1.  JAMAICA GENERAL INFORMATION

0        Introduction


Home Page

Issue Date: 18/9/2023

Sources as endnotes.
Private information as footnotes (removed before websave).

This volime contains much miscellaneous information of relevance to the Maitland and related families and properties. Sections 1 & 2 printed 1/11/2020.

1.        JAMAICA GENERAL INFORMATION 0-1

0      Introduction 0-1

0.1      References & Sources: 0-6

Dictionary of Place-Names in Jamaica 0-6

1      BACKGROUND MATERIAL 1-1

REGNAL YEARS 1-1

Parish Record notes 1-4

St Catherine 1-4

St Elizabeth: 1-4

Clarendon 1-4

Vere 1-4

A Glossary of Estates in Land and Future Interests 1-5

Tenants in Common 1-16

Primogeniture 1-17

Life Expectancy 1-17

Monetary Values  Cost and Wage Inflation 1-17

Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries Inflation 1-18

Land Prices 1700 1-20

Jamaica Currency 1-20

2      Francis Maitland 2nd Shipping 2-1

3      MAITLAND JAMAICA PROPERTY 3-1

3.1      Introduction 3-1

3.2      BLACK RIVER & SURROUNDS 3-1

3.3      GIDDY HALL 3-3

Giddy Hall Almanacks & Crops 3-4

Kensington Almanacs: 3-6

AM Visits 1998 & 02: 3-6

Slave Emancipation Compensation 3-8

Apprentices 3-9

3.4      MITCHAM & SILVER GROVE 3-10

Slave Emancipation Compensation - Mitcham 3-11

Mitcham Almanacs, Crops & Slave Registration: 3-11

AM Visit 1998: 3-12

Silver Grove Visit, 3-12

Silver Grove: Manchester Almanacs. 3-13

Slave Emancipation Compensation – Silver Grove 3-13

3.5      MOUNT CHARLES: 3-15

Slave Emancipation Compensation 3-17

Mount Charles: St Elizabeth Almanacs etc. 3-17

AM Visit 1998: 3-17

3.6      The COVE & LITTLE CULLODEN - Westmoreland 3-19

Thomas Hogg to Patty Penford – 1785 3-19

Thomas Taylor to Patty Pinford – 1778 3-19

4      OTHER RELATED PROPERTIES – Almanacs etc 4-1

4.1      Booth Vere Properties 4-1

Yarmouth Estate. 4-1

Carlisle Estate 4-2

Salt Savanna Estate 4-4

James Wildman 4-7

4.2      Misceallaneous Propeties 4-7

Enfield: Vere 4-8

Ashton Pen 4-9

Booth Mentions: 4-13

Cohens: St Elizabeth. 4-16

Hyman's:  Vere. 4-17

Wrights: Vere. 4-17

Wrights: St Elizabeth. 4-17

Pusey Hall: 4-17

Wint: Vere. 4-17

Thomas Hercey Barratt 4-18

Mile Gully 4-18

4.3      Unity & Blagrove 4-20

5      Road & Parish Changes 5-1

Surveyors 5-1

Act 24 1683 P38 - An Act for regulating Surveyors, 5-1

Parish Boundaries 5-4

1683: Boundary of St Elizabeth & Clarendon 5-4

1703: Dividing St Elizabeth 5-4

1723: Westmoreland divided. 5-5

1739: St Elizabeth/Vere/Clarendon Boundary 5-6

1744: Road from St Ann to St Thomas in the Vale. 5-7

Southside to Savanna la Mar, 1823 Magistrates Guide 5-7

Division of Salt Savanna 5-7

New Leeward Road 5-11

1705, New Road over One Eye Savanna: 5-11

1750: More on 1747 Act 5-17

Repairing St Jago – Pepper Road Vol 2 Act 32, 1762 P69 5-18

Extract from Long: on Western Road 5-21

6      WEIGHTS, MEASURES & COINAGE 6-1

6.1      Land Areas – Acres, Roods & Poles 6-1

6.2      COINS USED IN JAMAICA 6-2

PUNCHEON 6-2

CUSTOMARY  (OLD) WEIGHTS & MEASURES 6-3

MEAT WEIGHT 6-5

FISH MEASURE SCOTCH LIQUID MEASURE 6-5

COKE MEASURE 6-5

TIMBER MEASURE 6-5

WOOL WEIGHT 6-6

BREAD AND FLOUR WEIGHTS 6-6

WHEATEN BREAD 6-6

CHEESE AND BUTTER WEIGHT 6-6

GLASS WEIGHT 6-6

HAY AND STRAW 6-6

7      OTHER PLACES of INTEREST & PARISH INFORMATION 7-1

7.1      Geographical Features of Note 7-1

Round Hill 7-1

7.2      Other Relevant & Surrounding Properties 7-2

Font Hill, 7-2

Fullerswood (Salmon): 7-2

Palisadoes 7-2

Port Royal 7-2

Roses Valley, 7-3

Chew Magna, 7-3

Fort William 7-3

Morningside 7-3

Greenwich Estate 7-3

Harmony Hall 7-3

Monymusk 7-4

Surinam Quarters & James Bannister 7-4

7.3      PARISH INFORMATION 7-6

Parish Records: 7-6

7.3.1      Clarendon  Clarendon Capital & Parish Church 7-6

7.3.2      CORNWALL - General Information 7-7

7.3.3      ST ELIZABETH PARISH INFORMATION 7-8

BLACK RIVER – Alison Morris 7-8

GENERAL 7-11

POSITION/SIZE/DESCRIPTION 7-11

BRIEF HISTORY 7-12

POPULATION: 148,900 (1999) 7-13

MAJOR INDUSTRIES/SOURCES OF EMPLOYMENT 7-13

MAJOR HISTORICAL/CULTURAL/RECREATIONAL/ECOLOGICAL SITES 7-13

7.4      The History of St. Elizabeth 7-16

7.4.1      Savanna-la-Mar 7-19

7.4.2      St Thomas in the Vale 7-19

8      JAMAICA ALAMANACS, & HANDBOOKS ETC 8-1

8.1      ALMANACS EXTRACTS 8-1

9      Royal Gazettes 9-11

9.1.1      JG 28/8/1779 Re Supply of Cattle 9-11

The Columbian 1796/7 9-14

SUGAR ESTATES IN CULTIVATION IN JAMAICA: 9-14

10        Hurricanes 10-15

10.1        Jamaica Hurricane of 3 October 1780 10-15

Plato the Wizard 10-15

Wrath of Plato's Spirit 10-16

From Colonial Office files, CO137/79: 10-16

Extract from the Supp. to the Kingston Gazette, 14 Oct 1780. 10-17

From the Cornwall Chronicle. Montego-Bay-, Oct. 7. 10-19

10.2        John Maitland’s Hurricane 1 August 1781 10-24

11        MONEY 11-1

11.1        Handbook of World Exchange Rates, 1590-1914 11-1

SUPPLEMENT TO THE ROYAL GAZETTE; September 1832 11-2

Money and exchange rates in 1632 11-5

12        MAPS, CENSUS & LANDHOLDERS 12-1

12.1        Jamaica Maps 12-1

12.2        Jamaica 1670 census 12-3

THE SURVEY OF THE ISLAND OF JAMAICA (1670). 12-3

12.3        1754 Landholders 12-13

12.4        BROWNE & ROBERTSON MAP COPIES 12-15

BROWNE 1755 MAP 12-15

ROBERTSON 1804 MAP 12-16

13        ESTATE MAPS 13-1

13.1        Clarendon 13-1

13.2        Manchester 13-4

13.3        St Catherine: 13-8

13.4        St Elizabeth 13-9

13.5        T Series 13-11

13.6        Westmoreland 13-12

14        LAND SETTLEMENT & GRANTS: 14-1

14.1        JHT Cultural Report Extracts 14-1

14.1.1        Background to the Cultural Heritage of the South Coast 14-1

14.2        Encumbered Estates 14-3

Misc PRO Docs 14-6

RESEARCH by JACKIE RANSTONE 14-6

15        SLAVERY. 15-1

15.1        FREE COLOURED COMMUNITY 15-3

15.2        European Peasants v African Slaves 15-4

Slavery  - Columbian Magazine, June 1796 15-4

15.3        EMANCIPATION IN JAMAICA – New York Times 1860 15-5

Black River 15-24

15.4        SLAVE REGISTRATION RECORDS at the PRO. 15-33

1817 15-33

1820 15-36

1823 15-37

1826 15-38

1829 15-39

1832 15-40

Manumissions: 15-40

15.5        Slave Compensation 15-42

Giddy Hall 15-42

Mitcham 15-42

Silver Grove 15-43

Mount Charles 15-43

Manumissions: 15-44

Runaway Slaves in Jamaica 15-44

15.6        Apprentices 15-45

16        Legislation etc 16-45

16.1        17 Acts (of Privilege) of the Jamaican Assembly 1760-1810 16-45

16.2        Calendar of State Papers – Extracts 16-10

17        HISTORICAL SOURCES and OTHER EXTRACTS 17-1

17.1        Caribbeana by Vere Langford Oliver (1910). 17-1

WEST INDIA COMMITTEE 17-3

A Descriptive Account of the Island of Jamaica (Beckford) 17-4

Pens and Pen-keepers: 17-4

Planters, Attorneys, Overseers, etc: 17-6

PEN KEEPERS & SLAVERY - Shepherd 17-9

BRETT ASHMEADE-HAWKINS 17-15

TROLLOPE’S SPANISH TOWN: 17-17

“MORANT BAY REBELLION” 17-33

ADDRESSES TO HIS EXCELLENCY EDWARD JOHN EYRE 17-33

18        Monumental Inscriptions 18-1

Burton: 18-1

Hayle: 18-1

Sinclair: 18-1

Wright 18-1

19        Delaroche Family & Giddy Hall 19-1

Descendants of Thomas Delaroche 19-3

20        CROPS – General Information 20-1

20.1        Trade 20-1

20.2        Prices 20-1

20.3        Rum 20-3

20.4        Sugar 20-3

20.4.1        Mills 20-3

20.4.2        Sugar Estate – The Economist 1844 20-6

Sugar and Slavery: Molasses to Rum to Slaves 20-11

Sugar Prices: 20-14

20.5        Coffee 20-17

Labour Regimen on Jamaican Coffee Plantations during Slavery 20-17

edited by Kathleen E. A. Monteith, Glen Richards   Coffee Costings, late 18thC 20-20

20.6        PIMENTO. – Robert Renny – 1807 SECTION VIII. 20-27

20.6.1        Cost 20-28

20.7        Indigo Crop 20-29

20.7.1        Long on Indigo, V1 P415 20-29

The Processing of Indigo 20-32

The Early Modern Period 20-33

The British in the Atlantic Indigo Trade 20-33

20.8        COTTON 20-35

20.8.1        Sloane extract 20-35

20.8.2        Robert Renny – 1807 SECTION III. 20-35

20.8.3        Other Cotton reports 20-36

20.8.4        Cotton Gin 20-37

20.8.5        Cotton Price 20-38

20.9        Logwood 20-38

21        Random notes 21-1

21.1        Quit rents: 21-1

21.2        Lewis on colour: 21-1

21.3        Marine Insurance 21-1

21.4        DREADFUL DEPRECIATION OF WEST INDIA PROPERTY 21-17

21.5        REDUCTION ON THE DUIES ON COFFEE. 21-19

21.6        Steam boat Accidnet, Clyde, 1825 21-21

21.7        STEAM-PACKET TO INDIA.  - 1825 21-22

21.8        UNITED KINGDOM STEAM-PACKET, 21-23

21.9        Gale Family 21-25

21.10      Vassall Family 21-29

21.11      Salt Savanna Great House 21-38

22        Book extracts 22-1

22.1.1        Development of Creole Society 1770-1820. Higman & Brathwaite 22-1

23        Jamaica Archives and Registrar General Department 23-1

23.1        Williams Family – Auriol 23-2

Research Results Plans and Notes  January 2008: 23-4

April 2009: 23-4

January 2010: 23-4

Done 2008: 23-4

To Be Done 1/2/08: 23-5

Further Research required (3/2008): 23-5

Jamaica Jan 2010: 23-7

To Do Next (Jan 10): 23-7

Plats & Land Grants: 23-9

To be Done, 4/2011:  Deeds: 23-10

Wills: 23-10

Inventories 23-11

Plats & Patents: 23-11

To do Jan 2012 23-13

Wills 23-13

Manumissions: 23-13

Plats & Patents 23-13

Patents 23-14

Deeds 23-14

Crops 23-14

Other 23-14

Done July 2012 23-14

To do Aug 2012: 23-15

To Do May/June 2013 23-16

To Do Nov 2013: 23-17

To do Jan 2014: 23-19

To do Nov 2014: 23-21

To do Aug 2015: 23-24

PRO 23-30

Jamaica Sept 2016 for next visit 23-31

Feb 2018 For next time 23-36

To do after Feb 2019 23-38

Jam Archives – 3/20 23-39

After March 2020 to do 23-40

April 2020/2/3 to Do 23-41

Library of Jamaica 23-42

23.1.1        Gazettes 23-43

23.2        February 2023 to Do 23-43

23.2.1        PRO 23-44

23.2.2        Guildhall/LMA 23-44

LAW Records 23-46

24        Changes: 24-1



Photographs & Maps:

Giddy Hall Air Photo in 1952.
Giddy Hall rear view in 1899.
Giddy Hall front view in 1899.
Mount Charles in 1998, front and rear.
Mitchum Air Photo in 1952
Mitchum Site Photo in 1998.
Black River, Giddy Hall and Mount Charles area map extract.

1755 & 1804 Maps with Gazetteer




0.1               References & Sources:


ACTS OF ASSEMBLY,

PASSED IN THE ISLAND of JAMAICA;

From the YEAR 1681 to the YEAR 1768, inclusive.

IN TWO VOLUMES.

VOL. I. SAINT JAGO DE LA VEGA, JAMAICA:

Printed by LOWRY and SHERLOCK, Printers, Booksellers and Stationers.

MDCCLXIX (1769)


Dictionary of Place-Names in Jamaica

DPNJ
(extracts) Inez Knibb Sibley
(Institute of Jamaica 1978).
HBJ----: Handbook of Jamaica yyyy or Jamaica Almanac yyyy.
JR1998: Jackie Ranston research.
AMV1998: Visit by A Maitland, 4/1998. (extended by visit 4/02)
JS: "Jamaica Surveyed" by BW Higman.
Map1804: 1804 Map of Jamaica Properties
LDS: Mormon Parish Records etc.
VLO: Vere Langford Oliver, 1910, Caribbeanea.
"Thomas Thistlewood in Jamaica, 1750-86", by Douglas Hall, University of West Indies Press (ISBN 976-640-066-0) - a graphic description of the life of a planter in the period, from his diaries.
BAH: Brett Ashmeade-Hawkins.

The Western Design – An account of Cromwell’s Expedition to the Caribbean.
S.A.G. Taylor
Pub. The Institute of Jamaica 1865 SBM 901814 02 4

UCL: Legacies of British Slave Ownership, online 3/2013.

For more general information, try:
Jamaican family information

Notice re William Ward & Co, or Alexander Sinclair of Port Royal Street. (Vol IV P70 jan26 1782)


 

1        BACKGROUND MATERIAL



REGNAL YEARS

Another example: 2 May 1662. This is in the reign of Charles II, whose first regnal year is 1649. So 1662-1649 = 13, add 1 because 2 May is after 30 January, so the date falls in the 14th regnal year of Charles II.

Monarch

No. of Years

First regnal year

Regnal year start date

Regnal year end date

End of final year

William I

21

1066

14 October

13 October

9 Sep 1087

William II

13

1087

26 September

25 September

2 Aug 1100

Henry I

36

1100

5 August

4 August

1 Dec 1135

Stephen

19

1135

26 December

25 December

25 Oct 1154

Henry II

35

1154

19 December

18 December

6 Jul 1189

Richard I

10

1189

3 September

2 September

6 Apr 1199

John

18

1199

May (Ascension Day)A

May (varied)

19 Oct 1216

Henry III

57

1216

28 October

27 October

16 Nov 1272

Edward I

35

1272

20 November

20 November B

7 Jul 1307

Edward II

20

1307

8 July

7 July

20 Jan 1327

Edward III

51 (England),
38 (France)
 C

1327

25 January

24 January

21 Jun 1377

Richard II

23

1377

22 June D

21 June

29 Sep 1399

Henry IV

14

1399

30 September

29 September

20 Mar 1413

Henry V

10

1413

21 March

20 March

31 Aug 1422

Henry VI

39 + 1 E

1422

1 September

31 August

4 Mar 1461

Edward IV

23

1461

4 March

3 March

9 Apr 1483

Edward V

1

1483

9 April

25 June

25 Jun 1483

Richard III

3

1483

26 June

25 June

22 Aug 1485

Henry VII

24

1485

22 August

21 August

21 Apr 1509

Henry VIII

38

1509

22 April

21 April

28 Jan 1547

Edward VI

7

1547

28 January

27 January

6 Jul 1553

Mary I

2

1553

6 July F

5 July

24 Jul 1554 G

"Philip and Mary"

5 & 6 G

1554

25 July

24 July

17 Nov 1558

Elizabeth I

45

1558

17 November

16 November

24 Mar 1603

James I

23

1603

25 March H

24 March

27 Mar 1625

Charles I

24

1625

27 March

26 March

30 Jan 1649

Charles II

37 I

1649

30 January

29 January

6 Feb 1685

James II

4

1685

6 February

5 February

11 Dec 1688 J

"William and Mary"

6

1689

13 FebruaryK

12 February

27 Dec 1694

William III

8
(7 to 14)
 L

1694

28 December L

27 December

8 Mar 1702

Anne

13

1702

8 March

7 March

1 Aug 1714

George I

13

1714

1 August

31 July

11 Jun 1727

George II

34

1727

11 June

10 June

25 Oct 1760

George III

60 M

1760

25 October

24 October

29 Jan 1820

George IV

11 N

1820

29 January

28 January

26 Jun 1830

William IV

7

1830

26 June

25 June

20 Jun 1837

Victoria

64

1837

20 June

19 June

22 Jan 1901

Edward VII

10

1901

22 January

21 January

6 May 1910

George V

26

1910

6 May

5 May

20 Jan 1936

Edward VIII

1

1936

20 January

11 December

11 Dec 1936

George VI

16

1936

11 December

10 December

5 Feb 1952

Elizabeth II

(ongoing)
(2016 = 65th)

1952

6 February

5 February

 




 


Parish Record notes


St Catherine


transcribed from the original by John Venn 1755.

