sections and elevations for the building, and for the engine with its appurtenances, specifying all cast and forged ironwork, and every other particular relative to the engine. We will give all necessary directions to your workmen, which they must implicitly obey. We will execute, for a stipulated price, the valves, and all other parts which may require exact execution, at Soho; we will see that all the parts are put together, and set to work properly."
Then follows the usual stipulation that the fuel consumed is to be compared with that of any other engine in Scotland, and one-third of the value of the saving is to be paid to Boulton and Watt “in recompense for our patent licence, our drawings, etc.” If the engine is sold, the new owner must undertake to continue the payment of the dues owing, “otherwise the engine which we make for you at an expense of two thousand pounds may be sold in Cornwall for ten thousand pounds."
The disadvantages of this system are evident. Like all systems of payment by instalments it exposes the seller to continuous risk. The purchaser may at any time become unable or unwilling to pay what is owing. In most cases of the kind, if the buyer gets in default for any reason, the seller can at least recover the goods. In Boulton's case that was not so. In the first place, if a copper mine failed and had to close down, the payments would stop; but there would be no default. When the engine is not working it cannot save coal, and no rent is due. In the second place, even if there were deliberate default he had no easy remedy, for the engine was the property of the mine; it had been bought and paid for. Boulton could not go down and take it away.
   The longer an engine had been at work in a mine, the more it was looked on by the mineowners as their absolute property, and the more intolerable appeared to them the burden of the annual dues. They forgot that, apart from these, Boulton and Watt had received nothing to reward them for their risks, their original outlay, and for the invention itself, and they came to regard the payment as an iniquitous tax, levied on them for the use of their own property in order to keep two grasping monopolists in idleness. It was a toll taken by private individuals on the mineral resources of the country. Feeling ran high. It was augmented by the fact that the monopoly, which normally only lasted for fourteen years, had been extended by Act of Parliament for twenty-five. The miners felt convinced that somebody had sold them. They proposed to petition Parliament to repeal the Act. Watt was miserable. He had devoted his life to benefit his fellow-men, and now he was denounced as a heartless profiteer and an enemy of society. He felt inclined to sell the whole business for what it would fetch and retire to poverty and peace. But the storm blew over.
   The income from the engines, therefore, was bound to be very precarious. It was difficult to extract, and it depended entirely on the prosperity of the copper-mining industry. Unfortunately that industry was passing through a severe depression. The flooding of the mines and the high cost of coal had nearly ruined many of the companies, and, although there was every reason to hope that the new engine would retrieve their fortunes, the mine-owners were extremely reluctant to put their hands in their pockets until those pockets were once more comfortably full. Boulton was inclined to be lenient, and to accept orders without concluding any definite agreement about future payments, but this infuriated Watt. To him a bird in the hand was worth at least a dozen in the bush; it was quite enough for his modest tastes, and it saved worry. "Let our terms be moderate,” he wrote to Boulton, “and, if possible, consolidated into money a priori, and it is certain we shall get some money, enough to keep us out of jailÑin continual apprehension of which I live at present.” Boulton did his best; but even when he had concluded firm agreements he often had to remit the dues for several months, because the companies were too poor to pay.
   Things came to such a pass that Boulton and his friends had to take shares in several of the copper mines in order to keep them going at all; he had to finance his customers to enable them to pay for his goods. This he could ill afford to do. He was himself in debt. The hardware business, which was run as a separate concern, was doing badly, chiefly owing to the incompetence of his partner, Fothergill. He could get no assistance there. In I778 Low, Vere & Co., the bankers from whom he had been borrowing, nearly came to grief, and they naturally called on Boulton for repayment. He only saved himself by borrowing another £7¡¡¡ from a Mr. Wiss, pledging the profits of the engines to pay the interest. Wiss insisted on Watt's name appearing in the agreement, as, without him, the mortgage on the engines was unsound. Watt was furious. The terms of partnership had exempted him from all financial responsibility. He practically accused Boulton of breaking their agreement, forgetting that Boulton had for four years been paying him a salary of £33 a year, which was outside the bond.
   Though driven almost to distraction, Boulton kept his temper. He asked all who had dealings with the firm to be gentle with Watt and remember that he was a sick man. In truth, Watt was hardly responsible for his actions. He had been reduced to a state of moaning melancholy. His wife wrote to Boulton begging him to forgive her husband's complaining words, and imploring him to do something to set his mind at rest. “Believe me,” she wrote, “there is not on earth a person who is dearer to him than you are. It causes him pain to give you trouble.... In his present state of weakness, every ill, however trifling, appears of a gigantic size, while, on the other hand, every good is diminished.” But Boulton was ill too, and at times bitter thoughts crept into his mind and found expression in his letters. He was writing to his bankers about the loan to them. “I have received,” he said, “so much pain from Mr. Watt's repeated ungenerous behaviour to me on that account, that I am determined as soon as possible to wipe away all obligation to him.” In a moment of irritation he told Watt that, if he was dissatisfied, he might take over the management of the firm's accounts himself. This Watt foolishly agreed to do.
   Money and megrims came near to snapping the strands of their friendship. But before disaster overtook them the tide of misfortune turned. In I78I there had not been “money to pay their Xmas balances nor their workmen's wages.” In the following year Watt reported a clear income from engines of over £3¡¡¡- In I783 Boulton had a balance, and at once used it to release Watt from his debt to the bankers. Two years later Watt no longer had to draw an annual salary of £33¡; his share of the profits had for the first time become a reality. Twenty years had passed since Watt conceived the idea of his engine, forty thousand pounds had been invested by Boulton in the development of the invention, and at last they were beginning to reap the fruits of their labours.
Chapter 8




9.     Poor Law in Rural Communities 1601 - 1834


A number of specific transcriptions for Wrockwardine were transcribed from:
http://www3.shropshire-cc.gov.uk/roots/packages/ind/ind_w07.htm

http://www.mdlp.co.uk/resources/general/poor_law.htm

A Brief Explanation of the Poor Law in respect of Rural Communities 1601 – 1834

Please visit This excellent site details on workhouses that are not discussed on this page Rossbret Workhouse Homepage

Introduction


If the family you are researching was part of the 90% of the rural population that survived as village labourers or descended into the day labourer class during the 18th century you will not have course to refer to the wills and probate records that flesh out the histories of more affluent families. The information may however be there just waiting to be discovered. The poor law records described below were some of the most important a parish would keep and in many cases have survived, especially in rural communities, when registers may have been lost. Many county archives have indexed these records and you may be lucky to find your family there, if however they are missing don't despair. Most indices refer only to the main party but often other people, friends and neighbors are mentioned, or you may find an ancestor with a parish office. Be sure to read the account books of the overseers and constables and even if you fail to find your family I feel sure that the exercise of reading all the documents will fascinate you as it has me and give you a valuable insight into the community your family served and lived in.

Background


The tradition of the village supporting it's poor has been firmly established from Saxon times, in fact the term Lady is from the old english hlafdige, loaf maker and dole from the old english dal to distribute. This tradition was as much necessity as compassion, the open field system of farming was very much a communal way of life depending on mutual co-operation and the preservation of a labour force. This was a fact of life as much for the Lord of the Manor as for the ordinary village population as the villagers would work the manorial lands as part of their tenancy agreement.

Throughout the 14th to 16th centuries the wealth of Britain was underwritten by the wool trade and in the quest for this wealth large tracts of land were turned over to sheep farming. This eventually led to an underclass of dispossessed poor wandering the countryside seeking work, settlement and charity. Worse still, an Elizabethan population increase of 25%  and a series of disastrous famines in the 1590's led to an increase in poverty which could not be alleviated under the old system of individual philanthropy. This posed a threat to the stability of the realm and with this view a series Elizabethan poor law acts were passed in 1563, 1572, 1576, 1597 and 1601.

In 1563 the poor were categorized for the first time into deserving, ( the elderly and the very young, the infirm, and families who occasionally found themselves in financial difficulties due to a change in circumstance), they were considered deserving of social support and the undeserving, (these were people who often turned to crime to make a living such as highwaymen or pickpockets, migrant workers who roamed the country looking for work, and individuals who begged for a living), who were to be treated harshly. The act of 1572 introduced the first compulsory poor local poor law tax, an important step acknowledging that alleviating poverty was the responsibility of local communities, in 1576 the concept of the workhouse was born and in 1597 the post of overseer of the poor was created. The great act of 1601 consolidated all the previous acts and set the benchmark for the next 200+ years.

The Poor Laws passed during the reign of Elizabeth I played a critical role in the country's welfare. They signaled an important progression from private charity to welfare state, where the care and supervision of the poor was embodied in law and integral to the management of each town, village and hamlet. Another sign of their success was that the disorder and disturbance which had been feared by Parliament failed to materialize. But problems remained. There is no doubt that the laws helped the destitute by guaranteeing a minimum level of subsistence, but those who were scraping a living did not qualify for help and continued to struggle. And, as the years wore on and the population continued to increase, the provisions made to care for the poor became stretched to the limit. It is, however, a tribute to their lasting success that two of the Acts, from 1597 and 1601, endured until well into the nineteenth Century.

Poor law 1601 - 1834


The unit of local government was an always had been the parish but within an ecclesiastical parish there could be more than one poor law parish usually reflecting ancient Manors or Chapelries. For example, in Leicestershire,  Sheepy Magna had been a parish from at least the 12th century but encompassed the Chapelry of Ratcliffe Culey and the Hamlet of Sheepy Parva, each operated it's own poor law system. Everyone would have a parish of legal settlement an if relief was required it would be the responsibility of that parish to provide it. The parish was required to elect each Easter two "Overseers of the Poor” who were responsible for setting the poor rate, it's collection and the relief of those in need, these overseers should ideally be, "substantial householders” but in small villages the only practical qualification was to be a rate payer. In rural England where 90% of the population lived this was a fair and equitable system run by local people and administered by the local Justices of the Peace who were likely to be the Rector and local landowners. Following 1834 all this changed as parliament denigrated the system bit by bit in response to the growth of the large industrial towns and their very different problems.

Legal Settlement


Legal settlement was the overlying principle of poor relief, the qualifications for which were as follows :-

To be born in a parish of legally settled parent(s)

Up to 1662 by living there for 3 years. After 1662 you could be thrown out within 40 days and after 1691 you had to give 40 days notice before moving in.

Renting property worth more than £10 per annum in the parish or paying taxes on such a property.

Holding a Parish Office.


Being hired by a legally settled inhabitant for a continuous period of 365 days. (most single labourers were hired from the end of Michaelmas week till the beginning of the next Michaelmas so avoiding the grant of legal settlement). By the time you were married, had proved your worth and gained experience then longer hirings were possible therefore changing legal settlement.

Having served a full apprenticeship to a legally settled man for the full 7 years.

Having previously been granted poor relief. This condition implied that you had previously been accepted as being legally settled and was usually only referred to in settlement examinations.

Females changed their legal settlement on marriage, adopting their husbands legal place of settlement. ( If a girl married a certificate man in her own parish and he died, she would automatically be removed to his place of legal settlement along with any issue from the marriage).

If  you could not satisfy these requirements you could move into a new parish using a settlement certificate providing your home parish would issue one. This was virtually a form of indemnity issued by your home parish stating that you and your family and future issue belonged to them and they would take you all back at their expense if you became chargeable to the parish. Because of the expense of  removal it would be unlikely your home parish would issue a certificate for a parish a large distance away. A settlement certificate was only valid if it bore the seals of the overseers of both parishes and that of the local Justices and was not transferable.

Removal


If you or your family became or threatened to become reliant on parish relief and you could not satisfy the strict guidelines for legal settlement then you were liable to be removed to the place of your last legal settlement. If you were a certificate man then you would be carted back to your old parish at their expense but if no settlement certificate was in force then a removal order was applied for from the local Justices of the Peace. This would usually involve an Examination as to Settlement carried out before the local justice, overseers and another ratepayer in order to ascertain your place of last legal settlement. In tenuous cases others may have to be examined also, parents, grandparents and siblings, these examinations could run into many pages virtually the life story of the individuals family.

Parish Apprentices


Children of poor families, orphans and widows children were often apprenticed  at the parishes expense to masters in other parishes. This was a way of disposing of possible future problems by altering their legal settlement status. If they served their full term of seven years then their legal settlement would be at the place of their masters settlement. Girls were usually apprenticed until they attained 21 or got married, problem solved, and boys till they were 24. This extra three years gave the master a bit more cheap labour as an incentive. Although many of these apprenticeships were just an excuse for cheap labour some were meaningful, I have found many a parish apprentice prospering at his new home and in fact taking apprentices from his old parish later on. The Parish Indentures were important documents and sworn before the local Justice by the overseers and the churchwardens, Two copies were made one for the master and one for the parish. The master had a legal obligation to feed cloth and impart the mysteries of his trade for the duration of the contract.

Illegitimacy


Illegitimacy during this period was no big deal, it was accepted it happened and did not appear to be any bar to future marriage to the girl in question. Where it was a problem was with the poorer class of labourer who lived on the brink of poverty.  When a girl from this class reached 13 or even earlier she would be placed in service some ware, so decreasing the financial burden on the household, if she became pregnant she would invariably lose her job and be thrown back on her family for support. The home parish would naturally become concerned that this would force the family into relief and if she died in childbirth, a real risk, there would be an orphan to support. If  she was working away from her own parish, at the first sign of her pregnancy, she would be removed as if the child was born there she could claim relief  whilst the child was at nurse, defined as up to the age of 3 years. With this in mind there was a necessity to try to find out who the father was. The girl would be examined and if the father could be identified then an order for both maintenance and the cost of  delivering the child would  be issued. Issued by the church wardens and overseers of the poor this order would be implemented by the parish constable and in default a warrant was frequently issued and his possessions could be sold towards the debt. These orders were commonly called filiation orders or bastardy bonds. The maintenance order could be a lump sum paid to the parish, a minimum of £40, usually out of the question for most fathers or fixed sum for the lying in and a weekly allowance until the child was 14 years. A labourer would have a smaller sum fixed say 2s a week and a master or farmer up to 3s 6d.

Parish Relief


The forms parish relief would take are varied. Where they survive, the overseers account books give a remarkable insight into village life, listing not only the rate payers but the recipients and the reasons for their relief. Money was not the only form of out relief, most parishes had houses set aside for the old or destitute. These could be either owned by the village, given as a charitable donation, (alms houses), or rented specifically for the purpose. Most charity almshouses were administered by the church and would appear in the church wardens account books; those specially purchased,  built or rented by the poor rate were administered by the overseers. Orphans could be boarded out to local families and clothes or material to make clothes were provided as was the provision of medical care either by the local nurse! or in some cases doctor.

The money came from the poor rate, set annually by the overseers and various charities. The charities could be quite ancient and often held and administered by the Rector or Patron, these were often the source of litigation and to this end many churches had charity boards in the vestry or tower listing them. Other forms or charity could be land left by someone for the benefit of the poor, many villages had their poor's piece which was tendered for annually. Many other charities specified bread or ale on certain days or bibles for the poor children.

Other sources of income would come from ratepayers who were pressured into accepting those on relief as temporary labourers and the income from letting the lanes of the village for grazing and hay making. The poor would often be put to work by the parish surveyor repairing the roads and lanes. Details of these activities are usually found in the parish constables accounts book.

Rarely found but often intriguing are pauper's inventories. These list the property and possessions of someone receiving parish relief with a view to ascertaining his wealth.

After 1834


The poor law was radically following the great reform act of 1834. The main difference was that the relief of the poor was changed from a local responsibility into a group one. Groups of parishes were consolidated into Poor Law Unions so removing the local community responsibility. Out relief was discouraged and the workhouses, which had been in existence for the previous two centuries, became the primary source of relief.  Throughout the remainder of the 19th century the laws were tightened and modified until the administration was transferred to the Ministry of Health in 1918. It was not until 1930 that the poor laws were finally abolished. If you haven't already done so visit this site



The following were transcribed from
http://www3.shropshire-cc.gov.uk/roots/packages/ind/ind_w07.htm

Mental Illness

 

Transcribed by members of the North East Telford Studies Group


www3.shropshire-cc.gov.uk/roots/packages/ind/ind_w10.doc

Mental illness was a problem just as today.  There were a number of Private Asylums which would take paupers at a special low rate, but it was still a major expense for Parishes.  Public asylums were also being built.  Alternatively the parish might arrange for men to sit with mental patients to ensure that they did not commit suicide.  One wonders what treatment was available in the early 1800s.  Violent patients would be restrained with strait-jackets and drugs such as opiates would be used to quieten patients.  There were no cures, patients would simply have to let nature take its course.

5/50  Sep 15, 1821      Letter to O/Ss, Wrockwardine Parish from (Doctor) H.Crump, Albrighton.
Gentl'n,  The bearer's wife still continues in a disordered state of mind, & though not in so violent a degree as to require confinement yet, she is totally incapable of attending to her family.  I therefore consider them proper objects to claim assistance from their Parish.

                        I am Gentl'n Yr. Ob't Serv't  H.Crump

Note says James Feltons Wife of Beckbury  Named by Mr.Mountford - 4 wks - 10s.

5/110 Feb 06, 1822      Certificate, Jan 14, 1822 from O.Bidwell, Surgeon, Albrighton.

This is to certify that Ann the wife of James Felton continues in a state of mental Imbecility and is therefore incompetent to the management of her own person.

I have no doubt of the truth of the above statement.  John Dehane Minister of Beckbury, John Perceval C/W.
Allowed at meeting £1 5s 0d "which will pay him to Mar 23".

7/60    Dec 10, 1823    Letter from John Johnson, Nr.Bulls Head, Chancery Lane, Lane End, Stone?
Sir, I write a few lines to inform you Concerning the state of my wife  I was at Mr.Bakewells last Sunday and asked Mr.Bakewell if he had now wrote to you informing you how she was going on  he much surprised me by informing me he had not  I was not permitted to see her but he told me that he believed she was getting rather better and the next time I came over I should see her which will be on the 20th Inst. so Gentn. if you think proper on her continuing there or if you think of removing her you will Please to inform me of your opinion on the subject by return of Post  So I remain your Most Obedt. Servt.
              John Johnson
Note says: A letter from John Johnson concerning his wife being at Spring Vale Assallum, Staffordshire. Mr.Clark to see this letter.

7/94    Apr 01, 1824    Letter from John Johnson, Nr.Bulls Head, Lane End,
Sirs, I am much Surprised that Mr.Shepard as not been over according to promise   I should Esteem it a favour If you will have the kindness to write unto me to inform me what I must do about having my wife out of Spring Vale  I have been very short of work since I was over But in about a fortnight I believe I shall have more  I was over at Mr.Bakewels last Sunday but one and they informd me that my wife was much better  Sir you will please to bring the Letter that Mr.Bakewell sent when you come over
            So Gentn. I Remain Your Obedt Sert.   John Johnson
Sirs   NB If you wish me not to have her out I wish to give up housekeeping
Note says: G.S. waited on him April 2 and 3.

7/95    Apr 02, 1824    Letter dated 25 Feby, 1824 to Overseer or other Parish Officer of Rockwardine nr. Wellington from Thos. Bakewell, Spring Vale near Stone.
Gentlemen,  I have had for nearly a year poor Jane Johnson  one of the rudest most noisy and troublesome Patients I almost every(sic) had and my only comfort is that I have others nearly as bad as her for a longer time who have recovered and had it not been for the hope of her recovery I should have discharged her long ago, she is certainly upon the whole better and there are hopes but she is still very noisy at times and rude, I hear her at this moment.  She came at Lady Day last but I am only charge you from Midsummer and for the half year ending with the year 1823.  I shall be greatly obliged if you will pay my son who is the bearer of this, as for the first quarter I have not been paid and suppose I never shall.  If any of the Officers of the Parish come this way I trust they will call. I charge as I promised the same as the County Asylum does but I never will take another at that rate at all like Jn Johnson she has torn blankets to the value of half what I charge
                              Yours Gentlemen
                                Respectfully  T.Bakewell
To Guardians of The Parish of Rockwardine 
1823 to Dec 31  To half years Board, Medicine and Attendance of Jane Johnson ending this day at 10s/week .....................£13            Thos.Bakewell Dr.

1824 March 31st To 39 Weeks up to this day at 10s           £19 10s 0d
                                    by Cash April 2nd, 1824  Thos.Bakewell
Note says Agreed to be paid at Meeting March 3rd 1824

8/1     Apr 2,3, 1824   Receipted a/c from J.P.Shepherd
Expenses going to Spring Vale to settle with Mr.Bakewell for Johnson's wife, and Lane End concerning J's wife, thence to Handley re Jno.Barnett's bastard child (promised to leave 1s 6d/wk in Mr.Bates hand), 2s 0d paid to Constable of Handley to assist in taking Barnett into custody. £1 3s 0d

8/8     Apr 13, 1824    Letter from John Johnson, Lane End April 6, 1824.
Sir,  I write a few lines to inform you that I fetched my Wife on monday morning according as I Promised to do she behaved very well on Coming But since she has been very unruly  I find myself to be very foolish indeed that I would not yield to your Proposals which I am Certain would have been to my advantage according as we had agreed  I therefore own my fault and beg you will Excuse me  I now Propose to you if you will agree to put her in Stafford Assylum  I will pay half as I agreed or else I will come over to the Parish with her  I will do which you Please  I have been to Stoke Vestry and they will send us if you will send them the order   I beg therefore you will send me an answer by Return of Post as I am obliged to stay at home to mind her myself no woman dares stay with her   from Your unworthy and most Humble Sert.   John Johnson  near Bulls Head Lane End
NB  Sirs my Landlord is not willing that I should stay any longer in his house

Copy of Reply from J.P.Shepherd, Wombridge Apr 13, 1824
John Johnson   Your letter Came on Friday Evng. which I was very much Surprised to see, you had like to wrought before you had rec'd your Wife into your home or given her any tryal   Why not you keep her Strait Wascoat on and Chain her to some place that she may not Arm any one, then I think there would be no Doubt but you could get a woman to look after her.  I should have answered you sooner but having stated on Wednesday last to the Gentm'n of the Select Vestry what agreement you and I had made on the Saturday Proceeding(sic) I must Consult with Some of them.  And as you had the offer of the Parish allowing 5s/week and you to pay the same sum for her to stop a few months longer with Mr.Bakewell  under the Same Circumstance you may take her to Stafford Assylum as you said you would if you could not manage her  Your Brother-in-law is Witness to all these Agreements and I ham well convinced that he blames you very much   at the Next Select Vestry the first Wednesday in May, your letter will be laid before the Gentn. and Answered.  PS you may rest assuredly that the Parish will pay 5s/week for to give her a tryal for 2 or 3 months at Stafford Assylum   Yours J.P.Shepherd Asst. OS

8/33    Jun 03, 1824    Letter from John Johnson, Nr. Bulls Head, Lane End May 31st, 1924
Mr.Sheperd and Gent'   Sirs, I have the Pleasure to inform you that my Wife is now I believe in a mending way if it should please the Lord to continue her to do so which I sincerely Beg he will  she Certainly is a Deal Better since she is come'd home and now does not talk and Ramble so much  at times she will be very solid for a day or two and then she will be worse again for a few Days  I hope she will now be manag'd without sending her to Stafford Assylum  But if she should be worse and Obligd to go I would thank you to send me word how I must take her and how the Expence of the same must be paid as I have ad a sad misfortune and lik'd to have lost one of my Eyes and so affected the other that has unabled me to work for a few Days  But thank God I am getting as I can see a little better  I am very sorry Gentn. that I am so unfortunate and troublesome to you but I cannot help it Else I certainly would  you will Please Gentn. to send me what Mr.Sheperd agreed to allow which was 2/6 pr week and if you can allow a little more in my Distressed Condition you will do a great kindness unto your unworthy Humble Sert.
                                                      John Johnson
John Johnson Answer June 3rd 1824  and sent a Wellington One Pound Note drawn upon London No. 979 date 5 Nov 1818 which pays all thats due to May 29, 1824, 8wks at 2/6.  Pay'd the Postage

8/78    Nov 17, 1824    Letter from John Johnson, Nr. Bulls Head, Lane End (dated Oct 11).
Sir,  I write a few lines to inform you and the Gentlemen that my wife is a deal Better which I thank God for it and pray that she may Continue to mend as she has done of late then I beleive it will lie in my power to do for her and not be troublesome to you any longer except something very bad falls out I am although very thankfull to you all Gentn. for past favours and shall esteem it a favour if you will be so kind as to send me by return of Post £2 0s 0d for the 16 Weeks which is above due according as Mr Sheperd agreed to when at Lane End as attendance and expences and altogether as run me a deal in Debt  I really cannot do without that small sum to do a little towards Setting me Straight again which is all now I am Striving for so I hope Mr Sheperd you will not do no worse than your agreement which is all I want and I am very thankful that I took my wife away when I did for I sincerely beleive that she would never have been no better there but now she is coming about very fast and very likely to get over it again and make me a little Satisfaction for all my trouble  So I Remain  Your Obet. Sert.
                                          John Johnson
 Note says £2 sent Nov 17 and acknowledgement since received.

8/82    Nov 24, 1824    Letter from Jno.Johnson, Lane End Nov 24, 1824
Sirs, I Received your kind Letter Inclosing a £2 Note for which I am very much Oblig'd to you for the same  I am very sorry Gentn. I have been so troublesome to you But through the Blessing of God I hope I shall not trouble you any more for I am thankful that I have the Pleasure to Inform you that my wife is now getting Pretty well again which I hope will Continue so, and Except something very Bad Indeed falls out I do not Intend to be troublesome to you any more and Return you Gentn. many thanks for Past favours and Remain your Well Wisher & Obedt. Sert.
                                                John Johnson

8/104   Feb 02, 1825    Letter from O/Ss of Tettenhall
To the Churchwardens and Overseers of the Parish of Wrockwardine
Gentlemen,  Application has been made to me by several respectible gentlemen residing in this Parish on behalf of James Felton a Parishioner of yours, for me to inform you of the miserable and distressed situation in which he is at the present and as been for some time placed  His wife as been for some time in quite a melancholy and deranged state of mind quite incapable of taking care of herself and unless her husband stops at home to wait on her he is under the necessity of hiring a person to take care of her which is very expensive to him and as deprived him of his employment and as reduced him to the lowest extremity and he as this day actually been distrain'd on for rent due to his Landlord, which had it not been for myself and another neighbour paying it for him his goods must have been sold for the which he as given us a bill of sale.  Gentlemen I should not have took this trouble to write had he not been an object of charity and think you would do right by allowing him something towards the care and maintenance of his wife (which I assure you is a miserable creature) but shall leave that for you to decide upon what to give him
            I remain yours
            S.Wright?   Cashier for the Parish of Tettenhall
            Jan 31, 1825
Note says allowed £2 0s 0d.

The following 3 letters from Elizabeth Jones of Bromsgrove describe her daughter’s mental problems in a graphic way.  Elizabeth Jones gained Settlement in Wrockwardine Parish through marriage to Wrockwardine parishioner Edward Jones.  After his death, Elizabeth claimed her widow’s relief for many years, writing to the Overseer every few months in her own characteristic style reminding him that her allowance was due.  Her daughter had an unfortunate marriage to a “Navigator” employed at Tardebigge near Bromsgrove building the Birmingham – Worcester canal.  He deserted her and after other problems she returned to her mother’s home but developed Mental Illness.  She did not know his Parish so it was not clear which Parish would have to pay the Asylum expenses.  Eventually Elizabeth was able to show that it was Tardebigge Parish which should pick up the Bill.

8/69  Oct 18, 1824      Letter from  Elizabeth Jones, Bromsgrove
      To Mr J.P.Shepherd  Wombridg  Nere Wellington  Shropshire
                        Bromsgrove Octr 18 1824
Sir  I recived your Letter with the Two pounds inclosed wich I sincerley return you and all frends thanks for   respeckting my Daughters Parish I Cant give you aney a Count on after she was Marred as the Man was a intier Stranger in this Contrey he Worked at the Navegatison in Tardebig Parish   She was Marred quite unnone to me he was not Long there before he Left that place the was at Lodgins the time as he stopt there and for the time as she was with him in Differant places   I dont no wether she gained a Parish before she was Marred or not   when she was a girl she whent to Redditch wich is 6 Miles from Bromsgrove to Nurs a Child she had her Vickels there there was no a Greement Drawn betwixt the people and me she was not to have Wadges the was to biy her Shoes and a few Nesesareys she was there three years or upwards   when she cam from there she whent to Work at the Jarsey[?] Fackterey in this Town but never was hierd she slept in the House where she Nurst at the was Needle Makers but the are Ded both Man and the Woman   there may be som Living in Redditch wich may Recoleckt her Living there but may not [know] what termes she was on   it is 19 or 20 years since she was with thees People at Redditch it is in the Parish of Tardebig please God she dont get better as I ham a fred she never will    if I ham spaird I will go to the Tardebig Overseers and state it to them  and here what the say and I will Lett you no   I cold State the Ole of her Life to you but nothing Leding to gaine her a Parish since she was Marred   she is not Mad there is three Wiming in this Town now in the Same State as she is but the have somthing to Subsist with One from the Parish the other two from there one Propertey   the Dockters say it is a Nurvues Commplant   som times she is as if there was nothing the Matter with her onley her Eiyes look so Wild   at other times she is quite ought Ragous and tares her Close and as bad Ideas in trying to make her self a way   I have bin verey Neglecktfull in not seeing in to it as I have parted with meney things wich was hers but I was left in hopes she hold get the Better of it    you may Depend as I have bin in Dangour to Sleep with her as thees fitts Come on in a Minnit   if I was to aply to this Parish for relefe for her the hold find ought her Parish but I dont Chuse to do it as I promist when me and my six Children returned from the Order never to give them aney Trouble nor I never have as yett   nor I dont wish to give you aney more Trouble nor I can help   as I before said if she dont get better and in a verey short time I will go to Tardebig if Spaird and state the Ole of her Life so fair as is in my power but I ham verey shure if she dont Gaine her Parish by being at Redditch she never gained it after she was Marred    Sir as you have Behaved so kind in Sending me the two pounds you may Depend a pon it as she never shall be send to your Parish so Long as I Live with ought my letting you no of it   if any of you are Obliged to Com over when I Lett you no what the Tardebig Overseers say you shant have any thing kept a Sekritt from you but I no she as not gained a Parish since she was Marred and you will find when you Com to no the [story?] of her Life   if aney of you like to Com over I shall be glad to see you but if not as soon as I no any thing as will be of aney Satisfackson I will Lett you no
      Remain your Humble Sarvant    Elizth Jones  O Lane Bromsgrove Worcestershire

10/2  Mar 1, 1825 Letter from Elizabeth Jones, Bromsgrove        
                        Bromsgrove March 1st 1825
Sir   I have maid bold to trouble you with Thees Lines  I informed you in my Last as I hold Lett you no if aney thing fresh took place respeckting my Daughter wich was not right in her head   I put up with great Diffeckels and Dangours till Jannery 31st wich I was under the Nesesety of a plying to the overseer of this Parish to have her took Care on   She got so much worse and so Predgais a gainst me as I das not be where She was   on the 3rd of Feburey She was took to Drotwich by forse to a place wich is Called the Mad House   I was ordered by the Overseer of this Parish to atend the Jestis' Meeting on the fryday Week folling wich is Six Miles from this Town………….

11/1  Mar 23, 1826      Letter from  Elizabeth Jones, Bromsgrove 

Bromsgrove March 23 1826

Sir  I recived your Letter Dated Sept.15 - 1825 with the one pound Note inclosed wich I return you and all frends my Sincer thanks for   you said in your Letter I must not Wright till I had more pay due I hope you will plese to Excuse me as it is real Nesesety wich a Caisons me to Wright to ask the favour plese to Send me one pound   I Shall owe one half a Years Rent on the 25 of this Month if I can pay one Quarter I may be ought of Dangour of being deprived of a home for the present I told my Landlord I hold Wright to ask you the favour but I Cold not Expeckt a return so soon as the 25   I told him I was paid up till the 17 of this Month and if you had not the goodness to give me the 10s I shold be wors of nor what I ham   Sir as you have bin my frend I hope you will be plesed to Continue so you may depend it is real Charety to relive me as it is not in my power to do but verey Little at any kind of Work being now turned 70 years of Adge I ham verey thankfull as my Eiysight Continues so well to inable me to Wright   I have had a dele of trouble and uneseness since I Wrot to you Last my Daughter wich I informed you was at the asilum is Ded She Died on Christmas Eve    She got no better of her Complant I cold make greet Complant of my Circumstance but dont wish to trouble you as you have behaved so kind to me wich I hope and trust you will be rewarded for it   Sir there is a great Stagnation in this Town throw the Banks and the Dedness of Trade   I hope you will plese to send me a pound as Speedy as you plese I shall be thankfull if you will plese to pay it in to the Post Office at Wellington or what Office you think proper for me to recive at the post Office Bromsgrove as the will not take aney Notes in this Town if the com aney Distance of   I hope I Shant be to trouble you a gaine before I here from you
      remain your Humble Sarvant    Elizth Jones O Lane Bromsgrove Worcestershire

[On back is]      "A copy.  Wombridge near Wellington  April 1st 1826
Elizth Jones Your Letter dated the 23rd Ulto. Came to hand and as you are much Destred (sic) to pay your rent Inclosed is a Check drawn by Wellington Post Office on Bromsgrove Post Office for One Pound youl apply their for it which pays you 20 weeks in advance from March 18th
            Yrs. etc. J.P.Shepherd, Asst. O/Seer for W/w/dine


11/128.       Feb 03, 1827    Letter & a/c from Mr.Saml. Rees
a) Addressed to Mr.Shepherd   Sir, Several men Night and Day have been with Saml.Cartwright he is something better than usual, not so raveing and rude. Much more quiet night and day if you say he must be still Attended, if not the Account is as  Follows
                  Day   Night Total
James Cooper            1     2     3
Benj.Evans        1           1
Rd.Denton         5     3     8
James Price       1     1     2
Saml.Rees         4     5     9
Thos.Harris       2     2     4
David Stranger          1           1
                              25
This account up to Tuesday night Jan 30, 1827
b)    Tuesday 30th Jany
Rd.Denton   5 nights T,W,Th,Fr,S.
Sam.Rees    3 nights
Thos.Harris 1  Do.            Total 9

Jany  Began Tuesday 23rd 1827 night
James Cooper Days & Night
Ben Evans   3
            1
Rd.Denton   8
James Price 2
Saml.Rees   9
Thos.Harriss      4
David (Stranger)  1     Surname crossed out, Jones written in
      Total 28

c)    Mr.John Rhodes (O/S)  Please to pay the bearer Saml. Rees for the undermentioned Persons Attending on Saml. Carter Jnr.  Commenced Jany 23, 1827
James Cooper attending Night and Days     3 at 2s           6s 0d
Benj. Evans                   1           2s 0d
Richard Denton                      13               £1 6s 0d
James Price                   2           4s 0d
Saml. Rees                    12               £1 4s 0d    
Thomas Harris                       5                   10s 0d
David Jones                   1           2s 0d Total £3 14s 0d. Received Feb 3.
Attending  Samuel Carter Jnr. in his Melancoly State day and night at 2s/shift.

11/135      No date, but laid before Vestry Feb 07, 1827   Two letters
a) from John Blunt, Vicar of Lilleshall.
 Tuesday - one o'clock  Gentlemen, I write this from the immediate neighbourhood of Cartwright's House. I have just left him, I find that he has this morning attempted to cut his throat in spite of the strictest care of his friends.  I need say no more to urge upon you the Necessity of Attention to the poor man, without any loss of time.  I am Gent'n yr Obedient Servant John Blunt, Vicar of Lilleshall.
b)  Mr.Shepherd Sir,  When I arrived at Samuel Cartwright's I found him very ill and in my opinion, he will not be better without he is sent to an Asylum.  Should you come to Wellington tomorrow I will thank you to give me a call and I will then give you every particulars respecting him
                        Remain Sir, Yours truly  S.H.Love  Walker St. Wednesday Night?
JPS note says  2 letters laid before Meeting Feb 7, 1827..........Saml. Carter Jnr being deranged...allowed the man...."mans gott Better?"

12/7    Feb 28, 1827    Letter from Thos.Bakewell, Spring Vale nr. Stone being an answer to a letter sent him concerning Saml.Carter.  Sir, I am sorry that I cannot come down to your Terms but the least I can take a Pauper Patient for is at the rate of ten pounds for the Quarter with a Guinea entrance  in the case of Johnsons wife the Parish paid 10s pr week and the Husband was to pay the remainder part of which he did pay and the remainder is a bad debt.  You will see my printed terms at Mr.Smiths or the Post Office Wellington  I cannot make any alteration, in old cases it is hardly worth while to pay my extra charge in cases likely for recovery it may from the great pains taken here to effect recovery.  Yours most respectfully  Thos. Bakewell
Note says re Saml.Carter (Cartwright?) adds "not sent".

14/60   Aug 17, 1829    Summons (signed Thos.Eyton, W.Charlton) to O/Ss of Wrockwardine asking for "a true List of of all Insane Persons, being Paupers, within the Parish..., specifying the Name, Sex, and Age of each Insane Person, and whether such Insane Person be dangerous or otherwise, and for what Length of Time such Lunatics shall have been disordered in their Senses, and where confined, or how otherwise disposed of .......... accompanied with a Certificate from a Physician, Surgeon or licensed Apothecary, as to the State and Condition of each Insane Person..............it shall be lawful for you to defray the necessary Expenses of Examination.......out of the Poor Rates of the Parish".

16/29   May 21, 1831 (3 papers)
a) Copy of letter from J.P. Shepherd dated May 16 addressed to the Overseers of Acton Burnell
Gentn.  I ham sorry to inform you that Wm.Nicholes found hanging in Small Oak tree near Hadley by a Handkerchief about three oClock yesterday morning and the Coroner Inquest sat upon his body about ? oClock  the first of any signs of his being in deranged state was on Thursday last and he seem to be much better on Saturday last. He as a Wife and one Childe to bemoan his loss, there is nothing in his house towards burying him. Wife having 4 children and 4 miscarriages has been very expensive.
Note says Wm.Nicholes 37, Wife 29 (had 4 miscarriages), Boy 12, Girl 9.
b) Reply dated May 17, 1831 from O/S (Jones), Acton Burnell. 
Sir, We shall hold a Vestry Meeting on Monday next 4 o'clock pm. when if the bearer or someone belonging to the family would attend will have a punctual answer what will be done, if  we find they certainly belong to us we shall allow something for funeral expences and take care of the woman children.
c) Copy of reply from J.P.Shepherd dated May 21, to Acton Burnell.
Sir, Agreeable to Instruction received from you on the 17th Instant concerning the late Wm.Nicholes I have seen his father and he informs me that his son never gained any Settlement separate from him and that he had been imployed by Mr.Mellington, Mason and Bricklayer in your Parish  when he could not get any imployment out of the parish and that his Brother Robt. can give you any information you wish concerning him, the man was buried yesterday and I have visited his house and examined the furniture, bedding etc. which is very little worth and the Burial expences incurred which are not paid will be for Coffin and Shroud 35s, Burial fee 6s 2d and for ale 5s 3d (given to men to carry him nearly 5 miles) Total amount £2 6s 3d which I hope you will lay before your Meeting on Monday for the Gentlemens consideration and allow as I can assure you that there is no prospect of any being paid by any other means, the Woman being before me when I wrought this letter, and she is in a very low way, subject to fits and her little girl his about 9 years old and if you think to allow any weekly pay to them
here will be no objection in paying to your order
            Yrs etc JPS

20/140        May 19, 1836    Receipted a/c from John Shepherd
Feb 19, to going to Shrewsbury Asylum re John Wales, lunatic, 6s; Feb 23, to taking John Wales to Shrewsbury with horse and cart and 2 men with him, 13s. Total 19s 0d.

21/9    Apr 13, 1836    Receipted a/c from Shropshire Lunatic Asylum, Shrewsbury (James Jacob)
Printed Bill:  Shropshire Lunatic Asylum, Shrewsbury.
5  Weeks' Board and Maintenance of John Weales
From  23 February to 28 March 1836 at 8s/wk     £2  0s 0d
Medical Attendance.                             2s 6d
                                    £2  2s 6d
April 13, 1836     Settled   James Jacob
(Note says Jno.Wales)

24/22 Sep 14, 1829.   Copy of Return of all Lunatics and Dangerous Idiots in Wrockwardine Parish as returned to Government by J.P.Shepherd Sep 14 1829.

Name        Age  Sex  Whether   Whether   For what length       Where confined    at what Expence
                    Lunatic     Dangerous of time disordered    and since what
                    or Idiot     or otherwise     in his or her senses   time

Elizabeth Jones     70    Fem.  Lunatic    Dangerous       about 20? years    under the care of        at 4s/wk

                                                           her friends     
Mary Cooper 37    Fem.   Idiot       not dangerous   about 30 yrs          with her father            at   2s/wk.
                                                           and sister

Return the same for 1830, 1832, 1833, 1834

Removal Orders


www3.shropshire-cc.gov.uk/roots/packages/ind/ind_w11.do

Poor Law Removal Orders

Before the welfare state, and particularly before laws were changed in 1834, if you were unable to earn a living, the parish in which you lived would have the chief responsibility for providing for you.

To receive assistance you had to prove that a particular parish was your legal 'place of settlement' and the criteria were rigorously enforced.

If you could not prove settlement, you would be removed from the parish and sent elsewhere. Because removal orders had to be signed by two Justices of the Peace, copies form part of Quarter Sessions records.

To help you trace your Derbyshire ancestors, we have a database of removal orders in the Derbyshire Quarter Sessions archives. Please supply us with the names and dates of interest, and we will be pleased to advise you about the possibility of obtaining copies of the original entries, subject to preservation and conservation requirements.

Settlement was allowed to:

a legitimate child (who took his/her father's settlement, irrespective of the child's place of birth)

a wife (took her husband's settlement)

a widow who remarried (took her husband's settlement). Children from her first marriage retained their father's settlement

children from the age of seven and upwards in the parish where they were apprenticed, providing they lived there for more than forty consecutive days.

servants who stayed one year from date of hiring, and left with full wages, could claim settlement in the place where they were in service

a married man who rented a farm or smallholding, or set up as a tradesman in a new parish, providing he stayed twelve months, paid parish rates and £10 or more in annual rent, could gain a new settlement there

a person who inherited an estate of land and lived on the estate for more than forty days could claim a settlement there.


P316/L/10/1 Dec 22, 690
Removal Order:  Thomas Barnes, Taylor, and wife, from Wrockwardine to Leighton Sa.
JPs:  T? Burton, John Lacon

P316/L/10/2 Jul 12, 692
Notice to Wrockwardine Parish of Appeal by Lilleshall touching settlement of Anne Taylor, a bastard child, to be dealt with at next general sessions.  Signed Wm. Adams, Clerk of the Peace.  See also P316/L/10/3

P316/L/10/3 Oct 04, 692

Confirmation of Order dated 26th April 1692 confirming removal of Anne Taylor a poor child then a vagabond in the parish of Wrockwardine to Lilleshall where she was born.  Signed Wm. Adams.  JPs referred to for original order; John Kynaston, Thomas Burton, John Lacon Esqs.  See also P316/L/10/2

P316/L/10/4 Jun 10, 695 
Removal Order.  John Edwards, Taylor, and Margaret his wife from Wrockwardine to Clan Cadwallit, Denbighs. where John Edwards was Apprentice to Edward Evans of Creeginiogg? Taylor in above parish.
JPs: Robt. Cressett, John Lacon.

P316/L/10/5 Jun 10, 1695
Removal Order: John Edwards, Taylor and Margaret his wife from Wrockwardine to Llancadwallitt, Denbighs.  Had been apprentice there to Edward Evans, Taylor.  (Copy)
JPs: Robt. Cresset, John Lacon.

P316/L/10/6 Jan 04, 697/8
Removal Order: Andrew Davies, wife and one child from Wrockwardine to Sheriffhales.
Had been hired for one year by Richard Stringer, Yeoman of Hilton, Sheriffhales, Staffs.
JPs: John Lacon, Robt. Cresset.  (Corner torn off)

P316/L/10/7 Jul 12, 1698
Order that the condition of fflorence Richards  be referred to JPs of the Division to take care of her she being an object of charity and to send her to her last place of legal settlement.  Signed John Lacon.
[On back "An order of Sessions to send fflorence Richards to the place of her Birth at Beaumaris” (? unclear)].

P316/L/10/8 Aug 14, 1700
Removal Order:  Ursula Hill ? and one base child from Wellington to Wrockwardine.
Born Wrockwardine and served 2yrs with Edward Stilgoe of Clotley, Wrockwardine. 
JPs: Robt. Pigott, John Lacon.

P316/L/10/9 May 13, 1701  Removal Order by JPs. John Lacon and Rbt. Pigott (on complaint of Wrockwardine) to Preston Gubballs, within the Liberties of the Town of Shrewsbury, to receive Andrew Wood, wife and 3 children from Wrockwardine parish. (Andrew Wood lately hired a tenement of yearly value £10 in Preston Gubballs and there served many parish offices). Not renting to value of £10 in Wrockwardine.

P316/L/10/10      Mar 09, 1701/2
Removal Order:  Francis Boothby and wife from Wrockwardine to Wellington, Sa. Had been Apprentice there to ffran. Wright of Lee, Wellington. 
JPs: John Lacon, Robt. Pigott.  (Corner torn off)

P316/L/10/11      Feb 25, 1704/5
Confirmation of Order of Removal of Robert Harper, his wife and five children to Middle from Wrockwardine.  Signed John Lacon.

P316/L/10/12      Apr 19, 1705
Confirmation of Order of Removal to Longdon on Tearne of John Manwaring, his wife and one child from Wrockwardine.  Signed John Lacon.

P316/L/10/13      May 02, 1705
Removal Order: Richard Lunn, Ann his wife and 3 children from Wrockwardine to Tong, Sa.  Hired servant in Tong Parish for 1 whole year.  (See P316/L/9/21)
JPs R. Newport, Robt. Pigott, John Lacon.

P316/L/10/14      Jan 17, 1705/6
Removal Order:  William Dodecott, his wife and 3 children from Wrockwardine to Shifnal alias Idsall, Sa.
Hired servant in Shifnal with Mr. Latham for 1 whole year.
JPs: R. Newport, Robt. Pigott, John Lacon.  (See P316/L/10/15, 16)

P316/L/10/15      Apr 02, 1706
Confirmation of Order of Removal of William Dodecott, wife and 3 children to Idsall alias Shifnall from Wrockwardine.  John Lacon.  (See P316/L/10/14, 16)

P316/L/10/16      Apr 23, 1706
Settlement Cert:  William Dodicott, wife and 3 children
Legal Settlement:  Shifnall alias Idsall, Sa.
Signed: Thomas Grice, John Amis C/Ws, Tho. Leeke, John Morris O/Ss. Atts. John Smith, George Smith.
JPs: John Lacon, Robt. Pigott.  (See P316/L/10/14, 15)

P316/L/10/17      Dec 07, 1709
Removal Order:  Sarah Roberts from Wrockwardine to Ruabon, Denbighs.
(Hired as servant to William ffloyd of Plawbennion?, Ruabon)
JPs:  John Lacon, F. Berkeley     (on back described as "a strange travelling woman")

P316/L/10/18      Dec 07, 1709
Removal Order:  Margarett Salesbury from Wrockwardine to Mothelwyrn, Merioneth.
Married John Salesbury of Mothelwyrn about 20 years ago. Left him after 7 years and wandered as a vagrant.  He died 2 yrs ago, at Mothelwyrn, since then she has gone about the country as charwoman, not being hired.
JPs:  John Lacon, F. Berkeley.

P316/L/10/19      Oct 03, 1711
Removal Order:  Mary Beard, widow of Thomas Beard and her children Richard, James and Anne all under 16 from Wrockwardine and Wombridge to Lilleshall.
Thos. Beard had been hired servant to Thomas Smith, Cheshall Grange, Lilleshall
JPs: John Lacon, Tho. Edwards.

P316/L/10/20      Feb 12, 1711/12
Removal Order for Martha Blockley about 9 years old, Bastard child of Mary Blockley to be sent from Wrockwardine to Lilleshall where she was born and baptised.  JPs Robt. Pigott, William Yonge.

P316/L/10/21      Aug 18, 1713
Removal Order:  George Upton, labourer, Sarah his wife from Wrockwardine to Upton Magna, Sa.
Hired servant 1 yr. to Widow Johnson of Hunkington, Upton Magna Parish and also hired tenement and paid Lewns of 8 or 9 shillings  to church and poor there.
JPS: Robt. Pigott, Wm. Yonge, John Lacon.

P316/L/10/22      Dec 16, 1713
Removal Order (copy):  Margaret Hawkins from Lilleshall, Sa. to Wrockwardine.  Had served 3yrs as hired servant to Mr. Stilgoe of Wrockwardine parish.
JPs:  Robt. Pigott, Wm. Yonge.

P316/L/10/23      Dec 29, 1713
Removal Order:  Elizabeth Motteram from Wrockwardine to Bunbury, Cheshire, was born and served 13yrs together as a hired servant in Bunbury parish.
JPs: Robt. Pigott, Wm. Yonge.

P316/L/10/24      Aug 30, 1714
Order of Removal to Wrockwardine from Isle of Ely of Elinor Wager, Harvest Woman. 

In Insul. Elia in Cont. Cantab:  To the Constables of Sutton or either of them.
Whereas Elinor Wager, harvestwoman aged about 37 years was this day brought before me one of the Justices of the Peace for the said Isle and upon her examination and other circumstances it appearing that the said Elinor Wager was born in the Parish of Rockendine in the County of Salop near Shrewsbury she by Accident being Lame and not capable of working and having spent what money she had earned I do therefore Order and Appoint you to convey the said Elinor Wager out of the Isle of Ely to the parish of Erith come Blunsham in the county of Huntingdon through which she is to pass to the place of her birth and you are to deliver the said E. Wager to the Officer of the said Parish of Erith and likewise to bring a Certificate from them or some one of them that they received her of you accordingly.  Given under my hand and seal the 30th day of August AD 1714.        James Fortry(?).

[The Order is in very poor condition, folded and covered with notes as follows]

30 Aug, 1714  By pass to Wansford.
2  Sep              Co. of Northants:  Allowed to pass the Sook of Nassborough.    Jos. Blackwell.
2  Sep              Stamford Borough in Co. of Lincoln:  Given and allowed to pass to Casterton in Co. of Rutland.          Leo Thorogood, Deputy Mayor.
3  Sep             Lincoln (Kesteven?):  Allowed to pass to Colsterworth.  Rich. Snow.
3  Sep             Allowed to pass the Co. of Rutland.  Wingfield.
3  Sep             Pas (sic) to Grantham.
             Grantham Soca:  To be conveyed to Little Ponton.  William Wing.... Alderman.
4  Sep             Grantham Soca:  Allowed to pass to Foston.
20 Sep           Vill. Nott:  Convey the within named to Lenton exempt her punishment by reason of her illness.             John Cotton Mayor.
21 Sep            Notts:  Ordered to be conveyed to Sandiacre in Co. of Derbys. but not punished by reason of her             illness. George Gregory.
22 Sep          To Constable of Sandiacre:  Convey her to Derby not punish her by reason of her illness.  Robt.           Wilmott.
22 Sep           Burgh of Derby:  Convey the within named to Littleover and omit her punishment by reason of her      illness and let the Constable send a Certificate of her receipt.  Joseph Broughton.
22 Sep           Derbys:  To Constable of Littleover.  Convey her to Burton in Staffs. but omit punishment of her by            reason of her illness.   R. Wilmott.
23 Sep           Staffs:  To Constable of Lichfield.  Convey the within named vagrant to the City of Lichfield.
23 Sep           Lichfield Staffs:  The bearer permitted to pass this City towards Shrewsbury.  J.Spendlow Bayliff.
24 Sep           To the Constable of Pipehill:  Convey the within named Vagrant to Woodcote in the Co. of Salop.             R. Ayott(?)
25 Sep           Salop:  To ye Constable of Woodcote.  Convey the Vagrant to Rockardine in this county.  Rbt.            Pigott.

P316/L/10/25      Jan 05, 1714/5
Removal Order:  Richard Ward, Elizabeth his wife, 1 child from Wrockwardine to Ercall Magna, Sa.
Served 3yrs, part of Apprenticeship with James Ward of Painton (Ercall parish) who served office of Constable there.
JPs: John Lacon, Wm. Yonge.

P316/L/10/26      Jan 05, 1714/5
Removal Order:  Copy? Richard Ward, and wife Elizabeth and one child, from Wrockwardine to Ercall Magna, Sa.  Served 3yrs part of Apprenticeship with James Ward of Painton, Ercall Magna (Constable)
JPs:  John Lacon, Wm. Yonge.  Copy of P316/L/10/25.

P316/L/10/27      Jan 11, 1714/15
Order to delay decision until next sessions on Appeal by Ercall Magna against Removal Order of Richard Ward, Elizabeth his wife and one child from Wrockwardine parish.  JP John Lacon.

P316/L/10/28      Jun 15, 1715
Removal Order (Copy): Samuel Barlow, Margaret his wife, Martha(16), Mary(14), Jane(8), John(4) from St. Mary's Shrews. to Wrockwardine.
Hired servant about 20 yrs ago to John Warter of Wrockwardine parish.
JPs: James Blakeway, Edward Jones.

P316/L/10/29      Jan 02, 1715/6
Removal Order:  John Philips, wife and child (8wks) from Wrockwardine to Atcham, Sa.
JPs:  Tho. Gardner, Tho. Severn.

P316/L/10/30      Oct 08?1717
Reversal of Order on Appeal by Wroxeter Parish against Order for Removal by ffrancis Upton from Wrockwardine. (Orig. Order dated Aug 02, 1717)

P316/L/10/31      Mar 12, 1718/9
Order of Removal to Lilleshall Parish from Wrockwardine of William Wakeley and his wife.  Settlement in Lilleshall by reason of 1 year's hired service there.  JPs Edw. Jorden, Wm. Yonge.

P316/L/10/32      Mar 12, 1718/9
Removal Order:  William Wood and his wife from Wrockwardine to Lilleshall, Sa.
Served 3 years as hired servant in Lilleshall.
JPs:  Edw. Jorden, Wm. Yonge.

P316/L/10/33      Mar 12, 1718/9
Removal Order:  Richard Thyther and his wife from Wrockwardine to Lilleshall, Sa.
Served as hired servant for 3yrs in Lilleshall.
JPs:  Edw. Jorden, Wm. Yonge.

P316/L/10/34      Nov 30, 1719
Removal Order:  John Smitheman, lunatic of Peanes Lane, from Wrockwardine to Sheriffhales, Sa.  Examination of his mother, Mary Smitheman confirms his settlement at Sheriffhales by virtue of his hired service with Thomas Onions, Brockton Grange in Sheriffhales parish.
JPs: Edw. Jorden, Wm. Yonge.

P316/L/10/35      Mar 13, 1720/1
Removal Order:  Joseph Cooper and his wife from Wrockwardine to Ercall Magna Sa.
6 years ago hired servant for 1 yr to Andrew Clarke at rate of £3 5s. for the year in Ercall Magna.
JPs: Wm. Yonge, Edw. Jorden.

P316/L/10/36      Jan 25, 1723/4
Removal Order:  Martha Davis from Wrockwardine to Wellington, Sa.
Had been hired servant to George Peat of the Seven Stars in Wellington parish, Blacksmith.
JPs:  H. Briggs, Edw. Jorden.

P316/L/10/37      Nov 09, 1727
Removal Order:  Jane Fletcher?, single woman, from Wrockwardine to Wellington, Sa., lived 1yr as hired servant to Wm. Vickers of  the Wood.
JPs:  Will. Cludde, Edw. Jorden.

P316/L/10/38      Sep 13, 1731
Removal Order(copy):  Mary Baugh from Kinnersley to Wrockwardine.  Settled in Wrockwardine by 1yrs hired service with Willam Davies, Charlton, Wrockwardine parish.
JPs: W. Forester, Will. Cludde.

P316/L/10/39      Nov 04, 1731
Removal Order:  Mary Blaney, single woman, from Wrockwardine to Lilleshall, Sa.  Settled in Lilleshall by 1yrs service to Edward Dawes, Donnington Wood.
JPs:  Edw. Jorden, Will. Cludde.

P316/L/10/40      Apr 08, 1732
Removal Order(copy):  Sarah ffoard, from Wellington to Wrockwardine, settled in Wrockwardine by hired service 1yr with John Hayward of Charlton, Wrockwardine parish.
JPs: W. Forester, Edw. Jorden.

P316/L/10/41      Apr 10, 1733
Removal Order:  Mary Jones, 24, single woman from Holy Cross and St. Giles, Shrews. to Wrockwardine.  3yrs ago 1yrs hired service with William Bithen?, yeoman, of Auscott(Allscott?), Wrockwardine parish.
JPs: Richard Lloyd, Wm. Turner.