1680’S Rector changes – more info. Marriages from adjoining parishes as well. Parishes mentions stop 1691.

A very few negroes listed as being married late 17thC.


Coloureds start to appear about 1730

Bapts: Dec 1742: “From this date to the time of my Incumbency, I find no Baptisms recorded. Those on the next pages I have taken from the several Family Bibles of other Register.
John Venn Rector, Sept 5 1755.
John Venn appears September 1748.
Baps finish

 folio 83 continue f 249

St Elizabeth:


1773 (V1/35) is the first year when the baptisms were split into white and non white. The few years before that were not well laid out, there being no definite year breaks.

1775 (V1/39) the first of the mass coloured baptisms appear.

6 Feb 1785 V1/48:
NB There being the strongest reason to believe that these free persons had been regularly baptised by former Rectors though it does not appear by the Parish Register the hypothetical form was used in order to avoid the Improprieties of rebaptising and yet comply with the request of the Parties who were extremely desirous to ascertain their Baptism.

Marriages: P286, image 146 – 319/165
Burials: 321/166 to end (image 180)

Clarendon

1737 Natural kids bapt
more by 1750
Done to sheet 118 - 1755, marriages still listed alongside Baps.


Vere

From Mid 1715, baps list god parents, intermittently.
Many slaves bapt late 18th & early 19thC
LDS website missing folios 33, 110 & 184.
Mar from folios 147 (sheet 77)
Bur from folio 167 (sheet 87).


 

 


A Glossary of Estates in Land and Future Interests

http://www.law.harvard.edu/faculty/cdonahue/courses/prop/lec/EFI.GLO.html

      The Roman jurist Javolenus once said “all definitions in matters of civil law are dangerous; there is hardly any that cannot be upset.”  Never have I been as sure of the wisdom of this remark as I was after attempting to define the principal terms in the common law system of estates and future interests.  I hope that what follows is more a help than a hindrance.  I would appreciate comments, suggestions, criticisms (including suggestions that the whole exercise wasn’t worth it).  Obviously, I am particularly interested in anything that strikes you either as flat-out wrong or as ambiguous.

absolute -- Not subject to any condition.  Usually applied only to fees.

alienation -- A general term for the transfer of property interests.  Frequently limited to alienations inter vivos.  See also inalienable interest.

ancestor -- The person from whom an heir takes by descent.

base fee -- A determinable fee.  See determinable interest.

bar -- To prevent, normally by fine or common recovery, a future interest from ever taking effect.  Inchoate dower and reversions or remainders following fees tail are the most frequently barred interests.

beneficial interest -- The right to the rents, profits, or more broadly all benefits from property.  See also equitable interest, legal interest.

chattel -- Personal property, as opposed to real property.

chattel real -- An interest in land classified for some purposes, e.g. succession, as personal property rather than real property.  The interest of a termor is a chattel real.

class gift -- A grant or devise to a group of people who are described but not named, e.g. “to the children of A”.

common -- See tenancy in common.

common law -- The judge-made law of England received by the United States in the 18th and early 19th centuries.  The common law of estates and future interests is normally thought to include the “common law statutes,” i.e., De Donis, Quia Emptores, Uses, and a statute of wills.  There is no agreement as to what date should be regarded as the cutoff for the common law, but in the field of estates and land and future interests, “common law” normally refers to some period before the statutory reforms of the middle decades of the 19th century.

common recovery -- A conveyancing device employing fictitious litigation. By common recovery the tenant in tail may dock or bar the entail and convey a full fee simple.

community property -- Not a common law concept but a device of the civil law whereby husband and wife become, roughly, tenants in common, of all that either of them acquires as a result of his/her efforts during the marriage.

concurrent interest -- Any undivided present or future interest shared by more than one person.  See also joint tenancy, tenancy by coparcenary, tenancy by the entireties, tenancy in common.

condition precedent -- A condition that by the terms of the grant or devise must be fulfilled prior to interest’s vesting.  The condition may be express, e.g. “to Joan if she obtains a college degree”, or implied, e.g., “to Joan’s first-born son” when Joan has no sons.

condition subsequent -- A defeasing condition, one that will terminate or modify the interest after it has vested.

conditional limitation -- An a defeasing condition with further provision as to what is to happen if the condition is fulfilled.  The term is ambiguous, but is frequently applied to determinable fees and those subject to an executory limitation but not to fees subject to a right of entry or power of termination retained in the grantor/devisor.  Sometimes the term is applied only to fees subject to an executory limitation.  See also fee simple conditional.

condominiums -- A form of ownership of real estate, largely the creature of statute, in which the condominium owner holds title to his/her unit and has a concurrent interest in the common property of the condominium.

contingent interest -- Normally applied only to future interests, the phrase implies the presence of conditions precedent.

contingent remainder -- A remainder subject to one or more conditions precedent other than the natural expiration of the preceding estate.  See also destructibility.

conveyance -- Alienation of an interest in real property.  Sometimes the word is confined to alienations inter vivos.

cooperatives -- A form of holding real estate, in which the cooperator is a stock holder in a corporation which owns real estate and which leases to the cooperator a unit within the cooperative.

coparceners -- A form of concurrent interest held by the female heirs of a decedent who left no male heir.  See tenancy by coparcenary.

cotenants -- The holders of a concurrent interest.

coverture -- The period during which a woman is married to a particular husband.

curtesy -- The right of the husband to a life estate in all lands in which his wife had a beneficial interest during coverture.  The estate arises upon the birth of child who cries to the four walls and only applies to those lands which the issue of the marriage might inherit.  During coverture after the birth of issue, curtesy is described as initiate.  After the death of the wife the husband surviving her the curtesy is described as consummate.

De Donis -- A statute in 1285 that, in effect, prevented the holder of fee tail from conveying, in effect, more than a life estate for his life.

defeasible interest -- A determinable interest or one subject to a condition subsequent.

descent -- Succession to an interest in real property upon the death of the holder of the interest.

destructibility -- Contingent remainders are destroyed: (1) if the precedent condition is not fulfilled; (2) at common law if the precedent condition is not fulfilled prior to the expiration of the preceding estate; and (3) at common law, by merger if the holder of the preceding estate acquires the reversion in fee.

determinable interest -- An interest that expires of its own terms upon  the happening of some contingency.  Words such as “so long as,” “while” and “until” normally create determinable interests.  Determinable interests, if not followed by a valid executory interest, are normally followed by an express or implied possibility of reverter in the grantor/devisor.

descent -- Succession to real property when the holder dies intestate.

defeasance -- The termination of an interest other than by its natural expiration.  Determinable fees and life estates and fees and life estates subject to a condition subsequent are all defeasible interests.

devise -- Alienation of an interest in real property by will or testament.  See also executory devise.

disabling restraint -- See restraints on alienation.

distribution -- Succession to personal property when the holder dies intestate.

dock the entail -- Remove from a fee tail the characteristic that it may only be inherited by the issue of the first tenant in tail.

Doctrine of Worthier Title -- If a grant or devise expressly creates a remainder in the heirs of the grantor/devisor, that remainder is a nullity.  The grantor/devisor retains a reversion which passes (unless otherwise disposed of) to his heirs by descent rather than by purchase.

donee -- The holder of an estate, normally a freehold estate.  Usually synonymous with “purchaser.”

dower -- The right of a wife who survives her husband to be assigned a life estate in one-third of all lands of which the husband was seised, or entitled to be seised, of an estate in fee simple or fee tail, during coverture, which estate the issue of the marriage, if any, might have inherited.  During the marriage dower is described as “inchoate.”  Upon the death of the husband, the wife surviving, the wife acquires the right to have dower assigned.  Once assigned dower becomes an alienable interest.

entail -- See fee tail.

entireties -- See tenancy by the entirety.

entry -- See right of entry.

equitable interest -- An interest that only the Chancery Court would recognize and defend.  (Normally, equitable interests are good only among the parties to the transaction creating the interest, those in privity with them, and those who have notice of the transaction.)  See also beneficial interest, legal interest.

executory limitation -- See fee subject to an executory limitation.

estate -- The right to possession of real property.  (Normally the term estate is applied only to freehold interests, but its application to non-freehold interests, e.g. “an estate for years,” is accurate.)

estate for years -- See “term.”

executed -- See Uses.

executory devise -- A springing or shifting use created by will.

executory interest -- Springing and shifting uses and executory devises.  Specifically, any future interest created in someone other than the grantor/devisor that cannot take effect upon the natural expiration of the preceding estate.  Examples of executory interests include interests that take effect upon the defeasance of a present fee or life estate and upon the defeasance of a reversion or remainder in fee or for life and feoffments in futuro.

expiration -- See natural expiration.

farm -- See fee farm.

fee -- A descendible freehold estate of potentially infinite duration.

fee farm -- A fee interest subject to a rent.

fee simple -- A fee that may be inherited by the holder’s heirs general, i.e. anyone who would qualify as the holder’s heir.

fee simple conditional -- Prior to the statute De Donis, grants in the form “to A and the heirs of his body” were held to create a fee in A subject to the precedent condition that A have issue.  These are called fees simple conditional.

fee simple determinable -- See determinable interest.

fee subject to an executory limitation -- A defeasible fee followed by an executory interest.

fee subject to a term of years -- The interest of the landlord in a landlord-tenant relationship, sometimes called the landlord’s “reversion.”

fee tail -- A fee that may be inherited only by the issue (or a class of the issue) of the first donee in tail.

fee tail female -- A fee tail that may be inherited only by the female issue of the first donee in tail.

fee tail general -- A fee tail that may be inherited by any of the issue of the first donee in tail.

fee tail male -- A fee tail that may be inherited only by the male issue of the first donee in tail.

fee tail special -- A fee tail that may be inherited only by the issue of the first donee in tail and a particular spouse of his/hers.

female -- See fee tail female.

feoffment -- A common law mode of conveyance in which seisin was physically transferred from the conveyor to the conveyee.

feoffment in futuro -- A grant or devise to begin at some time after the effective date of the instrument.  Feoffments in futuro were void at common law but could be created by way of executory interest.

feoffment to uses -- A feoffment in which the feoffor retains the beneficial interest in the property in himself or conveys it to someone other than the feofees.  See also uses, Uses.

fine -- A conveyancing device employing fictitious litigation.  Used to bar dower and, in some periods, to dock and bar entails.

forfeiture -- At common law the holder of interests in real property forfeited his interest by committing treason or felony, also by certain types of waste and by certain types of attempts to convey more than he had.

forfeiture restraint -- See restraints on alienation.

freehold -- Estates for life and in fee.  Estates that give the tenant seisin as well as the right to possession.

future interest -- An interest in real property that may be fully exercised or enjoyed only at some future time.  When applied to estates, the term “future interest” refers to a right to possession to commence some time in the future.  The fact that an estate is a future interest does not necessarily mean that it is not alienable, devisable or descendible.

general -- See fee tail general.

gift -- The alienation of property for no consideration.  Also, the conveyance inter vivos of a possessory interest in land.

grant -- The conveyance inter vivos of a non-possessory interest in land.  More broadly, any alienation of an interest in land inter vivos.

heir -- The person or persons entitled to succeed to the interests in real property of someone who is deceased.  inalienable interest -- At common law contingent remainders, executory interests, possibilities of reverter and rights of entry could not normally be conveyed inter vivos.  All these interests could descend to the heirs at law of the deceased holder, and contingent remainders and executory interests could be devised.  Rights of entry could not be devised, and there was doubt whether possibilities of reverter could be devised.

inchoate dower -- See dower.

inter vivos -- “Between living persons.”   Frequently used to describe alienations where the alienor is living at the time of the effective date of the alienation.

interest -- The broadest term for rights, powers and privileges that the law will recognize in property.

intestate -- Without a will.

issue -- Lineal descendants (children, grandchildren, great grandchildren, etc.)

joint tenancy -- A concurrent interest in which all tenants acquire at the same time and by the same instrument an equal share in the same interest, with the right to succeed to each other.  See also severance.

jure uxoris -- An estate of the husband in the land of his wife.  The estate gives the husband the right to the profits of the land and to manage and control them during coverture.

legal interest -- An interest that the central royal courts of common law would recognize and defend.  Normally, legal interests are “good as against the whole world” or at least against most third parties.  See also beneficial interest, equitable interest.

limitation -- A description of the type of interest in question (for how long, under what conditions, etc.), but not who is to take it.  See also conditional limitation.

male -- See fee tail male.

married women’s property acts -- Statutes passed in virtually every common law jurisdiction during the 19th and early 20th centuries.  They normally state that married women may hold and convey property as if they were unmarried.

measuring life -- The life or lives within which an interest must vest in order to be valid under the Rule Against Perpetuities, or the life that determines the length of an estate pur autre vie.

merger -- When one person comes to hold an estate for years or for life and a future interest in fee simple the “lesser” interest for years or life combines with the interest in fee simple giving the holder just a fee simple.  Merger does not take place when the interests are created at the same time, nor when the first interest is in fee tail, nor when there is an intervening vested interest.  Merger does take place if a current possessor for life later acquires a reversion or remainder in fee, even if there is an intervening contingent remainder.  See destructibility.

moiety -- The share in property of a cotenant other than a tenant by the entirety.

natural expiration of an estate -- Natural expiration of an estate occurs only upon the happening of any of the following the events: (1) the death of a tenant of a life estate;  (2) the death of the measuring life of an estate pur autre vie; (3) the death of a tenant in tail when all the issue of the first donee in tail to whom the estate was limited have predeceased the tenant.

non-freehold -- Estates for years, periodic tenancies, tenancies at will, and tenancies at sufferance.  Estates that give the tenant only possession and not seisin.

partition -- The right of one concurrent tenant to demand that his share of the tenancy be given to him solely, either in kind or after a judicial sale.

partnership -- See tenancy in partnership.

periodic tenancy -- A non-freehold estate that lasts from one period time to another unless and until terminated by notice from landlord to tenant or vice versa.  Tenancies from week-to-week, month-to-month, and year-to-year are the most common forms (though not the only possible forms) of periodic tenancies.

Perpetuities -- See Rule Against Perpetuities.

possibility of reverter -- A future interest in the grantor/devisor giving the holder the right to possession immediately upon the termination of a determinable interest.

power of appointment -- A device used in modern estate planning whereby the holder of the power has the power of determining to whom a particular interest should go.  Powers may be inter vivos or testamentary, or both.  They may be general, in which case the holder of the power may appoint to anyone, including him- or herself, or they may be special, in which case the holder of the power may choose among a specified group or class of people or insitutions.  (Charitable powers of appointment are quite common.)

power of termination -- See right of entry.

precedent -- See condition precedent.

present estate -- An estate in which the holder has the immediate right to possession.

primogeniture -- A system of intestate succession in which the eldest male heir is preferred over others in the same degree of kinship.

promissory restraint -- See restraints on alienation.

pur autre vie -- For the life of another.  An estate pur autre vie is a life estate for the life of someone other than the tenant.

purchase -- A description of who is to take the interest in question.  Confusingly, in the vocabulary of estates in land “purchase” has nothing to do with whether consideration has passed for the transaction.  A purely donative transaction will contain “words of purchase,” describing the alienee(s).

qualified fee -- An ambiguous term sometimes referring to defeasible fees generally and sometimes describing only determinable fees.

Quia Emptores -- A statute in 1290 that prohibited the subinfeudation of land and, in effect, permitted tenants alienate by substitution without obtaining permission of their lords.

remainder -- A future interest in someone other than the grantor/devisor that may become possessory upon the natural expiration of a preceding estate.  See also contingent remainder, vested interest.

rent -- The right to a money payment issuing out of land normally held by non-freeholder and normally payable to the landlord (freeholder).

restraints on alienation -- A condition or covenant in a grant or devise that expressly limits the power of the grantee or devisee to alienate an otherwise alienable interest.  Restraints on alienation are traditionally categorized into three types: (1) disabling restraints, those which purport to remove the characteristic of alienability from the interest in question; (2) forfeiture restraints, those which purport to make the interest defeasible if an attempt is made to alienate it; (3) promissory restraints, in which the grantee/devisee covenants not to alienate the interest.  Most restraints on alienation of freehold interests are void.

resulting use -- After the Statute of Uses a legal interest in a feoffor to uses who attempted to retain all or part of the beneficial interest in him/herself.

reversion -- A vested future interest in the grantor/devisor, expressed in the grant or devise or implied when the grantor devisor fails to convey the entire interest that he/she has.  See also fee subject to a term of years.

reversionary interest -- Any future interest in the grantor/devisor, i.e., reversions, rights of entry and possibilities of reverter.

reverter -- A possibility of reverter.  Also, a future interest in the grantor following upon a fee simple conditional.

right of entry -- A future interest in the grantor/devisor, which gives him/her the option of taking back an estate that has been granted on a condition subsequent.  For our purposes rights of entry and powers of termination are synonymous.

Rule Against Perpetuities -- “No interest is good unless it must vest, if at all, not later than twenty-one years after some life or lives in being at the creation of the interest.”  For perpetuities purposes, all interests retained by the grantor/devisor are vested; executory interests do not vest until they become possessory (an exception being made for executory interests subject to no contingency other than the termination of a determinable term of years); and remainders vest when they become vested remainders.