P316/L/10/42      May 03, 1749
Removal Order:  Mary Badnall, 1 child (inf.), from Wrockwardine to Kinnersley, Sa. Kinnersley is place of settlement of her husband John Badnall.
JPs: W. Forester, T. Eyton.

P316/L/10/43      Feb 06, 1765
Removal Order:  Arthur Cooper, Elizabeth(wife), John(5), Arthur(3) from Wrockwardine to Idsall alias Shifnal.
JPs:  Edw. Pemberton, Edw. Cludde.

P316/L/10/44      Feb 06, 1765
Removal Order:  Thomas Cooper, Elizabeth(wife), James, William, Richard (all under 7) from Wrockwardine to Shifnal alias Idsall.
JPs:  Edw. Pemberton, Edw. Cludde.

P316/L/10/45      Sep 19, 1770
Removal Order:  Elizabeth Stevington, single woman, from Wrockwardine to Wellington, Sa.
JPs:  T. Eyton, Edw. Pemberton.
On back is written "Stenton of Oiten"

P316/L/10/46      Sep 19, 1770
Removal Order:  Thomas Pitchford, labourer, from Wrockwardine to Knockin.
JPs: T.Eyton, Edw. Pemberton.

P316/L/10/47      Nov 07, 1770
Removal Order:  Thomas Steventon, Mary his wife, George(6), Margaret(4), Richard(1½), their children, from Wellington, Sa. to Wrockwardine.
JPs:  T. Eyton, Edw. Cludde.

P316/L/10/48      Aug 07, 1771
Removal Order:  Jane Pugh, single woman from Wellington, Sa. to Wrockwardine
JPs: Edw. Pemberton, Edw. Cludde.

P316/L/10/49      Aug 13, 1771
Removal Order:  Trypheny Vickers, lunatic, single woman, from Wrockwardine to St. Chadd's, Shrews. (Mother is Alice Vickers)
JPs:  Edw. Cludde, Edw. Pemberton.

P316/L/10/50      Feb 02, 1775
Removal Order:  Luke Edge, Mary Edge, from Wrockwardine to Bolas Magna, Sa. Inf. children of John Edge,(and Mary crossed out), Samuel Edge, grandfather of the children examined; John Edge the father (who hath run away and left them) legally settled in Bolas Magna.
JPs:  Edw. Cludde, Edw. Pemberton.

P316/L/10/51      May 15, 1778
Removal Order:  Mary Wilcocks, single woman, from Dawley Magna, Sa. to Wrockwardine.
JPs:  Edw. Cludde, Edw. Pemberton.

P316/L/10/52      Sep 26, 1778
Removal Order:  Mary Shiston, single woman, from Wrockwardine to Stirchley, Sa.
JPs:  Edw. Cludde, Edw. Pemberton.

P316/L/10/53      Oct 09, 1778
Removal Order:  Jane Pugh, single woman, from Putney, Surrey to Wrockwardine.
JPs:  Timo. Waldo, Jno. Levy  (See  P316/L/10/54 and Sett. Exam. P316/L/8/51))

P316/L/10/54      Oct 28, 1778
Examination:  Jane Pugh, single woman, concerning her child William.  The child which is along with her is her own natural child born Oct 12, 1777 in Putney, Surrey, bapt. William.  Says she would have left the child in Putney when she was removed but the Parish Officers there would not allow her to, "but obliged her to take it along with her".
JPs: Edw. Cludde, Edw. Pemberton.
Jane Pugh signs her own name.
Removal Pass:  Jane Pugh, single woman, and William her child, 12mths, from Putney, Surrey to St.Magnus, London Bridge and Wrockwardine. (Rogue and Vagabond)
JP. ? Fournier?
(Places passed through:  Denham, Bucks. Nov 3,78;  Stokenchurch, Ox. Nov 5;  Little Compton, Glos. Nov 9; Broadway, Worcs., Nov 10; St Peter's Worcs., Nov 11; Whiston, Worcs. Nov13; Kinver, Staffs., Nov 13; Claverley, Sa., Nov 16, Bridgnorth, Sa.,Nov 17, Tasley, Sa. Nov 17, Wenlock, Sa. Nov 17, 1778.)  (See P316/L/10/53 and Sett. Exam. P316/L/8/51)

P316/L/10/55      Aug 07, 1780
Removal Order:  Thomas Savage, Christian, his wife from Wrockwardine to Prees, Sa.
JPs:  Edw. Cludde, Edw. Pemberton.  (See Sett. Exam. P316/L/8/52)

P316/L/10/56      Dec 03, 1783
Removal Order:  Elizabeth Beech, single woman, from Wrockwardine to Idsall alias Shifnal, Sa.
JPs:  Tho. Eyton, Edw. Pemberton (See Sett. Exam. P316/L/8/61)

P316/L/10/57      Oct 13, 1784
Removal Order (Copy):  James Leese, wife Sarah, Jane(9), William(5), Mary(2) from Wrockwardine to Lilleshall, Sa. (See P316/L/8/106)
JPs:  Edw. Pemberton, Tho. Eyton.

P316/L/10/58      Jul 28, 1786
Removal Order:  Martha Mansell, from Wellington to Wrockwardine
JPs:  Edw. Pemberton, Tho. Eyton.

P316/L/10/59      Sep 23, 1786
Removal Order:  Elizabeth Davis from Stone, Staffs., to Wrockwardine
JPs: Thos. Whitley, J. Williamson.

P316/L/10/60      Jun 29, 1789
Removal Order:  Humphrey Griffiths, wife Margaret, Mary(14), Thomas(11), John(7), from Wrockwardine to Myfod, Montg.
Tho. Eyton, John Rocke

P316/L/10/61      Mar 03, 1790
Removal Order:  Elizabeth Dainty, single woman, from Wrockwardine to Blimhill, Staffs.
JPs: Edw. Pemberton, Tho. Eyton. (See Sett. Exam. P316/L/8/110)

P316/L/10/62      May 15, 1794
Removal Order:  Henrietta Phillip, Wm.(5), Jas.(2), Mary(inf), from Wrockwardine to Wombridge, Sa.
JPs: Edw. Pemberton, Tho. Eyton.
Note on back says "The Widow Phillips Order of Removal from Wrockwardine parish to Wombridge.  William Corfield of the parish of Wellington was witness to the Delivery of the Widdow and three Children. May 17th 1794. Thos. Clarke O/S."

P316/L/10/63      Nov 20, 1794
Removal Order:  Mary Martin (widow), Jane(15), Mary(13), John(11), Thomas(9), William(6), Robert(illeg.3), from Polesworth, Warks. to Wrockwardine.
JPs:  W. Villers, Wm. Hicks.
Note says "Mary Martin Order. Came into Workhouse the 27th Day of November and six children.

P316/L/10/64      Jan 07, 1795
Removal Order:  Ann Felton, single woman, from Ercall Magna, Sa. to Wrockwardine.
JPs: Edw. Pemberton, Tho. Eyton.

P316/L/10/65      Feb 04, 1795
Removal Order:  John Dain, wife Margaret, Mary(3), Wm.(2), Joseph(11mths) from Wrockwardine to Sheriffhales, Sa.
JPs: Edw. Pemberton, Tho. Eyton.
Note on back says "John Dean"

P316/L/10/66      Feb 01, 1796
(a) Removal Order:  Francis Taylor, wife Mary from Birmingham, Warks., to Wrockwardine.
JPs:  W. Villers, Wm. Hicks.
Attached together and enclosed in above are:
(b)  Note "William Taylor Certificated from Wrockwardine in the year 1727 to the parish of Newport in the County of Salop, Saml. Biden? Witness March 5 1796 Fetched from Newport by Thos. Clarke then Overseer."
(c)  Note "Banns of Marriage Between Francis Taylor and Mary Hunt were Lawfully Published on the 9th, 16th and 23rd days of September 1795(sic) without contradiction.  No.679 Francis Taylor of this parish and Mary Hunt of this parish were Married in this Church by Banns this Twentyfourth Day of September in the year One Thousand seven Hundred and fiftynine(sic) by Me Richd. Dovey Rector.  This marriage was solemnised between us Francis Taylor, Mary Hunt(X) in the presence of us Morris(X) Reynolds, Mary Higgons.  This is a true copy of the Reg. kept for the parish of St. Martins, Birmingham.  Witness our hands this 12th Day of June 1783 John Cooke Curate ed. Tomkins Churchwarden."
(It would appear that the correct date of the Banns should be 1759 not 1795 as written.)

P316/L/10/67      Apr 07, 1796
Removal Order:  Sarah Davies from Wellington to Wrockwardine. Mary(8), (she not having gained a legal Settlement in her own right), Sarah(6).
JPs: Tho. Eyton, Edw. Pemberton.

P316/L/10/68      May 04, 1796
Removal Order:  Elizabeth Cooper, single woman, from Wrockwardine to Shifnall, Sa.
JPs:  Edw. Pemberton, Tho. Eyton.
(See P316/L/8/115)

P316/L/10/69      Jul 06, 1796
Removal Order:  Thomas Tudor, wife Margaret, Barbara(9), Thomas(7), Willm.(3) from Wellington to Wrockwardine.
JPs:  Edw. Pemberton, Tho. Eyton.

P316/L/10/70      Aug 19, 1799
Removal Order:  Ann Jones, single woman (with child) from Ercall Magna, Sa. to Wrockwardine.
JPs: John Rocke, Tho. Eyton.

P316/L/10/71      Sep 18, 1799
Removal Order:  Elizabeth Turner, single woman (with child), from Wrockwardine to Preston on the Wildmoors, Sa.
JPs: Tho. Eyton, John Rocke.

P316/L/10/72      Jan 27, 1800
Removal Order:  Alice Bladen from Wellington to Wrockwardine.
JPs:  Tho. Eyton, John Rocke.

P316/L/10/73      May 05, 1800
Removal Pass (and Examination):  Elizabeth Barnett(X), from St. Lawrence Jewry, City of London to Wrockwardine.  Apprentice Wrockwardine 16yrs ago. Rogue and vagabond, been in Bridewell for 7 days.
JP.  John Boydell.
Sent to St. Botolph Aldersgate 5th May,  Warwickshire to Drayton Basset, Staffs 10th May, to Woodcote, Staffs. 12th May, to Wrockwardine 16th May 1800.

P316/L/10/74      Jun 30, 1800
Removal Order:  John Cooper, inf. age 2mths. from Wrockwardine to Church Eaton, Staffs. (Son of William Cooper, Private in H.M.'s 25th Regt. of Light Dragoons.)
JPs: John Rocke, Tho. Eyton.
Two identical copies folded together marked (a) and (b).

P316/L/10/75      Jul 28, 1800
Removal Order:  Thomas Tees from Wrockwardine to Shawbury, Sa.
JPs: John Rocke, Tho. Eyton.

P316/L/10/76      Oct 13, 1800
Removal Order:  Sarah Steventon, from High Ercall, Sa. to Wrockwardine.
JPs:  John Rocke, Tho. Eyton.

P316/L/10/77      Feb 10, 1801
Removal Order:  Eleanor Picken, single woman, from Shifnal, Sa. to Wrockwardine.
JPs:  J.Williams, Cha. Buckeridge.

P316/L/10/78      Mar 23, 1801
Removal Order:  William Edwards from Wellington to Wrockwardine.
JPs: Tho. Eyton, John Rocke.

P316/L/10/79      May 06, 1801
Removal Pass (and Examination):  Phillis Davis(X), one child from St. Mary Wodchurch?, City of London to Wrockwardine.  Husband John Davis left her and enlisted as a soldier, he was legally settled in Wrockwardine at time of marriage.
JPs:  Will. Staines, Mayor.
Been in Brideswell 7 days for "Wandering abroad and Begging"
Drayton Bassett, Staffs 12 May, Woodcote, Sa. 13th May to Wrockwardine.

P316/L/10/80      Jun 05, 1801
Removal Order:  Elizabeth Jones, Ann(20), Mary(17), John(15), Elizabeth(11), Thomas(8), Eleanor(5) from Bromsgrove, Worcs. to Wrockwardine.
JPs: Reginald Pyndan, Robert Douglas.
Note on back says Ann Jones Removal with family.

P316/L/10/81      Jun 18, 1801
Examination of  William Carter (X),age about 45.
Father, Richard Carter Settled in Wrockwardine.  Attached is Removal Order for William Carter, Rogue and Vagabond, found wandering, lying abroad and begging in Shifnal Parish by  by Wm.Cutwick (Outwick?), Constable.  To be taken to Wrockwardine Parish "the said William Carter hath been duly whipped". 

P316/L/10/82      Jul 11, 1801
Removal Pass (and Examination):  Elizabeth Garbett(X) from St Laurence Jewry, City of London to Wrockwardine.  Born Wrockwardine, wandering abroad and begging (a rogue and a vagabond).  Addressed to George Herdsfield, a Constable in City of London.
JP.  John Ansley.
She has been confined in Hospital at Bridewell, House of Correction for City of London for 7 days.  Sent first to St. Botolph without Aldersgate.  Passes via Drayton Bassett (Staffs) 19 July 1801, Woodcote, Sa. 22 July 1801.

P316/L/10/83      Dec 28, 1801  Removal Order.  Mary Lowe, lunatic, wife of Richard Lowe, to be removed from Lilleshall to Wrockwardine.
Richard Yates O/S of Lilleshall.

P316/L/10/84      Jan 09, 1802
Removal Order:  Thomas Owen, Martha(wife), Abigail(8), Mary(6), Maria(almost 4), Eliz. (2), Jane(3mths), from Walsall, Staffs to Wrockwardine.
JPs: C.Forster?, H? Palmer.
On reverse: Order suspended Jan 09, 1802 by reason of sickness of Martha, wife.
Mar 11, 1802  Suspension cancelled, Removal can now be enforced.  Wrockwardine to pay £9 19s.6d. to Walsall that having been the cost of relieving the family.

P316/L/10/85      Apr 06, 1802
Removal Order:  Sarah Baddeley from Lilleshall to Wrockwardine.
JPs: John Rocke, Tho. Eyton.

P316/L/10/86      Jul 05, 1802
Removal Order:  Mary Rowley (single woman) from Wrockwardine to Lilleshall, Sa.
JPs:  Tho. Eyton, John Rocke.

P316/L/10/87      Dec 06, 1802
Removal Order:  Elizabeth Cooper, single woman, from Wrockwardine to Lilleshall, Sa.
JPs:  Tho. Eyton, John Rocke.

P316/L/10/88      Feb 08, 1804
Removal Order:  Eleanor Rowley (single woman) from Wrockwardine to Lilleshall, Sa.
JPs:  Tho. Eyton, John Rocke.

P316/L/10/89      Jan 04, 1810
Removal Order:  Mary Vickers (single woman) from Wrockwardine to Lilleshall, Sa.
JPs:  Wm. Cludde, Tho. Eyton.

P316/L/10/90      Dec 09, 1812
Removal Order:  Thomas Rowley, Mary(wife), Ann(7), John(6), William(4), Eliza(18mths) from Wolverhampton, Staffs to Wrockwardine.
JPs:  ...Haden, J.Clare.
Dec 09, 1812  Order Suspended (Thomas Rowley unable to travel because of sickness)
Jan 06, 1813  Removal Order re-enforced (Wrockwardine to pay £3.11s.0d. to James Hobbins, cost of relieving paupers).

P316/L/10/91      Feb 04, 1813
Removal Order:  Eleanor Crump wife of John Crump, soldier in 25th Regt. of Foot, John(14), Mary(7), Thomas(5), Samuel(8mths) from Wrockwardine to Broseley.
JPs: Tho. Eyton, W. Cludde.
Note on back says "Order of Removal of John Crump and Elliner Crump"

P316/L/10/92      Feb 04, 1813
Removal Order:  Richard Stanworth, Elizabeth (wife), John(15), Margaret(14), Elizabeth(12), William(10), James(6), Thomas(4), Richard(2). from Shiffnall, Sa. to Wrockwardine.
JPs:  Tho. Eyton, W. Cludde.

P316/L/10/93      Apr 03, 1813
Removal Order:  John Stanworth, Maria(wife), John(9), Elizabeth(5), Mary(3), James(11wks) from Lilleshall to Wrockwardine.
JPs:  Robt. Outlaw, R.Leeke.

P316/L/10/94      Jun 04, 1813
Removal Order:  John Beard, wife Sarah(deceased), Edward(16), Jane(12), Mary(10), John(8) from Shiffnall, Sa. to Wrockwardine
JPs:  G? Durant, Tho. Lloyd.

P316/L/10/95      Aug 05, 1813
Removal Order:  Jane Jones(single woman) from Wrockwardine to Lilleshall, Sa.
JPs:  W. Cludde, Tho. Eyton.

P316/L/10/96      Aug 05, 1813
Removal Order:  Joseph Price, Ann(wife), Sarah(16), Emma(12), Joseph(9), Aaron(6) from Wrockwardine to Chebsey, Staffs.
JPs:  W. Cludde, Tho. Eyton.

P316/L/10/97      Mar 03, 1814
Removal Order:  William Smith, Eleanor(wife), Elizabeth(3), Mary(2wks) from Wrockwardine to Shiffnall, Sa.
JPs:  R.Leeke, Tho. Eyton.

P316/L/10/98      Apr 07, 1814
Removal Order:  Richard Latham, wife Ann, William(8), John(6), Richard(2) from Wrockwardine to Tibberton in Edgemond, Sa., parish.
JPs:  Tho. Eyton, John Rocke.

P316/L/10/99      Mar 03, 1814
Removal Order:  Margaret Pidgeon alias Roberts, single woman (now with child) from Wrockwardine to Withington, Sa.
JPs:  Tho. Eyton, R. Leeke.

P316/L/10/100     Feb 16, 1815
Removal Order:  Thomas Hayward, wife Mary, James(6), John(2), from Wrockwardine to Kinnersley, Sa.
JPs:  Tho. Eyton, Tho. Eyton Jnr.

P316/L/10/101     Feb 14, 1816
Removal Order:  James Taylor, wife Charlotte, John(5mths), from Wolverhampton, Staffs. to Wrockwardine.
JPs:  .....Haden, ...Clare?

P316/L/10/102     Feb 14, 1816
Removal Order:  John Cartwright, wife Susannah, Eleanor(1) from Wolverhampton, Staffs. to Wrockwardine.
JPs:  .....Haden, ...Clare?

P316/L/10/103     Jan 22, 1817
Removal Order:  James Taylor, wife Charlotte, John(1½) from Bilston, Staffs. to Wrockwardine.
JPs:  .....Haden, ...Clare?

P316/L/10/104     Feb 17, 1817
Examination of  William Simmons (X), age 19.
Father John Simmons (now deceased) parishioner of Wrockwardine. Found wandering and begging in Wolverhampton,(7 days hard labour). To be removed to Wrockwardine via Boningale.
Exam. and Removal Order. Order from Wolverhampton to Boningale (signed Thos. Lloyd), and then to W'dine signed P.B.Haden? Feb 26, 1817.  (See P316/L/8/146)

P316/L/10/105     Jun 11, 1817
Examination of  Abigail Briscoe, widow, children:  Maria 12, John 7.
Come to Wellington Parish, now chargeable to parish. To be removed to Wrockwardine Parish, her settlement parish.  Now with child. (belongs to Wrockwardine). 

P316/L/10/106     Jul 23, 1817
Removal Order:  Thomas Lewis(X), Rogue and Vagabond from Yarnesley cum Whaley, Chesh. to Wrockwardine.  7 days imprisoned in New Bayley, Stockport, Chesh.
JP:  J.T? Philips
To be sent via Whitchurch, then went via Peplow and Bolas to Wrockwardine. On back the Settlement Exam. gives Wrockwardine as his parents' settlement.  Paper is torn into 2 parts.

P316/L/10/107     Nov 18, 1828
Removal Order:  Thomas Cooper, wife Ann, 3 children, from Walsall, Staffs. to Wrockwardine. (Suspended because of Sickness)  (See Sett. Exam. P316/L/10/108)
JPs:  C.S.Forster(Mayor), James Adams.

P316/L/10/108     Nov 18, 1828
Settlement Exam: Ann Cooper(X), inhabitant of Walsall, Staffs. Wife of Thomas Cooper, Collier, Mary(9), Rhoda(7), Jane(3).  Thos. Cooper upwards of 30yrs old. Born Wombridge, Sa.,m. at Handsworth 10 years ago.  Thos Cooper is son of James Cooper and Jane, both now living at the Birchells, legally settled Wrockwardine, they were removed from Walsall to Wrockwardine 8 or 9yrs ago, since then and still relieved by Wrockwardine parish.
Thomas Cooper on Nov 13, 1828 met with serious accident in Colliery of Messrs. Stokes and Forster at the Birchills, now confined to bed not able to be removed.
JPs:  C.S.Forster(Mayor), James Adams.  (See P316/L/10/107)

P316/L/10/109     Oct 14, 1833
Removal Order: (Copy)  Sarah Grigg (pregnant) from Dudley, Worcs. to Wrockwardine.  Wife of George Grigg, Private in 21st Reg. of Foot, now on duty in New South Wales.
Order suspended because of pregnancy.
JPs: Thos. Badger, H. Molyneux.
Note from T?Shorthouse, Ass. O/S Dudley, states that Sarah Grigg is daughter of late Thos. Martin, who was settled in Wrockwardine. "George Grigg is an Irishman"
Note on back states "Sarah Grigg and Childe Brought with an Order from Dudley and returned again, and allowed at Stourbridge 1s.6d. pr. week for the Childe."

P316/L/10/110     Mar 17, 1834
Removal Order (Copy):  George Welch, wife Elizabeth from Dudley, Worcs. to Wrockwardine.
JPs: T.Badger, H.Molyneux.
Order Suspended by reason of sickness and infirmity of Geo. Welch.
Geo. Welch settled in Wrockwardine by Birth and Parentage.
Note on back says "Geo. Welch states that he married to Eliz. Beman by Banns at Hales Owen on Nov 4th, 1833 by Rev. Mr. Percy"

P316/L/10/111     Jun 06, 1834
Removal Order:  James Stanworth, miner, wife Frances, Mary(7), James(3), Samuel(12mths) from Shifnal, Sa. to Wrockwardine
JPs:  Fr. Blithe Harris, Ch.Rich.Cameron.
Order suspended by reason of illness of James Stanworth.
Wrockwardine to pay £2.3s.0d to R.Venables (signed Moultrie). Aug 1st 1834 when suspension removed.

P316/L/10/112     Nov 04, 1834
Removal Order (copy):  William Davies, wife Sarah, Ann(9), William(5), Timithy(2) from Wednesbury, Staffs. to Wrockwardine.
JPs:  J.Clare, W.Leigh.
Order suspended by reason of sickness and infirmity of Wm. Davies (confined to house by reason of hurts received in his Work as a Miner.)
Includes copy of Settlement Examination of Sarah, wife of Wm. Davies, now residing in Wednesbury parish.  Her husband's father, John Davies was parishioner of Wrockwardine, since she has been married to Wm. he has received relief from Wrockwardine several times.  Married about 20yrs ago at the Old Church, Dudley, Worcs.

P316/L/10/113     Aug 11, 1835
Removal Order:  Isaac Derricotte, wife Hannah, John(4), Joseph(3), Elizabeth(1) from Stoke upon Trent, Staffs. to Wrockwardine.  (See Sett. Exam. P316/L/114)
JPs:  Fra? Adderley, Ralph Browne?

P316/L/10/114     Aug 11, 1835
Settlement Exam:  Isaac Derricote, Collier, Stoke on Trent, Staffs.  Wife Hannah, children John 4, Joseph 3, Eliz. 1.  Born Wrockwardine, his late father's Settlement derived from his father John Dorricote (examinant's grandfather)
JPs:  Ralph Browne?, Fr.Adderley?

P316/L/10/115     Oct 14, 1835
Removal Notice:  Isaac Derricote, wife Hannah, and their 3 children, from Stoke upon Trent to Wrockwardine.
J.Post?, John Tittensor, John Hawley, Geo.Thos. Taylor   O/Ss.

P316/L/10/116     May 03, 1843
Examination (Copy) of Henry Williams, residing at Wrockwardine Wood, Collier. 38 yrs. old, 3 children, Elizabeth(12), John(7), Edward(4). Wife Jane  now deceased.  Married in Wrexham, Denbighs.  Belongs to Wrexham parish by hiring and service about 14 yrs. ago with Mr. John Gitton, farmer Wrexham parish.  Now chargeable to Wrockwardine parish says Thomas Houlston of that parish. 
Removal Order made for H.W. and family to be sent from Wrockwardine to Wrexham. (C/Ws and O/Ss for Wrockwardine; Ed. Ditcher, Thos. Edwards, Thos. Houlston.  (Note on back says; "the parish of Wrexham being divided into 15 townships each managing their own affairs you had better find out which the pauper belongs to”  (1 penny brown Qu. Vict. stamp attached)

P316/L/10/117     Apr 01, 1844     
Order for removal of William Price and Mary his wife from Tipton, Staffs. to Wrockwardine, (Evidence on oath given by William Price and Peter Price)
Apr 01, 1844.  W.Price unable to be removed because of sickness and infirmity.
Jan 06, 1845.  Suspension Order now revoked (Mary Price is since dead), costs of £9.13s.0d. (incurred up to date of New Order to execute Removal Order) to be paid by Wrockwardine.



Clothing Receipts and Bills

Transcribed by members of the North East Telford Studies Group


www3.shropshire-cc.gov.uk/roots/packages/ind/ind_w12.doc

The Overseers of the Poor were required to clothe Pauper Apprentices when they started work and also people in the Poor House.  They would also supply Paupers with shoes or some clothing from time to time.  The clothing bills give an idea of the type of clothing supplied.  Note that coats or cloaks seem never to have been provided.  Paupers perhaps used old sacks as outerwear.

 

1/29  No Date but concerns Jones Family (1/28)  Receipted a/c addressed to Mr.Leay?, no address, from Jennins & Co. 

            3yds Lincey @ 16d

            1¼ ditto @ 16d

            5yds Striped Linnen @ 16d

            5½yds Callicoe @ 11d

            3yds Flannell @ 12d

            15yds Cloth @ 12d

            Binding  4d

            Total             £1 15s 8½d

                                          Received R.Henshaw           

            Added 3pr Hose    3s 4d                                    

On the back of the receipted a/c is written:

      Eliz. Jones a bed Gown and Shift under Petecote

      Ann Jones   a Shift Petecote a pair of Shoos Stockins bed Gown

      Marey Jones a Shift Shoos Stockins Aparn bed Gown

      John Jones  Shoos Stockins Shirt

      Eliz Jones  a Frock Shoos Stockins Shift Hat

      Elener Jones      a Frock Shift Shoos

      Thomas Jones      a Shirt Shoos and Stockins

 

 

1/56  Aug 06, 1817      Receipted a/c from J.Hollis to O/Ss of Wrockwardine Parish

Jul 1817.  Pr. shoes patched all round, Elinor Picken 1s 6d; A pr. soled round and patched, Jas.Picken 1s 6d; A pr. soled, new heels, patched and welted, L.Beard 3s 0d; A pr. shoes patched and mended 1s 6d, A pr. soled patched and mended, A.Blaney 1s 8d; A pr. soled and 5 large patches Rebecca Churm 2s 11d.  Total  12s 0d.     (Note on outside says "Poor House” Settled 6 Aug 1817).

 

1/70  Mar 06, 1818      Receipted a/c from Wm.Brown to Wrockwardine Parish, settled by Wm.Hoggins. 

9 Feb Richard Deuves? a new pair; Hughes Prentice 9s 6d; Alse Blaneys mended 1s 4d; Blaneys 2 Girls mended 2s 6d; Thos.Pickleys shoes mended 2s 0d; Beards boy a new pair 6s 9d; Rebecca Churms Boys tapt 1s 4d; John Loyds tapt 2s 10d; Ann Ball a new pair 4s 3d.  Total £1 10s 2d.

 

2/1  No date (with papers of Oct 1819)   List of clothing given to Elizabeth Lewis (no prices given):  1 Bedgown, 1 Petticoat, 1 Handkerchief, 1 Shift, 1 pr of Shoes, 1 ditto of Stockings, 1 Apron ("Not Ad").

 

2/33  Feb 28, 1820      Receipted a/c to Wrockwardine Parish from Wm.Edwards for clothing for the poor.  John Fletcher shoes 4s 6d; Mary Jones shoes 4s 9d; James Greenfield coat 7s 6d, Breeches 6s 0d, 1yd Flanl 1s 6d; Ann Parry Blanket 6s 6d, 3yds cloath 3s 0d; John Taylor shoes 8s 6d; Jane Lloyd Petticoat 3s 6d, shoes 4s 9d; Elizabeth Allen Bedgown and Petticoat 9s 0d; John Hughes coat 5s 0d, shirt 5s 0d, stockings 1s 6d, 2yds cloath 2s 6d, 1lb yarn 4s 6d, Tape and Thread 1s 6d;

Timothy Davies Trowsers 7s 0d, shoes 8s 6d, Stockings 1s 6d, Jacket 5s 0d, Trowsers 4s 6d, Stockings 1s 0d, Hat 1s 8d, Jacket 4s 6d, Trowsers 4s 0d, shoes 4s 6d, Hat 1s 6d, 7yds Linsey 10s 6d, 2½yds Linsey 3s 9d, 3yds cloath 3s 0d, 1¾yds cloath 1s 9d, shoes 4s 9d, shoes 4s 0d.  (T.Davies total £3 11s 5d see 2/31).  

Total £7 10s 5d.

 

5/36  Aug 02, 1821      Receipted a/c to Wrockwardine Parish from Wm.Edwards (signed Thos.Edwards).  3½yds cloth, Craven, 2s 11d;  Trousers, John Carter, 6s 0d; Stockings, H.Picken, 1s 0d; Smock Frock Saml.Steventon, 5s 6d; hat ditto, 2s 0d; 5yds cloth, 4s 2d, ditto.  Total £1 1s 7d.

 

5/142.        Apr 03, 1822    Receipted a/c from Wm.Edwards to Mr.Shepherd, O/S, Wrockwardine Parish for clothing (Nov 19, 1821-Jan 1822):  Rebecca Churms son, Trowsers and 2½yds Fustin; Elizabeth Howen? Flannel Jacket, Shifts, Shoes, Stockings; Wm.Rowley Shoes, Stockings; Thos.Lewis and Family 3yds Linsey, 3yds Flannel; Emma Pickerel Stockings; Sarah Thomas Flannel Jacket, Shoes Stockings; Thos.Thomas Jacket, Trowsers, Shoes, Stockings; Hannah Lewis 5yds Linsey, 3yds Cloath, 1yd Callow, for son Hatt; John Oliver Trowsers, Jacket; Maria Thomas cloth, shoes stockings.  Total £6 1s 9d.

Prices: Trowsers 3s 6d-4s 6d; Petticoat 5s 0d; Flannel Jacket 8s 0d-10s 0d; 2 Shifts 7s 0d; Shoes 4s 6d-8s 6d; Stockings 1s 0d-1s 4d; Hat 1s 0d; Linsey 1s 6d/yd; Flannel 2s 4d/yd; Cloath 1s 0d/yd, Callow 1s 0d/yd.  (signed Thos.Edwards)

 

6/106   Feb 27, 1823    Receipted a/c from Jas.Oliver, Wellington 

Cloth, Lincey, Striped Cotton, Calico, Tape, Binding and Thread.  "For Elizabeth Owens to go to service with Mr.Pickering, Moss". Total 14s 8d.

 

7/91    Mar 29, 1824    Receipted a/c from Jno.Jones of the Long Lane (2 Bills)  

a)  To clothe the Widow Upton Boy as is with Mr.Jno. Jones Long Lane.

1½yds ? yarn @ 19d, 1½yds Calico @ 5d, Thread and buttons 4d,  Total 3s 5d.

b) 5yds Cloth @ 8d, Thread and Buttons, 3yds Ducking @ 13½d, 1 pr.Homemade Stockings 2s 0d, Making Britches 2s 0d, Hat 2s 0d.  Total 14s 11d.

 

8/3     Apr 05, 1824    Receipted a/c from Ed.Edwards, Wellington

Clothing for Rd.Upton.(Note says Rd.Upton Boy to go to Mr.Leeke of Sugden). Trousers 3s 0d, Smock Frock 4s 6d, 2 Shirts 5s 0d, Stockings 1s 0d, Waistcoat 1s 6d, Hat 2s 6d. Total 17s 6d.

 

8/52    Jul 24, 1824    Receipted a/c from Jones & Bufrey

Tapes? 4½d; 1yd Calico @ 10d; 1 pr. Hose 1s 0d; 1 pr. Hose 1s 6d; 3yds Striped Holland @ 8d; 1yd Flannel 9½d; 1½yd ? Calico @ 4d; 6yds Olive Print? @ 10d; 6yds Calico ? @ 6d; 1 pr Shoes from Houlston 5s 0d. Total £1 0s 0d. (For making up Ann Smiths clothes to go out of Workhouse).

On other side of Acct., Rbt.Motteram 4s 0d for making Ann Smiths Cloathes.

 

8/135   Mar 31, 1825    Receipted a/c from Thomas Blakemore

Making new and repairing clothes for persons in the workhouse Mar 16-24, 1825.  John Fletcher making smock Frock, Wascote, Trousers 4s;  John Taylor Making Jacket 2s 10d and paid Mrs.Bullock for making his Smock Frock 1s 0d;  Thos.Tudor, Making Jacket 2s 10d, Trousers 2s 0d, Lining and repairing clothes 2s 0d; John Barkley for New Sleeving his coat and mending other clothes 2s 0d; for John Loyde Trousers new lined and repaired 2s 0d; 4doz buttons 2s 0d; 1yd of Pocketing 1s 0d; 1oz  Cullered Thrid 3d. Total £1 1s 11d.

 

10/80   Nov 10, 1825    Receipted a/c from Jas.Oliver & Co.

Acct. Sep 8 for clothing for Elizabeth Lewis to go out of Workhouse.  6½yds Calico @ 6d, 3½yds flannel @ 12d, 3 Petticoat Lincey @ 18d, 7½yds Blue Print @ 10d, 1½yds Calico @ 4d, 1½yds Linen Check @ 6d, 1 1/8 Blue Linen @ 12d, 2pr Black Hose @ 16d, 2 Hdkfs 6d, 2yds Bro Herden @ 8d, Tape 4d.  Total £1 7s 0d.

 

10/81   Nov 12, 1825    Receipted a/c from T.Houlston

Sep 13, Elizabeth Lewis one shoe repaired 2d; Sal Wayman pr new heeled, pieced and pachd 1s; Oct 17, Elizabeth Lewis new pr. cordevan? 5s 9d; John Floyd pr.very Large shoes 11s; Nov 12, Reb.Churm Shoe Pachd 2d, soled, heeled, welted and pacht 1s 6d; John Barlett sold, pachd 1s 6d; Sal Wayman pr sold, coverd, naild 3s.

Total £1 4s 1d.

 

10/90   Dec 04, 1825    Receipted a/c from Elizabeth Edwards

Jan 1, 1823, Flannel Jacket 8s 6d; 2yds Ducken 2s 4d; 1½yds flannel 1s 6d; 3½yds Cloth 4s 0d (all for John Oliver). Mar 1823, shoes 4s 6d, Ducken jacket 6s 6d, 2 shirts 9s, Ducken trousers 5s, Hatt 2s 6d, Waistcoat 4s, Stockings 1s (for Saml.Gregory). May 1824, W.Olivers 2 boys, 2 shirts 6s, 2 hats 4s, 1pr trousers 5s 6d, 1 Waistcoat 3s, 2 hankfs 1s, 2 Fust. Jackets 12s, 1 waistcoat 3s 9d, 1pr trousers 4s.  Apr 1824 for John Fletcher 2 shirts 6s, waistcoat 1s, flannel trousers 4s, flannel jacket, 2prs stockings 2s. Total £5 5s 1d. (Signed Wm.Edwards).

 

15/46   Jun 09, 1830    Letter and Acct. from Mary Humphreys of Esq. Scots Cottages, Betton near the Weeping? Gate (Cross added). 

Mr.Sheppard Sir,  I have taken the libertey of informing you that Jane Pickering have being at her place with Mrs.Jackson since the 6? of May and sutes extreamley well  Mrs.Jackson thinks she will make a good Servant and providing she keep going on as well as she do at presant she will not be likeley to trouble you any more.  Mrs.Jackson was not willing to have her till she was better provided for in close I bought her the folowing artickles

5yds Print at 9½d (4s 10½d); 1 pair shoes 5s; Mending a pair of shoes 1s 6d; 1½yds Gingham 10d; 2 Aprons 1s 4d; 2 Hankchfs 1s 8d; 5yds Calico at 3d (2s 1d); 2yds Striped Linen for a Peticoate at 11d (1s 10d); 1yd Muslin for caps 1s; 1 pr. Stays 3s 2d; 5yds Print at 10d (4s 2d); 1 Bonnet 3s; 1 pr.Stockings 1s 3d; yarn for footing 1s 3d; 3yds black stuff for Skirt at 10d (2s 6d). Total £1 15s 5½d. 

which Mrs.Jackson says she considers but a moderate charge on the parish for taking her of them.

 

Note says May 31 pd. Mary Humphreys on Acct. £1. Having visited the Girl and her Mistress Mrs.Jackson which has agreed to her hire and the Mistress fond of her and the girl is doing Very Well. G.S.  Jun 9 Pd. Mrs.H. £1 2s 0d, Jane Pickering 1s, Total £2 3s 0d.   Note says "to be seen at Salop Fair".

 

 

20/108        Jan 11, 1836    Receipted a/c from James Webb, Market Place, Wellington

6yds Calico at 4d; 1pr Black Hose? 1s; 6oz Yarn at 2d; 2½yds Blue Linen at 8d; 1¼yds Check at 8½d; 1¾yds Strip'd Cotton at 10d;2½yds Flannel at 12d; 12yds Print at 6d; 2yds Lining at 3½d; ½yd Muslin at 8d; ¼yd Muslin at 12d; 1 Handkf. 8d; 1 Stays 1s 9d, 1 Bonnet 1s 2d. Total £1 1s 3d. (For Cloathing for Late E.Pritchard's eldest dau. to go to Service to Mrs.Skitt, Wrockwardine Bank.

 

20/110        Jan 14, 1836    Receipted a/c from James Webb & Co. Wellington

4yds Calico at 4d; 1½yds Flannel at 12d; 6yds Print at 6d; 1¼yds Check at 9d; 1¼yds Linen at 8d; 5¼oz Yarn at 2d; Straw Bonnet 1s 4d. Total 9s 9½d. For clothing for late Ed.Pritchard's youngest dau.

 

20/112        Jan 23, 1836    Receipted a/c from Robert Humphreys (wife signs X)

Making new shoes, Pritchard Girl 5s 6d; Making 2 gound 2s 8d; Lining 4d; 2 Patycoats 8d; 2 shifts 1s 2d; Tape etc. 2d; Stockings Soled 1s; Total 11s 9d. (other words unreadable) Note says Clothing for Pritchard's girl to go to Mrs.Skitt).



Settlement Examinations

Transcribed by members of the North East Telford Studies Group

www3.shropshire-cc.gov.uk/roots/packages/ind/ind_w13.doc

Settlement Examinations form the most common surviving type of examination. The idea of a settlement was enshrined in law with the passage of An Act for the better Relief of the Poor in 1662, widely referred as the Act of Settlement.1 This Act was principally concerned with restricting migration and providing the basis for the exclusion of outsiders from parishes. Those immigrants thought "likely to be chargeable” to a parish could be removed under the Act’s auspices by order, if a complaint was brought against them within forty days of their arrival, always providing that they had not rented a house or land worth £10 per year or more, or provided a certificate attesting to their intention to undertake harvest work, or their normal residence elsewhere.2
In the period following the passage of the Act of Settlement, its provisions were adapted and modified. In addition to a £10 property qualification, later legislation ensured that settlement could be earned through the payment of local rates, serving as an unpaid parish officer, and being bound as an apprentice or hired as a servant for a year. Acts were also passed expanding the scope of settlement certificates, and ensuring that a pauper could only be removed if they became chargeable to the parish of residence. And finally, if no other settlement could be determined, or if the individual was illegitimate, the settlement was established as the place of birth.

Westminster Archives Centre, St Clement Danes, Examinations Book, 1792-1798, Ms B1203, LL ref: WCCDEP358280115.

During the same period case law came to modify significantly the workings of the settlement system. Of particular importance was the development of the idea of derivative settlements, established by lawyers at the Court of King’s Bench during the eighteenth century, which ensured that if a person did not acquire a new settlement for themselves they would derive their settlement from that of their parents, or even their grandparents.
In order to establish the basis for a settlement the parish authorities needed to pay at least one Justice of Peace to take an examination of the personal, employment and ownership histories of the individual. The resulting examinations are legal documents, and were normally created at the point when a pauper first applied for poor relief. There is some historical controversy over the extent to which examinations were also triggered in the absence of applications for relief by the desire of parish officials to regulate migration.3


P316/L/8/1  Jan 02, 1715/6
Examination of John Philips (X), wife Ann, 1 child.  Born Rockadine, at age 13 was bound apprentice to John Grice, Atcham, weaver, served 5yrs, married Ann Wilkes at Madeley Feb 2, 1714/5

P316/L/8/2  Feb 28, 1720/1

Examination of  Mary Mitton (X).  10 yrs ago her husband John Mitton rented farm at Rodington value about £30 p.a. After her husband left her she hired herself to Wm.Dossitt, Uppington at 30s/yr., served 2yrs. 

 

P316/L/8/3  Apr 29, 1725

Examination of  Richard Thomas (X).   5yrs ago hired self to Thos.Binnell of Huscott (sic), Wrockwardine (Allscott) for year. 

 

P316/L/8/4  Jan 04, 1727/8

Examination of  William Kemson, wife Margaret and 1 child.  Had been hired servant for 2 yrs to Wm.Roberts, Shifnal, taylor. 

 

P316/L/8/5  Jan 04, 1727/8

Examination of  Francis Palmer, wife Bridgett, 1 child.  Had lived year as hired servant to Richard Lathe of Preston upon the Wildmoor, been married about 25 yrs. 

 

P316/L/8/6  Feb 01, 1727/8 of

Examination of  Richard Dabbs (X), wife Mary, 1 daughter 10wks.  Married about 1 yr. Served apprentice for 11yrs with Mr. Fletcher, Hinnington, Shifnal. 

 

P316/L/8/7  Jan 25, 1728/9   

Examination of Anne Wheeler(X), single woman.  Lived as hired servant with Richard Lawrence of Isombridge, Ercall Magna Parish for whole year ending Christmas 1727 and received from him a whole year's wages and hath not acquired a legal Settlement in any other place since.

Pinned to the Examination is a note "July ye 30:1728  The names and age of ye 3 eldest children of Richard OwenAbigel is 10 past Richard is 9 past Mary is 7 past.

 

P316/L/8/8  May 20, 1731

Examination of  Robert Bowker (signs Booker). Born Isombridge, Ercall Magna, soon afterwards father moved to the Long Lane, W'dine. Served father Geo. Bowker in trade of weaver till age 15 then went to live with John Grice, Uckington, Atcham, weaver for 3yrs  for meat and drink. Then 4yrs for ½profit of his work, by agreement assisted father occasionally. Since then has remained at Long Lane at weavers trade.

 

P316/L/8/9  Nov 04, 1731

Examination  of Mary Blaney, single woman.   About 5 yrs ago hired servant for year with Edward Dawe of Donnington Wood, Lillyshall parish. 

 

P316/L/8/10 May 19, 1748

Examination of  Mary Pickering (X), single, with bastard child b. Apr 14, 1748 baptised Richard Bagott. Reputed father Richard Pickering late of Bratton, Wrockwardine.

 

P316/L/8/11 May 03, 1749

Examination of  Mary Badnall (X), and infant.  2 yrs ago m. John Badnall, s. of Thos. Badnall of Kinnersley, farmer.  Her husband's settlement was Kinnersley where his father rented upwards of £10 p.a., husband now left her. 

 

P316/L/8/12 Jul 18, 1753

Examination of George Peat.  Bound Apprentice about 9yrs ago to Rich Gibbonds, "Guardener” of St. Chadd's parish, Shrewsbury and served full term.

 

P316/L/8/13 Feb 14, 1758

Examination of  Thomas Pickens (X), Collier,  wife Margaret.  Born Shifnall, at  age 12 went apprentice to Thos. Cordal of Tetnall (Tettenhall?) Staffs, who after 5 years moved to Walsall but after 1 yr left because of dispute. Since worked at Broseley but day labour. (Copy)

 

P316/L/8/14 May 30, 1758

Examination of Mary Bagnall, m. John Bagnall about 12yrs ago, 1 child (died).  J.B. left soon after marriage, not seen him since, heard people say he was seen in London 3 or 4yrs ago, but doesn't now know if he is alive or dead.  His last place of legal settlement known to her was Kinnersley, Sa., his father's settlement.  3yrs ago she married George Colley at Worldley Bank (by man but she doesn't know if he was a minister), but she heard just before marriage that George Colley's wife was still living.  She had a son by Geo. Colley, Thomas age 2yrs 9mths, baptised and she insists on taking this child with her wherever she be removed.

 

P316/L/8/15 Jun 03, 1758

Examination of  Mary Jones (X), widow.  Married Jul 6 1757 to Thomas Jones who had been hired servant to Richard Bellis of Bratton, Wrockwardine and served the whole year. 

 

P316/L/8/16 Dec 18, 1758

Examination of  John Badnell (Bagnell?) rents tenement value £25 p.a. in St.John, Wapping, Middlesex

 

P316/L/8/17 Apr 27, 1763

Examination of  Edward Davies (X), labourer.  Born Idsall a. Shifnall where father lived under certificate. from W'dine. At age 10 bound. Parish App.by W'dine to Rd. Smith, Allscott. Off/on there for 11yrs then left and lived ½yr with Tho. Pemberton, Leaton. 1yr with Roger Roe,W'dine, 1yr 4m John Stanier,Uppington, 1 yr John Lockley of Rushton, Wroxeter; 1 full yr Mr.Smith, Aston,Wellington,then full yr with Geo.Owen, The Woodhouse,Idsall.

 

P316/L/8/18 Apr 27, 1763

Examination of  Richard Homlinton, Cordwainer.  Born Wellington, father's parish was The Abbey, Shrewsbury later moved to Roddington parish. Bound apprentice 13yrs ago to Humphrey Picking, High Ercall for term of 6yrs but lived with father at Roddington.

P316/L/8/19 Apr 27, 1763
Examination of  John Hughes,  Wheelwright,  14yrs ago Apprentice to Jn Onions, Uppington, wheelwright, after 1 yr moved with Master to Aston, Wellington, after 5yrs they moved to Wroxeter. 5yrs ago hired as servant to Wm. Edwards, Whatling St.  Wellington, wheelright.

P316/L/8/20 Apr 27, 1763

Examination of  John Jones (X), labourer.  Hired for 1 year to Mrs. Smith of Aston, Wellington just over year ago.

 

P316/L/8/21 Apr 27, 1763 

Examination of   John Jones (X),  14 yrs ago Apprenticed for 7 yrs to Sam? Smith (weaver) of ffits, Salop, then moved with Master after 3 yrs to fforton, Monford (sic) parish (Salop) and remained there 4 yrs. 

 

P316/L/8/22 Apr 27, 1763

Examination of  Thomas Jones (X), Wheelwright, 12 yrs ago bound apprentice to Thomas Ward of Monmouth's Bridge, St. Talkman's, Salop (St.Alkmunds) for 5 yrs. 

 

P316/L/8/23 Apr 24, 1764

Examination of  Evan Davies (X), Joyner, wife Mary.  At present resident Broseley, (Wenlock Liberty), 8 yrs ago hired servant to Saml. Binnel (Wrockwardine).


P316/L/8/24 Jul 28, 1764

Examination of   Thomas Cuffen (X), Collier age 50.

Of Worthington, Leicester. Born Trench Lane, Wrockwardine where his father, John Cuffin was parishioner, hired as servant in colliery to Esq. Kirk of Worthington for whole year at 1s 2d/day.

 

P316/L/8/25 Feb 06, 1765

Examination of  Arthur Cooper(X), though born at Wrockwardine, his father's parish was Idsall.

Legal Settlement: Shifnal alias Idsall, Sa.

 

P316/L/8/26 Feb 06, 1765

Examination of  Thomas Cooper(X), though born in Wrockwardine, his father's parish was Shifnal.

Legal Settlement:  Shifnal alias Idsall

 

P316/L/8/27 Feb 06, 1765

Examination of  Thomas Dunkey(X), 24 yrs ago hired servant for whole year to William Briscoe of Apley, Wellington parish.

 

P316/L/8/28 Feb 06, 1765

Examination of  George Evans(X), born at Forge Green, Prees, his father's parish.

Legal Settlement:  Preese, Sa.

 

P316/L/8/29 Feb 06, 1765

Examination of  William Felton(X), 9yrs ago hired servant to Thomas Parsons, Hakleton (Ackleton?) in Worvelwon(Worfield?) parish, Sa., since then hired servant to Robert Dawes, The Haygate, Wrockwardine, left in last fortnight but was paid full yrs wages.

 

P316/L/8/30 Feb 06, 1765

Examination of  Richard Hamlett(X), hired servant for 1yr to Mr. Miller of Turley in Parish of Market Drayton.  Legal Settlement:  Market Drayton, Sa.

 

P316/L/8/31 Feb 06, 1765

Examination of  William Heath(X), 10yrs ago hired servant to Wm. Andrews of Dawley Magna, Sa.

 

P316/L/8/32 Feb 06, 1765

Examination of  David Lewis(X), hired servant 1yr with Mr. Thomas Ward, Slape, Ercall Magna about 6yrs ago.  Legal Settlement:  Ercall Magna, Sa.

 

P316/L/8/33 Feb 06, 1765

Examination of  John Littlehales(X), rented tenement at £27 p.a. for 4yrs at Norton, Wroxeter about 14/15yrs ago.  Legal Settlement:  Wroxeter, Sa.

 

P316/L/8/34 Feb 06, 1765

Examination of  Morriss Morriss(X), hired servant 1yr with Mrs. Fonnes? about 5yrs ago in St.Chadde's.  Legal Settlement: St. Chadde's, Shrewsbury

 

P316/L/8/35 Feb 06, 1765

Examination of  Thos. Prichard(X), 25yrs ago hired servant to George Bowen of Llandasilio parish, (Montgomery)

 

P316/L/8/36 Feb 06, 1765

Examination of  William Ratliffe(X),born and bred at Stoke/Trent his father's settlement.  Legal Settlement:  Stoke upon Trent, Staffs.

 

P316/L/8/37 Feb 06, 1765

Examination of  Edward Richards(X), bound apprentice 15yrs ago to George Yale, Tayler and served full 7yrs.  Legal Settlement:  Hinstock, Sa.

 

P316/L/8/38 Feb 06, 1765

Examination of  Jos. Wallet(X), 3yrs ago hired servant to Mr. Robert Glover of Kemberton, Sa.

 

P316/L/8/39 Apr 10, 1765

Examination of  George Lawley(X) born Upper Neen, Sa., Father Robert Lawley lived there under certificate from Stottesdon, Sa.  29/30yrs ago, bound parish Apprentice to Rd. Monnox, Yeoman of Stottesdon, served 14yrs, lived as servant ¼yr with Geo. Corbett, Lower Neen, then day labourer for about 2mths.  Then hired to Thomas Hammons, Wrockwardine from end of harvest till May following, then hired 1yr with Thos. Pemberton, Leaton, Wrockwardine, May to May, then hired for another year but served May till Candlemas

 

P316/L/8/40 Apr 10, 1765

Examination of  Thomas Speak(X). born St. Mary's Parish, Shrewsbury, his father's settlement.  Had lived hired servant 4yrs to Mrs. Farrington of the Hile (Isle?) in St.Mary's Shrewsbury, 7yrs ago.  Then came to Mrs. Dixson of The Marsh, Ercall Magna, but only hired for 6mths at a time.  Then hired to Mr. Jonathon Roe of Wrockwardine. served about 11mths but was paid full year's wage.

 

P316/L/8/41 Jan 04, 1768

Examination of  Sarah Allen(X), single woman, born Crudgington, Ercall Magna Sa., (father John Allen had Certificate from Wrockwardine to Ercall Magna parish).  5yrs ago bound for 1yr by Bridget Gerrat of Atcham, Manteau maker, to learn that art, S. Allen to pay £2.2s but left 1wk before end of year because of a quarrel when her mistress ordered her to go to work at a place where the smallpox was, she not having had that Distemper, refused.

 

P316/L/8/42       Jul 06, 1768

Examination of  Richard Smallman(X), about 6yrs ago lived as hired servant to Mary Ridgley, Widow of Kinnersley for 3yrs.  Now lives at Long Lane, Wrockwardine parish in Tenement of £4.10s per year and has paid Church and Poor Loans to Wrockwardine parish Officers but can't tell whether he is Assessed in the Church or Poor Book or not.

P316/L/8/43 Feb 01, 1769

Examination of  Thomas Thomas(X), 15yrs ago hired servant 1yr with John Harper of Sleap, Ercall Magna Parish, Sa. then for 1yr with Mr. Robert Hawkins of Charlton, Wrockwardine but left by agreement from the fixed hiring a few weeks before end of term and thereafter served as day labourer with Mr. Hawkins for some time. Married Eleanor while serving Mr.Hawkins as hired servant, in the May.

 

P316/L/8/44 May 18, 1769(7?)

Examination of  James Millard(X), 18 or 19yrs ago bound Apprentice to John Hurd, Wincanton, Somerset, Weaver.  Served 7 of the 10yrs before he ran away.

 

P316/L/8/45 Mar 16, 1770

Examination of  Ann Swift(X), single woman,  4yrs ago served as hired servant for 1yr with Roger Cooper, Bratton, Wrockwardine.  Then hired servant for 1yr with John Edwards of Hadley Park, Wellington parish but had 3s.0d. stopped off wages for a glass she broke, and an apron.  Mrs Wood, mistress of Wellington Workhouse, told her to swear her Settlement to be Wrockwardine because of her service to R. Cooper.

 

P316/L/8/46 Aug 05, 1772

Examination of  Joseph Whallet (X)

9 yrs ago hired servant with Robert Glover of Kemberton, Salop.

 

P316/L/8/47 Feb 22, 1773

Examination of   Mary Reushmean, wife of Wm. Reushmean, child William,

Maiden name Mary Roberts,hired as servant to Mr.Henry Seuer, Germain St., St James, Middx. married Dec14, 1771 at St. James Ch. to Wm. Reushmean, a  Hanoverian. Had m.child Dec 23, 1772 in parish of

St.Mary Axe, City of London. 

 

P316/L/8/48 Feb 01, 1775

Examination of  Samuel Edge, of Waters Upton, Sa. concerning his son, John Edge and Mary his wife.  Run away and left their 2 children, Luke(4) and Sarah(2) in Wrockwardine parish.  Samuel Edge says last legal settlement of John Edge was Bolas Magna, so that parish has paid weekly for relief of his (Samuel Edge's) grandchildren,

 

P316/L/8/49 Jun 13, 1776

Examination of  John Teece(X), nearly 80yrs old. Born Donnington, Lilleshall, Sa. parish.  His father, Samuel Teece was parishioner of Lilleshall.  At 14yrs of age, hired servant for 1 whole year to Richard Ball of the Moss, Wrockwardine parish.

 

P316/L/8/50       Dec 21, 1776

Examination of  Willm. Duddell(X), about 21yrs old, born Wellington, Sa., father John Duddell lived at and was parishioner of Wellington.

 

P316/L/8/51 Oct 19, 1778

Examination of  Jane Pugh, single woman, concerning her child William.  The child which is along with her is her own natural child born Oct 12, 1777 in Putney, Surrey, bapt. William.  Says she would have left the child in Putney when she was removed but the Parish Officers there would not allow her to, "but obliged her to take it along with her".  Jane Pugh signs her own name.  See Removal Orders P316/L/10/53,54.

 

P316/L/8/52 Aug 07, 1780 

Examination of Thomas Savage(X).  He is 60yrs. born at Grinshill, about 43 yrs. ago hired self as servant to Richard Chidley, Hodnett for 1yr. and served him 2½ yrs. He then moved with his Master to parish of Prees(n?) and there served upwards of 6mths. Has done nothing to gain settlement since.  See Removal Order P316/L/10/55.

 

P316/L/8/53 Oct 10, 1781

Examination of  William Pritchard (X)  10 yrs ago hired servant to Thomas Davies of Lawley, Wellington parish.

 

P316/L/8/54 June 05, 1782

Examination of  James Johnson (X), age 29  Inhabitant of Newport, born Trench Lane, Wrockwardine parish. Father Richard Johnson was parishioner of Madeley, Staffs. 13 yrs ago hired servant to David Clifford, Trench Lane.  No signatures - copy?.  On back is written Wrockwardine Parish.  See next paper.

 

P316/L/8/55 Jun 05, 1782

Duplicate of above but attested copy.