Rule in Shelley’s Case -- If a grant or devise creates some freehold estate in an ancestor and if, in the same conveyance, a remainder of the same quality (legal or equitable as the case may be) is expressly limited to the heirs or heirs of the body of that same ancestor, then the phrase “and his heirs” or “and the heirs of his body” is treated as words of limitation not words of purchase, i.e. the ancestor takes both the freehold estate created in him and the remainder.

severance -- The power to defeat the right of another joint tenant to succeed to the interest of joint tenant by conveying all or part of the interest to another.

Shelley’s Case -- See Rule in Shelley’s Case.

shifting use -- An executory interest the effect of which is to shift a vested interest from one donee to another.  Hence, any future interest created in a third party that defeases a prior vested interest.

simple -- See fee simple.

special -- See fee tail special.

springing use -- An executory interest that springs out of the seisin of the seisin of the grantor/devisor.  Hence, an executory interest that makes the grantor/devisor’s interest defeasible.  Feoffments in futuro are springing uses.

statute -- See De Donis, married women’s property acts, Quia Emptores, Uses, Wills.

subinfeudation -- A form of alienation in which the grantor retained the feudal lordship of the land in himself.  Subinfeudation was abolished (prospectively) by the statute Quia Emptores.

subsequent -- See condition subsequent.

substitution -- A form of alienation in which the grantor substitutes the grantee for himself as tenant of the next higher lord.

succession -- The broadest term for the passage of property interests upon the death of the holder intestate.  Sometimes expanded to include the passage of title to property by will.

sufferance -- See tenancy at sufferance.

tenancy -- Historically synonymous with estate.  Today, we tend to use the word “tenancy” to describe non-freehold estates.  See also periodic tenancy and below.

tenancy at sufferance -- A situation in which the landlord may choose to treat the tenant as holding an estate or may treat him as a trespasser.  Normally this arises when the tenant has held over after the end of his term.

tenancy at will -- A non-freehold estate that is immediately terminable by notice by either party at any time.

tenancy by coparcenary -- A form of concurrent interest in which the coparceners hold as a unit like joint tenants but without the right to succeed to each other.  Coparceners had a common law right to partition their tenancy.

tenancy by the entirety -- A concurrent interest, much like joint tenancy, except that the tenants must be husband and wife, and there is no power of severance.

tenancy in common -- A concurrent interest which fails to be joint tenancy either because it is expressly declared not be one or because it is not characterized by the unity of time, title or interest.  Upon the death of one tenant in common his/her interest passes to his/her heirs or devisees and not to the other tenants in common.

tenancy in partnership -- Not a common law concept, but a creation of statute, whereby the partners become, roughly, tenants in common, of the property acquired by the partnership for partnership purposes.

tenant -- The current possessor of a tenancy.

term of years -- A non-freehold estate that will last for some fixed period of days, months or years.

testator -- The maker of a will.

testament -- For our purposes, synonymous with “will.”

trust -- An active use, one not executed by the Statute of Uses because the trustees have something to do other than simply holding legal title.

use -- The beneficial interest in property the legal title to which was held by feofees, whose sole function was hold the legal title.  See resulting use, springing use, shifting use.

Uses -- A statute in 1536 that converted (“executed”) equitable uses into legal interests.  See also trusts.

vest -- To take effect.  Opposite of contingent.  “Vest” is probably the most difficult word on this list.  The problem with it is that future interests may vest (“vest in interest”) before they have become possessory (“vest in possession”), if there is no precedent condition to their becoming possessory other than the natural expiration of the preceding estate.  At common law vested interests were alienable even if they had not become possessory.

vested interest -- An interest subject to no conditions precedent other than the natural expiration of the preceding estate.  Since executory interests cannot follow after the natural expiration of a preceding estate, executory interests cannot become vested until they become possessory.  By convention all interests retained by the grantor (reversions, possibilities of reverter and rights of entry) are vested.

vested remainder -- A remainder subject to no precedent condition other than the natural expiration of the preceding estate.

vested subject to partial divestment --
vested subject to open -- A future interest in a class, one or more members of which have been identified, but which may still be increased by newly-identified members.  A future interest “to the children of A” is vested subject to partial divestment or vested subject to open if A has one or more children and is still alive.

waste -- Acts that diminish the capital value of land.  Possessors of land are frequently liable to holders of future interests in the same land if the former commit waste.

will -- A form of alienation to take effect on the death of the testator.  Wills have no effect while the testator is alive and may be changed or revoked so long as the testator lives and is competent.  See also tenancy at will.

Wills -- A statute in 1540 that permitted the devise of legal interests in real property.  More broadly, any statute that so provides.

words of limitation -- See limitation.

words of purchase -- See purchase.

Worthier Title -- See Doctrine of Worthier Title.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fee_tail

n English common lawfee tail or entail is a form of trust established by deed or settlement which restricts the sale or inheritance of an estate in real property and prevents the property from being sold, devised by will, or otherwise alienated by the tenant-in-possession, and instead causes it to pass automatically by operation of law to an heir pre-determined by the settlement deed. The term fee tail is from Medieval Latin feodum talliatum, which means "cut(-short) fee", and is in contrast to "fee simple" where no such restriction exists and where the possessor has an absolute title (although subject to the allodial title of the monarch) in the property which he can bequeath or otherwise dispose of as he wishes. Equivalent legal concepts exist or formerly existed in many other European countries and elsewhere

Purpose[edit]

The fee tail allowed a patriarch to perpetuate his blood-line, family-name, honour and armorials[1] in the persons of a series of powerful and wealthy male descendants. By keeping his estate intact in the hands of one heir alone, in an ideally indefinite and pre-ordained chain of succession, his own wealth, power and family honour would not be dissipated amongst several male lines, as became the case for example in Napoleonic France by operation of the Napoleonic Code which gave each child the legal right to inherit an equal share of the patrimony, where a formerly great landowning family could be reduced in a few generations to a series of small-holders or peasant farmers. It therefore approaches the true corporation which is a legal body or person which does not die and continues in existence and can hold wealth indefinitely. Indeed, as a form of trust, whilst the individual trustees may die, replacements are appointed and the trust itself continues, ideally indefinitely. In England almost seamless successions were made from patriarch to patriarch, the smoothness of which were often enhanced by baptising the eldest son and heir with his father's Christian name for several generations, for example the FitzWarin family, all named Fulk. Such indefinite inalienable land-holdings were soon seen as restrictive on the optimum productive ability of land, which was often converted to deer-parks or pleasure grounds by the wealthy tenant-in-possession, which was damaging to the nation as a whole, and thus laws against perpetuities were enacted, which restricted entails to a maximum number of lives.[citation needed]

An entail also had the effect of disabling illegitimate children from inheriting. It created complications for many propertied families, especially from about the late 17th to the early 19th century, leaving many individuals wealthy in land but heavily in debt, often due to annuities chargeable on the estate payable to the patriarch's widow and younger children, where the patriarch was swayed by sentiment not to establish a strict concentration of all his wealth in his heir leaving his other beloved relatives destitute. Frequently in such cases the generosity of the settlor left the entailed estate as an uneconomical enterprise, especially during times when the estate's fluctuating agricultural income had to provide for fixed sum annuities. Such impoverished tenants-in-possession were unable to realise in cash any part of their land or even to offer the property as security for a loan, to pay such annuities, unless sanctioned by private Act of Parliament allowing such sale, which expensive and time-consuming mechanism was frequently resorted to. The beneficial owner (or tenant-in-possession) of the property in fact had only a life interest in it, albeit an absolute right to the income it generated, the legal owners being the trustees of the settlement, with the remainder passing intact to the next successor or heir in law; any purported bequest of the land by the tenant-in-possession was ineffective.[citation needed]

History[edit]

Fee tail was established during feudal times by landed gentry to attempt to ensure that the high social standing of the family, as represented by a single patriarch, continued indefinitely. The concentration of the family's wealth into the hands of a single representative was essential to support this process. Unless the heir had himself inherited the personal and intellectual strengths of the original great patriarch, often a great warrior, which alone had brought him from obscurity to greatness, he would soon sink again into obscurity, and required wealth to maintain his social standing. This feature of English gentry and aristocracy differs from the true aristocracy which existed in pre-Revolution France, where all sons of a nobleman inherited his title and were thus inescapably members of a separate noble caste in society. In England all younger sons of a nobleman were born as mere gentlemen and commoners, and without the support of wealth could quickly descend into obscurity, the eldest son alone being a nobleman. On this eldest son was concentrated the honour of the family, and to him alone was granted all its wealth to support his role in that regard, by the process of the fee tail.

Statute of Westminster 1285[edit]

The Statute of Westminster II, passed in 1285, created and fixed the form of this estate. The new law was also formally called the statute De Donis Conditionalibus (Concerning Conditional Gifts).

Opponents[edit]

Fee tail was never popular with the monarchy, the merchant class and many holders of entailed estates themselves who wished to sell their land.

Abolition[edit]

Fee tail as a legal estate in England was abolished by the Law of Property Act 1925.[2]

Continuing use[edit]

A fee tail can still exist in England and Wales as an equitable interest, behind a strict settlement; the legal estate is vested in the current 'tenant for life' or other person immediately entitled to the income, but on the basis that any capital money arising must be paid to the settlement trustees. A tenant in tail in possession can bar his fee tail by a simple disentailing deed, which does not now have to be enrolled. A tenant in tail in reversion (i.e. a future interest where the property is subject to prior life interest) needs the consent of the life tenant and any 'special protectors' to vest a reversionary fee simple in himself. Otherwise he can only create a base fee; a base fee only confers a right to the property on its owner, when its creator would have become entitled to it; if its creator dies before he would have received it, the owner of the base fee gets nothing. No new "fees tail" can now be created following the Trusts of Land and Appointment of Trustees Act 1996.[3]

In the US, conservation easements are a form of entail still in use.

Creation[edit]

Traditionally, a fee tail was created by a trust established in a deed, often a marriage settlement, or in a will "to A and the heirs of his body". The crucial difference between the words of conveyance and the words that created a fee simple ("to A and his heirs") is that the heirs "in tail" must be the children begotten by the landowner. It was also possible to have "fee tail male", which only sons could inherit, and "fee tail female", which only daughters could inherit; and "fee tail special", which had a further condition of inheritance, usually restricting succession to certain "heirs of the body" and excluding others. Land subject to these conditions was said to be "entailed" or "held in-tail", with the restrictions themselves known as entailments.

Breaking of fee-tail[edit]

The breaking of a fee tail was simplified by the Fines and Recoveries Act 1833,[4] which replaced the conveyance for making a tenant to the praecipe for suffering a common recovery. This was the usual preliminary to a recovery with a disentailing assurance, which had to be enrolled. The need for this to be followed by the fictitious proceeding of a common recovery was abolished.

The requirement that a disentailing assurance should be enrolled was abolished in 1926.[5]

Mortgage of entailed lands[edit]

Lending upon security of a mortgage on land in fee tail was risky, since at the death of the tenant-in-possession, his personal estate ceased to have any right to the estate or to the income it generated. The absolute right to the income generated by the estate passed by operation of law to parties who had no legal obligation to the lender, who therefore could not enforce payment of interest on the new tenants-in-possession. The largest estate a possessor in fee tail could convey to someone else was an estate for the term of the grantor's own life. If all went as planned, it was therefore impossible for the succession of patriarchs to lose the land, which was the idea.

Failure of issue[edit]

Main article: Failure of issue

Things did not always go as planned, however. Tenants-in-possession of entailed estates occasionally suffered "failure of issue" — that is, they had no legitimate children surviving them at the time of their deaths. In this situation the entailed land devolved to male cousins, i.e. back up and through the family tree to legitimate male descendants of former tenants-in-possession, or reverted to the last owner in fee simple, if still living. This situation produced complicated litigation and was an incentive for the production and maintenance of detailed and authoritative family pedigrees and supporting records of marriage, births, baptisms etc.

Depending on how the original deed or grant was worded, in the event of there being daughters but no sons, all the sisters might inherit jointly, it might pass to the eldest sister, it might be held in trust until one of them should produce a (legitimate) son, or it might pass to the next male-line relative (an uncle, say, or even a--sometimes very distant--cousin.)

Common recovery[edit]

In the 15th century, lawyers devised "common recovery", an elaborate legal procedure which used collaborative lawsuits and legal fictions to "bar" a fee tail, that is to say to remove the restrictions of fee tail from land and to enable its conveyance in fee simple.

Resettlement[edit]

In the 17th and 18th centuries the practice arose whereby when the son came of age (at 21), he and his father acting together could bar the existing fee tail, and could then re-settle the land in fee tail, again on the father for life, then to the son for life and his heirs male successively, but at the same time making provision for annuities chargeable on the estate for the father's widow, daughters and younger sons, and most importantly, and as an incentive for the son to participate in the re-settlement, an income for the son during his father's lifetime. This process effectively evaded the law against perpetuities, as the entail in law had been terminated, but in practice continued. In this way an estate could stay in a family for many generations, yet emerged on re-settlement often fatally weakened, or much more susceptible to agricultural downturns, from the onerous annuities now chargeable on it.

Formedon[edit]

Formedon (or form down etc.) was a right of writ exercisable by a holder in fee for claiming property entailed by a lessee beyond the terms of his feoffment.[clarification needed] A letter dated 1539 from the Lisle Letters describes the circumstances of its use:[6]

"I received your ladyship's letter by which ye willed me to speak with my Lady Coffyn for her title in East Haggynton in the county of Devon who had one estate in tail to him and to his heirs of her body begotten; and now he is dead without issue of his body so that the reversion should revert to Mr John Basset and to his heirs so there be no let nor discontinuance of the same made by Sir William Coffyn in his life. Howbeit Mr Richard Coffyn, next heir to Sir William Coffyn, claimeth the same by his uncle's feoffment to him and to his heirs so that the law will put Mr John Basset from his entry and to compel him to take his action of form down which is much dilatory as Mr Basset knoweth"

Tenants in Common


In a joint tenancy, the right of survivorship allows the remaining tenants to take over a tenant's property share if they die. In a tenancy in common, the deceased person's share will pass to their heirs through a will or through the probate process rather than to the surviving tenants.

Primogeniture

http://sc_tories.tripod.com/law_of_primogeniture_in_the_south.htm

LAW OF PRIMOGENITURE IN THE SOUTH

BY PHIL NORFLEET

PRIMOGENITURE CONCERNS REAL PROPERTY

The old English Law of Primogeniture concerns the inheritance of "real property" only, such as land, buildings, etc. Under this law, the eldest living son (the "heir at law") inherited all the real property of the father if the father died intestate, i.e., without a will. If a will had been made, then the will's stipulations would govern. Since primogeniture was such a well known and standard procedure in the English speaking world, no specific mention of this transfer of title to the deceased's real property would usually be made in the court records concerning the estate.

DIVISION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY

Conversely, the personal property of the deceased, such as cattle, horses, furniture, notes due the estate, etc. was NOT subject to primogeniture and would customarily be equally divided among all the children, both male and female. The widow was entitled to her right of dower, meaning a right to one-third of the personal property during her lifetime. After her death the entire estate could be sold and the proceeds divided among all the heirs. Accordingly, even if Primogeniture was applicable, it still was necessary to make an inventory of the deceased's personal property, as soon as possible after death. The inventory would form the basis for the subsequent division of the estate, even if the final division might not be made until years later. Many genealogists, including many professionals, do not seem to fully understand this need for an inventory when Primogeniture is applicable.


Life Expectancy

Kingston in the 1740’s and 50’s, the annual death rate was 20%, similar to London during the Great Plague, but every year, due partly to the new arrivals and shipping crews.
Infant mortality, before age 5, was 46% pre 1700, but it was 60% after.
1/3 of 20 year olds failed to reach 30 and ½. Of 30 years olds died before 40.
sugar barons p292


Monetary Values

Cost and Wage Inflation


     Standard inflation indices give a historical picture of the changing cost of goods they do not relate those costs to historical income. Cost changes related to wages gives an easier way to understand the values given in historical documents. A spot comparison between wage and price inflation for 1755 to 2015 shows a ratio of 196 for prices and 637 for wages.
     The table below shows the wage rates for various trades between 1755 & 1851, in £ Sterling. Wage rates for equivalent trades in 2012, factored to 2015, were used to produce a factor converting historical costs to current values, based on wage rates as opposed to nominal inflation.
     The second to last line shows the ratio between sterling at the column date and 2015 sterling.
     The last line shows the same ratio related to Jamaican pounds, using a nominal exchange rates.




 

1755

1781

1797

1805

1810

1815

1819

1827

1835

1851

 farm labourers

17

21

30

40

42

40

39

31

30

29

 non-farm common labour

21

23

25

37

44

44

42

44

39

45

 messengers & porters

34

34

58

69

76

81

81

84

87

89

 other government low-wage

29

46

47

52

57

60

61

59

59

66

 police & guards

26

48

47

51

68

69

69

63

63

54

 colliers

23

24

48

65

63

57

50

55

56

55

 government high-wage

79

104

134

151

177

195

219

223

270

235

 shipbuilding trades

39

45

52

51

55

59

57

62

63

64

 engineering trades

44

51

58

76

88

95

93

81

77

84

 building trades

31

36

41

55

66

66

63

66

60

66

 cotton spinners

36

42

48

65

78

68

68

59

65

59

 printing trades

46

54

67

71

79

79

71

70

70

75

 clergy

92

183

139

266

284

273

167

255

159

267

 solicitors and barristers

231

243

165

340

448

448

448

523

1167

1838

 clerks

64

102

135

150

178

201

230

240

269

236

 surgeons & doctors

62

88

175

218

218

218

218

175

101

201

 schoolmasters

16

17

43

43

51

51

69

69

82

81

 engineers & surveyors

138

170

190

291

305

338

326

266

399

479

Modern Year

57

74

83

116

132

136

132

135

173

223

2015

637

491

435

312

275

268

275

269

210

162

Historical Amount £J

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

455

351

311

223

196

191

197

192

150

116




Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries Inflation

Urbanization and Inflation: Lessons from the English Price Revolution of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

Jack A. Goldstone

American Journal of Sociology

Vol. 89, No. 5 (Mar., 1984), pp. 1122-1160 (JSTOR)
Urbanization and Inflation: Lessons from the English Price Revolution of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries1

Jack A. Goldstone Northwestern University

The English price revolution (the 500% rise in prices from 1500 to 1650) has been attributed by some to an excess of money, due to bullion imports from the New World, and by others to an excess of people, due to population growth. This essay shows both accounts to be severely flawed. A simple model of the impact of urban networks on monetary circulation is developed it argues that taking account of the effects of urbanization and occupational specialization on the velocity of money provides a fuller understanding of the price revolution than explanations based simply on aggregate population growth or changes in the money supply due to an influx of American metals. Implications are drawn for accounts of inflation in both early modern Europe and the contemporary developing world.
The gleam of gold and silver has dazzled many an eye. For many economic historians, Spanish gold and silver imported from America long outshone all other factors in accounting for the “price revolution”—the century and a half of sustained inflation that accompanied, and in the view' of many caused, early modern Europe’s rapid steps toward a more specialized, urban, market economy.
From 1400 to 1500, and from 1650 to 1750, prices in England remained virtually unchanged. Yet in the intervening century and a half the price level rose 500% (see table 1). A price rise of similar magnitude occurred at roughly the same time throughout most of Europe. Although economists and historians have been the main disputants in analyzing the price revolution, this early occurrence of sustained inflation is of crucial importance to two groups of sociologists.

1 I have benefited greatly from criticisms by Joel Mokyr and Christopher Winship, discussions with the Northwestern University Economic History Seminar and the Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, and suggestions from the referees of AJS, none of whom bear any responsibility for remaining errors. Requests for reprints should be sent to Jack A. Goldstonc, Department of Sociology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60201.


First, the price revolution occurred during the period that witnessed the origins of capitalism and of the modern nation-state indeed, the rise in prices has been cited as a key factor in both developments by Marxist and Weberian scholars alike (Wallerstein 1974, pp. 77-84 Collins 1980, pp. 939-40). The roots of the price revolution are thus tied to the central concerns of historical sociology. Second, the question why an inflationary era arose suddenly and was sustained for over a century is of interest to scholars studying the economic development of contemporary nations entering the early phases of economic growth. Since the 1960s, Third World countries have sought by various paths to attain the status of economically developed, modern nation-states. Yet most have also been buffeted by sustained inflation. Understanding the sources of the price revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries may provide models and insights for coping with a contemporary inflationary era.

TABLE 1

Prices in England 1410-1749 (Indexed to 1490-1509 = 100)

 

A Composite of Foodstuffs and Manufactures That Form a Market Basket of Consumables*

Wheatt

A Sample of

Industrial

Products*

Day Wage of

Agrarian

Laborer§

1410-29

105

 

 

 

1430-49

105

 

 

 

1450-69

99

 

 

100

1470-89       

102

 

 

99

1490-1509     

100

100

100

100

1510-29       

126

130

108

103

1530-49

169

160

121

113

1550-69

276

295

206

167

1570-89       

327

352

232

203

1590-1609     

461

508

252

217

1610-29

508

574

274

239

1630-49

600

722

300

293||

1650-69

624

654

335

 

1670-89       

621

581

303

 

1690-1709     

602

639

297

 

1710-29       

616

591

274

 

1730-49

560

488

279

 

* Calculated from Phelps-Brown and Hopkins <10626). pp 194-95 t Calculated from Hoskins (1968), pp 28-31 t Calculated from Coleman (1977), pp 23, 101-2 § Calculated from Coleman (1977), p 23.

|| The wages of artisans and craft laborers in Southern England followed virtually the same rate of increase as agricultural wages, roughly tripling from 1500 to 1650 (Phelps-Brown and Hopkins 1962a)

Land Prices 1700

From: Planters, Merchants, and Slaves: Plantation Societies in British America By Trevor Burnard 2016

During the 1690s, however, the price of land in Jamaica skyrocketed. The price increases are somewhat evident in the average price per acre, which increased to 68 pence per acre in St. Andrew in the 1690s, 78 pence per acre in the 1700s, 95 pence per acre in the 1710s, and, most dramatically, £1.89 per acre in the 1720s. The rise in average price per acre is misleading, however, because these prices include mountainous land, which was difficult to cultivate and thus very cheap. Land on the settled area of the Liguanea plains was considerably more expensive. Cleared land became very expensive and well out of reach for all except big planters. In 1695, for example, a parcel of 40 acres sold for £133, while in 1697 a sugar plantation of 126 acres fetched £333. The early years of the eighteenth century saw prices increase further. In 1700 60 acres went for £300, while in 1701 28 acres of prime land was sold for £206. The following year saw a fully developed sugar plantation of 300 acres sold for £1,000. That plantation was sold again six years later at a whopping profit, with the price for 300 acres now at £2,500. In 1713 another prime sugar property of 262 acres was sold for £2,200, while 80 acres of cane land sold for £800. Such prices were out of reach for ordinary whites with inventoried wealth of under £200 and annual incomes of around £20. Despite these constraints, landownership was not completely out of reach for ordinary white men. Small plantations never disappeared completely from the parish. As late as 1754 there were 128 small estates in St. Andrew producing provisions, coffee, ginger, cotton, and livestock.


Jamaica Currency


In 1839, an Act was passed which stated that as of 31 December 1840, the currency of Britain should be that of Jamaica, that is, the lower denomination copper coins, farthing, half penny, penny ha'penny and penny as well as the higher denomination silver coins, three pence, six pence, shilling, florin half crown and crown. While the Spanish coins were demonetized, an exception was made in the case of the Spanish doubloon, which remained legal tender at a rate of 3.4.0, until it was demonetized on 01 April 1901.

See IMF paper
Evolution of the Colonial Sterling Exchange Standard

H. A. Shannon, Staff Papers (International Monetary Fund)

Vol. 1 (1950 - 1951), pp. 334-354 (21 pages)
Jstor


2        Francis Maitland 2nd Shipping


Westbrooke


PRO Kew 29/4/94: Register's of Seaman's Service:
BT 119-12 gives FM ref no 1156
BT 112-44 shows FM: (register 1836-1845)
Age 25, b at Jamaica, voyage: m 9/56    Westbroke
                              64/1355
BT 120-4 f558:  (register 1835-36)
Maitland, Francis, age 25, born Jamaica, Mate, Westbroke of London 7/9/36.
This appeared to be his only voyage recorded by this system.
BT98-384: Crew Record for Westbrooke shows Francis M (age 25 born Jamaica) sailed to Jamaica and back, joining the ship 25/1/1836 and leaving 6/9/1836. The master was Joseph A Freeman aged 30.

Giddy Hall pen shipped 20 tons of fustic and 45 bags pimento in 1834 in the Westbrook, so it highly likely that Francis was on this voyage
London Standard London, 27 Sep 1834, SHIP NEWS
sailed, the Westbrook, from Jamaica, the Black River Packet.

Royal Gazette, Jamaica 12/3/36[1],
Shipping intelligence:
"Westbrooke, barque, Freeman, London, Last Downs 31 days, arr Port Royal, 8/3/36." Passengers: Messrs Hankin & Goatley.
Advertised as sailing for London, and shown loading for some weeks before sailing for London 21/7/36. Passengers: Rev A Campbell, lady 2 daughters and servant, Mrs Freeman (Captain's wife??), Mr Thomas Bilby, Masters Alexander, Samuel & Solomon Lazarus.
Arrived 8/9/1836 London from Jamaica.
(Freeman noted as Captain of another ship sailing between London & Jamaica: probably a regular on the run – the Katherine in Lloyd’s Reg 1836).

The Westbrooke was built by Hillhouse and son of Bristol and completed 10/10/1820 for a syndicate of owners, including the 1st master, James Hall and several merchants.  She was first registered 6/11/1820.
She had one deck, 3 masts, was 98'8" x 24'8", square sterned and 5'2" between decks. She was 265 Tons.  Lloyds register of shipping show her still sailing the trade routes in 1846[2].
1826 Lloyd’s Reg: Master J. Hall, 265sdb, Bristol LS&K, 5, G.Joad, 16, Lo. Jamaica, A1 10, A1,6. C2 26 J Hall & C23 rp 24 Smith,
A Bark has 3, 4 or 5 masts, square rigged, with aft mast fore & aft rigged.

The travels of the Westbrooke have been found from newspaper reports and Lloyd’s List.

The Westbrook appears in the English newspaper reports by 1829, sailing regularly between Jamaica and England; a report of her arrival in 1834 describes her as the Black River Packet. She also appeared regularly in the Jamaica Gazette from 1823 onwards and in Lloyds by 1825. Captain Freeman takes over as captain sometime before 1834. When Francis Maitland joined is unknown.

“Shipping News” confirmed that Westbrook, Freeman, sailed for Jamaica[3] 28/1/1836 and returned about 7 September 1836[4].
Westbrooke went on sailing to Jamaica under Captain Freeman & others for a few years before changing to the East, Australia & other ports on the way.

Jamaica Gazette shows Westbrook between Jamaica and London from 1823 onwards, with a few passengers.

3/3/1823 Westbrooke, Hall, Cleared, Old Harbour to London.

Lloyd’s Register 1836:
Westbrook Bk, PH& C 33, J Green, 266, Bristol, 1820, Joad & Co, London, Lon Jamaica, -, AE1 39.

London Standard London, 9 May 1829, SHIP NEWS
Passed, the Westbrook, Smith, for Jamaica.

Morning Post London, 12 May 1829, SHIP NEWS
Westbrook, Smith, Jamaica

Morning Post London, 4 Nov 1829, SHIP NEWS
London, Westbrook, Smith; and Juno, Pritchard, Jamaica

Morning Post, London, 21 Sept 1830
Arrived the Westbrook, Smith, from Jamaica.

Morning Post London, 12 Jan 1831, SHIP NEWS
With — Westbrook, from London, 18th ult. lat. 23. 52. long. 29. 23

Morning Chronicle, London, 4 May 1831
.. the Westbrook, Smith, from Jamaica.

Morning Post, London, 28 Sept 1831
Arrived the Westbrook, Smith.

Royal Gazette, Jamaica (PRO CO141 30), Shipping intelligence, 1832.
"Westbrooke, barque, Smith, (from) Downs, arr Port Royal, 27/11/1832."
4 Passengers, plus cargo.

London Standard 13 April, 1833
Westbrooke from Jamaica

London Standard London, 27 Sep 1834, SHIP NEWS
sailed, the Westbrook, from Jamaica, the Black River Packet.

London Standard, 29 Nov 1834
remains the Westbrook, Freeman, for Jamaica.

Morning Post London, 8 Dec 1834, SHIP NEWS
Porcupine, Westbrook, from Llandovery

Francis’s voyage:
Morning Post London, 28 Jan 1836, SHIP NEWS
Westbrook, Freeman, for Jamaica

London Standard London, 6 Sep 1836, SHIP NEWS
the Westbrook. from (Jamaica)
Morning Post London, 7 Sep 1836, SHIP NEWS
Westbrook from Jamaica
Morning Post London, 8 Sep 1836, SHIP NEWS
Westbrook, Freeman, from Jamaica

Kentish Gazette Kent, 7 Mar 1837, DEAL, Feb. 27
Westbrook, Freeman, for Jamaica

London Standard 16 Sept 1837:
Express from Liverpool.
...to sail, the Westbrooke, from Old Harbour, the same day for London (1 Aug).

London Standard London, 19 Sep 1837 SHIP NEWS
the Westbrook, from Jamaica

Morning Post London, 7 Oct 1837, SHIP NEWS
Westbrook, Morgan, for Jamaica
London Standard London, 6 Nov 1837, ship news.
the Westbrook, for Jamaica
Morning Chronicle London, 8 Nov 1837, SHIPPING INTELLIGENCE

Westbrook, Morgan, for Jamaica;

Kentish Gazette Kent, England, 14 Nov 1837, DEAL, Nov. 6
Westbrook, Morgan, for Jamaica;

Royal Cornwall Gazette Cornwall, England 17 Nov 1837
Westbrook, Morgan, from London

London Standard London, 4 Jun 1838 SHIP NEWS
the Westbrook, Morgans, from Jamaica
Morning Post London, 7 Jun 1838
Westbrook Morgan, from Jamaica;
Kentish Gazette Kent, 12 Jun 1838, DEAL, May 28
Westbrook, Morgan, from Jamaica.

London Standard London, 19 Sep 1838, SHIP NEWS;
the Westbrook, for the Mauritius;

Morning Post London, 13 Oct 1838, SHIP NEWS
Westbrook. Lemmington, for the Mauritius

London Standard London, 22 Oct 1838, SHIP NEWS
the Westbrook, for the Mauritius
Morning Post London, 23 Oct 1838, SHIP NEWS,
Westbrook, Linnington, for the Mauritius Oct. 21

Morning Post London, 12 Jun 1839, SHIP NEWS

Westbrook. Leamington, March 1, from London and the Cape

London Standard London, 12 Jun 1839, SHIP NEWS
Westbrook. arrived at the Mauritius

Morning Chronicle London, 26 Mar 1839, SHIPPING INTELLIGENCE
by the Westbrook arrived at the Cape of Good The Hope

Morning Post London, 20 Jul 1839, SHIP NEWS

Westbrook, Lexington, New South Wales

Morning Post London, 4 Apr 1840, SHIP NEWS
the Westbrook cleared Dec. 24, for Sydney

1840 April. 21.-For Port Essington and India, the barque Westbrook, Captain Linnington, in ballast. Australasian Chronicle (Sydney, NSW : 1839 - 1843) (about)   Previous issueFriday 24 April 1840 http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/31728139

Morning Post London, 23 Jun 1840, SHIP NEWS.
Westbrook, Lennington, from the Mauritius

Morning Post London, 12 Sep 1840, SHIP NEWS
Westbrook, from Sydney

Morning Post London, 13 Mar 1841, SHIP NEWS
Westbrook, Nov. 22, from Bombay

Cork Examiner Cork, Republic of Ireland, 27 Sep 1841

SHIP NEWS..COVE OF CORK
Arrived.. Westbrook, Linnington, Canton, teas

Liverpool Mercury Merseyside, 19 Nov 1841, Shipping Intelligence
Westbrook, Linnlngten, Sydney

Morning Post London, England, 12 Nov 1841, SHIP NEWS
Westbrook, Lemington, for Port Philip and Sydney

London Standard London, 6 Apr 1842 SHIP NEWS
the Westbrook, for Port Philip

Morning Post London, 28 Mar 1842, SHIP NEWS
Westbrook, for Port Philip and Sydney

Morning Post London, 19 Dec 1842, SHIP NEWS,
Westbrook, from Liverpool

Came to Port Phillip in 1842: (http://www.oocities.org/vic1847/42/c.html)
Westbrook barque 266 tons, Captain Linnington arrived late 4 Aug 1842 from Liverpool on 5 Apr 1842 via St Jago, Cape deVerde Islands, Report 9 Aug, Passengers Mrs and Master William Linnington. Miss Eyne, Revd B Hurst with wife and child, Revd B Tuckfield, Revd S Wilkinson with wife and 2 chn, Mr G Wilmott, Capt Symers/Wymiss

Departed August for Sydney

Miscellaneous Shipping Movements
Arrivals at Sydney, NSW during 1843

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~pbtyc/Gazette/Movements/1843_Arrivals_Sydney.html

1843 Westbrook, barque, 265 tons, Linnington, from Launceston, 25th Apr; 4 passengers

1841:
http://www.shipsnostalgia.com/archive/index.php?t-9325.html
Ships Nostalgia > Lost Contact & Research > Ship Research > Bencoolen

This is a long forum with extracts from the Bencoolen logs between Calcutta & England via St Helena in July to September, 1841. Westbrook is mentioned as sailing in the same direction, and doing better than the Bencoolen (a 465 ton ship rigged vessel). Unfortunately, the extracts do not contain dates.
This voyage is the one arriving in Cork in September 1841 from Canton with tea.

Helen Maria


1841-2:
Similar to 1842, Master: Richards (then?) Maitland, Lon Liv Rio

NB Richards/Richardson was the master who hit the Newark light vessel in July 1841: he probably lost his job to Captain Fish, from whom Francis took over in February 1842 for Rio.

Lloyds Register 1842:
Helen Maria, a Snow, Master: Maitland, 260 Tons, coppered with iron  bolts, Built Sunderland 1839, Owner Carr & Co, London. Sailing Liverpool to Rio de Janeiro. A1 condition.
Baring Archive: HC17.6 1832: Carr & Co, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, for opening an account in London
There is also mention of Carr & Co, Newcastle on Tyne as Sugar Bakers at the end of the 18thC: maybe the same firm, branching out into the sugar transport.

There was no mention of the Helen Maria in the wreck listing to mid 1843 in the "Report on the Committee on Shipwrecks, 1843", but 2 ships lost in the North Sea 19 November 1842. An interesting report.

Newcastle Journal Tyne and Wear, 27 Jul 1839, MARINE INTELLIGENCE

The Helen Maria, of and from Sunderland, for Quebec, out 30 days, all well, m lat. 45.1 long. 57.