 

P316/L/8/56 Sep 13, 1783

Examination of  John Latham (X)  (Copy taken Jun 27, 1794, original at Wombridge)

Exam. of J.L., inhabitant of Wolverhampton, concerning Settlement of Francis Hamer. J.Latham bound App. 30 yrs ago to George Sparrow, Wolverhampton. Fr. Hamer had been hired servant there for 1 yr

 

P316/L/8/57 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  Eleanor Allen (X), widow age 67, child Mary 30.

Born City of London, 44 yrs ago married Jonathon Allen at Wrockwardine now lives at Wrockwardine, Longden her certificated parish. 

 

P316/L/8/58 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  Elizabeth Ashley (X), widow age 66, children: Thomas 35, William 33, Sarah 25, Eliz. 23.  Born Ockbrook, Grazeley parish, Derbys. Married Wm. Ashley of Eyton Super (Wildmoor?), Salop 42 yrs ago, now lives at Wrockwardine Wood.

 

P316/L/8/59 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  Richard Ball (X), age 30, wife Mary, children: William 11, Richard 9.

Born Oakengates (Shifnal) where his father then lived, Lilleshall his father's legal settlement.

 

P316/L/8/60 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  William Bates (X), age 52, wife Isabella, children: Joseph 22, Mary 18, Andrew 15, Isabella 13, Jane 12, William 8, James 4, Sarah 1.

Born Eyton, Father Wm. Bates parishioner of Lillyshall.

 

P316/L/8/61 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  Elizabeth Beech(X), 22yrs, inhabitant of Wrockwardine Wood, b. Limekiln Bank, Shifnal. About 11yrs ago was Parish Appr. to Mr. William Nevett, Shifnal. Served 5yrs.  W. Nevitt failed in business and she ran away from Shifnal.  (See Removal Order P316/L/10/56)

JPs:  Edw. Pemberton, Tho. Eyton.

 

P316/L/8/62 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  Henry Biddulph (X), age 73, wife Elizabeth.

Born Wolverhampton, Staffs, lives at Wrockwardine Wood. 53 yrs ago bound apprentice to John Hill of Oakengates, Shifnal but after 1 yr J.Hill had Certificate from Wrockwardine and he served rest of time with J. Hill.

 

P316/L/8/63 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  John Brothwood (X), age 36, no wife, children: John 13, Mary 11, Joseph 9, Thomas 7, William 3, James 3.  Born Pains Lane, Lilleshall, inhabits Wrockwardine Wood, Dawley Magna his father's certificated parish.  Note on back gives his name as Brotherwood.

 

P316/L/8/64 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  Mary Colley (X), widow age 60, son George 21.  Born Trench Lane, Wrockwardine, married George Colley about 28 yrs ago. Wellington his last place of legal settlement. 

 

P316/L/8/65 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  John Cooper (X), age 49, wife Sarah, children: Rebecca 8, Elizabeth 5.

Born Pains Lane, Idsall alias Shifnal, the parish of his father, Wm.Cooper.

 

P316/L/8/66 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  Levina Davies (X), widow age 60, son John 20.  Born Coalpit Bank, Wellington parish, 35 yrs ago married John Davies (of Wrockwardine parish) at Worley Bank, Staffs. 

 

P316/L/8/67 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  William Davies (X), age 46, wife Catherine, daughter Mary 13.  Born Kinnerley, his father, John Davies' parish.

 

P316/L/8/68 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  Sarah Dawes(X), widow age 40, Children: Thomas 14, Eliz. 12, Edward 7, Sarah 4.

Lives Wrockwardine Wood, Born The Nabb, Wrockwardine Parish, married 16 yrs ago Ed. Dawes of The Nabb, (Dawley his parish).

 

P316/L/8/69 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  John Edges (X), age 35, wife Mary, children: Luke 13, Sarah 11.  Born Waters Upton, lives Wrockwardine Wood, about 25 yrs ago hired self servant to Rd. Clay of Bolas Magna and served the whole year. 

 

P316/L/8/70 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  John Gittins (X), age 35, wife Elizabeth, Children: Martha 6, Eleanor 4, John inf.

Base child of Eleanor Gittins of Sump? Lane, Wombridge.

 

P316/L/8/71 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of   William Jerviss (X), age 31, wife Jane, children: Rebecca 10, William 9, Dorothy 7, Jane 5, Thos. 2.  Born Oakengates, Shifnall, lives at Wrockwardine Wood, Preston upon the Wildmoor his father's parish.

 

P316/L/8/72 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  Elizabeth Jones, widow age 68.  Born Pains Lane, Wrockwardine, inhabits Wrockwardine Wood, married Charles Jones at Newport about 38 yrs ago, Newport his parish.

 

P316/L/8/73 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  John Lane, age 55, wife Mary, Children: Barbra 15, Richard 8.  Born Kingsley, Preston, Salop. 13 or 14 yrs ago he rented a tenement value £30 in Chapelry of Astley, St Mary's parish. 

 

P316/L/8/74 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  William Langford (X), age 36, wife Elizabeth, children: Elizabeth 15, John 10, Mary 6, William 4, Ann 1.  Born Smercott (Smethcott?), 15 yrs ago hired himself to John Rogers of Longnor and served for full year. Lives Wrockwardine Wood. 

 

P316/L/8/75 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  Richard Latham (X), age 42, wife Ann, children: Adam 19, Richard 13,  Mary 11,   Sillina? 5, James 2,  Ann inf.  Born Preston, Salop, about 20 yrs ago hired self servant to Jas. Hayward, Hadley, Wellington parish. 

 

P316/L/8/76 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of   Thomas Latham (X), age 33, wife Mary, children: Mary 8, Thomas 5, Sarah 3, Joseph inf.  Born Preston, Salop inhabits Wrockwardine Wood, about 16 yrs ago hired self servant to Sarah Higgins of Preston. Then Hired servant to Jas. Swan, Knightly Hall, Gnosall, Staffs but left 1 wk. before end of year.

 

P316/L/8/77 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of   John Lloyd (X), age 28, wife Catherine, children: Sarah 6, Elizabeth 4, Rebecca 2.

Lives at Wrockwardine Wood, born Ketley Brook, Wellington parish, 10 yrs ago hired self to Saml. Ward of Horton, Wellington parish and gained settlement.

 

P316/L/8/78 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  Ann Manwaring (X), widow age 31, children: Richard 11, Mary 9, William 7, John 2.

Born Dawley Magna, m. Wm. Manwaring (deceased) at Wrockwardine 11 years ago, Lilleshall his parish.

 

P316/L/8/79 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  Elizabeth Manwaring (X), widow age 66.  Born Preston s. Wildmore, 41 yrs ago married Rich. Manwaring at Lillyshall. Sheriffhales, Salop her late husband's parish.

 

P316/L/8/80 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  Elizabeth Manwaring (X), widow age 49, children: Richard 18, John 16, Margaret 12, Jane 10, James 8, Mary 14, William 6.  Born Pains Lane, Wrockwardine, m. Robt. Manwaring (dec.) at Wrockwardine 28 yrs ago. Lilleshall his parish. 

 

P316/L/8/81 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  John Manwaring (X),  age 33, wife Margaret, children:  Wm. 12, Thos. 9, Christ (sic) 6, Benj. 4, Margt.2  Born Wrockwardine Wood, Lilleshall the parish of his father Robert.

 

P316/L/8/82 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  Andrew Manwearing (X), age 58, wife Eleanor, son Robert 12.  Born Trench Lane, Wrockwardine parish, inhabits Wrockwardine Wood, Lillyshall his father's parish. 

 

P316/L/8/83 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  William Martin (X), age 29, wife Elizabeth, children:  John 4, Thos. 2.

Lives Wrockwardine Wood, born Gnosall. Hired as servant for 1 year about 8 yrs ago to Thos. Bentley, Knightly, Gnosall parish. 

 

P316/L/8/84 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  James Millard (X), age 38, wife Sarah, children: Thos. 17, James 15, John 9, William 7, Barnett 4.  Born Wincanton, Somerset,  his father's parish, lives Wrockwardine Wood. 

 

P316/L/8/85 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  John Millington (X), age 45, wife Mary, children: William 16, Rowland 11, Eliz. 8, Sarah 8, Ann 5.  Born Oakengates, Shifnal. Lives Wrockwardine Wood. 29 yrs ago hired self as servant to Rd. Briscoe of Wombridge for 1 year. 

 

P316/L/8/86 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  Wm. Millington (X), age 28, wife Elizabeth, children: Ann 3, Rowland 1.  Born Wrockwardine Wood and lives there now. Lilleshall the parish of his father.

Note on back "belonging to Lilleshall”  

 

P316/L/8/87 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  Edward Morris (X), age 40, wife Martha, children: Ann 13, Martha 10, Elizabeth 8.

Born Astley, St Mary's parish, Salop. 28 yrs ago bound apprentice for 7 yrs to John Gregory (Upton Ma.) lives at Wrockwardine Wood. 

 

P316/L/8/88 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  Morris Morris (X), age 52, wife Mary.  Born, not known, 22 yrs ago hired for 1 year by Mary Fownes of St.Chadds as a servant, so gained settlement. Lives Wrockwardine Wood. 

 

P316/L/8/89 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  Richard Pickering (X), age 47, wife Eleanor, children: Richard 3, William inf.

Born Dawley Magna, 26 yrs ago hired as servant to John Horton, of Homer in Stirchley parish and served full year.

 

P316/L/8/90 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  Thomas Pool (X), age 32, wife Elizabeth, children: Thos. 12, John 9, Eliz. 7, Richard 4, Wm. inf.  Born Market Drayton, about 13 yrs ago hired self to Mr. John Briscoe, Apley Castle (gained Settlement), lives Wrockwardine Wood. 

 

P316/L/8/91 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  Matthew Pritchard (X), age 23.  Born Trench Lane, Wrockwardine, lives W'dine Wood, Llandysilio (Montgomery) his father's Parish.

 

P316/L/8/92 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  Robert Pritchard (X), age 27, wife Sarah, children: Joseph 6, Roseanna 3.

Born Trench Lane, Wrockwardine, lives at Wrockwardine Wood. Llandysilio (Montgomery) his father's parish. 

 

P316/L/8/93 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  Richard Proudlow (X), age 30, wife Ann, children: Jane 5, Elizabeth 3, Richard inf.

Born Pave Lane, Longford, Salop. lives at Wrockwardine Wood. High Ercall his father's parish.

 

P316/L/8/94 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  Edward Richards (X), age 41, wife Mary, children: Mary 22, Ann 20, John 15, Thomas 13, Edward 11.  Born Eccleshall, Staffs. now lives Wrockwardine Wood. 30 yrs ago hired apprentice to George Yate, Hinstock, Taylor. for 7 yrs.  (Note on back gives name as "Pritchard".)

 

P316/L/8/95 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  Ann Rigby (X), widow age 47   Born The Nabb, Wrockwardine, 30 yrs ago married Thos. Rigby at Idsall alias Shifnall.  Wellington the legal parish of her late husband. 

 

P316/L/8/96 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  Mary Rowley (X), widow age 33, children: Sarah 12, Rebecca 7, Catherine 3.  Born Hanwood, married Preston on Wildmore. Lilleshall her late husband's Parish 

 

P316/L/8/97 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  Elizabeth Steventon, widow age 44, children: Thos. 16 (by a former husband) William 10.  Born and inhabits Wrockwardine Wood, 13 yrs ago married John Steventon of Pelshall, Staffs.   Willenhall his parish. 

 

P316/L/8/98 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  Joseph Vickers (X), age 42, wife Sarah, children: Eliz. 17, Joseph 13, Sarah 9, Rich.7, James 5, John 3.  Born Trench Lane, Wrockwardine. Elisha his father was parishioner of Lilleshall. 

 

P316/L/8/99 Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  Richard Weals (Wales), age 31, wife Sarah, children: Ann 7, Mary 4, John 1..

Born Coalpit Bank, Wellington Parish. Much Wenlock the parish of his father, Richard Wales (sic).

 

P316/L/8/100      Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  Bazel         Wood                   John Dec 03, 1783 17831203           SE         Lilleshall                     P316/L/8 101

 (X), age 60, wife Martha,  son John 27.  Born Trench Lane, Eyton. Son of Bazel Wolley of Ercall Magna parish.

 

P316/L/8/101      Dec 03, 1783

Examination of  John Wood (X), age 25, wife Sarah, children: William 4, Jane 2, John 1.

Born Trench Lane, Lilleshall, the parish of his father, William Wood.

 

P316/L/8/102      Dec 03, 1783

Examination of   William Wood (X) age 36, wife Elizabeth, children: Jane 11, William 9, Andrew 3,      Mary inf.  Born at Lilleshall, his father's parish, inhabits Wrockwardine Wood.

 

P316/L/8/103      Mar 01, 1784

Examination of  Thomas Wright (X), age 27, wife Martha, children: Julia 3, John 1.  Inhabitant of Wrockwardine parish. Born Crudgington (Ercall Magna), his father's parish. 8 yrs ago hired servant to Mr. Thomas Slater, Crudgington for 1 year.

 

P316/L/8/104      Mar 08, 1784

Examination of  Richard Davies (X), age 25?  Inhabitant of Wrockwardine Parish, born The Nabb, father John Davies lived there and was parishioner of Wrockwardine. 

 

P316/L/8/105      Jul 19, 1784

Examination of  Edward Jones, labourer age 42, wife Elizabeth, children: William 6, John 4, Ann 3, Mary 9m.  Inhabitant of Bromsgrove, Worcs. Born St Martins, Salop. 16 yrs ago hired servant to Richard Rhodes, Wrockwardine Wood for 1 full year, then weekly servant to Mr. Ashmore and Mr. Hughes. Served 4 years.  Note on back says "Wrockwardine Parish".

 

P316/L/8/106      Oct 13, 1784

Examination of  James Leese(X), wife Sarah, Jane(9), William(5), Mary(2). Born 30yrs ago base child of Jane Leese in Lilleshall, Sa. parish. 

 

P316/L/8/107      Oct 23, 1784

Examination of  William Debnay, age 24.  Born Burlington, Sheriffhales where father lived. His uncle John Groom says father paid to Church and Poor of Shifnal. When about 14 yrs old Wm. Debnay went to live with uncle J. Groom, W'dine parish, full board and pocket money but left between 6-7 yrs ago because uncle would not hire him or come to any wage agreement.

 

P316/L/8/108      Jun 20, 1788

Examination of  Mary Smith,(X), 24, of Malinslee (Dawley Magna parish), Sa.  Born Malinslee, 3yrs ago hired servant for 1yr to Mr. George Pritchard, Admaston, Wrockwardine parish.

 

P316/L/8/109      Jul 26, 1789

Examination of  Mary Martin(X) widow of John Martin, m.15yrs ago at Polesworth, Warks. J.Martin's Settlement was Wrockwardine and that was his father, John Martin's settlement also.

 

P316/L/8/110      Mar 03, 1790

Examination of  Elizabeth Dainty(X), 25yrs, born Wrockwardine Wood. 3yrs ago hired servant 1yr to Robert Bagnold of Brynton, Blimhill, Staffs.  (See Removal Order P316/L/10/61)

 

P316/L/8/111      Aug 02, 1791

Examination of  Hannah Bevan(X), single woman, 25, born Wrockwardine parish. 6yrs ago hired servant with Mr. Samuel Binnell of Cluddley, Wrockwardine parish.

 

P316/L/8/112      May 15, 1794

Examination of  Henrietta Phillips(X), age 27, born Chetwyn, Sa.  6yrs ago m. James Phillips now dead.  His mother, Mary Phillips said he was parishioner of Wombridge, Sa.  3 children, William 5, James 2, Mary (infant). 

Also atta   ched:  Settlement Exam: Mary Phillips(X), born Eyton, age 52.  Married William Phillips 35yrs ago. He was parishioner of Wombridge.  Her late son James born in lawful wedlock.

 

P316/L/8/113      Sep 29, 1794

Examination of  Thomas Lewis, age 42, wife Jane, children: Thomas 4, Ann 1.

born Shawbury parish, 25 yrs ago hired servant for year to Roger Cooper, Bratton, Wrockwardine Parish. 

Note on back gives date Sep 29, 1794 and says Wrockwardine Parish. 

 

P316/L/8/114      Nov 30, 1795

Examination of  Honor Simmons (X), single age 20.

Born Wellington where her father John Simmons lived, but he was parishioner of Wrockwardine.

 

P316/L/8/115      May 04, 1796

Examination of  Elizabeth Cooper (X), age 18.  Inhabitant of Wrockwardine, born there, her late father John Cooper lived Wrockwardine but was a parishioner of Shifnal.  Now with child. (See Rem. Order P316/L/10/68)

 

P316/L/8/116      Jun 01, 1797

Examination of  Ann Blakemore, age 32.  Inhabitant of Wrockwardine Parish, born Allscott, 16 yrs ago hired servant to Ann Goulborn of Wrockwardine, served year with full wages.

Note on back says "belongs to Wrockwardine Parish". 

 

P316/L/8/117      Jul 11, 1797

Examination of  Elizabeth Olliver, single age 25.  Inhabitant of Lillyshall parish. Born Lillyshall, 4 yrs ago hired servant to Wm. Amphlett of Wrockwardine Wood, blacksmith for whole year.

Note on back says Lilleshall Parish. 

 

P316/L/8/118      Sep 06, 1797

Examination of  Peter Icke (X), age 70.  Inhabitant of Wrockwardine Parish, born Trench Lane, Wrockwardine Parish. Father Wm. Icke lived there and was parishioner.

Note on back says "belongs to Wrockwardine parish".

 

P316/L/8/119      Sep 06, 1797

Examination of  Mary Rowley (X), age 28, now with child.  Of Wrockwardine parish, born in Eyton (Sa) Parish where her father Richard  Rowley then lived, but he was parishioner of Lilleshall.

Note on back says "belonging to Lilleshall Parish".

 

P316/L/8/120      Dec 28, 1801

Examination of  Richard Lowe (X), age 29, Collier, wife Mary.  Inhabitant of Donnington Wood (Lilleshall parish), born Trench Lane (Wrockwardine Parish), where father Thomas Lowe lived, parishioner of Wrockwardine.  Wife Mary now insane.

 

P316/L/8/121      May 01, 1805

Examination of  Francis Evans (X), Collier age 74, wife Elizabeth, Children: Ann 3, Joseph 4 months.

Inhabitant of Wrockwardine Wood, born Dawley Parva (Dawley Parish) 40 yrs ago hired as servant in husbandry for 1 yr to Thomas Brook, New Houses, Much Wenlock, farmer, served 4 yrs.  Copy. 

 

P316/L/8/122      Jul 23, 1805

Examination of  Hannah Ashley (X), widow age 37, children: Sarah 14, Margaret 12, Mary 7, Thomas 5, John 2, James 9m.  Inhabitant of Dukinfield (County of Chester). Born Castleton, Derbys. doesn't know her father's Settlement. Married at age 20, Eccles, Lancs. to James Ashley, miner whose parish of Settlement was Rockington (sic), Sa.  J.A. died 28 Oct last in Dukinfield. Added, letter to O/Ss Rockington from John Ogden O/S Dukinfield saying family need relief "though very Indevering".  Do not want to be removed because "they can get better Bread in this country". They had to have relief previously when they were "Down of the faevor (fever?)” W'dine owes £2 15s 6d. 

 

P316/L/8/123      Jul 09, 1807

Examination of  Francis Evans (X), Collier age 73, wife Elizabeth, children: Ann 5, Joseph 2.

Inhab. of Wrockwardine Wood. Born Dawley Parva (Dawley Magna Psh). At age 14 hired servant with Thomas Brook, Ashwood, Much Wenlock and lived with him 4 or 5 yrs longer.

Copy.  Note on back says "Sessions 1808, Wenlock Appellants, W'dine Respondants".  "Francis Clayton, Wrockwardine". 

 

P316/L/8/124      Sep 27, 1807

Examination of  John Jones (X), Shoemaker.  Lives Wellington.About 30yrs ago resided in Wrockwardine Parish with Richard Bullock of W'dine, wheelwright, carrying on his business as master shoemaker.

 

P316/L/8/125      Sep 27, 1807

Examination of  Mary Manwaring (X), wife of Richard Manwaring, had 10 children, 3rd son Thomas dead leaving sons John (in Militia) & Thomas (regular soldier).

R.M.too ill to be examined. Inhabitants of Wroxeter (Certified from W'dine).Thos.M. (son of R.M) Apprentice shoemaker at Wroxeter to Fr. Dorset (who was certified to Wroxeter from Wellington), later went to Shrewsbury. Gave up TM's Indentures after 2yrs. T.M. then bound apprentice to John Davies, Upton Magna.  Her husband RM's Settlement was Wrockwardine, that of his father.  (Note on back says Mary Manwaring wife of the late Richard. Belonging to W'dine Parish)

 

P316/L/8/126      Jun 22, 1809

Examination of  James Taylor (X), age 40, wife Ann, children: Sarah 13, Mary Ann 11, Rebecca 9, James 3, Richard 1.  Inhabitant of Wrockwardine Wood, born Kingswinton?, Staffs. Father James Taylor legally settled now at Enoe?, Staffs.

Note on back says "belongs to Kingswinford, Staffs.”

 

P316/L/8/127      May 15, 1810

Examination of  Margaret Brown, single, age 19.  Inhab.of Leaton,W'dine, b.(illeg) Garmston (Eaton Constantine) 4 yrs ago hired servant 1yr to Mr.Thos. Freeman, Ketley, Wellington Parish. Then hired for yr by Mr.John Penson, Old Manor, Lilleshall, discharged before end of year since pregnant, wanted to continue working but Pensons would not allow since she would be charge on Lilleshall. Then went to work for Mrs.Ann Vickers, Leaton, discharged 3 May. With child, 1 month to go.

Note says "belonged to Wellington Parish". 

 

P316/L/8/128      Jan 28, 1811

Examination of  Mary Hughes (X), single, age 28.  Lately residing with Eliz.Thomas, Roden Lane, High Ercall Parish, born Astley Parish, Salop, hired servant for yr to John Phillips Esq.Attorney at Law,W'dine. With him Sep 1806-hayharvest 1809, then with Astley Charlton of Charlton, W'dine till Xmas1809, then to Colley Elsmere of Downton, Upton Magna but he discharged her Dec 24, 1810 before yr was complete. With child. Note on back says belongs to W'dine.

 

P316/L/8/129      Feb 04, 1811

Examination of  John Thomas (X), labourer age 50, wife Elizabeth, children: John 14,  Ann 11, Thos.8

Inhabitant of Wrockwardine Wood. Born Hodnet, hired for 1 yr by James Turner, Watling St., Wellington.

Copy.  Note on back says Wrockwardine Parish.

 

P316/L/8/130      May 20, 1811

Examination of  Joshua Edgington (X), Collier age 30, wife Mary, children: Joshua 7, Rebecca 4, Mary Ann 3mths.  Inhabitant of Donnington Wood, Lilleshall, Born Mumporn Hill, Shifnall Parish and where his father was parishioner.

Note on back says "belongs to Shifnal Parish". 

 

P316/L/8/131      Jul 25, 1811

Examination of  Richard Smith(X), Collier (18), inhabitant of Wrockwardine Wood.  Born Ketley, Wellington Parish, illeg. son of Tabitha Smith. (Copy)

 

P316/L/8/132      Jul 25, 1811

Examination of  William Smith(X), Collier (31), Inhabitant of Wrockwardine Wood.  Born Shiffnall, Sa., illeg. son of Tabitha Smith. (Copy)

 

P316/L/8/133      Dec 05, 1811

Examination of  John Cooper (X),  Bricklayer age 56, son Benjamin.   Inhabitant of The Trench, W'dine Parish, Born KingsSwinford, Staffs.At age 14 Apprenticed to John Pidcock, GlassMaster at KingSwinford for 7yrs. Son Benjamin at age 9 (1793) hired 4yrs to Messrs.Wm.&Jos.Reynolds, Wombridge, GlassMasters.

On back says"Glasshouse bricklayer belonging to K.Swin.,Staffs,but his son Benjamin was bound Prentice to J&W Reynolds, Donnington Glasshouse". 

 

P316/L/8/134      Oct 16, 1812

Examination of  Thomas Evans (X), wife Sarah, 8 children.  Inhabitant of Charlton, Wrockwardine Parish, 22 yrs ago hired for year to Mrs. Oatley, Wroxeter, left after quarrel with Mrs. Oatley's Bailiff 5 days short of year but received full wages.

Copy. Note on back says "belonging to Wroxeter Parish.”  

 

P316/L/8/135      Nov 16, 1812

Examination of  Thomas Rowley (X), Labourer age 38, wife Mary, children: Ann 7, John 5, Wm 3, Eliz. about 2.  Late an inhabitant of Wolverhampton, Staffs., born Wrockwardine Brook, served Apprenticeship with Mr. Jonathon Eaton, farmer, Wrockwardine Parish.

Note on back says "parishioner of Wrockwardine". 

 

P316/L/8/136      Apr 08, 1813

Examination of Robert Harris(X), 50,  of Coalbrookdale, Madeley parish, Sa. Labourer.  Legally settled in Wrockwardine by hiring and service for 1yr with Mr. Samuel Binnell, Cluddley.  Wife, Mary, Henrietta(14), William Crump Harris(12), Charlotte (7), Mary(3). (Copy)

 

P316/L/8/137      Jun 15, 1813

Examination of Thomas Hodson(X) of  Wrockwardine Wood, Labourer(40).  Born Wootton, Eccleshall pa. Staffs., hired servant for 1yr with Mr. Bentley, Crown Inn, Eccleshall pa.  Wife Alice.  By late wife Margaret - John(14), Thomas(11), Robert(9), Elizabeth(5). (Copy)

Note:  Eccleshall appealed against a Removal Order of T. Hodson, marked so that the family belongs to Wrockwardine.

 

P316/L/8/138      Mar 05, 1814

Examination of  Thos. Brown(X) lived 2yrs as hired servant to Richard Hooper, farmer of Kinnersley.  Also Kinnersley paid doctors bill to Mr. Shelton? about 28yrs ago.  Wits:  Mark of Thethothan (Theodosia? wife of Thos?) Brown(X), Catharine Brown, Thomas Smith, George Daws(X).

Note on back says "Examination of Thos. Brown of Rushmoor"

 

P316/L/8/139      Nov 26, 1814

Examination of  William Bradley(X), 27, Boatman.  Prisoner in Shrewsbury Gaol, late resident in Wellington, Sa.  2yrs ago hired servant to John Pritchard, Trench Lock, Wellington parish, Clerk on Shrewsbury Canal, as boatman.  £13 for whole year and ½yr afterwards.  Wife Jane m. Dec 26, 1813, daughter Ann (9mths).  Sworn before W.Smith?, J.Wilde.

Note on back says "this order purports to be an order of two Justices and is only signed by one and is therefore of no use". (Date is altered from 19th to 26th Nov.)

 

P316/L/8/140      Apr 12, 1815

Examination of  Richard Taylor (X), wife Catherine.  Copy of Marriage Cert., Rich.Taylor(X) married Catherine Jones(X) by banns, Wellington Parish Church. Both of Wellington Parish. Certificate dated Jan 25, 1815.

 

P316/L/8/141      Sep 11, 1816

Examination of  Richard Wales, age 65, children: John 35, Abigail 30.  Inhabitant of Wrockwardine Wood. Born Coalpit Bank, Wombridge. Rented land in Horton township for £20.10s. with partner Wm. Jervis. He resided during same time in W'dine P'sh, paying £20p.a.for his house. 

 

P316/L/8/142      Jan 02, 1817

Examination of  William Jones (X), age 40, wife Mary, children: John 20, William 18, Ann 16.

Inhabitant of Wrockwardine. Born Eaton, Salop. Settled in Wrockwardine by renting at £10 p.a. 

 

P316/L/8/143      Jan 17, 1817

Examination of  Joseph Pritchard (X), age 35, wife Ann, children: Margaret 15, Sarah 11, William 1.

Inhabitant of Wrockwardine. Born Wellington Parish. Settled in Wrockwardine by renting at £15 p.a.

Copy.  (belongs to Wrockwardine). 

 

P316/L/8/144      Jan 18, 1817

Examination of  Thomas Manwaring (X), age 69.  Inhabitant of Wrockwardine, born Wrockwardine, derives settlement in Sheriffhales, Staffs? from father, Richard M. who served apprenticeship there.

Copy. Note says Sheriffhales. 