London Standard London, 10 Oct 1839, Ship News

Arrived, the Helen Maria, Cliburn, from Quebec

Morning Post London, 17 Aug 1840
UNITED STATES, CANADA, $c

the brig Helen Maria, Capt. Sweetzer, 22 days from Tobasco, we have received intelligence that the Central General, Don Ygnacio, had taken possession of the principal fort at Tobasco. The remainder of the city is in possession of the Federal General, Dob

Newcastle Journal Tyne and Wear, 18 Jul 1840, MARINE INTELLIGENCE
Arrivals at Foreign Ports
Constantinople, June 11 – Helen Maria, Richards, Newcastle, and sailed on the 12th for Odessa.

Newcastle Journal Tyne and Wear, 2 May 1840,
Hamburgh Helen Maria, Richardson

Morning Post London, 23 Feb 1841, SHIP NEWS

Arrived the Helen Maria, from Taganrog
(Taganrog on the Russian coast in the Sea of Azov, to the NE of the Crimea)

Newcastle Courant Tyne and Wear, 2 Apr 1841, MARINE INTELLIGENCE

Helen Maria, Richards, for Malta

Morning Post London, 6 Apr 1841, SHIP NEWS.

The Helen Maria, bound to Malta has been towed into these roads with loss of mainmast and considerable damage, having been in contact with the new Warp Light. St. Michael's.
Newcastle Journal Tyne and Wear, 10 Apr 1841, MARINE INTELLIGENCE

The Helen Maria, Richards, from Newcastle to Malta, has been towed into our With loss of mainmast, and considerable damage to having been in contact with the Newark Light.

Norfolk Chronicle Norfolk, 17 Jul 1841
Also the Nautical Magazine & Naval Chronicle 1841 (Google Books).

Newark light ship in the Lowestoft/Yarmouth roads.

The Admiralty Court, Monday July 5
The Helen Maria – Salvage – This was an appeal from the award of the magistrate of Yarmouth, who had allotted a reward of £80l. to a steam tug for towing the vessel (which had, through carelessness, run foul of the Newark light vessel, and thereby lost her mainmast) into Yarmouth harbour. The salvors contended that, considering the value of the property (£3050), and that the magistrates had awarded the same sum to some boatmen from Winterton, who could render no effectual service, the sum of 80l. was inadequate.
Dr. Lushington was of opinion, that the magistrate had come to a just conclusion, and that there was no reason for the appeal. He affirmed the award, with costs.

Royal Cornwall Gazette Cornwall, 26 Nov 1841, SHIP NEWS
Helen Maria, Fish, from Alexandria;

Morning Post, London, 1 Feb 1842, Ship News:
Helen Maria, Fish, for Rio de Janeiro

Did Capt Fish leave, or go sick??

Morning Post, London, 19 Feb 1842,
Ship News: Helen Maria, Maitland for Rio Janeiro

Liverpool Mercury Merseyside, England, 15 Jul 1842
Shipping Intelligence: Helen Maria, and Ann Brideon, seen at Rio Janeiro

Newcastle Courant, 5 August 1842:
Helen Marie, Nairn for Malta. Probably not the same ship.

Morning Post, London, 19 Sep 1842,
Ship News: Arrived the Helen Maria, Maitland from Rio for Hamburgh

Royal Cornwall Gazette Cornwall, England
23 Sep 1842, Helen Maria, Maitland, from Rio Janeiro

Newcastle Journal Tyne and Wear, England
26 Nov 1842, MARINE INTELLIGENCE:
Newcastle cleared foreign – Helen Maria, Maitland, Malta.

John O’Groats Journal Friday, November 3, 1843 – not ours.
Dreadful Shipwrecks
The past week, like the great storm in January last will long be borne in melancholy recollection...At Berwick the Helen Maria, from Pappenberg, and the Anna Margaretta, from Dordt, both bound to Grangemouth, were wrecked to the westward of the harbour. The crew, fortunately, were saved.



 

3        MAITLAND JAMAICA PROPERTY

 

3.1               Introduction

 
     The prime areas interest for Maitland research in Jamaica are the "pens" (cattle estates) of Giddy Hall, Mitcham and Silver Grove, all in or near St Elizabeth Parish in the South West of the Island. The next property to Giddy Hall, Mount Charles was also owned by Andrew Maitland, son of Francis (1). A property just in Westmoreland from St Elizabeth called The Cove was owned by Patty Penford. Its boundary started on the eastern edge of Scott’s Cove.
     Giddy Hall was the principal property, and, from the remains visible, was probably the most substantial most of the children were baptised there. It was bought by Francis Maitland in 1809 from the Delaroche family (or their creditors!). In 1840, Giddy Hall was shown as 2000 acres. It was shown as 1150 in 1845, but John Maitland at that date was the owner of 2 other properties, Kensington (300 acres, on the way to Montego Bay) and Rosehill (130 acres, adjoining Giddy Hall): this probably was a more specific description of the 1840 2000 acres. Later, the Cooper family had, in addition to Giddy Hall, Mount Lebanon, adjoining Giddy Hall, land on Forrest Mountain, and property called Middlesex pen a mile or two north of Giddy Hall. When Giddy Hall was owned by the Delaroche family at the end of the 18thC, it was in 4 parcels, totalling 1900 acres. It was said that the Maitlands owned most of the property between Lacovia and Black River.
      Mitchum and Silver Grove belonged to Ann Maitland's father Andrew Wright. They were at one stage joint owned by Francis and his brother-in-law, George Roberts. It would appear that at some stage the ownership was split with Mitcham Pen going to Francis' daughter Emma who married Samuel Sherman and Silver Grove going to the Roberts family.
      The area was visited by A Maitland in April 1998, and Giddy Hall, Mount Charles and Mitcham greathouses found. Black River was also visited. Descriptions of the properties are given below. Silver Grove was visited on a later trip in 2002.
       Copies of the original aerial survey photograph taken in 1954 have been obtained from the UK Ordnance Survey and reveal a lot of detail of the sites: both Mitcham and Giddy Hall were still standing then. Several photographs of Giddy Hall and Mount Charles taken in 1899 have been found in Peter Rushbrooke's collection.


3.2               BLACK RIVER & SURROUNDS


    The Black River, once known as Rio Caobana (Mahogany Rver), was a great obstacle to movement with its surrounding Morass. The first crossing point was a deep ford near what is now Lacovia, even there the water was usually about 5 feet deep. The modern road from the East through Lacovia still follows the earliest trail round the foot of the mountains down to Black River town before following the coast on to Savanna la Mar.
 
AMV1998:
    Giddy Hall and Mount Charles are about 1100 ft amsl on the crest of a limestone ridge above Middle Quarters at the Northwest corner the Black River lower flood plain, morass and estuary. The vegetation was prolific, but free water was a problem: water for the houses appeared to be rainwater fed.  The main local centre is Black River, a small port town which probably looks much the same now as it did 150 years ago. In the early 19thC, it was an important town and port. It would have been about 1-2 hours drive by trap. The present church in the middle of town was in good condition and a beautiful example of a late Georgian church with many monuments to local dignitaries by smart London masons. In the churchyard was a gravestone for a Rebecca Wright who died 1805 aged (according to MI of Jamaica) 56.  The stone was more weathered than when the MI survey was conducted.
     It seems very likely that this stone was that of Rebecca Dunston Wright, born 1749, the assumed mother of Francis Maitland. She was born free, and if she had a gravestone was a person of some consequence and resources. Beside Rebecca’s tomb is an identical one, but worn smooth, with no lettering visible. This must be that of Rebecca’s mother, Patty who was recorded as being buried in the churchyard. The Maitland family placed a plaque showing who these 2 women were in 2013:



     At least two Maitlands live locally, one at Hodges Land, near Giddy Hall and another who had recently returned to Black River and was a member of the church there.



3.3               GIDDY HALL


    Giddy Hall pen and the nearby settlement, are in St Elizabeth Parish about 10 miles NNW of Black River, on the high ground above the river flood plain.
    The origin of the name is not known, but there is a village in north Wiltshire, near Castle Combe, called Giddy Hall on the 1773 map or Giddeahall on other maps: perhaps this was a connection of the Delaroche family? A likely scenario is that Thomas Delaroche came from there and, like many, called his Colonial property by the same name as his “Old Country” home. The Jamaican dictionary of place names has the following: Giddy Hall: "... was first known, some claim, as Giddeon Hall and took the name of the first owner. When it became known as Giddy Hall is uncertain, but for many years it was owned by the Cooper family, who were English settlers."

     A Nicholas Delaroche had 2 parcels of land of 60 & 180 acres in St Elizabeth granted in 1675, but by Santa Cruz – this does not quite tie in with Carsbrook, another Delaroche property. Thomas Delaroche was granted 300 acres in 1735, the location not specified, except that it adjoined Mathew Rose to the South and Thomas Rabie on the south and east; the plat in the conveyance when Francis Maitland bought Giddy Hall, shows Thomas Rabie to the north, boundaries of which fit Giddy Hall. Rose Hill is shown on Liddell 1888 to the west of Giddy Hall: with that and the position of the Raby grant makes it likely that the 1735 grant was to the north west of Giddy Hall boundaries as delineated in the plat with the conveyance to Francis Maitland in 1809. Matthew Rose had children baptised in St Elizabeth in the relevant period.
      Giddy Hall is marked by name on Craskell’s map of 1763, surveyed in the latter half of the 1750’s (Browne’s map surveyed in about 1735 does not show anything in that area) and John Delaroche was shown in the 1754 return as owning 955 acres in St Elizabeth. This corresponds well with the size of Giddy Hall. It is likely that the Pen was established between 1735-54, probably by Thomas Delaroche. It first appears in the crop return for 1780, when it was owned by the heirs of John Delaroche (who died 1779). Thomas Delaroche’s oldest child was born in St Elizabeth in 1729, but his putative son, John does not appear in the parish records.
     Francis Maitland left all his estate to his wife Ann; she left it when she died in 1833 between her surviving children, with, by codicil, and instruction to pay Emma Rebecca her share in cash. The sons sold their shares at various times, the last being the sons of Francis Maitland 2, Francis 3 selling his 1/8th in 1869, leaving his brother John with a remaining 1/8th.  John Maitland’s share when he died in 1853, passed to his wife, who then remarried John Myers Cooper. Indications in John’s will are that he bought some of his brothers out of Giddy Hall.
     It is interesting to note that Charlotte Bedford (Hill) Tomlinson, Dr. Andrew Wright Maitland's mother-in-law was born at Giddy Hall.
     We have photographs of the house from 1899, and aerial survey image of about 1952. There are what seem to be some stone piers to the east of the site of the recent house, still visible in 2011. One suggestion is that they might be the remains of an earlier structure which perhaps was destroyed in the earthquake and hurricane of October 1780.

See later in this paper for the Delaroche Family.

Giddy Hall was left by Francis Maitland to his wife Ann
Ann left the pen to her surviving children, at the time Andrew Wright, John, Francis, George, Alexander, Septimus, Octavius and Emme Rebecca. In a codicil, she instructed that her estate should be valued and that 1/8th of that value should be given to Emma.
Alexander and Octavius had died under 21 by 1845, leaving the remaining 5 brothers with 1/5 each.
Francis died 1842, leaving his estate to his wife Harriet and her heirs (Francis/Frank, John & George).
In 1845, George agreed to sell his 1/5th share of Giddy Hall and its stock to the other 4 parties for £600.
In 1850, Andrew Wright Maitland sold his ¼ share in the pen and its stock to brother John for £700. £210 of this was still due when brother john died in 1853.
1856: John’s widow, Augusta, married John Myers Cooper.
1858: Augusta died, leaving Cooper with ½ from John Maitland’s estate.
In 1859, Septimus sold his ¼ share to John Myers Cooper for £750. The implication of John’s will was that he, John would buy Septimu’s share for £700, but this evidently did not happen after John’s death.
In 1869, Francis 3 sold his 1/8th share to John Myers Cooper for £350, leaving John Andrew Maitland, his brother with 1/8th. At that time, Giddy Hall was 1050 acres.
1870: JA Maitland sold the remaining 1/8th share of GH for £400 with Septimus as attorney, JAM recently to China[5].

There are some deeds in the Gloucester Record Office pertaining to William Delaroche. The first is a deed dated November 10, 1793 by which William grants Giddy Hall, St. Elizabeth to Joseph Longman of Thornbury for ten shillings. The deed identifies him as the nephew of John Delaroche mentioned in John's Will, and the second and youngest son of William Delaroche, John's brother.

The second deed, dated November 22, 1793, grants the property from Joseph Longman back to William Delaroche for ten shillings.

The following lands are listed as part of Giddy Hall:
400 acres patented Feb 11, 1764 in the name of Richard Groom.
250 acres patented August 12, 1689 in the name of Thomas Spencer.
300 acres patented in 1697 in the name of Elisabeth Jones – seen 2/20.
950 acres of land situated in Luana Mountains cutting and bounding northerly on land belonging to Henry Louis Esq. Easterly on Robert Smith. Southerly on David Fyffe, and Westerly on lands belonging to Matthew Smith Senior Esq.
George Rolph was witness to both deeds.

Giddy Hall Almanacks & Crops

The Crop records are on the Excel sheet (Jamaica Inventories & Crops) in more detail. Slave Registration records are shown in detail in a later section.

1780: Crop heirs of JD, dcd livestock, cotton (1300lbs) Pimento (238 lbs), Logwood. £703/19/10

1781: Crop heirs of JD dcd, livestock 448 lbs cotton, 8 tons logwood, £408/16/8d

1782: Crop Stock, pimento (59 bags), 15 tons fustic, £799/5/3d

1783: Crop livestock, cotton (13 bags) Pimento (25 bags) 10 tons fustic. £473/13 excl pimento, cotton & fustic. Fustic abt £7/ton

1784: Crop livestock, negro hire £402/11. 7 bags cotton, 52 bags pimento, no value given but abt £490

1785: Crop Livestock, 123 bags pimento & 16.75 tons fustic. 1349/11/11

1786: Stock & negro hire £623/14. Total £1761/16 incl 36.5 tons fustic

1787: Stock, negro hire, 23 bags pimento subtotal £272, 39 bags pimento, 7 bags cotton, abt 350, Total abt £620

1788: Crop, livestock, cotton (4972 lbs) pimento 41 bags. £1760

1789: Crop, livestock & negro hire £385, uncosted pimento 56 bags 6834lbs (abt £8/bag) 7 bags cotton 1769lbs (abt .083/lb).  Total abt £1080

1790: Crop livestock, cotton (9 bags), pimento (50 bags)  coffee (340lbs) £834.

1791: Crop, Livestock, coffee (473 lbs), cotton (4038 lbs), pimento (2470 lbs) £1670/15s

1792: livestock, coffee (90 lbs @2/-), cotton (2400 lbs @10½d ), pimento (7321 lbs) Fustic (16¾ tons @£6) £1253

1793: Crop, Livestock, coffee (742 lbs), cotton (12 bags, 3060 lbs), pimento (3090 lbs), Fustick 45 tons. Abt £1067 plus pimento, cotton & coffee

1794: Crop, Livestock, cotton (10 bags 2835lbs), pimento (77 bags 9528 lbs) £752 + pimento & cotton.

1796: Crop, Livestock, coffee (494 lbs bad, 490 lbs good), 5 bags cotton 1341 lbs @ 2/-. £1784/11/9d.

1797: Crop Livestock, Fustick (30 tons), £1260/8/3d

1798: Crop, livestock, negro labour, fustic (30 tons), pimento (120 bgs, 12000 lbs @ 6d). abt £1513

1799: Crop, livestock, pasturage, negro hire, cotton (73 lbs @2/6), pimento (85 bags, 7222 lbas @5d). On warf 13 tons Fustick. £2141

1800: Crop pasturage, negro hire, Logwood (13 tons), Mahogany 180 tons (no price) £356 plus mahogany.

1806: Crop, 2 6 month reports, negro labour, cartage etc, pimento (14450 lbs @ 7.5d) total £1665

1807: Crop, 2 6 month reports, negro labour, pasturage, Fustick (10 tons @£8), pimento (1152 lbs & 7/2d) Total year ~£814


1804:- seems to be Roaches on Robertsons. (probably Delaroche)
                                    (Slaves/Stock)
1810: Francis Maitland. Giddy Hall        74/140
1811: Francis Maitland                    74/142
1815: Francis Maitland. Giddy Hall
                        and Mitcham       197/456.
1816: Maitland, Francis, Giddy Hall      Torn – no info
1817: Maitland, Francis, Giddy Hall,      75/224
1817: Slave Registration,Francis Maitland: 77
1818: Crop, 2nd half: Pimento (266 bags @ £2/bag), livestock £1131.
1819: Maitland, Francis, Giddy Hall,      71/240
1820: Maitland, Francis, Giddy Hall,      70/217
1820: Slave Registration,Francis Maitland: 78
1821: Maitland, Francis, Giddy Hall,      66/220
1822: Maitland, Francis, Giddy Hall,      67/298
1823: Maitland, Francis, Giddy Hall,      68/320
1823: Slave Registration, Francis Maitland: 77
1824 Crop: 1/6/24-31/12/1824, Livestock & telescope £754
1824: Maitland, Francis, Giddy Hall,      76/300
1825: Crop Livestock, cartage, 257 bags pimento £1570 
1825: Maitland, Francis, Giddy Hall,      72/231
1826: Maitland, Francis, Giddy Hall,      74/228
1826: Slave Registration, John Salmon as attorney to GH 74.
1827: Crop, Ann Maitland, Livestock, pimento (283 bags – no value). £974
1827: Maitland, Ann,                      72/226
1828: Maitland, Ann, Giddy Hall,          37/244
1828: Crop Pimento (180 bags), coffee (16 tierces), livestock £484, coffee & pimento no value
1829: Slave Registration, John Salmon as attorney to Ann Maitland @ GH Pen:76
1830:- Ann Maitland, Giddy Hall           77/145
1830: Crop, livestock, stallion hire, corn, £510 pimento (673 bags & 11688 lbs?) value not given
1831:- Ann Maitland, Giddy Hall           77/216
1835: Crop Livestock £241 Fustic (20 tons), pimento (61 bags shipd, 100 stock) Cinnabar (20 tons – mercury sulphide).
1832:- Ann Maitland, Giddy Hall           100/300
1832: Slave Registration, Francis M & JS as attorney to Ann M @ GH Pen 78
1837:- Ann Maitland, decd. Giddy Hall     76 (apprentices)
1839:- Andrew Wright, decd. Giddy hall,   2000 acres (should this have been Ann?)
1844:- Maitland J. Giddy Hall,            1150
                   Kensington,            300
                   Rosehill,              130
1891:- Cooper J & Cooper WS (Directory)

1839: Wint, James, Mahogany Grove, 1000 acres.

14 slaves baptized Giddy Hall, 12/4/1814.
1878 Directory, Giddy Hall, J. M. Cooper proprietor, Middle Quarters
1891 Directory, Giddy Hall, Middle Quarters: J Cooper & WS Cooper.


Kensington Almanacs:

Not found on maps.
1833:- William Nembhard.
1838-40:-
1837: Nembhard, Eliza F. 62
1839: Nembhard, Eliza P. 202 acres
1845:- Maitland J.


AM Visits 1998 & 02:


    Giddy Hall settlement consists of a church (late 19thC) and a post office and little else. The postmistress was helpful, but having only been there 3 months not very knowledgeable.  After consultation with a man in the back, we established the general location of Giddy Hall Greathouse. (only later did we find that it was marked on the old 1:100000 map).
    We drove in the general direction of the house: about 1/2 mile beyond the post office, to take a right fork (the left fork goes to Mount Charles) and on a further 1/2 mile and stopped to ask a man in a field who offered to direct us.  This he did and led us to a mound of undergrowth on the right of the road, below a small house. He attacked the mound with his machete and revealed two graves, one of John Myers Cooper and the other of Augusta Spence Cooper (the widow of John Maitland). He told us of some other Europeans who came about 4 years ago who searched for 2 days to find these - we were lucky.
     Augusta Spence Cooper, wife of John Myers Cooper, who died at Bloomsbury, 13 January 1858, aged 33.
     John Myers Cooper, died 8 December 1875 in his 61st year: "For 30 years and upward he took a prominent part in the public affairs of the Parish of St Elizabeth. He was a man of large sympathy of great generosity and liberality and his charities though unostentatious were extensive and widely distributed. His departure is mourned by many. He contemplated the creation of a church and schoolroom on the farm pen but dying soon after work was commenced it was left to his successors to carry out."
   Giddy Hall was sold to the Bauxite companies after the war by the last Cooper, Douglas, who was childless: presumably he was the son of John Cooper who owned the pen in 1915.
    The Greathouse site was about 200 yard along the road from the burial ground, on the left on rising ground. We spent some time examining the site: there were extensive stone walled pens, which were difficult to walk over thoroughly due to the undergrowth. The site of the Greathouse was marked by the remains of the main entrance stairway, but little else remains standing. The stairway seemed to be unusually at the corner of the house and had evidence of an arch springing from one side, indicating an arched lower front to the lower part of the house. Some fragments of cast iron railings, probably from the entrance stair, were found: additionally and very unusually, we found a fragment of what appeared to be an East-Anglian pan-tile. The front of the house seemed to have been about 80ft long and to have faced over the valley containing the Black River Estuary - the view was spectacular.
    To the East of the house were the remains of Barbeques for pimento drying and on the valley side of the house were the remains of what might have been gardens.

An Air Photo of the site in 1952.
The rear view in 1899, see.
The front view in 1899, see.

Visit 4/2002:

N18°06.09' W77°52.73'  1300'amsl

     The site was much as before, but more overgrown. Investigated the extensive paved Barbeque area which fed by a system of stone gulleys, the big water tank to the SE of the position of the house. The Barbeques are arranged in 3 terraces, with about 18" fall between each. Water supply must be a major problem for stock on this site. The tank still held water, although only what fell into it, the feed gulleys having fallen into disrepair.
     Most of the sites seen in this area had barbeques which were usually dual purpose, being used for Pimento drying (we were told elsewhere that the crop was taken in when moisture threatened), but also often were used to catch rainwater.
     Very little remains of the house seen on the aerial survey photograph, but it is just possible to distinguish the original outline and see enlarged piles of rubble where the steps seen on the 1899 photographs would have been. The building must have been about 16x17 metres. Curiously, a single floor support pillar remains in place within the perimeter of the building. The kitchen visible on the survey photograph still stands, although much damaged. It seemed small for the site, but looked to be 3 bay, open fronted, with a hearth remaining.
     The regularly spaced objects to the SE of the house seen on the survey appear to be the remains of an arcade of arches. They are substantial, with the one nearest to the house with a return on it as though it was part of a flight of steps on the other end, there are indications of an arch spring from the wall. It is possible this might have been an aqueduct, but where would a sufficient quantity of water have come from? It seems to me that this is the remains of an earlier house. It was by these ruins that parts of an early cast iron railings were found on the previous visit. A coping stone rests on the ground with the stump of a balustrade inset with lead. The external walls of this ruin are of good quality cut stone.
     The 1899 photograph shows a late 18thC house. There are references (Thomas Thistlewood's diary) of a severe hurricane 3 October 1780. Almost all the buildings in Westmoreland were destroyed in this event, and a considerable amount of damage in St Elizabeth: Giddy Hall's exposed position facing the worst of the Southerly and Southeasterly winds described would have made it particularly susceptible to damage in this storm.
     Perhaps the original house was destroyed in this storm and the later house built on a slightly different site, maybe using the material from the old one (see piece on the 1780 Hurricane later in this paper). There is mention in the Cooper history of a separate hipped roof billiards room being there in the latter part of the 19thC, but these remains seem too substantial for such a place additionally, the building would probably have been visible in the survey photo. It must have been exiting into the 1920’s and probably later as it is mentioned as being used after John M Cooper’s death in 1921.

Later visits have been made.
In 2011, a lock was found on the site. It is a corroded brass rim lock. An apparently identical one was for sale in England 2012:

http://www.belowstairs.co.uk/acatalog/Online_Catalogue_Door_Locks__58.html
Brass Rim Lock RL395

Original, quality late 18th/early 19th century, surface mounted brass door lock to take a standard modern square bar for the handles. A replacement keep has been made to suit and an old key altered to fit. This lock has the provision for a handle turn, a key lock and security slide on the inside of the room, which overrides the handles and the key lock. All has been fully overhauled, polished and lacquered, although the lacquer may be removed if required at no extra cost. A super lock of smaller proportions, complete and in good and working order. Lock 6.75" x 3.75" x 0.75".

Click on photo for larger and other view.


I spoke to the seller, a specialist antique dealer, who confirmed that it was very late 18thC, early 19thc. There is no indication of the maker, who would have been one of the many artisan lockmakers, probably in or around Willenhall, England. This is of interest to me as my mother’s family business was lock making in Willenhall.

    DPNJ: (Mount Charles extract) ...It is interesting to note that Andrew Maitland in the 19th Century also owned Giddy Hall, which was the estate adjoining Mount Charles....


1910: Giddy Hall: W.S. Cooper
1915: Giddy Hall - Jno Cooper resident
     629.5 acres of grass & pasture
     538.5 acres of "other"
     291 cattle.                                               HBJ1915

1835, (ref 1B/11/4/76, f 233) John Maitland named overseer and owner not mentioned.


Slave Emancipation Compensation


In a survey of 1835, the slaves at Giddy Hall were neither offered nor refused wages.

Jamaica St Elizabeth 602 (Giddy Hall)
Claim Details & Associated Individuals
6th Mar 1837 | 70 Enslaved | £1563 10S 2D
Claim Notes

Parliamentary Papers p. 302.

The award was split: £781 12s 3d went to Morrice, 06/03/1837 £781 17s 11d went to Salmon, 16/10/1837.

T71/870: claim from J. Salmon, as executor of John Maitland. Counterclaim from William Morrice (a London West India merchant), as judgement creditor.


Apprentices

29 Feb 1836 (ACCOUNTS AND PAPERS FOURTEEN VOLUMES V48 1836)
Giddy Hall - The people well off for provisions, working steadily at their grounds.

Mount Pleasant Ditto ... - ditto.

Mount Charles & Mount Lebanon : The industrious Part have good grounds and sufficient provisions ; the few worthless not so well off; I have directed a particular investigation.

Whitehall - Not abundantly supplied with provisions, but pretty well off; grounds attended to, but land rather poor.


Mitcham Pen (inter alia): The grounds of all the properties in this week's report are in as good order as formerly, and many of the apprentices are cultivating arrow-root, &c. in a larger degree than formerly.

Thumbnail History:

The parish of Yatton Keynell lies in the northern part of Wiltshire, often referred to as the 'Wiltshire Cotswolds' due to its local geology. It can be found 4.5 miles north-west of Chippenham, two miles east of Castle Combe in the Diocese of Gloucester and Bristol. The parish also includes the smaller villages of Giddeahall, West Yatton and Long Dean. The parish encompasses 1,717 acres.

The name of the parish was originally Eaton. Henry Caynell had a holding there in 1242 and the inhabitants commonly called it Yatton. The parish was known as 'Getone' in 1086, 'Yeton' (1247) Yatton(e) Fees (1242) Kaynel (1289), Kaignel (1306), Kynel (1346) Iatton (1258, Jettun (1245), Yetton Caynel (1334), Yettonkenell (1553) Yeatton Keynell (1522), Churcheyatton (1530) Yatton or Eaton Keynell or Churche Eaton (1618). The name is a compound of gate, gap and tun, the gap being the head of the well-marked valley to the west of the village. Giddeahall is 'Giddy Hall' in 1773. It may have begun as a nickname, but it is not known why. Long Dean is le Longdene (1422), meaning long valley and West Yatton is Westyatton (1279).



 

3.4               MITCHAM & SILVER GROVE

 
Probably at N18º04.6' W77º36.8' (ref Google Earth)

    Mitcham and Silver Grove were separate properties, both owned by Andrew  Wright in the late 18thC and early 19thC. Mitcham is on the lower ground to the north of the road from Mandeville to Lacovia near Gosham. Silver Grove was up the hill, and on the high ground: Mitcham is good flat alluvial ground, probably productive. Silver Grove would be much drier and less reliable.
    By 1824, they were operated by Francis Maitland and George Roberts (with about 43 slaves and 224 stock at Mitcham and 81 slaves and no stock at Silver Grove). Mitcham was a cattle pen, but Silver Grove seemed to carry no stock, it was probably coffee, pimento and stock. In 1832, Mitcham was operated by George Roberts and Ann Maitland as joint owners of the slaves. By 1840, Mitcham was owned by Samuel Sherman, the husband of Emma Maitland, and remained in their hands, it was 807 acres in 1840 and 843 in 1845. By 1840, Silver Grove was owned by George Roberts and was 1200 acres, and by his heirs in 1845, and was 1400 acres.
    An estate map[6] from early 19thC shows Mitcham as 807 acres, bounded by Goshen to the south, Mount Alta to the East, with Silver Grove on the northern end of the eastern boundary, Cabbage Valley to the north and Peru Pen to the west. The lane to the house can still be seen on the 1952 air photo. At that time, the remains of the negro houses could still be seen.

Published in Jamaica Gazette, 1794, the following advertisement:
Mitcham Pen, 13/11/1793:
Runaway slave from the subscriber about the latter end of August last, a new negro man named Jamaica, about 5 feet high: has filed teeth, country marks on both temples and right shoulder and breaks down back, marked on right shoulder AW rather small had on when absconded a blue baise frock and took with him an afnhurgh(?) one, Reward £2-15s. Andrew Wright.

1818, 31 Oct Royal Gazette:
At Mitcham pen, on the 13th, at an early age of 30 years, Mr John Cotter, Overseer and Attorney of that property, and of Silver grove, in the parish of Manchester. The loss to society of thos young mane os irreparable: In early youth, he had the misfortune to lose by a cannon shot both his hands andan arm, not withstanding which few young men psssessed more bodily powers, His understanding ntegrity and perseverance had entitled him to the full confidence of his employers, and he was in a fair way to welth, when the insatiate archer Death deprived a worthy and unfortuneate mother of her ohly solace and the community of a most valuable member.

1804: Mitcham: A. Wright (in fact property just east of Morass)
1804: Silver Grove: (approximate position - shown a bit far north)
    A.  Wright (next one south was Mashetts)                   Map1804
All were then in St Elizabeth: the boundary was redrawn later.

LDS shows baptism of 94+ slaves of Mitcham & Silver Grove 21/6/1821, many with surname Maitland.

Ref West India Committee Library:
Silver Grove Pen: Gordon, George, attorney, Accounts 1832-36 (Jamaica Archives ref 1B/26)

    There was a note in my early researches that Silver Grove was owned by the Earl of Balcarres in 1763 (he was a sometime Governor of Jamaica – this was deduced from an estate map[7] entry, but examination of the map shows that the Balcarres land was further East).


Slave Emancipation Compensation - Mitcham


In a survey of 1835, the slaves at Mitcham were neither offered nor refused wages.

Jamaica St Elizabeth 764 (Mitcham)
Claim Details & Associated Individuals
14th May 1838 | 66 Enslaved | £1222 7S 0D

CLAIM DETAILS
Claim Notes

Not listed in Parliamentary Papers.

T71/870: adjudged (with Manchester claim no. 224) £792 9s 11d to John Pusey Wint the residue went to John Salmon etc.. John Salmon claimed as executor of Ann Maitland John Pusey Wint counterclaimed 'under the will of the late Andrew Wright'. Under Andrew Wright's will, dated 21/01/1806, John Pusey Wint is shown as his 'son-in-law' (in fact he was his stepson). John Pusey Wint was a trustee under the will. Reference to the reputed daughters Ann Wright and Elizabeth Wright, born of the body of Ruth Sinclair: 'if the said A & E Wright go to Jamaica unmarried they should forfeit all benefit under the will'.

Associated Individuals (5)
Andrew Wright                 Other association
John Pusey Wint               Awardee
Edmund Francis Green          Awardee
John Salmon the younger       Awardee (Executor or executrix)
George Roberts                Awardee (Executor or executrix)

1793:- Owned by Andrew Wright, ref Gazette advert.,13/11/1793.

Mitcham Almanacs, Crops & Slave Registration:

Slave Registration ful details are in a later section

Giving year (almanac later by 1)
                            Slaves/Stock
1797: Crop, horses & mules, pasturage & furniture £957/15/0 – Andrew Wright
1805: Crop, horses, steers etc (mules to John Delaroche) AW, att’y JPW £2045
1806: Crop for Mitcham Pen, Silver Grove & Cedar Mount Coffee plantation & Ramsgate Cotton plantation, AW execs. 7 months £644/8/8
1807: Crop Livestock £464
1809: Crop, AW dcd, Livestock, Coffee (23121 lbs @£1250) Total 2668/19
1810:- Andrew Wright, decd. 116/174
1810: Crop , AW dcd horses & mules, coffee (20 tierces @£800 + 20 t), £2038
1811:- Andrew Wright, decd. Slaves: 118 stock: 169.
1815:- Francis Maitland. Giddy Hall and Mitcham 197/456.
1815: Ryde, John Pusey Wint 131/5 1817 similar.
1816: Francis Maitland T
1817: Francis Maitland 114/185 (probably includes Silver Grove)
1817: Slave Registration, FM & George Roberts: 51
1819: Maitland and Roberts 42/179
1820: Maitland and Roberts St E 38/194,
1820: Slave Registration, FM & George Roberts: 43
1821: Maitland and Roberts, Mitcham 41/219
1822: Maitland and Roberts, Mitcham 41/266
1823: Maitland and Roberts, Mitcham 43/234
1823: Slave Registration, FM & George Roberts: 43
1824: Maitland and Roberts, Mitcham, 42/274
1825: Maitland & Roberts 42/245
1826: Maitland & Roberts 41/264
1826: Slave Registration, Ann Maitland & GR:   39
1827: Maitland & Roberts 40/241
1828: Maitland & Roberts 37/244
1830: Maitland & Roberts 39/247
1831: Maitland & Roberts, Mitcham 50/300
1832: Maitland & Roberts, Mitcham 60/350
1832: Slave Registration, George Roberts & Ann Maitland as joint owners: 37
1837: Sherman, Samuel, Mitcham 44
1839: Sherman, Samuel, Mitcham 807 acres
1844: Sherman, S. 843 acres

AM Visit 1998:


Mitcham Greathouse.
     The settlement of Mitcham is just west of the border between Manchester and St Elizabeth Parishes, and is reached by following a track off the Mandeville to Lacovia road for about a mile northeast. The site of the Greathouse is about 1/2 a mile beyond the settlement. The house was sited on a limestone outcrop about 100 ft above the surrounding plain, with a 2500ft wooded ridge immediately to the East, on top of which is Silvergrove, another Maitland related adjoining property.  The surrounding land looked good fertile cattle country with Bauxite red soil. No stock buildings remain, all milking etc being done at another property a mile or so to the west.
     The former burial ground below the house had been flattened, the remains of some tombstones remaining in a pile of spoil. "Great Grandfather Sherman" was buried there, but the rest of the Shermans are buried in the local church - Goshen(?).
     The house itself was destroyed about 1951, but the foundations remain, now covered with concrete to form a pan draining into a comparatively recent water tank (half full and green!). The shell of a small cottage has been built at one side, but not finished.  We were told that there had been a separate kitchen, but there was no sign it now. GA Hendrix was said to have "mashed it up". The house was about 60'x30' and was timber framed on stone foundations, with a veranda, 2 rooms and hall, + slave quarters and separate kitchen.
    We met in the settlement an old man, born 1910 who remembered the Sherman family and had been the farm manager for 28 years. He was now starting a new church at the bottom of the drive. Another oldish negro at the site remembered the house before it was demolished and showed us round. We also met an older lady who also told us of the Sherman family: one Sherman (white) had "had pickny with black girl: some children came out black like her and some came out pretty like you (referring to the writer)!": told with great glee and no colour problem.