 

P316/L/8/145      Feb 25, 1817

Examination of  Abraham Felton (X), labourer age 49, wife Mary  Residing in St.Chadd's Parish, Shrewsbury, born Holy Cross & St Giles (Shrewsbury). Enlisted in Shrops.Militia at age 18 for 15yrs, then enlisted into 56th Regt.of Foot,for 6yrs till discharged. Father Abraham Felton (d. 9yrs ago) settled by birth in Wrockwardine Parish and received relief from that Parish.  (Copy dated Jul 25, 1817). (Wrockwardine Parish) 

 

P316/L/8/146      Mar 04, 1817     

Letter from Thos Cooke? giving information as to Settlement of Wm.Simmons, brought to Wrockwardine "on Thursday last", had been bound Apprentice to one Joseph (nickname Peaty?) whose wife goes by nickname Mary Peaty?  Mary P. says Simmons was bound to her husband as a Collier at Munmer? Green and served 3 or 4 yrs. and lodged with him.  Husband now dead, but wife alive says Simmons is a parishioner where he served apprenticeship and not of Wrockwardine.  (See P316/L/10/104)

 

P316/L/8/147      Mar 26, 1817

Examination of  Francis Bladen (X), age 35, wife Mary, children:  John 14, Mary 10, Thomas 8, Joseph 6, Eliz. 1.  Inhabitant of Wrockwardine. Born Eyton, settled in Wrockwardine by renting tenement for £10 p.a.

Copy.  (Belongs to Wrockwardine).

 

P316/L/8/148      Jul 01, 1817

Examination of  John Eamer (X), age 38  Inhabitant of Wrockwardine, born Wombridge, father was settled in Wrockwardine. His mother Margaret receives pay from Wrockwardine though resident in Wombridge.

Copy. Name given as Amer of Coalpit Bank on back of Examination. (Belongs to Wrockwardine)

 

P316/L/8/149      Jul 19, 1817

Examination of John Edge(X), inhabitant of Lilleshall, Sa. age 67,born Wellington, Sa., Rented tenement of more than £10 p.a. at Wrockwardine Wood. Wife Mary, children Thomas(18), Jane(16).  (Copy)


P316/L/8/150      Nov 04, 1818

Examination of  William Groom (X), age 46, wife Sarah, dau. Maria 18 .  Inhab. of Wrockwardine Parish. Born Stoke, Salop, bound App. to Joseph Shaw of Stoke at age 7. J.Shaw died and his son Joseph S. gave him permission to hire out but must always get his permission for hiring.  Last time hired before expiry of Indenture was to Wm.Baugh of Morton Sea, Farmer, but only lived in from Xmas to Easter when he married.(Copy) Note says Wrockwardine Parish.

 

P316/L/8/151      May 16, 1819

(a) Examination (copy) of  Elizabeth Prees(X) concerning her mother Elizabeth Craven.  The mother had 3 husbands, one, Caddy Pew, now living in Wednesbury (Staffs.) Workhouse, so the late Benjamin Craven could not be her husband. Elizabeth Craven married Caddy Pew at Wolverhampton Church and he rented to amount of £10 p.a. under Mrs. Kendrick of Wednesbury. Eliz. Prees lives at Bunters Row, Wrockwardine Parish.

Enclosed with above: (b) Receipt dated Mar 31, 1815 for £5.0s.0d., half years rent for premises at the Trench, Wrockwardine pa. paid by Benjamin Craven, signed P.Sanders. (in two pieces)

                                        (c) Copy by John Bolas, Parish Clerk of entry in Little Wenlock Par. Reg. of Marriage of Eliz. Turner and Benjamin Craven, Sep 7, 1806.

 

P316/L/8/152      Jul 17, 1819

(a)  Examination (copy) of  Maria Carter(X), single woman.  About 2yrs ago hired as yearly servant to William Wadmore, keeper of Crown and Sceptre P.H. at Brompton, Kennington pa., Middlesex at £8 p.a.  After 11mths. he left he house and paid her for the 11mths.  The house taken over by Joseph Dyer who also hired her at the same rate.  Stayed there 9mths. Then she left and worked in gardens, paying lodgings no more than 1s. per week.  Father Robert Carter, labourer, now dead, Mother lives in Shrops.  Mother says Maria born at Wellington. Father and mother lived several years in Wrockwardine and her father buried there at Parish Expense, does not know if he received any relief there during his life.

Now with child, begotten by William, a footman to Lady Johnson in Brompton Row.

JPs: R.J.Butcher, Fredk. Reeves.  Copy certified by John Searle, O/S Mortlake, Surrey.

(b) Enclosed: Nov 29, 1819  Bastardy Exam:  Sabrina Carter(X) of Ketley, male base child born Wrockwardine Wood, Oct 18, 1819.  Rep. father William Johnson of Brompton nr. London.

Note at bottom, "It appears from her exam. at Mortlake in Surrey that this William Johnson is a William the footman at Lady Johnson's, Brompton Row.

 

P316/L/8/153      Aug 02, 1819

Examination (copy) of  William Woolley(X), inhabiting Wrockwardine Parish, 62yrs old.  Born Whitchurch, 32yrs ago hired servant for 1yr at £6.0.0. by Mr. Freeman, The Old Lodge, Lilleshall, farmer.

Note describes W.W. of Wrockwardine Wood belongs to Lilleshall Parish.

 

P316/L/8/154      Jun 07, 1820

Examination of  Thomas Pickering(X) of Dudley, says he is legally settled in Wrockwardine.  His father Basil Pickering, dec'd, was legally settled in Wrockwardine. Wife Mary, John(6), Elizabeth(4), Thomas(2).

Note: Relieved with 5s, Hamphlett charge 15s.    ?? will relieve him 10s.  Signed Saml.Steadman.

 

P316/L/8/155      Sep 14, 1820

Examination (copy) of  Mary Whittingham(X), inhabitant of Wellington, Sa., 64yrs.  Born Wellington, settled in Wrockwardine by hired service with Edward Cludde Esq. of Orleton, dec'd.

 

P316/L/8/156      Mar 12, 1821

Examination  (copy) of  Emma Kendrick(X), inhabitant of Ercall, Sa., 19yrs (with child).  Born Wellington.  Legally settled in Wrockwardine because that was settlement of her father John Kendrick of Ketley.  (On back says Apprenticed to Mr.Povall of Charlton).

 


P316/L/8/157      Apr 21, 1821

Examination  (copy) of  Joseph Eccleshall(X), age 28, Prisoner, Shrewsbury Gaol.  Born Lilleshall,  base child of Elizabeth Groom, at 7yrs went to reside with Mr. Geo. Bradbourne of Lilleshall, doesn't know whether Appr. Indentures were made.  Wife, Ann, son, Thomas 12months.

 

P316/L/8/158      Apr 23, 1821

Examination (copy) of  Elizabeth Groom(X), née Eccleshall, son Joseph born illeg. in Lilleshall parish.  He served 3yrs with Geo. Bradbourn but no Indentures made.  Mr. Bradbourn then gave her husband John Groom £3.0.0. to take Joseph off his hands.

 

P316/L/8/159      Jul 31, 1821

Examination  (copy) of  Henry Shipman(X), labourer,  68, born Berrington, Sa., now resident at St. Mary's Psh. Shrews.  At age 25 or 26, then single, hired for 1yr to Mr. Charlton of Charlton, Wrockwardine. Never was married.

(Note on back says "Pd. the Bairer 20 Augt. 5s.0d.")

 

P316/L/8/160      Jan 07, 1822

Examination (copy) of  Thomas Armstrong(X), Collier age 28, inhabitant of Wrockwardine psh.  Born Madeley, Sa., legally settled in Treasle psh. (Trysull) Sa., his father, Nathan Armstrong's psh.  Father taken ill at Builston, Staffs. and son Thos. went with him to Treasle where O'seers rec'd him.  Father died and was buried.  Thomas Armstrong has wife Elizabeth and son, James(2).

Note on back says T.A. resident at Bunters Row, Wrockwardine Wood.

 

P316/L/8/161      Jul 09, 1822

Examination (copy) of  George Richards, 25, born Wrockwardine Parish.  His mother Mary Richards legally settled Wrockwardine,(G.R. illegitimate). At age 10 went to work in the coal at Binnersley, Sa., after 4yrs went to Bilston, Staffs., and worked as miner for about 5yrs.  Went to Wombridge Sa. and married at Wombridge.  Wife Mary, dau. Mary, 14wks.  Came to Bilston about 6mths ago.

Note at bottom addressed to George Shepherd, O/S W'dine,  17 July 1822 "The above is the Examination of Geo. Richards which I have no doubt you be Sattisfyd. belongs to Wrockwardine.  J.Law.  NB the man receives 4 or 5 shillings pr. week from the field"

Note on back, "1822 July 19th allowed him 6/-”

 

P316/L/8/162      Dec 02, 1822

Examination (copy) of  Samuel Dowley(X), 28,  Labourer, inhabitant of Edgemond, Sa.  Born Newport Sa. 8 years ago when single hired for 1 year, servant to Francis Clayton, W'dine, Farmer.  Wife Mary, dau. Ann (1yr 11mths). Sworn at Newport. (Note on back says "Dec 6, 1822 allowed him 2s, Entd").

 

P316/L/8/163      Oct 20, 1823

Examination (copy) of James Brothwood(X), 41, Inhabitant of Wrockwardine Psh., born Wrockwardine, legally settled Dawley, his father having been settled there.

 

P316/L/8/164      Oct 20, 1823

Examination (copy) of Joseph Brothwood (X), 49, Inhabitant of Lilleshall, Sa. born Wrockwardine.  Legal Settlement Dawley, his father's Settlement (John), who was allowed 1s.6d. pr week from Dawley prior to his death and Dawley bought coffin and gave 5s. for funeral.

(Note on back says Joseph Brothwood has been removed to Dawley and this is to confirm his Brother Jas. settlement).


P316/L/8/165      Jan 05, 1824

Examination (copy) of  Edras Moy, 47, Inhabitant of Wrockwardine Psh., born Stourbridge, Worcs. and his father Harry Moy was legally settled there.  Edras's mother and her 6 children were relieved by Stourbridge for several years after death of Harry, and Stourbridge allowed 10s. towards her funeral expenses.  Daughter Mary Ann born in wedlock.

 

P316/L/8/166      Mar 29, 1827 (no date but this is date of enclosure)

(a) Examination (copy) of  Ann Handy(X), widow, born St. Mary Magdalen Psh., Bridgnorth.  Married William Handy, B'north about 37yrs ago, labourer, who would not say where his settlement was but she believes it to be Wrockwardine. Sworn before Chas. Clarter?, Bailiff of B'north.

Enclosed: (b) Copy dated Mar 29, 1827 of Marriage Entry in Reg. of St. Mary Magd., B'north, William Handy and Ann Gregory m. 10th May 1790.

        (c) Copy dated Mar 29, 1827 of Burial Entry in reg. of St. Mary Magd., B'north, Wm. Handy, New Town, Feb 9th 1827, 57.

Note says "Settlement which proves to be Wrockwardine, Excepted(sic) without being removed and allowed 1/- per week."

 

P316/L/8/167      May 25, 1829

Examination (copy) of  Thomas Roberts(X), 48, wife Jane, Inhabitant of Wrockwardine Psh.  Born in Lilleshall but settled in Shifnal.  Father Richards(sic), Roberts legally settled in Shifnal and Shifnal relieved him prior to his death in Lilleshall psh.

Note says belonging to Shifnal Parish Excepted (sic).

 

P316/L/8/168      Aug 28, 1829

Examination of  Mary Walker (Mother of James Walker).  James Walker, son of late Wm. Walker, bricklayer and Mary who were married at fechnan? (fetnan crossed out) Warecshier.  Parish of late Wm. Walker was Banberry (Oxon.).  Son James born at Tatford 8 miles the other side of Oxford, was one of 4 children, James, Eliz., Anna, Fanny(sic).  Mary Walker relieved by Banbury.  Son gained no other settlement, "lernt his trade with his father".

Examination taken by J.Shepherd, Ass. O/S.

Also included:   Copy of Marriage Entry of James Walker(X) and Faith Carter(X) at Wellington Parish Church Aug 28, 1826.

 

P316/L/8/169      Oct 03, 1829

Examination of  William Groom, Iron Foundry near Oldberry (Oldbury)

This consists of rough notes made in disordered manner on small piece of paper and gives history of 3 generations viz.

1) Francis, born over 80yrs ago, hired to Mr.Massey, farmer at Wrockwardine, married Ann Smart dau. of Old Thomas Smart, breeches maker, Wellington.

2) (Sons of Francis above) Thomas, dead, m.  His widow m. John Griffiths. William, born Wellington where his father was working as wheelmaker, never gained Settlement other than that of father.  Francis, now living Gloucester Gardens for Sir Chas. Concam? John, m. girl from Wilson's, Hay Gate, had sons, (she had?) been a widow rec'd relief from Wrockwardine.William of Oldberry m. May 27th? 1782 (47yrs ago) at St Martins, Birmingham.

3) Sons of William in (2):  Thomas now at Birmingham, 44yrs ago?;   William, living at Oldberry, gained settlement in the Foundry and belongs to Hales Owen parish.  John lives at Deep Fields, Sedgley Parish, served Appr. to Ingineer and belongs to Hales Owen; Richard served Appr. to the man? and belongs to Hales Owen;  Joseph served for 3yrs separate with Izon? at his Foundry and belongs to Hales Owen.   Also states: Francis his(sic) dead and his widow......relieved from Wrockwardine?.  Francis Groom died about 27yrs ago, received relief from Wrockwardine and his son John received relief for him when residing with his son at Oldberry.

Note apparently written by G. Shepherd, O'seer states "Information taken from Wm. Groom at Mr.Izon's  Iron Foundry near Oldberry and Halesowen, this being taken on account of his son Thomas. Son at Birmingham being removed from Aston Parish.  Excepted. (from previous papers this means Accepted)

 

P316/L/8/170      Feb 08, 1830                                                          

Examination (copy) of  John Thomas(X), 54, Inhabitant of Wrockwardine Psh., born St. Mary's Psh. Shrewsbury.  Served about 30yrs ago with Mr. Suthern, Penn Hall, Kings Capel, Herefords.  Then year after engaged for 1yr with Mr. Edwards, Withington Psh., Farmer.  Withington has given him relief several times while he was out of that parish.

P316/L/8/171      Jul 26, 1830                                                    

Examination of  John Evans(X), born Morter Cross?, Herefords., parents John and Martha Evans.  Some time after his birth they moved to Lower Stannage Farm, rent £40 upwards, tenants to Rogers Esq., Stannage Castle, Morters Cross, Herefords(Mortimers Cross?).  7 years ago he left home to serve 1yr (to follow his team) with Thos. Wilde, Crow Green, Abberbery Parish, Sa.(Alberbury?), £10 p.a. Then second yr for £10.10s..  Then went to live with Mr. Titley of Bradley, Sedgley?, Staffs. paid weekly, stayed about 2yrs living in lodgings.  Then enlisted in Royal Marines under Sir Richard Williams Cornal (sic) for the Division at Portsmouth, served 4yrs 9mths. Mother died 8yrs ago and father 2mths.  Married Letesha Ratcliffe this day at Wrockwardine (Banns) Witness John Shepherd

Note states "Now in R.M. on furlough returns to Portsmouth in a few days".

 

P316/L/8/172      Nov 15, 1830

Letter re Settlement:  Faith Walker née Carter of Banbury m. to James Walker of Wellington.  Asks for Marriage Cert.  In great distress, child ill. In Banbury, Husband belongs to Banbury. Exam. of her Mother-in-law had explained this.

Also copy of rather impatient reply of G. Shepherd, enclosing Marriage Cert. and asking her not to be troublesome again.

 

P316/L/8/173      Aug 01, 1831

Examination (copy) of  Joseph Peters(X), 36, Resident of Wrockwardine Parish. Born Upton Magna, Sa., served 1yr with Mr. Edwards of St Mary's psh., Shrews. for £6.6s.0d.  Wife Ann (dec'd.), Rebecca(12), William(9), Jane(8), Maria(7), Elizabeth(3), Sarah(1)

JP. Edw. Cludde.

Note on back states "Man died Oct 9th, 1832, 3 children removed to St. Mary's Parish without an Order, Excepted(sic) by Mr. Price, Vestry Clerk. Pencil note: Sarah dead, Maria dead.”

 

P316/L/8/174      Nov 03, 1831

(Letter to Wrockwardine from Brookes and Smallwood, Newport)

Examination of  James Latham, father of the late Richard Latham. who was b. 1794 in Wrockwardine Parish and stayed with his father on a small freehold held in right of his mother.  When married, R.L. lived at Preston, tenement worth only £2.10s. p.a. He died about 1m. ago, his widow and children in Preston should be relieved by Wrockwardine but not removed from Preston.                               

Note says R. Latham killed. Bill for his burial Oct 1831, £2.5s.8d.

 

P316/L/8/175      Nov 14, 1831

Examination of  Joseph Randles(X), labourer,48, residing Wrockwardine Wood. Wife Mary, William (son),3yrs.  Hired and Service for 1yr with John Plant of Wrockwardine Wood, labourer.

 

P316/L/8/176      Jan 09, 1832

Examination (Copy) of  Samuel Phipps(X), 45, residing Dawley. Wife Sarah, Edward(21), William(18), Ann(16), Hannah(7).  Born Wrockwardine, bound Appr. to John Mansell, bricklayer of Wellington, slept sometimes Wellington, sometimes Wrockwardine.  Slept always at Wrockwardine from May till Indentures expired August.

Note says Phipps is bricklayer of Dawley.

P316/L/8/177      Jan 16, 1832

Examination (copy) of William Morris(X), 26, residing Wombridge, born Wellington, Sa. His late father legally settled in Wrockwardine by hiring and service for 1yr with Mr. Povall, Allscott, was also relieved by W'dine.  Wife Rebecca, Thomas(3), Joseph(8mths.)

Note says "Excepted(sic) and relieved"

 

P316/L/8/178      Jun 08, 1835

Letter re Proof of Settlement:  Sarah Martin of Dudley, Worcs. (near the King and Queen, Stafford St. Dudley)

Letter to Mr. Shepherd, Wrockwardine Asst. O/seer, enclosing her Marriage Cert. proving her Settlement and asking for her arrears to be sent. She married (as a widow) 12th Aug 1834.

Note says sent an Order for her to receive her pay from Stourbridge, Marriage Cert. returned to her.

 

P316/L/8/179  No Date  (in bundle dated 1842-45)

Examination of Wm. Pascall, who says he belongs to Forton parish by hiring to Mr. John Wedge of Fernhill and was there for 6 yrs.  It was also his father's Settlement and his mother received pay from them until her death and a coffin to be buried in, it was made by Mr. Whitmore of Forton and sent to Donnington Wood.  Was with 3 other farmers each for 51 weeks but not more; Mr. Palin of Adbaston, Mr. Manley of Mill Meese, Mr. Keay(?) of same place.  (Note on back says "John Haskey, Bricklayer on the Newport Road")

 

P316/L/8/180     No Date (184- printed)  (in bundle dated 1842-45)

Examination of Rachel Halford of Dorrington, wife of Richard H. of Dorrington, Labourer.  George Wood, pauper was her illegitimate child born Eaton Constantine about 25 yrs. ago.  R.H. removed from Wrockwardine to Eaton Const. 6 weeks before birth of George, but on appeal of Eaton C. she was sent back to Wrockwardine.  She went to service and child lived with her parents at Admaston, Wrockwardine Parish.  Parish paid 1s. 6d.  for child till he was 9.  Paid per Mr. Amphlett from Wrockwardine parish, first to herself, then to her father and mother.

 

P316/L/8/181      Mar 21, 1842     

Enquiry prior to Examination before Madeley Union Board of Guardians.  Thomas Roper belonging to Wrockwardine Parish, farming labourer, living at Lincoln Hill, Madeley parish, age 36; Wife Ann 38, children Eliza 15, Richard 14, Thomas 11, Mary 10, George 8, Ann 6, Sarah 3mths.  Left Wrockwardine about 9 years ago to serve Dale Co.  Married at Wrockwardine about 16 yrs. ago.  Wholly infirm.  Ill and unable to work.  Surgeon's (B.Edwards, Coalbrookdale) note attached to say T.R. has been ill about 2 months and requires nourishing food.

 

P316/L/8/182      1844

Examination of George Wood at present residing at Wellington, Labourer, 25 yrs. old, wife Jane, married at Longdon, Salop 2 yrs. ago.  1 child, John(1).  Never gained settlement for himself, and wife and child now chargeable to Wellington parish.  Wife also had illeg. child William Bickley aged about 4, living with and dependent on G.W.

 

P316/L/8/183      Feb 05, 1844     

Examination of Samuel Chettoe, 36, now residing in Ellerdine Heath, High Ercall parish.  Mother Mary Chettoe, wife Martha, m. Wem Jun 24, 1840 and 2 children Mary 2yrs. and Hannah 11wks.  At present chargeable to High Ercall at 4s. per week.

The examination of Samuel Chettoe, aged 36 Labourer, now residing in Ellerdine Heath in the parish of High Ercall in the county of Salop, touching the place of his legal settlement - who saith that when about the age of 13 as he has been informed, that his mother Mary Chettoe hired him as Waggoners lad to Mr. Thomas Brookes of Osbaston, Farmer, from the month of June in the same year till Xmas, for the wages of 6d. a week meat drink & lodging, he remained there till after Xmas, and in about a month after that time my mother informed me that she had hired me for the then present year with Mr. Brookes of Osbaston for the wages of about 30s.  I served under that hiring till about 5 weekes before Christmas when I was hurt by the plough & left, and the April following Mr. Brookes sent again for me, that being in the seed time.  I remained a few months & left but cannot say what wages my mother received.  I then went to Mr. Rodenhurst, Edgbolton where I remained only 2 months.  I then went to Mr. Stubbs of Peplow Mill where I remained about 9 months.  I then hired myself with Mr. Rowlands farmer of Walton in the parish of High Ercall for the year and for the wages of £5. 10s. 0d. as Under Waggoner.  I went to his service the night before New Years day and remained in his service till Xmas day when I left.  The Master stoppd. 10d. from my wages for Breaking a plough.  I then went to Mr. Atcherley of the Moor Town where I remained 3 months & left.  I then went to Mr. Thomas Foulkes of Edgboulton where I remained about 9 months.  I then went to Mr. George Hopwood of Ashley where I remained about 6 months.  I then went to Mr. Foulkes of Edgboulton where I remained about 3 months.  I was after that time at home with my Father as a Day Labourer.  About 14 years ago I hired myself with Mr. Townsend of Bratton farmer in the parish of Wrockwardine for the year for the wages of £7.l0s.0d. meat, drink and Lodging to be his cowman I went to his service the Day before new years day & remained in his service till 3 or 4 days after Christmas Day when I received my wages & left, and about 3 weeks before leaving Mr. Townsend I hired myself with Mr. Robert Clarke Farmer of Allscott in the parish of Wrockwardine, for the year & and for the wages of £6.l0s.0d. meat drink & Lodging, to be his Waggoner to attend 3 horses. I went to his service the day before new Years day and remained in his service till a few days after  Christmas day, excepting 2 weeks in the summer when ill.  My said Master gave me leave to go home which I did, and returned again in a fortnight to his service, during the Year I received £2.10s.0d. of my Wages, and in a fortnight after Christmas, my mother was going to Market, when she called on Mr. Clarke and he paid her four pounds wages which she gave me, he did not stop any of my wages for the time when ill.

 

P316/L/8/184         1845     (2 separate sheets) 

(a) Examination of Sarah Bradbury the elder, widow of Richard Bradbury of Wrockwardine Wood touching the place of settlement of Sarah Bradbury the younger, widow of Thomas Bradbury, and her 2 children, Mary(15) and Elizabeth(13).

Thomas Bradbury, died Wrockwardine Wood March 1844, was son of Richard and Sarah Bradbury the elder and was born about 44 years ago.  R. and S. Bradbury parishioners of Gnosall, Staffs.  R. Bradbury d. about 8 years ago and since then his widow has received amounts varying between 1s. and 9d. per week from Newport Board of Guardians on behalf of Gnosall parish.  During all that time she resided in Wrockwardine parish.  Thomas Bradbury has no other settlement than that of his father.  At one time when work was bad in Wrockwardine Wood, Rd. Bradbury went to Gnosall and was employed as parishioner there at different farms, paid 1s. a day by Parish Officer at Gnosall. 

(b) Esther Fletcher of Wrockwardine Wood receives the 1s. per week from Relieving Officer of Newport Union on behalf of S. Bradbury the elder and it is always stated the relief paid on behalf of Gnosall parish.  E.F. certain that neither S.B. elder or Thos. B. ever gained settlement other than in Gnosall, having known S.B. elder since before death of Rd. B., and Thos. B. before his marriage.

 

P316/L/8/185      Mar 11, 1845     

Examination of William Stanway at present residing in Wellington Union Workhouse touching his place of settlement.  W.S. about 44yrs., single man.  Belongs to Claverley Parish.  In about Oct.1832, at 31 yrs. old, hired by Col. Edwd. Gatacre of Gatacre, Claverley for 1 year as coachman.  Rec'd £21 for full year's wages.  Then hired and paid same for another year.  Sometimes absent on business but always at his master's charge.  Now chargeable to Wrockwardine parish.

 

 

 

Note  The following Examinations are included with Removal Orders P316/L/10 

 

P316/L/10/81      Jun 18, 1801

Examination of  William Carter (X),age about 45.

Father, Richard Carter Settled in Wrockwardine.  Attached is Removal Order for William Carter, Rogue and Vagabond, found wandering, lying abroad and begging in Shifnal Parish by  by Wm.Cutwick (Outwick?), Constable.  To be taken to Wrockwardine Parish "the said William Carter hath been duly whipped". 

 

P316/L/10/104     Feb 17, 1817

Examination of  William Simmons (X), age 19.

Father John Simmons (now deceased) parishioner of Wrockwardine. Found wandering and begging in Wolverhampton,(7 days hard labour). To be removed to Wrockwardine via Boningale.

Exam. and Removal Order. Order from Wolverhampton to Boningale (signed Thos. Lloyd), and then to W'dine signed P.B.Haden? Feb 26, 1817. 

 

P316/L/10/108     Nov 18, 1828

Examination of Ann Cooper(X), inhabitant of Walsall, Staffs. Wife of Thomas Cooper, Collier, Mary(9), Rhoda(7), Jane(3).  Thos. Cooper upwards of 30yrs old. Born Wombridge, Sa., m. at Handsworth 10 years ago.  Thos Cooper is son of James Cooper and Jane, both now living at the Birchells, legally settled Wrockwardine, they were removed from Walsall to Wrockwardine 8 or 9yrs ago, since the and still relieved by Wrockwardine parish.

Thomas Cooper on Nov 13, 1828 met with serious accident in Colliery of Messrs. Stokes and Forster at the Birchills, now confined to bed not able to be removed.

 

P316/L/10/114     Aug 11, 1835

Examination of  Isaac Derricote, Collier, Stoke on Trent, Staffs.  Wife Hannah, children John 4, Joseph 3, Eliz. 1.  Born Wrockwardine, his late father's Settlement derived from his father John Dorricote (examinant's grandfather)  (See Rem.Order & Notice P316/L/10/113, 115)

 

P316/L/10/116     May 03, 1843

Examination (Copy) of Henry Williams, residing at Wrockwardine Wood, Collier. 38 yrs. old, 3 children, Elizabeth(12), John(7), Edward(4). Wife Jane  now deceased.  Married in Wrexham, Denbighs.  Belongs to Wrexham parish by hiring and service about 14 yrs. ago with Mr. John Gitton, farmer Wrexham parish.  Now chargeable to Wrockwardine parish says Thomas Houlston of that parish.  Removal Order made for H.W. and family to be sent from Wrockwardine to Wrexham. (C/Ws and O/Ss for Wrockwardine; Ed. Ditcher, Thos. Edwards, Thos. Houlston.  Note on back says; "the parish of Wrexham being divided into 15 townships each managing their own affairs you had better find out which the pauper belongs to”  (1 penny brown Qu. Vict. stamp attached) 


Hardship Letters

 

Transcribed by members of the North East Telford Studies Group


www3.shropshire-cc.gov.uk/roots/packages/ind/ind_w15.doc

A number of Letters concerned with hardship due to Industrial accidents &c.

 

5/90  Dec 17, 1821      a)  Letter dated Dec 8 from Wm.Mainwaring, Agent for Lord Viscount Dudley and Ward.  Gentlemen, The bearer John Pickring and his Family are proper Objects of Charity; owing to his having meet with several very serious misfortunes on account of which he has done very little work for the last half year he has now one Child; and his wife near her down lying – I have no doubt that when his case is stated to you – but you will do that for him which is just.  I remain Gentlemen your most Humble Sert. Wm. Mainwaring Agent for Lord Viscount Dudley and Ward..