See Mitchum Air Photo in 1952
Mitchum Site Photo in 1998.
Mitcham house seemed little changed in 4/2002.

Ref Brett Ashmeade Hawkins:
    According to my Godfather, John Calder Earle bought Mitcham Estate after the end of the Second World War and made it into one of the finest Dairy Farms in Jamaica. Perhaps he only leased it from the Sherman family. The Earles never lived at Mitchum. They lived at Aberdeen Great House, which must have been at least 20 miles away. I know that there was some problem regarding Mitcham which led to John Calder Earle giving it up shortly before he died, but I don't remember what it was now.


Silver Grove Visit,

4/2002:
N18°05.2 W77°35.7 2800' amsl.

   The house is reached by a marl track through rough, stony, but fertile  looking fields. It is owned by a Mrs Finch(spelling?) who is related to the Roberts family, the last of whom died about 1997. There are still some of that family in the village of Lincoln, about 5 miles to the south.
    The house was described by Douglas Blain, who visited the site with me. A modest 3 bay 3 hip Spanish wall greathouse (only just reaches that level!) formerly a pimento (& probably coffee) estate (also and cattle pen - AM). Looks about 1820, in fair condition, still lived in by relatives of the Roberts family, whose graveyard contains perhaps a dozen, mostly Roberts, graves. Fine stone tank. 3 stage, stone walled barbeque. Detached kitchen formerly single roofed. Additional alterations about 1920. We both agreed it seemed a simple building for a 1400 acre estate. It was a coffee plantation in 1806.

Graves:
William Roberts, born 25/12/1841, married 31/10/1869, died 8/6/1896.
     Wife and 7 children.
Rozelle Roberts (mother) born 15/11/1842, died 16/1/1926.
Edward Roberts born 12/1/1870, died 10/1881.
Clement Meikle, died 24/9/1958, aged 54.
Herwin Roberts, died 28/4/1956 aged 52
Millicent Roberts, died 2/4/1956 aged 22.
Ellen B Roberts, died 6/2/1960 aged 45.


Silver Grove: Manchester Almanacs.


The first appearance in Manchester was 1819
1807: Crop, 44 tierces Coffee (abt 27000 lbs)
1819: Maitland & Roberts 80 (slaves)
1820: Maitland & Roberts 81 (slaves)
1821: Maitland & Roberts 80 (slaves)
1822: Maitland & Roberts, Silver Grove, 79
1823: Maitland and Roberts, Silver Grove 81
1824: Maitland and Roberts, Silver Grove 85
1825: Maitland & Roberts 85 (slaves)
1826: Maitland & Roberts 87 (slaves)
1827: George Roberts, Silver grove 86
1828: George Roberts, Silver grove 89
1830: George Roberts, Silver Grove 90
1831: George Roberts, Silver Grove, 180 – has he bought extra land??
1832: George Roberts, Silver Grove, 180
1837: not found
1839: Roberts, George, 1200 acres
1844: George Roberts, heirs of, 1400 acres

1820: Wilderness, John Hewitt est of, 78/4.

Slave Emancipation Compensation – Silver Grove


Jamaica Manchester 224 (Silver Grove)
Claim Details & Associated Individuals
14th May 1838 | 68 Enslaved | £1271 5S 11D

CLAIM DETAILS
Claim Notes

Not listed in Parliamentary Papers.

T71/860: claim by Geo. Roberts, as guardian to Edward Maitland, Wm. Allen, Rebecca Roberts and Georgiana Roberts. Counterclaim by John Pusey Wint, under the will of the late Andrew Wright. 'Adjudged (with St Elizabeth claim no. 764) £792 9s 11d to John Pusey Wint and the residue to John Salmon, George Roberts and Edmund Francis Green'.

Associated Individuals (8)

Edward Maitland Roberts           Beneficiary
William Allen Roberts             Beneficiary
Rebecca Roberts                   Beneficiary
Georgiana Roberts                 Beneficiary
John Pusey Wint                   Awardee
Edmund Francis Green              Awardee
John Salmon the younger           Awardee (Trustee)
George Roberts                    Awardee (Guardian)

Goshen (adjoining Mitcham)
Crops:
Goshen Pen, St E of ...George Smyth 1788 year ent 7/3/1789 lot of livestock sale& cotton.

Francis Georeg Smyth 1793 & Longhill pen Mixed livestock, pasture, logwood etc - Andrew Wright £20 paturage


3.5               MOUNT CHARLES:

  18 5’41.0 w77 52 10
     Mount Charles was a cattle pen situated on the high ground to the NNW of Black River town and overlooking the Morass on the River, with magnificent views of the flood plain and the coast. It appears on the 1804 map as "Miss Smith's", and later as the property of John Smith 1811-21 in the gazettes, beginning with 66/12, falling to 28/5 in 1822. From 1824, it was in the name of James E Burlton with 55 slaves & 15 stock, rising to 92 & 225 in 1831 in 1840 it was combined with Ashton a total of 1002 acres, Ashton being probably 370 acres. In 1845 it was owned by his estate (again combined 1209 acres). According to BAH, it was sold to William Spence in 1846. Dr Andrew Wright Maitland bought Mount Charles in 1850, effectively from the Burlton estate, via some of their creditors. If William Spence was involved, Mount Charles may have come into the family with Augusta Spence who married John Maitland in 1848.

Estate Maps:
689: 31 January 1861. From Mr Cunningham’s plan in May 1846.
Mount Charles Pen. T Harrison. C.
Giddy Hall pen to NW. Also shows Sherlock Settlement & Clifton. Shows Mount Charles to be 466 acres.
208: 1861: Plat of 181A part of Luana Pen with Mount Charles to NNE & W, Luana Pen to S & E. John Colhoun attorney to Andrew Maitland from plat by Geo Cunningham 3/1851.
Also 60 acres part of Providence Pen, JE Burlton to Samuel Sherman, 1861 Queens Rd to SW old Rd to S & Hodges Pen. Copy held.
643: earlier copy of 171 acres to AW Maitland, repeated on 208, with additions.

    Dr AW Maitland bought 171 acres of the next property, Luana Pen later. Andrew's widow, Katherine lived there for the rest of her life. The Miss Haastrob referred to in DPNJ was almost certainly Ann Catherine (Maitland) Haastroup, Dr AWM's daughter.
    Dr AWM's mother-in-law, Charlotte Bedford (Hill) Tomlinson was first married to a Charles Burlton.

    About 2004, Mount Charles pen was bought by Robbie McMillan from Kingston. He has sympathetically restored the house to its former state and style, and in 2006 was in the process of improving the land surrounding, planting many native tree species. He has made an extremely good job of the house.

1804: Hodges Land: Cohen's
1878 Directory, Mount Charles, A. K. Maitland proprietor, Black River
Mount Charles Photo in 1998.

Extract from DPNJ:
   Mount Charles in St Elizabeth was owned from 1811 by Charles Phipps and was evidently named after him. A grave which dates back to 1856 could bear the name of a subsequent owner. The inscription reads as follows: Andrew Wright Maitland M.R.C.S. It is interesting to note that Andrew Maitland in the 19th Century also owned Giddy Hall, which was the estate adjoining Mount Charles. Subsequent owners were the Earl family and a Miss Haastrob, a German from whom the Rev John Maxwell, a Presbyterian Minister then stationed in this parish, purchased it. It is now (1978) owned by Mrs Iris Sangster, daughter of the Rev J. Maxwell.

Mount Charles adjoins Giddy Hall:

Extract from Brett Ashmeade-Hawkins[i], 19/9/06
See also "Other Places of Interest" below.

    James Edward Burlton, who was an English Merchant in Black River during the Early 19th Century, owned both Ashton and Mount Charles. He married Charlotte Tomlinson, one of three beautiful sisters known as "The Three Graces". Their only son, Edward James Burlton, was their pride and joy. He was sent to boarding school in England, but on the voyage home to Jamaica in 1840 he caught Yellow Fever and died at the tender age of 17. He was buried at sea and the ship arrived in Black River with its flag flying at half-mast. James Edward Burlton never recovered from the loss. His wife, Charlotte, had already died in 1834, and so he was left distraught and alone.
    In 1829 Charlotte's sister, Ana Katherine Tomlinson, had married Col. John Earle, who owned Mount Olivet coffee plantation near Malvern, in the Santa Cruz mountains of St. Elizabeth. Their son, John William Earle (1837-1912), became James Edward Burlton's favourite nephew and he later made him his heir. When James Edward Burlton died in 1853, he left Ashton to John William Earle. (Mount Charles had already been sold in 1846 to William Spence).
    In 1847 Mrs. Ana Katherine Earle, the widow of Col. John Earle, married Dr. Andrew Wright Maitland, M.D. (1809-1856) of Mount Charles and Giddy Hall. She died in 1886 and is buried at Mount Charles. Two of her sons from her first marriage, Edward Muirhead Earle and Charles J. Earle, are also buried at Mount Charles.
    Having inherited Ashton in 1853, John William Earle later moved from Mount Olivet Plantation to take up residence at Ashton Great House. He probably also wanted to be closer to his mother, who was living at Mount Charles with his younger brothers. He brought with him some of the fine mahogany furniture from Mount Olivet Great House, including a massive hand-carved Jamaican four-poster bed that was made on the plantation in 1829 as a wedding present.
    John William Earle married Mary Elmina Calder, the daughter of John Calder of Stanmore Hill Plantation, near Malvern. She was descended, on her Mother's side, from the famous Vassall family of Jamaica, which produced Elizabeth Vassal, Lady Holland. I have a manuscript history and genealogy of the Vassal family, listing all the descendants, if you need any of the relevant dates. John William Earle (1837-1912) left Ashton to his eldest son, Charles Edward Earle (1869-1954). His youngest son, John Calder Earle (1881-1957), bought Aberdeen Estate, near Accompong, in St. Elizabeth, which he ran as a banana plantation. He was married in 1929 to Stella Mia Pulford (1893-1970), an English girl who had come out to Jamaica to visit a friend. She was born at a hill-station in India, the daughter of Col. Russell Richard Pulford, C.I.E., R.E., of the India Army, and her brother was Air-Marshal Conway W.H. Pulford of the R.A.F. He was captured by the Japanese during the Second World War, following the fall of Singapore, and was beheaded by a Japanese officer in one of the prisoner-of-war camps. Stella was a talented linguist and spoke 14 languages. During the Second World War the British Governor of Jamaica, Sir Arthur Richards, appointed her Official Translator to the German and Italian prisoners-of-war interned at Mona. Sir Arthur had been a friend of her Father during the British Raj in India.
     It is said that John Calder Earle bought Mitcham Estate after the end of the Second World War and made it into one of the finest Dairy Farms in Jamaica. Perhaps he only leased it from the Sherman family. The Earles never lived at Mitchum. They lived at Aberdeen Great House, which must have been at least 20 miles away. There was some problem regarding Mitcham which led to John Calder Earle giving it up shortly before he died.

Edward James b St E 4/6 1823, ch 4/5/1825 of JEB & Charlotte Beckford his wife)
James Edward Burlton esq of Westmoreland married Charlotte B Tomlinson, widow of same place, 26/3/1822.
A Charlotte Beckford Tomlinson (inserted after) was baptised with many other slaves in July 1820 aged 27.
Thomas Tomlinson married Charlotte Beckford Hill, Westmoreland 8/12/1808.
Thomas Tomlinson

Slave Emancipation Compensation


Jamaica St Elizabeth 605 (Mount Charles)
Claim Details & Associated Individuals
31st Oct 1836 | 80 Enslaved | £1993 17S 1D

CLAIM DETAILS
Claim Notes

Parliamentary Papers p. 302.

T71/870: claim from James Edward Burlton, as owner. Numerous counterclaims from judgement creditors, including Robt. Blemell [sp?] Pollard, a creditor on 'judgement of Oct 1833 and assignment of the compensation', for £645 18s 2d and interest from 20/03/1835. Counterclaim also by Robt. Blemell Pollard for £760 7s 4d, with the same judgement date.

The London Oratory: British History Online (from survey of London vol. 41 1983, available at http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=50008 [accessed 14/03/2012]): Robert Pollard bought a site of 3 1/2 acres from Alexander Barclay (a wax-chandler) for £4000 in 1819 and set up a boarding school, Blemell House. Pollard sold the site to the Congregation of the Oratory in 1852 for £16,000.


Mount Charles: St Elizabeth Almanacs etc.


1796: Crop Plantation Prop Robert Smith esq 1796 year 37 bags cotton, 4055lbs @6d £101/7/6; 6 steers @£20, Sundry stock £43, 6 young stock @£20, 14 tons logwood  £?, 7 bags cotton 2010 @2/- £201 estate negroes £245/8/4. Total £921/15/11
1804:- Miss Smith's
1811-22:- John Smith.
1824-
1837 – 88 Burlton – Ashton not found.
1839:- James E Burlton. 1002.
1844:- James E Burlton, est of.(& Ashton) 1281 acres
1878: Prop AK Maitland

AM Visit 1998:

     The house was reached by about a mile of now very rough track: we were led up it by a young lad on a motorcycle, who spoke to someone to get permission. After passing one set of formal gate pillars, entry was through a further gate leading onto a grassed area with the house on a rise at the far end, with rough buildings below and left.  The house was smaller than Giddy Hall and probably not as grand.
    It was built with stone lower floor and wooden living area above. It had verandas front and back. Like Giddy Hall, it faced over the Black River and its estuary, with a Victorian style terraced garden below the house overlooking the valley. Barbeques were still in existence at the back of the house and the original separate kitchen building was still in use, one room used for storage, the other as a kitchen with a large open fire - the interior was heavily soot covered. Interestingly, the path leading to it from the house was very similar to the remains of a path found in the garden of Giddy Hall.
     The occupant of the house appeared and after finding out why we were wandering around his homestead, was friendly and helpful. He showed us the burial ground to the southwest of the house where Andrew Wright Maitland and his wife, Ann Katherine were buried. The graves were in a good state of preservation.  A number of other graves had lost their name plates. Those still there read as follows:

Ann Katherine Maitland died 22 February 1886
(Marble horizontal gravestone)
Andrew Wright Maitland died 20 April 1858 (brass plaque)
Charles James Earl died 29/6/1858 (brass plaque)
(presumably the Ann Katherine's son by her first husband)
The occupant said that the house was owned by Mr Sangster from Kingston, possibly the son of Iris Sangster, who was a Miss Maxwell.
    By 2006, Mount Charles Pen had been bought from the Sangster family by Robb MacMillan from Kingston and had been restored, bringing out many of the original features of the building. Robb at that time was clearing and planting the surrounding land

National Library, Kingston, ref St Elizabeth 689,              JR1998
Mount Charles Pen map based on Morris Petgrave's plan of August 1822 and Mr Cunnungham's plan of May 1846. Shows Mount Charles Pen with its boundaries being Giddy Hall Pen, Whitehall Pen, Luana Pen, part of Providence, sold to Wm Spence.
Note that John Maitland married Augusta Spence (re her gravestone) in 1848.
National Library, Kingston, ref St Elizabeth 643.              JR1998
diagram represents 171 acres of land - part of Luana Pen - and is intended to be purchased by Dr A.W. Maitland and belongs to Mount Charles Pen.



3.6               The COVE & LITTLE CULLODEN - Westmoreland


These 2 properties were left by Patty Penford in her will of 1795, The Cove to Rebecca Wright, Little Culloden to Margaret Forbes.

Patty bought for £60 12½ acres from Alexander & Mary Forbes in 1769 in Westmoreland. The Forbes are marked on the 1755 map.

In 1778 she bought Little Culloden pen of 96½ acres for £200.

The Cove pen of 213 acres, was bought by Patty Penford in 1784, left to her daughter Rebecca, who then left it to Francis Maitland. He sold it about the time he bought Giddy Hall in 1809. The site was visited by AM in May 2009 when it was raining heavily. The road from Black River to Sav la Mar passes through the property, but little was visible now, the land on the north side of the road being now covered by bush, although fenced. The conveyance to Patty Penford contains a plat of the site, which stretches down to the sea. A couple of buildings are shown on the map. A further visit on a better day might reveal a little more. From the 19thC publications, the Cove remained occupied into the 20thC. The plat, included in the Deed, indicates that the property was owned by Thomas George in 1775, and was sold by Thomas Hogg, possibly his heir (interestingly, the Hogg family reappear as owners of the Pen in 1891).


The 1804 map has Pentfords marked near Scots Cove, within the scale of the map, the position is correct.

According to Cundall, "Culloden and Auchindown, in St. Elizabeth, date from the time of the arrival of the ill-fated Darien refugees." [These properties would have been in St. Elizabeth before that area became part of Westmoreland] (B149, Cundall, page 371).

Thomas Hogg to Patty Penford – 1785

339/116 Date 1/12/1784 Ent 4 March 1785
Thomas Hogg, merchant of Westmoreland and Patty Penford, a free mulatto of St Elizabeth.. J£1000 conveys to Patty Penford … All that piece etc of land etc in Westmoreland and St Elizabeth commonly called the Cove containing 213 acres bounding easterly on Major General James Bannister now Fonthill estate Northerly on Thomas Parris and Benjamin Heath formerly Griffith Jenkin and westerly and southerly on the sea..

Patty Penford grants to Thomas Hogg 15 feet square around the grave of Thomas George
Witness Hyem Cohen & William Clark
Plat:
a run of land patented by John James and part of a run of land patented by Major General James Bannister .. now belonging to Thomas George .. surveyed 1st March 1775.