Copy of G.S. reply:

Dear Sir, Yours dated the 8th Instant I rec’d per the bearer Jno Pickering and yours being laid before the Magistrates on Monday last with the Doctor Note the bearer stated to them that you ad stop’d the Field Clubb 7s for an week although the Doctor Note expressed he was under his care for the last six weeks, and I have ad him Examined by the Doctor for Wrockwardine Parish and he states to me that the man his unable to follow his imployment from his Bruises therefore he considers him Intitled to his pay – the Parishioners of Wrockwardine have no objection to the man being their parishioner and want to do what his right to assist the man and his family and therefore having had the pleasure of noing you myself I ham fully convinced that youl inquire into the particulars of his case & if you can place him in any situation that the man may get something towards supporting his family will much oblige

            Your Most hble. Sevt. Geo Shepherd

NB. Allow him 13/-  (Jno Pickering 31 years, wife 27, Boy 2).

b) note from Jas.Rice, Surgeon, Dudley.  I hereby certify that John Pickering hath been under my care the last six weeks and is unable to follow his employment.

 

5/94  Dec 31, 1821      Letter to Mr.G.Shepherd, O/S of Wrockwardine from Wm.Mainwaring, Dudley

Sir,  Since the bearer John Pickring Brought your letter the Club as allow'd him £1 I think if the Parish would allow him another pound he would thereby be able to purchase two asses, and by carrying Coals into this town, I am in great hopes that by so doing it would prevent any further expence to the parish as far as I know of him he is an honest and industrious man that would not without necessity be troublesome to the parish. I hope you will (do) all you can to serve his family consistent with justice and in doing this you will Sir, highly gratify your most               Humble Servant    Wm.Mainwaring

Jany 4th    Received pr. the hands of Geo.Shepherd as allowed by the Parishoner the Sum of One Pound, Promising not to come again to be trouble some  to purchase a Ass.

                  The mark  of  X  Jno. Pickering

 

5/122 Mar 04, 1822      Letter to the Gentlemen of Rokerdam parish from Thos.Wakefield

These are to Certify that Thomas Martin is employed by Thomas Wakefield and has had no employment for this fortnight as the Pits are entirely Drowned out with Water and his Wife and Children almost in state of starvation and when he is employed he has but 3 Days or 3½ in a week.

      As Witness my hand this 4th Day of March  the Mark X of Thomas Wakefield

Note below:  I believe the above to be a correct statement  Wm.Maurice O/S

(Note says Robt. Martin of Dudley, allowed 12s 0d and 5s 0d extra).

 

5/128 Mar 21, 1822      Letter from Timothy Davies, March 17, 1822,Tipton nr.Dudley.

Mr.Sheppard, I am under the necessity of applying to you for relief on acct. of the slackness of work and in another week I expect to be intirely out of employ as the Colliers have had notice to abate their wages  My 2 Eldest Boys are hurt and not able to do anything one lies with broken limbs and is not likely to do anything for a considerable time my wife would have come herself but the youngest child an infant lies at the point of death therefore I trust you will consider my case and send what you (can) by the barer who is my daughter   I do not wish to become troublsome but I cannot at this time do otherwise

                  I remain Sir, your Humble St. Timothy Davies    Tipton March 17, 1822

Note says allowed 10s 0d.


5/138   Apr 01, 1822    Receipted a/c from W.Robinson(X), Constable for Wrockwardine Wood. 

        Making out and delivering duplicates for the Militia 10s 0d; To sending for Coroner and summoning a Jury over the body of James Jarvis killed in a pit 5s 0d; to ditto for Rd.Howells wife who died suddenly 5s 0d; to Ditto for Tho.Colley who was hurt in a pit 5s 0d; to Ditto for Jos.Ickes Dau. who dropt into a pit 5s 0d. 

Total £1 16s 0d. (But note at bottom, F.Clayton's hand?, says at Select Vestry Feb 6,'22 that above 10s be disallowed, not being a customary charge).

 

6/7   Apr 24, 1822     Letter from Jno.Wellings, Bilston April 24th 1822 to Mr.Sheppard, Overseer, to be left at Mrs. Turners, Sun Inn, Wellington

Sir,   It is with much reluctance I presume to lay the situation of myself and family before the parish which calls for immediate assistance for added to the trouble I have just experienced in the Death of my Child at a season of so much distress as rendered it impossible for me on my own strength to have committed its body to the Earth but for the assistance of a friend - the principle part of our Work is now standing and the men which occupied the whole of the work in which I was employ'd being 12 in Number are now to assist at our Furnaces, consequently our wages which only amounted to 12s pr week in regular Employment will only afford 3s and two of this is expected to be paid for rent, so that our present inextricable embarassment renders us impossible to procure even food for ourselves and three small Children - It is very far from my inclination to throw myself and family entirely on the Parish and on this account I have endeavoured to give you a just delineation of my circumstance that you may take into consideration my present necessic... state and afford us the means of support until I resume my usual Employment.  As my case is urgent it will be necessary for you to decide upon it immediately that I may be prevented from taking the necessary steps which the Parochial Law demands in conveying myself and family under your protection.

I think Sir it is necessary to inform you we have received no kind of support since you gave my Wife the 6s 6d also to state that this person who stood my Friend at the interment of my Child is from the same cause as myself necessitated to make a demand on me for the return of his money - the person who Delivers this Letter will bring your Answer back as its certainly impossible that we can remain at Bilston without some alteration is made in our circumstances

With submission I am Sir, Your Obedient, Humble Servt,  John Wellings

Mr.Sheppard requested me to enquire of you the particulars of the person that belongs to that Property at Sarah Pearces   Joseph Mars of Macclesfield, Silk weaver.

 

Note says:  A letter from Jno Wellings of Builstone addressed to Mr.Shepherd O/S to be left at Mrs.Turners, Sun Inn, Wellington.  To be laid before the Select Vestry April 24th 1822

April 27th   5s 0d gave the man - no work.

 

7/59    Dec 09, 1823    Letter  to the Overseers of the Poor of the Parish of Wrockwardine

This is to certify that Richard Fox a parishioner of the parish of Wrockwardine but now residing in the Town of Wolverhampton with his wife and three children is in that ill state of health so as to be unable to work  for the support of himself and family being afflicted with a disease in his Eyes arising from a blow he accidently received by a fall of Coals while at work in the Monmore Green Colliery and that he the same Richard Fox is a proper object to receive relief from his parish during the continuance of his present illness.  Given under our hands this 8th day of December 1823 -

Thomas Green, Joseph Moore Overseers,  W?B.Homer Asst. Overseer.             

Added is:  Richard Fox is a patient of the Wolverhampton Dispensary with a violent inflammation in the Eye from a blow received at his employment and he is not at present able to work

                                    Edwd. Coleman, Resident Surgeon

Note says: allowed 9s 6d.

 

8/29    May 25, 1824    Letter dated May 24, 1824.  We the Undersigned Ch.Warden and Overseer of the Parish of Essington do hereby certify that John Glover has been lame by an accident in the Coalfield a Fortnight on Wednesday, he has a family consisting of himself his wife and five small children and moreover the man and part of his family are attacked with a violent dangerous Fever which at this (time) prevails in the neighbourhood, and cannot obtain medical assistance without a line from you. Neither have they any support but from the benevolence of their neighbours in short the Family is in a state deplorable

                  Signed by us:  Thos.Bradburn, Ch.Warden; William Heap, Overseer, Essington

 

10/55   Sep 07, 1825    Letter dated Aug 10 from Mr.Jones, Clerk to Mr.Onions of Broseley

Gentn.,  A poor lad named George Mason received a serious accident at our work last week by which his hand was dreadfully crushed and but for excellent surgical treatment must have been cut off.  He will certainly be unable to work for some time and his Gmother being a poor widdow cannot possibly support him without assistance.

                        I am Gentn.  Your Obedient T.Jones

Note says Geo.Mason badly hurt with the Engine Aug 10.  Allowed at Meeting Sep 7,  5s.

 

11/4    Apr 01, 1826    Letter dated Mar 20, 1826 from T.Shorthouse, Dudley O/S

Gentn., Thomas Martin late of this Parish but a Parishioner of yours was last week killed in a Coal Pit.  He has left a Widow now pregnant and five children  Sarah aged 13 years, John aged 9, Hannah 5, Mary Ann 3½, Thos. 1yr 9mths. As she cannot do without immediate relief I think you had better see them and make them such allowance as you think necessary, sooner than have them removed.  I have no doubt she can do with less here than with you.  Your immediate answer will oblige Yours respectfully  T.Shorthouse O/S

Copy of reply from J.S.Shepherd Apr 1, 1826

Sir, Yours dated the 20th Ulto came to hand I ham sorry to See in yours that Thomas Martin being killed and leaving such a large family behind him but I suppose the Girl and Boy work but as you inform me that you say the family being destressed Inclosed his a Shifnall One Pound Note No.C-2675, Dec 1, 1824 signed John M.Pidcock which will thank you to give the Widow and she must attend Wrockwardine and be their at 12 o'clock so that she may be informed what will be paid in future, and acknowledge the receipt of this sum by her.

Note on back "direction Ann Martin in Bodpit Lane near the Love and Lam  Dudley".

 

11/130        Feb 03, 1827    2 Letters, a) from Ed.Underhill, Surgeon,

I do hereby certify that Thos. Ratcliff now residing at Darlaston was in the beginning of August last, very badly hurt on his Back and Hip as also several bruises on his other parts and which hurt on his hip now renders him unable to work and in my opinion  he will not be able to do his regular work for several weeks to come.  Edwd. Underhill Surgeon  Tipton, Feb 3, 1827

b)  from S.Lowe, Rector of Darlaston 5th Feb 1827.

Gentlemen,  I beg leave to recommend to you the case of Thomas Ratcliffe as one with which I have been well acquainted throughout and which I know to have been one of very deep distress.  In addition to his personal affliction (of which the medical man's certificate will be the most satisfactory evidence) I have to state that one of his four children (the eldest of 11 years of age) has been so painfully oppressed with fits as to render rather a burthen than a help to her poor mother, who has been effectually prevented from doing any thing but attend to her family, by her two youngest children having gone thro' the smallpox one of them having been long in a very dangerous way.  Under these circumstances you will be surprized to hear that the maintenance of the family has with difficulty been provided for, while Rent and Levies have run painfully in arrears; so that they are in imminent danger of being stripped of their little all and consequently of throwing the family wholly on their Father's Parish.  So anxious has the poor man been if possible to prevent this that he has made an attempt to resume his work before he was fit for it, and by doing so has I fear considerably retarded his permanent recovery.  Your attention to his case will be esteemed an obligation by Gentlemen, yr. obedient Servant  S. Lowe, Rector of Darlaston

Allowed 15s.

 

12/133        Mar 10, 1828    Letter from Sarah Carter,  Bilston March 10th 1828 addressed to Elizabeth Ward, Ketley Wood Nr. Wellington

Dr. Father and Mother,  This with my Duty to you Hoping these few lines will find you in Good Health  I am Sorry to have to Inform you of a unfortunate Accident that we have had for we have Got Robert badley Burnt on Saturday Morning last in the Pit and His Brother in law Freeman and five others beside it is in a Fresh Feild  He Had but Worked there one week and we Fear we shall be Badly off as it is in a Strange Feild and we Hope you will have the Goodness to take these few lines to the Overseers of Wrockwardine Parish and we hope you will Go to Pincher at Wellington and See if Freemans letter is Come for they have sent it to the overseers  we shall be Glad to see you over here as soon as Possible, Robert sends his love to his Brother John and His Sister and Family

                  I Remain your

                  Dutiful Daughter

                  Sarah Carter

Robert Clark and his wife send their love to their Father and Mother and his wife will be over with them Next Sunday so hope you will take the trouble to tell them.         S.C.

Added:  To the Overseers of Rockerdine Parish. 

Gents, Robert Carter a pauper of yours is unable to work from a of severe burn he received in Barbersfield Colliery, Thos.Smith, Surgeon also signed by John Dean, Geo.Perry O/S and the Chapel Wardens, Thos.Banks, Joseph Price.

 

12/143        Mar 25, 1828    Letter (dated Mar 21) from Thos.Smyth, Surgeon also signed by John Dean, George Perry, Thos.Banks (O/Ss, Chapel Wardens) Bilston.  Robert Carter is unable to work from being burnt in Barbersfield Colliery.  Note says allowed 12s. (Rough monetary calculations on back).

 

13/3    Apr 05, 1828    Letter from Thomas Smyth, Surgeon witnessed by Adam Hill, M.Taylor, O/Ss, Bilston. Robert Carter still unable to work.  Note says pd. 12s Apr 11.

 

13/23   May 10, 1828    Letter from Thos.Smyth, Bilston, May 1st 1828.  Robert Carter has been under my care for some time being severely burnt in the mines, but will be able to work in a few days.  Note says May 10, allowed 12s being the last payment. Countersigned by Josh. Price, Thomas Banks  Chapel Wardens.

 

13/40   Jun 12, 1828    Letter from Robt.and Sarah Carter to Elizabeth Ward, Ketley Wood, Nr. Wellington (endorsed by Thos.Myatt, Surgeon and Montague Taylor O/S).

Bilston June 9th 1828

I do certify that Robert Carter is unable to follow his employment from having Inflamatory fever

                                    Thos. Smyth Surgeon

(Note at foot of letter in pencil says:  Robt. Carter 32

                                Wife    32        Boy     7

                                                                 

On the other side of this is the following letter addressed to

Elizabeth Ward, Ketley Wood, near Wellington Shropshire

     

      Dear Mother

            I write these few lines to Deiser you to come over if you wich to see your son alive he [went] to is work last wensday and came back by Breakfast and as Neave been able to be Moved from is bed since and two of the Children are very hill with him I hope you will Come as soon as Posable give my love to Hall the Familey

                              So no more from your

                              Distress Children

                              Robert and Sary Carter

 

Note on front says

"A letter from the Doctor and O Seer of Builstone Cong. Robt. Carter Ill of Rheumatic Fever June 9th 1828   Sent by his Mother June 12th 12s. 0d."

 

13/44   Jun 25, 1828    Letter dated Jun 21 from Thos.Smyth, Surgeon and Adam Hill, O/S, Bilston, certifying that Rbt.Carter is unable to work. Note says pd. 12s June 25.

 

13/96   Dec 13, 1828    Letter dated Dec 13 to the O/Ss of Rockadine from Jno.Evans, Princes End, Staffs,

Gentlemen this is to Curtify that Robart Carter is at this time in the Greatest Distress throw misfortiance  the Place that he worked at was stopt through fire stink and he has been very ill likewise he has one Childe lies A D(y)ing given up by the Doctors and this morning his Eldest boy was kild by Droping Down my pit.  Robert Carter is A honest hard working man this is a true statement of the Case of Carter

                  I am Gentlemen yours obed Sarvant

                                    Jno. Evans

Note says "15/- allowed"

 

13/97   Dec 14, 1828    Letter from Robt,Carter. Dec 14 1828, Princes End

      Sirs,  I Right to inform you that that other Child is Dead it Died on the 13 instant and the are Both in the House I do not no what to Do to get them in the Ground.  Gentlemen if you Please to Help me for I stand in Great Wont

            your Ob servant  Rob. Carter

            yours Thos. Foster

Note says "8/- allowed Dec. 16th 1828"

Letter is addressed "For Elizabeth Ward, Ketley Wood nere Wellington Salop - Spead"

Note on front states "allowed 8/- towards Burial Expenses"

 

14/10.        Apr 11, 1829    Letter dated Mar 26, 1829 from Saml.Turnbull, Manager, Hanover Mills, LongMill? Gate, Manchester. 

Sir, This comes to inform you that the late John Pickering Engineer for Norris & Hodgson and the husband of Alice Pickering was accidently killed March 5 in the Engine House belonging to his employers.  He has left a wife and 3 children of which he was the chief support viz Girl Mary 11 years of age, boy John 5, Mercy 2 very sickly and needs much attention (wife) pregnant.  She appears to stand in need of immediate assistance as she has no other support but a few shillings the Eldest girl gets with weaving.  She would prefer remaining in Manchester because (her) eldest Girl has employment  If she could be relieved from you in Manchester.

Reply from J.P.Shepherd April 11.

Sir, yours dated March 26th came to hand concerning the late Jno. Pickering Wife and family and the same being laid before the Select Vestry and his father attending to give evidence as to his Settlement which appears that he hath not gained any Settlement separate from his father and that they will allow her Three Shillings pr. week commencing from this date they are informed that he was in Friendly Society Club which she must have  received £9-£11 from or will Receive so that she cannot be very badley off having had a steady sober man for her husband  if you will be pleased to pay the sum of three shillings per week shall be paid at any time you may think or I will send it by any Out Rider you may commission to receive the same.  Your compliance will much oblige...J.P.Shepherd Asst. O/S.

 

15/24   May 02, 1830    Letter from James Holmes, Governor, Bilston Poor House.

Gent'n, I am ordered by the Overseers of this Township to inform you that our Select Vestry have made a determination not to pay any more out Parish Paupers unless each respective Parish remit our Overseers cash in advance.  The above determination is owing to the very great difficulty we find in collecting our Rates.

 

15/34   May 12, 1830    Letter dated May 12 from Alice Pickering, 26 Pilgrim St., Longmillgate, Manchester. 

Gentn, I am very much surprised you have not sent me some more money before this time, I am very ill distressed for want of some, and all the few things which I had are in the possession of the Landlord and must be redeemed very soon or be sold and I hope you will take it into consideration and not let me and my poor children be turned out into the street, an answer from you as soon as possible will oblige yours respectfully   Alice Pickering

 

Copy of reply May 12, 1830

Alice Pickering,  Your Letter came to hand on the 3rd Instant and you state that you are very much surprised that no money hath not been sent you.  If you had to collect the rates from those persons as have to pay to you and others you would not be surprised at what difficulty the Overseers have to collect money and the money that you will receive his my own therefore youl not Right in that high tone in future.  You was paid up to Feby 13th with extra allowance 12s and as you have but two children besides the little girl which must get more than would be allowed to you there cannot but be allowed to you more than 3s 6d pr. week and this would not be allowed but being informed the last little one being ill and likely to live but a short time.  Therefore Inclosed his a Post Office order amounting to £1 19s 11d which will pay you from Feby 13 to May 8th  including the expences which I hope youl receive safe  from yours etc,  J.P.Shepherd

 

15/37   May 24, 1830    Letter from G.T.Taylor, O/S, Vestry Room, Stoke upon Trent, dated May 20, 1830. 

Gentlemen, I write on behalf of Ann the wife of Thomas Johnson whom we removed to your parish about 18 months ago.  The poor woman is very ill, and unable to travel to your parish, she has Buried one Child, and has one along with her, her husband is a drunken scoundril, does not live with his wife, spends all his earnings, and her and her child are in a state of starvation, they have applied to us for releif, which we shall be obliged to give them, and get suspended orders, unless you attend to their case immediately, and get her husband punished.

                  I am Gentlemen  your Ob. St. G.T.Taylor, Overseer.

Copy of reply May 24

Sir,  Yours dated the 20th Instant came to hand concerning the wife of Thomas Johnson and her Child being much distressed, you may give her a few shillings which shall be repay'd, and if her husband is near you will thank you to send the constable after him and take him before the Magistrates to repay the sum you pay to his wife and Child with the Expences you are at in Procuring him, and if he will not pay it let him be committed to prison and inform me the Expences and I will remit the amount by any person that you wish.  If he his not near you will thank you to right and inform me where the drunken scoundrel his as he promised to relief her and childe without being Troublesome to your parish or Wrockwardine therefore I should? to punish him as the Law directs

                        And remain etc. J.P.Shepherd

 

15/51   Jun 29, 1830    Letter from John Howard

To the Overseers and Gentlemen of the Parish of Rockaden, County of Salop

This is to inform you the Bearer George Richards and his Family is in A Miserable Situation and many hundreds of his felow workmen in consequence of Failure on the part of of Mrs.Walker Milfield Iron Works therfore he Most humly Prays you will be Pleasd to Resceu him from the Fangs of his landlady which has taken an Inventory of our Goods as I can testify both him and his family lives on the Charity of theyr Naybers for some weeks past.  I am your humble Servant  John Howard. Signed also by  John Morris and Rd.Evans, O/Ss, Bilston. 

 

 Note says Geo.Richards A Bastard of Mary Richards, Wrockwardine. M.30, W.31, Boy 6, Girls 4, 2. Allowed 1s 0d.

 

15/168        Feb 12, 1831    Letter from James Claten of Wolverhampton dated Jan 27, 1831

Mr.Shiperd,  Sir I Right to informe you that I meet with John Pickrel the son of William Pickrel last thursday Night in the street crying at Eight o Clock he tould me he had no Place to go to and I took him in and he is with me now and he says he is wealing to stay with me and I will keep him and use him weel if you will clothese him and make me some Recompence for he is very Bare Now  Please to send me a answer to tell me what I am to doe with him and withere you wish me to come over

                  I am your humble searvent

                  James Claten

Place to Deret for James Claten at Mrs. Garbet nere the green man Bilston Street Wolverhampton

 

Note says A letter from James Clayton of Wolverhampton about Pickering Lad to be hired to him for 2 years and then bound Jany 27, 1831.  Agreed and allowed 10s towards clothing him Feby 12, 1831.

 

16/120        Dec 06, 1831    Letter from Henry Pitt, Coal Master, Wednesbury, Staffs. 

Gentlemen, this is to certify that the Bearer James Davies is in a state of starvation and unless you releve him his familey must come to your Parish with a pass for the miners the have all struck for advance in wages and it is uncertin when it will be settled.  I ham your Obedient Sarvant  Henry Pitt Coal Master Wednesbury.

Note says James D. brother to John Davies, six in family.  Allowed 5s.

 

16/126        Dec 13, 1831    Letter dated Dec 12 addressed to Mr.Jno. Shepherd, Overseer, Wombridge from James Davenport, Navigation House, Bilston St. Wolverhampton. (Countersigned C.S.Clarke, O/S, Thos.Walker, Perpetual Curate, W.Horner?, Asst.O/S).

Sir, I make Bold to sende thees few Lines to you for the Distress of  James Taylor and wife childrin Likewise is Dreadfull  Being out of work 3 wickes and having nothing but Labour  to keep them Standing for wagers tho he whold be glad to work at the Presant Wagers Suner than Starve but if he was to go he whold Loose his Life therefor he is compeled to trubell you tho quite contrary to is wish as all the ??(torn) no and for myself I ham well convinst of  is Sustition therefore I hope that you will call it into consideration.  James Davenport.

Allowed 7s.

On back of this letter is copy of letter from JPS dated Dec 16, 1831 to O/Ss, Great Barr

Sir,  Ann Smith as applied here and states that she has lived 13(15?) months or more with Mr.Thos.Ruston and as gained a Settlement in your Parish.  Therefore I hope you will take too her without any further trouble  if you Remove her we shall appeal to the order and that will be putting Parishes to unnecessary Expense.

 

17/6    Apr 01, 1832    Letter from Rowland Moxon for Thos.Fowke? & Sons, Surgeons, Wolverhampton, Addressed to Mr.Sheappord, to be left at Mr.Brown's, Ketley Sand.

I certify that Sarah Smith, who dropped down a coal pit four weeks last Thursday and broke both her legs is still unable to get out of her bed.  Signed also by P.Sidney O/S, W?B.Horner Asst.O/S, Jas.Underhill C/W. 

Note at bottom says: Sir, W.Smith is not Able to work at Times he as five in family and is not able to git above 5s per week and sometime nothing.

Note says: Wm. Smith of Wolverhampton Daughter drop’d in pit.  Allowed 17s.

 

19/152        Dec 16, 1834    Letter dated Dec 10, 1834 from W.Turner, O/S, Allesley

Sir,  We have received instructions from the Poor Law Commissioners to reduce the Pay of the Out Poor, will you have the goodness to ascertain how Thos. Ward and James Ward are situated and say to what extent you think their Pay can be reduced by doing so you will greatly Oblige

                  Your Very Humble Servant      W.Turner, Overseer

Will you have the goodness to write in a Day or two and inclose your account up to the present time and say how many children James Ward has that are earning nothing.

Copy of JPS reply Dec 16, 1834

Sir,  Yours dated the 10th came to hand and I have taken the Earliest Oppertunity of complying with your request having visited James Ward and Family yesterday  The Wife being ill for several weeks and Confined to the House nearly 2 months and obliged to have the Doctor which compelled her to have a Little Girl about 12 years to be with her or I should have reduced her pay 1s per week  in last account the(y) having a Little Boy ab't 1 yr old and girl 7 and that about 12 yr old his in a bad State of Health and the Man stripped to shew his burns which he cannot do but Little Work  but as the Woman being better I informed them they must do with in future 5s per week in lieu of 6s  and Thomas Ward and Wife was at home the Woman  63 having a bad Eye so long cannot see but Little with it and being obliged to have something from the Doctor the man (57 yrs) a cripple you no and having but little imployment the cannot do without the same allowance as usual which I hope will meet the Gentm's approbation and under I have stated the Sums paid to your parishioners  which please to remit to Reynolds & Co. Bankers as the last being Very Right with your future orders

                  Will oblige your Hble Ser't  J.P.Shepherd Asst. Overseer Wrockwardine

 

Copy Acct. sent shows Sep 20 to Dec 13, Thos.Ward 12wks 23s, Jas.Ward 12wks at 6s plus 2s postage of letters, total £5 10s 0d.

 

19/183        Mar 07, 1835    Letter dated Feb 26, 1835 from Thos.Lewis, No.16 Blakeley St. Manchester.

Sir, I am sorry to inform you that in consequence of being employed in damp works as a Colier I have got cold which has caused me to swell all over my Body rendering me incapable of going out and am now twenty one  weeks in that deplorable state under the medical advice of the Doctors of the Manchester Infirmary.  I am with my Wife and Child reduced to a situation of the most wretched distress, owing for lodging £1 0s 0d without food or means to obtain it and if not immediately assisted I will have no shelter as no further trust will be given me, and will be turned into the Streets.  I have had some small relief from the Manchester association, it is now withheld and am quite destitute  to remove me with an order would cost me my life as I am not fit to leave my Bed, but I am benefiting from Advice and Medicine and I purpose if I could get a little round to go to my Children to the Potteries in Staffordshire who might if there help me, but I cannot expect to get well or live without food or nourishment and I hope you will not neglect me.  My Father & Mother kept the Poor House in Rockwardine and are well known to Mr.Clayton I served my time with Mr.Samewells? in the Long Lane.  There

is no fund in this Country for Colliers out of work.  Your answer will be expected by return of post as I have nothing but your relief to depend on for food or shelter

                        I am Sir  Yr most obt Hble St.  Thomas Lewis

                        No.16 Blakeley Street  Manchester

Added

I certify that Thomas Lewis  is a  home  Patient under the Manchester Royal Infirmary and unable to follow any Employment

            J.Burrow  26 Feb 1835  Infirmary

Answered:   This letter being laid before the Select Vestry meeting on Wednesday last the ordered 10s to be sent which being sent a Post Office order to that amount and the Postage paid.  JPS  March 7, 1835

 

20/1    Feb 28, 1835    Letter from Mary Ashley, Dukinfield, dated Feb 28, 1835

Sir,  I received yours Dated Novr 13th, 1834 with a Post Office order of  £2 19s 11d which paid me and my Mother up to the 15th of the above date Novr for which we both cordially thank you  I still labour under the same complaint viz  Rheumatic my hands and fingers are in such a state that I am obliged to have them continually wrapped in Flannels and have not been able to get one Penny for the last Nine weeks it happens very bad for me that it lies mostly in my hands my Occupation being a coverer of Rollers for Mule Jennies I cannot possibly stitch on the Leather  my situation as well as my Mothers is bad in the extreme I hope you will consider our situation and remit our pay due by return of Post which will give great relief at this time to

                        Sir,  Your Humble Servant    Mary Ashley

PS.  My Husband is still at Warrington I believe at least he Was there I heard not long since and I am persuaded he is there still.

 

23/11 Sep 07, 1832        Letter from James Holmes, Governor, Bilston Poor House.

Gentm.  I am requested by our Select Vestry to inform you that Saml. Beards a Parishioner of yours has been applying to us repeatedly for relief he as a Wife and 4 small children I can assure you we have no end of applications since this dreadful contagion brok out in this Township calld the Cholera I judge you have seen the Accounts in public Prints.  We have buried about 640 different individuals lately & I have lost 19 out of this Poor House, I have to beg of your early reply to this case & I believe we have been relieving some more of your parishioners, have the goodness to state what you would wish me to allow Beards family, & am in haste your Obedt. Servt.  James Holmes, Governor

Note of reply Sep 10, to allow 4s/wk for month or what he may think proper.



 

10.  BRITISH HISTORY ONLINE Extracts

http://www.british-history.ac.uk/

 

WROCKWARDINE


Sponsor: Victoria County History
Publication: A History of the County of Shropshire: Volume 11: Telford
Author: G C Baugh, C R Elrington (Editors), A P Baggs, D C Cox, Jessie McFall, P A Stamper, A J L Winchester
Year published: 1985

'Wrockwardine', A History of the County of Shropshire: Volume 11: Telford (1985), pp. 306-310. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=18187 Date accessed: 24 February 2013.

Wrockwardine, a mainly rural parish, lies south and east of the river Tern and north of Watling Street; the western boundary is mostly with Wroxeter parish and to the east lies the northern part of Telford new town. The main part of the ancient parish, dealt with here, included the townships of Wrockwardine, Admaston, Allscott, Bratton, Charlton, Cluddley, Leaton, and Long Lane, the capital messuages of Burcot and Orleton, and the deserted settlement and former township of Nash. (fn. 84) A detached township of the ancient parish, Wrockwardine Wood, lay 7 km. to the east; its history is treated separately below. (fn. 85)

To the north the parish is bounded partly by Long Lane, the river Tern, and the road from Allscott to Watling Street at Norton. The western boundary of the parish and of Charlton township partly follows a stream. To the south the parish boundary largely follows the original line of Watling Street: the boundary - the 'king's boundary' - diverged northwards from the road at Overley Hill by 975, and southwards around Cluddley, probably by the Saxon period. (fn. 86) Bullocks brook, so called by 1580, (fn. 87) largely forms the eastern parish boundary, though Bratton and Orleton townships both extend east of it. (fn. 88)

In 1882 Wrockwardine civil parish contained 4,762 a. (1,927 ha.), including 515 a. in Wrockwardine Wood and 92 a. of detached moorland north of Eyton upon the Weald Moors. (fn. 89) In 1884 Wrockwardine Wood became a separate civil parish and the moorland was transferred to Eyton C.P. At the same time the transfer of Walcot township (414 a.) from Wellington C.P. with 13 a. from Rodington C.P. increased the length of the parish boundary formed by the river Tern. (fn. 90) In 1903 and 1934 3 a. and 165 a. respectively of land east and south of Cluddley and Orleton were transferred to Wellington Urban C.P. (fn. 91) The eastern part of the parish, including Admaston and Bratton villages, was included within the designated area of Telford new town in 1968. (fn. 92)

Crossing the parish from south-west to northeast are the Brockton and Burcot faults, c. 1 km. apart. Between them outcrop Uriconian Rhyolite, particularly between Overley Hill and Leaton and west of Wrockwardine, and tuff, on which Wrockwardine village lies. (fn. 93) From those high outcrops the ground falls away northwards to the Tern and the Weald Moors and southwards to low ground at the foot of the Wrekin. Cluddley extends southwards to the base of the Wrekin. It was presumably the commanding views obtained from Wrockwardine church tower that led to its seizure by Parliamentarian troops in 1645-6. (fn. 94) Most of the rest of the parish lies on boulder clay or sand and gravel, while some terrace gravel is associated with the river Tern and Rushmoor lies on lake clay. (fn. 95)




 

Late 17th- Century Wrockwardine


Domesday Book recorded 32 inhabitants in Wrockwardine and Bratton, (fn. 96) and 25 parishioners paid to the 1327 subsidy, but there is no indication that Charlton and Orleton were included in the latter total. (fn. 97) In 1349 manorial income had fallen 'because the tenants there are dead', but by 1367 it was back at the levels obtaining before the Black Death, a fact perhaps suggesting a population recovery. (fn. 98) In 1672 hearth tax was paid by 77 people: 12 in Wrockwardine, 16 in Charlton, 12 in Admaston, 10 in Allscott, 9 in Bratton, 9 in Leaton, Burcot, and Cluddley, 6 in Long Lane, and 3 at Orleton and Nash; (fn. 99) the proportions accord with those of the 1539 muster. (fn. 1) The population was 1,033 in 1841, 1,380 in 1961, and 2, 105 in 1981, (fn. 2) Admaston's growth largely accounting for an increase in the 1960s.

South of Bratton is a multi-period prehistoric site with Bronze Age ring ditches and Iron Age or Romano-British ditches and enclosures. (fn. 3) Another possible prehistoric enclosure lies east of Charlton castle, (fn. 4) while other possible sites and scattered finds across the parish all attest to activity in the area before Watling Street was made in the initial phase of the Roman conquest. (fn. 5)

It has been suggested that Wrockwardine village was the site of Pengwern, the legendary sub-Roman centre of Powys, destroyed by the Mercians c. 660. (fn. 6) In 1066 it was the centre of a royal multiple estate, probably containing the 7½ berewicks mentioned in 1086. It was a five-hide unit and a hundred meeting place. (fn. 7) Place-name evidence, reinforcing that of Domesday, suggests that Wrockwardine, 'the enclosure (worthign) by the Wrekin', (fn. 8) was an ancient centre around which subsidiary settlements were established. In the parish, lying 1-3 km. from the village, are five places with the element tun in their names, which may be English renamings of older settlements. There are also two with the element cot and three with leah, which may be settlements newly established in the 8th or 9th century in a period of expansion. (fn. 9)

Wrockwardine village is a loose agglomeration of 17th-century and later timber-framed and brick farmhouses and cottages grouped around the church and small green. After c. 1920 the village extended south and roughly doubled in size.

Admaston, 'Eadmund's tun', (fn. 10) grew in the mid 18th century from a rural village into a small spa. (fn. 11) Similar geological formations to those at Kingley Wych saltworks (fn. 12) produced a high saline content in the water. By 1750 Admaston Spa, sometimes known as Wellington Spa, had opened and in 1805 there was a hotel there, which was rebuilt in brick in the early 1840s. It had, roughly, a courtyard plan, with a colonnaded entrance and clock tower; the facilities included a bath house. The spa's profitability declined from the 1860s and it became a private residence in 1890. It was a hotel from c. 1928 to c. 1933 but later a chicken farm, then a lodging house. Telford development corporation bought it in 1975 and renovated it 1978-80, converting it to three substantial houses. (fn. 13) The presence of the spa and (by 1856) a railway halt led to the emergence of Admaston as a small, locally fashionable centre, and several large houses of the 18th and 19th century, such as Admaston Hall, Oaklands, and Donnerville, bear witness to that phase of prosperity. Speculative housing development began south-west of the village in the 1960s and continued after Admaston's inclusion in Telford new town in 1968. (fn. 14)

Bratton, the 'newly cultivated tun', was a small hamlet centred on Bratton Farm in 1839. (fn. 15) Houses were built on the west side of Bratton Road, half way from Bratton Farm to Admaston, before 1930 and on the east side of the road between 1947 and 1953. (fn. 16)

Charlton, 'the tun of the ceorls', (fn. 17) Leaton, 'the tun in the wood or clearing', (fn. 18) Allscott, Ælfwulf's (fn. 19) cot', and Cluddley, 'the leah where burdock grew', (fn. 20) remained in 1982, as they had been in 1839, (fn. 21) hamlets grouped around farmhouses. Leaton Grange incorporates a late medieval hall with crown-post roof.

Any hamlets that may have existed at Orleton, 'the tun of the earls', Burcot, 'the cot belonging to the burg' or 'the dwelling place or cottage', (fn. 22) and Nash, 'at the ash tree', (fn. 23) had disappeared before the early 18th century when only single messuages remained. (fn. 24) Orleton Hall and Burcot Farm remained in 1982 but Nash, a medieval township (fn. 25) where there had been a farm in the later 17th century and a single barn in 1839, (fn. 26) was completely deserted.

By 1650 squatters' cottages had been built along Long Lane, the drift way to the Weald Moors, and probably at Rushmoor. (fn. 27) In 1851 Long Lane was a straggling township of cottages 3 km. long but by 1982 few houses remained outside the hamlets of Long Lane and Rushmoor. (fn. 28) There was already a hamlet called Lea at Overley Hill in 1817. (fn. 29) Overley Hall, a 14-bedroomed red-brick house with 'Tudor' features and a gothic tower, set in 48 a. of grounds, was built in 1882 for Joseph Beattie, a Birmingham banker. (fn. 30) H. H. France-Hayhurst bought it in 1890 (fn. 31) and lived there till 1907. (fn. 32)

Watling Street crosses the parish from east to west. Mentioned in 975, (fn. 33) it remained a major thoroughfare throughout the Middle Ages. The way to the Wrekin, probably the road running south from Wrockwardine village through Cluddley, was mentioned in 1411-12. (fn. 34) Some other roads, though not recorded before the 16th century, are likely to have been medieval; several apparently divided open fields. The drift way to the Weald Moors from Allscott via Long Lane was mapped c. 1580, as were the roads from Longdon upon Tern to Bratton and Wellington and from Wrockwardine to Wappenshall, and probably that leading due east from Wrockwardine. (fn. 35) The Admaston-Wellington road crossed Bullocks brook in 1626 at Bullocks bridge. (fn. 36) Noted in 1674 were the way from Wrockwardine to Burcot, the port or common highway from Admaston to Shrewsbury, the AllscottLeaton bridleway, the Leaton-Wellington market way (perhaps one of the footpaths of 1839 leading east from Leaton), (fn. 37) the Allscott-Charlton and Wrockwardine-Charlton roads with Breadon bridge on the latter, and a footpath from Wrockwardine to 'Winshall' (probably Wappenshall). (fn. 38) A road running north to the Weald Moors from Bratton c. 1580 was disused by 1752. (fn. 39)

Watling Street was turnpiked in 1726. There was a tollgate south of Burcot in 1815. (fn. 40) In 1835-6 one of Thomas Telford's improvements to Watling Street was completed, a 3-km. diversion north to avoid Overley Hill. A new tollhouse was also built at Burcotgate. (fn. 41) The roads to Wellington (via Shawbirch) from Longdon upon Tern and Sleapford (fn. 42) were turnpiked with Watling Street; (fn. 43) both passed through the north-east of the parish, the former having a tollhouse at Bratton. (fn. 44)

In 1975 the interchange between Watling Street and the M 54 motorway was opened north of Cluddley. (fn. 45)

The Shrewsbury Canal passed through Long Lane; it was complete from Trench Pool to there by 1794 and the adjoining length to Shrewsbury opened in 1797. A wharf at Long Lane originally supplied coal and lime to the Shawbury area; in 1898 the Lilleshall Co. used it as a coal wharf and brick yard. (fn. 46) Traffic ceased on the canal in the 1920s. (fn. 47)

Two railway lines crossed the parish, converging on Wellington. That from Shrewsbury to Wellington opened in 1849. (fn. 48) Walcot station and Admaston halt were open by 1851 (fn. 49) and closed in 1964. (fn. 50) The line from Wellington to Market Drayton opened in 1867. It closed to passengers in 1963 and to goods in 1967. (fn. 51) There was a halt north of Bratton. (fn. 52)

Most of the first recorded inns or public houses in the parish lay along Watling Street. The Haygate inn opened between 1625 and 1693. It became known as the Falcon inn c. 1829 and was also known as the Royal Oak. A leading coaching inn from the late 18th century or earlier, it closed c. 1856 after the railway reached Wellington. It then became a farmhouse but reopened as the Falcon hotel in 1971. (fn. 53) The Plume of Feathers, on Watling Street at Overley Hill, opened between c. 1690 and 1721 in, or on the site of, a house known between 1670 and c. 1690 as Lord Davis's. (fn. 54) Also on Watling Street, south of Charlton, was the Blue Bell in 1707; bannering took place there in 1721. (fn. 55) Both probably closed when the road was moved north in 1835; the Blue Bell was apparently out of business by 1838, the Plume of Feathers by 1851. (fn. 56) There was an alehouse at Charlton in 1613. (fn. 57) Most of the public houses open in 1982 dated from the earlier 19th century or before: the Buck's Head, Long Lane, existed by 1810; the Gate inn, Bratton, by 1820, possibly by 1779; (fn. 58) the Fox and Duck near Walcot by 1817 (fn. 59) and the Pheasant, Admaston, by 1846. (fn. 60)

Periodically in the 18th and 19th centuries Admaston Spa was a centre for local genteel society, and in 1851 the locality was known for its steeplechase meetings and field sports. The spa was the meeting place of a masonic lodge between 1852 and 1857. (fn. 61) Several friendly societies existed in the later 18th and 19th century. The Wrockwardine Friendly Society met in the Wheatsheaf inn between 1794 and 1822, and a Wrockwardine and Eyton Benefit Society was reputedly formed in 1795. (fn. 62) A society of the same name was founded or reformed in 1840; in 1841 its committee attempted to allay fears about its financial security, and announced plans for an annual festival with prizes for the best garden, neatest cottage, and other examples of industrious, orderly, and virtuous habits. It was apparently absorbed into the Shropshire Provident Society in 1850. (fn. 63) Between c. 1829 and c. 1836 a charity club met in Wrockwardine. (fn. 64) The Odd Fellows had a popular lodge in Admaston in 1898. (fn. 65) There was a militia club between at least 1796 and 1808. (fn. 66)

A. A. Turreff, vicar 1906-45, instigated various church-based social activities and organizations, such as a men's club in 1907, and a church hall was opened in 1909. (fn. 67) A coal and clothing club operated in 1925. (fn. 68) County library book centres were opened at Wrockwardine in 1928 and 1935, and at Admaston in 1933. (fn. 69) Admaston House community centre opened in 1970; it contained a branch library from 1970 to 1979. (fn. 70)

A bowling club was formed c. 1929 and was still playing in 1935. (fn. 71) There was a cricket club in 1887, (fn. 72) and in 1947 a cricket ground was made at Orleton hall. It was the home ground of Wellington cricket club and one of the grounds used by the Shropshire county side; in 1979 they played the Indian touring side there. (fn. 73)

Footnotes

84    For townships at different periods see below, Man. and Other Est.; S.R.O. 14/1/5, MS. addn. at end; 4472/CW/2; S. Bagshaw, Dir. Salop. (1851), 443-8. This art. was written in 1982.

85    Below, Wrockwardine Wood.

86    T.S.A.S. lvi. 31-3; below; above, plate 55.

87    S.R.O. 38/1.

88    S.R.O. 14/1/4.

89    O.S. Area Bk. (1882, with emendation slip).

90    Ibid.; O.S. Area Bk. Wellington (1885); 14th Ann. Rep. Local Govt. Bd. [C. 4515], pp. xlvii, 191, 204, H.C. (1884-5), xxxii.

91    V.C.H. Salop. ii. 229; Census 1891 and 1911 compared; Census 1931, Herefs. and Salop. (Part II) (1936), 8.

92    Dawley New Town (Designation) Amendment (Telford) Order 1968 (Stat. Instr. 1968, no. 1912), map accompanying Explanatory Note.

93    Inst. Geol. Sciences Map 1/25,000, Telford (1978 edn.).

94    Diary of Marches of Royal Army (Camd. Soc. [1st ser.], lxxiv), 278.

95    Inst. Geol. Sciences Map 1/25,000, Telford (1978 edn.).

96    V.C.H. Salop. i. 315, 332; below, Econ. Hist.

97    T.S.A.S. 2nd ser. i. 181, 186-7.

98    Ibid. 4th ser. i. 219-22; below, Econ. Hist.

99    Hearth Tax 1672 (Salop. Arch. Soc.), 96-8.

1     L. & P. Hen. VIII, xiv (1), p. 288.

2     V.C.H. Salop. ii. 229; 1981 census figs. compiled in S.C.C. Planning Dept.

3     SA 102, 720, 2007.

4     SA 36, 2028; T.C.S.V.F.C. xvi. 76.

5     SA passim.

6     G. Jones, 'Continuity Despite Calamity: The Heritage of Celtic Territorial Organization in Eng.'Jnl. Celtic Studies, iii. 22-30; below, Man. and Other Est.

7     V.C.H. Salop. i. 315, 332; above, Bradford hundred.

8     E. Ekwall, Concise Oxf. Dict. Eng. P.N. (4th edn.), 539.

9     Map on p. 3; M. Gelling, 'On Looking into Smith's Elements', Nomina, v. 39-45. Dr. Gelling kindly commented on the place names.

10    Ekwall, op. cit. 3.

11    U. Rayska, Brief Hist. of Admaston Spa (1977; copy in S.P.L., class L 21.6 v.f.).

12    Below, Preston, Econ. Hist.

13    Telford Jnl. 22 Sept. 1978; Shropshire Star, 15 (p. 21) and 29 (p. 26) Nov. 1980.

14    Above; below.

15    Ekwall, Concise Oxf. Dict. Eng. P.N. 61; S.R.O. 14/1/4.

16    O.S. Maps ½", sheet 16 (1930 edn.); 1", sheet 118 (1947 and 1953 edns.).

17    Ekwall, op. cit. 96.

18    Inf. from Dr. Gelling.

19    Or Ælf's, Æthelwulf's, or Eanwulf's.

20    Ekwall, Concise Oxf. Dict. Eng. P.N. 7, 113.

21    S.R.O. 14/1/4-5.

22    Ekwall, op. cit. 74, 351.

23    Inf. from Dr. Gelling.

24    S.R.O. 999/Pp (2) 11; S.R.O. 999, parcel 752, Burcot map c. 1690; Orleton and Nash map, 1728, at Orleton Hall.

25    Eyton, ix. 26.

26    Yeomen and Colliers in Telford, ed. B. Trinder and J. Cox (1980), p. 13; S.R.O. 999/Rr 43-51.

27    S.P.L., MS. 110, Wrockwardine jury presentments 11 Oct. 1650, and 1654; S.R.O. 1011, box 233, plot and descr. of Marsh Heath, 1672.

28    S. Bagshaw, Dir. Salop. (1851), 447; S.R.O. 14/1/4.

29    B.L. Maps, O.S.D. 208.

30    S.R.O. 3882/4/2; P.R.O., RG 11/2955, f. 5 (no. 242); S.R.O., q. sess. rec. box 299, file of corresp. re J.P.s 1877-92, letters re Beattie's appt. Feb.-Mar. 1883; Orders of Q. Sess. iv. 259; Kelly's Dir. Salop. (1885), 787, 999.

31    S.R.O., q. sess. rec. box 299, file of corresp. re J.P.s 1877-92, letters re France-Hayhurst's appt. and change of address, Mar.-Apr. 1879; 24 Mar. 1890. He had earlier lived at Wrockwardine Hall.

32    S.R.O. 3882/4/2. He d. at Leaton Grange: Shrews. Chron. 18 Feb. 1918; Burke, Land. Cent. (1952), 1190.

33    T.S.A.S. lvi. 32-3.

34    S.P.L., Deeds 19395.

35    S.R.O. 38/1.

36    S.R.O. 1224/1/1; O.S. Nat. Grid SJ 125 635.

37    S.R.O. 14/1/4.

38    S.R.O. 999/M 5-6; ibid. /0o 6.

39    S.R.O. 38/1; J. Rocque, Map of Salop. (1752).

40    Trinder, Ind. Rev. Salop. (1981), 86; S.R.O. 665/2/6014; B.L. Maps, O.S.D. 208.

41    13th Rep. R. Com. Holyhead Rd. H.C. 437, p. 8 (1836), xxxvi; SA 15334; above, plate 7.

42    Above, Wellington, Communications.

43    12 Geo. III, c. 9.

44    S.R.O. 14/1/4-5 (no. 915).

45    Inf. from the archivist, T.D.C.

46    Trinder, Ind. Rev. Salop. (1981), 85; Hobson & Co. Wellington Dir., Almanack, & Diary (1898), 56.

47    Salop. Librs. Shropshire Canals (1980), 67-8.

48    Above, Wellington, Communications.

49    S. Bagshaw, Dir. Salop. (1851), 439, 445.

50    C. R. Clinker, Clinker's Reg. of Closed Stations 1830-1977 (Bristol, 1978), 2, 135.

51    Above, Wellington, Communications.

52    O.S. Map 1/25,000, SJ 61 (1957 edn.).

53    T.D.C. Falcon Hotel (Hist. Bldgs. in Telford, no. 13).

54    S.R.O. 999/Pp (2) 11; /GG 10; S.R.O. 999, parcel 752, Burcot map c. 1690; Rocque, Map of Salop.

55    S.P.R. Lich. viii (1), 96; S.R.O. 4472/CW/1, s.a. 1721; Rocque, Map of Salop.

56    Below; S.R.O. 14/1/4-5 (no. 139); S. Bagshaw, Dir. Salop. (1851), 443-7.

57    S.R.O., q. sess. rec. parcel 254, badgers', drovers', and alesellers' licensing bk.

58    Co. of Salop, Return of Licensed Hos. 1896, 204 (copy in S.R.O., q. sess. rec. box 148); date stone reset in bar of Gate inn.

59    B.L. Maps, O.S.D. 208.

60    Return of Licensed Hos. 1896, 204.

61    Rayska, Admaston Spa; S.R.O. 1536, A. Kynaston to L. Barnston, 23 Aug. 1751.

62    Registrar of Friendly Socs. List of Friendly Socs. in Co. of Salop, 1793-1855 (H.M.S.O. 1857; copy in S.R.O.), pp. 42-3.

63    S.R.O. 436/6720.

64    S.R.O. 673/1/7, 20 Nov. 1829; 20 Nov. 1836.

65    Hobson, Wellington Dir. (1898), 35.

66    S.R.O. 4472/P/1/3, 5.

67    Below, Church; S.R.O. 4472/Par/8 (Jan. 1925); Wellington Before Telford, 38.

68    S.R.O. 4472/Par/8 (Oct. 1925).

69    R. C. Elliott, 'Development of Public Libraries in Salop.' (Loughborough Univ. M.A. thesis, 1970), app. II (copy in Salop. Librs.).

70    Shropshire Star, 28 Sept. 1970; inf. from Salop. Librs.

71    S.R.O. 4472/Par/13 (June 1929).

72    S.R.O. 860/3, 17 Oct. 1887.

73    Inf. from Mr. V. M. E. Holt.


MANORS AND OTHER ESTATES.


In 975 the southern boundary of Wrockwardine was called the 'king's boundary' (fn. 74) and the king retained the manor of WROCKWARDINE in 1066. Roger of Montgomery, created earl of Shrewsbury by 1074, was tenant in chief by 1086, and the manor contained 7½ berewicks, (fn. 75) which probably included Admaston, Allscott, Burcot, Charlton, Cluddley, Leaton, Nash, and Orleton. (fn. 76) It has been argued that the multiple estate was of considerable antiquity, perhaps succeeding Wroxeter in the 5th century as an administrative centre, and was perhaps the site of Cynddylan's hall of Pengwern, burnt by the Mercians c. 660. (fn. 77)

The manor was presumably forfeited after the rebellion of Earl Roger's son Robert of Bellême in 1102 (fn. 78) and remained with the Crown until 1231. In 1172 Henry II granted half the manor's annual value to the brothers Roger and Jonas of Powys, the full value, £14, being assigned to them in 1175. Roger, one of the king's leading servants in north Wales and the marches, was sole beneficiary from 1176 to 1186 when his son Meredith was joined with him. Father and son were dead by Michaelmas 1187, but Meyrick, another son of Roger of Powys, received £10 a year out of the manor from 1195 until his death in 1200. (fn. 79)

In 1200 the manor was farmed to Hamon le Strange, whose elder brother, John (II) of Knockin, succeeded him as farmer in 1203. (fn. 80) In 1228 John became life tenant of the manor, previously held during pleasure. (fn. 81) In 1231, however, during John (II)'s lifetime, the manor was granted in fee to his son John (III) for £8 a year. (fn. 82) By 1255 John (III) who lived until 1269, (fn. 83) had enfeoffed his son Hamon in the manor. (fn. 84) Hamon granted it to his younger brother Robert before they left on Crusade in 1271. Early in 1273, when Hamon's death overseas became known, Wrockwardine was seized by the sheriff as an unlicensed alienation. Edward I regranted it to Robert in 1275 as 1/20 knight's fee. (fn. 85) Robert was succeeded in 1276 by his son John, who was succeeded in 1289 by his brother Fulk, summoned from 1309 as Lord Strange of Blakemere (d. 1324). Fulk claimed free warren in Wrockwardine in 1292. Fulk's son and heir John, Lord Strange (d. 1349), who was granted free warren in his demesnes in 1333, granted the manor in 1347 to his son and heir Fulk, later Lord Strange (d. 1349), and Fulk's wife Elizabeth, who retained it during two later marriages until her death as Lady Cobham in 1376. The manor then descended with the barony of Strange of Blakemere to the Talbots, earls of Shrewsbury from 1442, (fn. 86) being held by dowager countesses 1473-6, (fn. 87) 1538-67, (fn. 88) and 1590-1608. (fn. 89) On the death of Edward, 8th earl of Shrewsbury, in 1618 the manor was divided into three, and so it remained until the early 19th century.

One third was settled on Alathea, countess of Arundel and Surrey (d. 1654), niece of the 8th earl of Shrewsbury, (fn. 90) who was succeeded by her younger son Sir William Howard, Viscount Stafford, impeached and executed 1680. (fn. 91) His son Henry Stafford-Howard, created earl of Stafford 1688, sold his interest in Wrockwardine to Richard Hill of Hawkstone, the statesman and diplomat, in 1715. (fn. 92) In 1722 Hill settled it in marriage on his nephew Samuel Barbour, who took the name Hill. He lived at Shenstone (Staffs.) and died in 1758, when his cousin Thomas Hill, of Tern, inherited the manor. (fn. 93) Hill (d. 1782) was succeeded by his son Noel, created Lord Berwick 1784 (d. 1789). In 1813 the 2nd Lord Berwick sold his third of the manor, apart from the Wrockwardine Wood mining rights, to William Cludde of Orleton.

Another third apparently passed in 1618 to George Saville (2nd bt. 1622) of Thornhill (Yorks. W.R.), grandnephew of the 8th earl of Shrewsbury. He died in 1626 and was succeeded by his brother Sir William (d. 1644), whose son Sir George (fn. 94) sold his third of the manor to Edward Revell in 1665, having previously disposed of the mining rights. (fn. 95) Revell held it until 1675. Rosamund Revell then held the third until her death in 1690 (fn. 96) when it passed to Edward Revell who held it until 1696. Thereafter it passed successively to John Revell (d. 1729); John's daughter Sarah (d. 1757), wife of Robert Moreton; Sarah's nephew John Revell Phillips (d. probably in 1766); Phillips's widow Sarah; and in 1767 to their son Thomas Carter Phillips, a minor. He died in 1783 and Revell Phillips, his brother, held it thereafter until 1811 when he sold it to William Cludde.

Another third of the manor was held by the 8th earl of Shrewsbury's widow Jane. After her death in 1625 or 1626 it descended with the earldom (dukedom 1694-1718) until 1822 when the 15th earl sold it to William Cludde. Like Lord Berwick, the earl retained the Wrockwardine Wood mining rights. (fn. 97)

Thus by 1822 the manor had been reunited by William Cludde, mayor of Shrewsbury in 1795 and high sheriff in 1814. He died in 1829 and was succeeded by his son Edward (d. 1840). Edward's daughter Anna Maria (d. 1906) owned the manor, from 1854 jointly with her husband R. C. Herbert (d. 1902). The manor was settled on their son Col. E. W. Herbert in 1901 and passed on his death in 1924 to his son Lt.-Col. E. R. H. Herbert, 5th earl of Powis 1952 (d. 1974). In 1982 Powis's nephew V. M. E. Holt owned the Orleton estate and possibly any manorial rights.

In 1324 the manor house was ruinous. It was said in 1650 formerly to have stood in the close called the Hall yard, (fn. 98) south-west of the church. A fishpond partly survived there in 1982. One of the main chimney stacks of Wrockwardine Hall, lying north-east of the church, bore a tablet placed there by Edward Pemberton to commemorate the building of the house in 1628 and his own completion of a new wing in 1750. (fn. 99) The limits of the 17th-century house cannot be defined with certainty but it probably lay in the range at the north-east corner of the surviving main block and extended eastwards from it. Much early 17thcentury panelling was reset in the dining room and bedrooms in the mid 18th century and there is a richly decorated late 17th-century staircase, apparently in situ, in the centre of the old range. A map of 1742 depicts the hall, probably accurately, as a building of five bays and two storeys with four pairs of windows, central entrance, two chimney stacks, and three attic gables. (fn. 1) The mid 18th-century work greatly enlarged the house to the west and to the south (where there was a new front of seven bays) and added new kitchens on the north