Thomas Taylor to Patty Pinford – 1778

291/73 Date 19 January 1778 Ent 27 May 1778
Thomas Taylor of Hannover practitioner of Physic and surgery of Hannover and Patty Pinford a free mulatto woman of Westmoreland .. for J£200 .. convey Little Culloden containing 96 acres and one half .. bounding southerly on the sea easterly on Great Culloden westerley on Ankerdown (Ankendown?)
There were 2 properties called the Cove in the Almanacs for Westmoreland, one looked from the slave numbers to have been quite small, the other was fairly substantial judging by the slave numbers. Their locations are not known, but the larger of the two was grouped with others in the Bluefields area. The larger of the two is probably the one owned by our family at Scott’s Cove.


Craskell shows “the Cave” between Bluff Point and Bluefields Bay: This is probably the Cove in Thomas Tate’s will and the one the Almanacs
Letellier look to have been a Roman Catholic family, some appear in Kingston early 19thC.
Ann Letellier recorded as being at the Cove (a small version) from 1817-32.
Benjamin Capon recorded at the Grove 1817-22, and then at The Cove 1824-26. (BC a merchant 1808 Westmoreland).
Thomas Tate at the Cove 1829-38, and left it to a son in his will in 1855.
Thomas Letellier M Ann Mitchel, Westmoreland  31/1/1793, he of St C, she of W
Proprietors etc./Properties etc./Slaves/Stock
These look too small to be our Cove Pen

1812: Cove, Capon & Letellier: nil.
1815: Walcott & Capon, Glenislay 102/ 10
1817: Capon, Benjamin, Grove, 25
      Letellier, Ann, Cove, 13/2
1818: Capon, Benjamin, Grove, 34/4
      Letellier, Ann, Cove, 11/2
1820: Capon, Benjamin, Glenislay and Grove 75/16
      Letellier, Ann, Cove 12/ 2
1821: Capon, Benjamin, Glenislay and Grove 101/ 47
      Letellier, Ann, Cove 13/ 4
1822: Letellier, Ann, Cove 12/ 4
      Capon, Benjamin, Glenislay and Grove 109/ 97
1824: Capon, Benjamin, Cove and Glenislay 88/ 79
      Letellier, Ann, Cove 11/ 2
      Tait, Jane, Farm 8/5 Tate, Thomas, 46/85 Tate, William, 12.
1826: Capon, Benjamin, Cove and Glenislay 99/66
      Letellier, Ann, Cove 12
1829: Letellier, Ann, Cove, 4
      Tate, Thomas, Old Shaftston, 105/165
      ..ditto, Rotherwood, 98/174
      ..ditto, Cove Pen, 36
1831: Letellier, Ann, Cove, 11
      Tate, Thomas, Old Shaftston, 98/225
      ..ditto, Rotherwood, 97/192
      ..ditto, Cove, 33
1832: Letellier, Ann, Cove, 5
      Tate, Thomas, Old Shaftston, 97/ 307
      .......ditto, Rotherwood, 101
      .......ditto, Cove, 34
1833: Tate, Thomas, Cove 36/ 1-2 [?]
      .......Old Shaftston 99/ 215
      .......Rotherwood 103
      .......Heath Hall 84
1838 Westmoreland Proprietors, Properties, Apprentices
     Tate, Thomas, Old Shafston 83
     ........Rotherwood 64
     ........Cove 40
1840 acres: Tate, Thomas, 786
      ---Same, 1821
      ---Same, 226
      ---Same, 1333

1845 prop estate acres:
Spence, W. heirs of, Woodstock, 1500
Tate, H. Industry, 14
Tate, R. Robin’s River, 1187
_Same, Orange Grove and Bronte, 206
_Same, Mount Edgecombe, 2215
_Same, Old Shafton, 786
_Same, Rotherwood, 4155

1891 Post Office Address, Kings, (near Culloden pen, west along coast towards Savlamar)
Hogg, W. E. (Owner), Cove Pen
Tate LA, Shafston, Bluefields
Sinclair DJ, Shafston Pen, Bluefields

1910: OWNER PROPERTY DESCRIPTION OCCUPIER POSTOFFICE 
Hogg William, Cove Pen, Hogg William, Bluefields PO


REGISTERS AND WILLS

Descendants of Philip Anglin
Generation No. 3
Mary Ann Anglin, born June 23, 1805 died December 1846. She married Thomas Dale Tate June 28, 1826 in Westmoreland born Bet. 1789 - 1790 died October 1855.
Baptism: February 02, 1809, Westmoreland
Burial: December 09, 1846, aged 42, Orange Grove, Westmoreland28
Residence: 1846, Robins River, Westmoreland

Will of Thomas Tate of Westmoreland, Esquire
As executors and trustees I appoint my friend Hugh Anthony Whitelocke and my son Thomas Anglin Tate.
I give to the trustees to hold in trust the property called Rotherwood, and runs of land called Metcalfe and Leamington, and Mount Edgecombe and the Cove Plantation, Robins River and Shaftston and all other real estate I may own. To pay any debts they may rent the real estate for 7 years. They are to hold any real and personal estate as follows:
Cove, Rotherwood, Metcalf and Leamington and 40 cows in trust for son Napoleon Tate.
Robins River in trust for son Cornelius Moore Tate.
Shaftston in trust for William Anglin Tate.
Culloden, Amity, Allsides and stock and Mount Edgecombe Pen in trust for Thomas Anglin Tate.
To my daughter Helen Campbell Whitelocke (formerly Tate) an annuity of 150 pounds.
An annuity of 150 pounds to my daughter Mary Ann Tate.
An annuity of 150 pounds to my daughter Fanny Ann Tate.
The annuities are to paid in equal portions half-yearly on January 1st and July 1st. One fifth to be paid by Napoleon Tate from Cove, Rotherwood, Metcalf and Leamington. One-fifth to be paid by each of the other boys, William Anglin Tate, Cornelius Moore Tate and Thomas Anglin Tate from lands they received. [This only accounts for 4/5ths. There must have been another bequest that was not copied into the Will Book, to another surviving son, John or Philip.]
The land is to be held as tenants in common [See Glossary].
The trustees may invest in stock until the estate is distributed.
Dated the third day of 1852.
Witnesses: G. B. Vidal, Jane Vidal, and Ellen Georgina Braine were sworn on December 7, 1855 before Benjamin Vickers. The will was declared on April 15, 1856.

More About Thomas Dale Tate:
Addressed as: Esquire
Burial: October 03, 1855, Orange Grove, Westmoreland29
Occupation: Bet. 1832 - 1843, Planter
Occupation (2): 1837, Proprietor of Old Shaftston, Rotherwood, and Cove.
Occupation (3): 1840, Proprietor of 4,166 acres in Westmoreland31
Occupation (4): 1855, Proprietor Robins River, Westmoreland
Probate: April 15, 1856, Entered Vol. 127, p. 13432
Residence: Bet. 1832 - 1834, Bluefields, Westmoreland
Residence (2): 1842, Residence: Auchindown, Westmoreland
Residence (3): 1855, Residence: Robins River, Westmoreland


Will: 185233



4        OTHER RELATED PROPERTIES – Almanacs etc

 

4.1               Booth Vere Properties

 

Yarmouth Estate.


Google earth: New Yarmouth 17° 53' 0" North, 77° 16' 0" West, on the west bank of the Rio Minho, west of Hayes. It looks still to be a sugar factory.

NEW YARMOUTH sugar estate and factory is owned by the ancient firm of J. Wray and Nephew. A private consortium that includes J Wray and Nephew and Booker-Tate of the U.K. has recently bought MONYMUSK from the government http://www.discoverjamaica.com/tour7.htm

http://www.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/person/view/42179
Henry Lord Garrigues
Profile & Legacies Summary
4th Apr 1790 - ????
Claimant or beneficiary
Biography
Merchant in Jamaica, owner with Sarah Bar[r]iffe of the Yarmouth estate in Vere Jamaica, and appearing in various capacities in some 17 other awards, largely in the central parishes of Jamaica, son of Abednego Garrigues (d. 1791-2) and Jane Frances Lord, and brother of Peter Francis Garrigues (q.v.). 
1.
Louisa Rodon Garrigues, the daughter of Henry Lord Garrigues 'merchant' and Frances Anderson Garrigues of Torrington Square, appears on the baptism register at St George Bloomsbury 15/04/1830. 
2.
The will of Abednego Garrigues, practitioner of physic and surgery, of St Thomas-in-the-Vale, was proved 22/11/1792. Henry Lord Garrigues born 04/04/1790, had one child (Caroline Lord Garrigues) with Maria Dally c. 1812 (a 'free mulatto'), and married Frances Anderson Christian 29/04/1813 Kingston.  The couple had 11 children (in additon to Louisa Rodon shown above) baptised in Kingston or St Andrew between 1814 and 1832.

Sources
T71/858 Vere No. 76.
1.
Ancestry.com, London, England, Births and Baptisms, 1813-1906 [database online]: a note says 'according to the certificate from the Rev. J.B. Murray curate St Olave West Street transmitted....15/04/1830.'

http://www.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/person/view/18347
Rt. Hon. Rev. Henry Phillpotts
Profile & Legacies Summary
1778 – 1869
Claimant or beneficiary
Biography
Bishop of Exeter, awarded with others the compensation for Whitney and Rymesbury in Clarendon and New Yarmouth in Vere, all in Jamaica, as trustees and executors of the will of the Earl of Dudley (q.v.). 
1.
Son of Henry Phillpotts of Bridgwater matriculated Corpus Christi 07/11/1791 aged 13 fellow Magdalen 1795-1804 BA 1795 MA 179 BD and DD 1821 chaplain to Bishop of Durham 1806 Vicar of Kilmersdon 1804, Bishop Middleham 1805, Stanton-le-Street 1806, Rector Gateshead 1808, preb of Durham 1810-20, rector of Stanhope in Weardale 1820, dean of Chester 1828, visitor Exeter College 1831 and bishop of Exeter 1831, died 1869.
2.
Often identified as a slave-owner since Eric Williams discovered his presence in  the compensation records, including by the synod of the Church of England in 2006 and more recently the BBC.
Sources
T71/859 Clarendon nos. 284 and 320 T71/857 Vere no. 70. He is given as 'Philpotts' in these records.
T71/962 Vere no. 70: letter 14/09/1835 from solicitors (Alban & Benbow) for the trustees and executors of late Earl of Dudley, enclosing extract from will of Earl of Dudley. Begs compensation to be awarded to Philpotts etc. the executors and trustees. Hibbert Oates had made claim on the part of the Heirs of the Earl of Dudley instead of the Trustees: 'we presume as they are uncontested this mistake is unimportant.'
Summary of will of 26 July 1831 after reciting amongst other things that 'he was entitled to the remainder or reversion in fee simple expectant upon his own death and failure of the issue male of his body of or in several plantations...situate in the Island of Jamaica late of or belonging to his grandmother Mary Viscountess Dudley and Ward....gave and devised unto certain trustees The Rt Hon George Earl of Aberdeen and the Rt Hon James Abercromby...his said remainder and reversion of or in all and singular the said plantations and estates and the negro and other slaves thereon to hold them...to the uses upon and for the trusts...and purposes in his said will and in part hereafter mentioned viz in default of heirs of his body and subject with other estates to an Annuity of six thousand pounds to his cousin the Rev. William Humble Ward now Lord Ward for his life to the use of the Rt Rev H Lord Bishop of Exeter, the Rt Hon Edward John Baron Hatherton, then Edward John Littleton, Francis Downing Esq. and John Benbow Esq. for the term of 500 years upon trust during the term of 12 years to raise annually such sums for the person entitled in remainder to his estates until he should attain the age of twenty-five years as in the said will mentioned. And then to raise certain sums for the maintenance and education of the younger children of the said Lord Ward and also for portions for such younger children as in the said will mentioned. And the said Testator directed that his last named trustees should recevie the rents and profits of his Mines and Estates during the said term of twelve years and apply the same in discharge of any sums charged upon the said estates and lay out and invest the residue in the purchase of freeholds copyholds or leasehold estates...

And the said testator of his said will appointed the said Bishop of Exeter, Eward John Baron Hatherton, Francis Downing and John Benbow executors.'

Earl of Dudley died 6 March 1833 a bachelor will proved 17 September 1833 'by the four executors'.

1. CCEd [database online] Person ID: 28960, sourced to Foster.

2.E.g. Nigel Pocock and Victoria Cook, 'The business of enslavement', BBC History in depth http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/abolition/slavery_business_gallery_03.shtml [accessed 30/04/2012]: 'Phillpotts and three business associates invested in slave plantations in Jaamcia, and when slavery was abolished they were paid compensation for the loss of 665 slaves. A bishop personally owning slaves must have been a powerful legitimating tool for Caribbean interests in Britain.'

Gale-Morant papers (Exeter): http://www.microform.co.uk/guides/R97047.pdf


Carlisle Estate


Owned in the 1st half of the 19thC by the Lousadas, who were left handsome bequests in George Booth (1707-1769).

Carlisle Bay was the site of De Casse’s French landings.

Sale in 1879: Jamaica, particulars of a valuable Sugar Estate : known as Carlisle, containing 900 acres, or thereabouts, and a piece of land belonging thereto, containing 163 acres or thereabouts, in the Parish of Clarendon (Vere District) in the Island of Jamaica, together with the buildings, fixtures, machinery and live & dead stock thereon : which will be sold by auction, in one lot, by Messrs. Hards, Vaughan & Jenkinson, before James Fleming, Esq., Q.C., and Reginald John Cust, Esq., Commissioners for Sale of Incumbered Estates in the West Indies, at the Sale Room of the Commissioners.

The Gibb Family in Jamaica
Robert Charles Gibb sailed for Jamaica at the end of the 18th century, being first at Ludlow plantation, Clarendon in 1797. He purchased Bank's, an estate of 170 acres planted in cotton and sorghum, in Vere Parish. This estate was near the coast just west of the River Minho and was recorded on James Robertson's map of Jamaica dated 1804, reproduced in Jamaica Surveyed by B.W.Higman. Robert had two recorded children, James Mitchell, born c.1807, and Charlotte.
In the 1811/12 Jamaica Almanac, R C Gibb was recorded with 64 slaves and 6 stock. By 1820 the estate supported 92 slaves and 11 stock. In 1834 slavery was abolished in Jamaica.
James Mitchell Gibb, who was born abt.1807, was recorded in 1840 with 170 acres in Vere Parish. This was most likely Bank's which he would have inherited from his father, Robert. James subsequently lived at Cottage, Vere Parish (1851), Bog Great House, Vere Parish (1855) and Hermitage, Vere Parish (1856) until his death in 1890. He was also recorded as owner of Salt Pond Pen, Spanish Town, St Catherine (1878) and Carlisle Estate, Clarendon (1881), a sugar estate in cultivation. Carlisle Estate was south of The Alley, east of the Minho River. Banks was west of the River Minho, north of MacCary Bay, and west of Paradise Estate. Bank's, Carlisle and Bog are all shown on James Robertsons map of Jamaica, 1804. In the 1878 Business Directory he was listed as Gibb, James M., Custos and Banker, propr of Hermitage Pen.

James first married Mary Ann Robinson, who was English. Her brother, John, married a Miss Jessie MacLachlan Blount, who, after being widowed in 1857, became the second Mrs Gibb in 1858.
James and Mary had the following children:
1. Marian Agnes was baptised in 1849. She married Stephen Horseley, brother of a Canon Horseley in England.
2. Robert Charles Gibb was born on 12 January 1851. At the time of his birth the home of James and Mary Ann Gibb was `Cottage', Vere. Robert qualified as a Member of the Royal College of Surgeons (MRCS) and as a Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians (LRCP). Robert practised first at Guy's Hospital, London and then returned to Jamaica to specialise in tropical fevers. In 1878 he was recorded in the Clarendon Parish Business Directory as: Gibb, Robert C., MRCS & LRCP, Parochial Medical Officer. In 1900 he was recorded in the Jamaica Almanac under Clarendon Parish, Legal & Judicial, Gibb, Robert Charles, Kingston. Justice.
3. John James Gibb was born on 25 September, 1854, and died aged 4 months. He was buried in the Church Yard on Feb 6, 1855. At that time James and Mary Ann were living at Bog Great House, east of the River Minho, near Perrins estate and north east of The Alley.
4. Jessie Mary Ann Gibb was born on 20 June 1856 and was baptised on the 21st. At the time of her birth the home of James and Mary Ann Gibb was given as `Hermitage', Vere. Jessie died aged 3 months and was buried in the Church Yard on Sep 25, 1856.
Mary Ann, aged 40, died following the birth of Jessie and was buried in the Alley Church Yard on June 22.
In 1858, James married Jessie MacLachlan Robinson (nee Blount), widow of John Robinson, Esq, of Perrins Estate, who died in 1857 aged 30. John Robinson had been the brother of Mary Ann Robinson, James Gibb's first wife.

In 1881 the Clarendon Parish Directory listed: Gibb, J. M., Carlisle. Carlisle was the sugar plantation east of the River Minho, owned by James Gibb.

Engines ordered by Jamaica:
1830: Ordered by Emanuel Lousada. This was a bright 

Carlisle Estate, Vere, Jamaica engine, originally made for Mr Musket.

Merchants Marks: C and EB. Seven additions by Hibbert & Co. for Anglo­Mexican Mint (see below under Portfolio No. 1019).



Salt Savanna Estate



N17°47’09” W77°14’51.4”

Compensation Award:
George Booth Maxwell claimed, unsuccessfully, half of Salt Savannah - £5287
So total was £10574 (about £1.4M in 2023)

From a survey for the Assembly, sold btw 1772-1775[8], probably to the Maxwells as in George’s will, and James Wildman in 1792

Salt Savanna Crop Accounts have been noted 1770-1782. Later ones are listed in the index, but not copied to 1807.

1811: Wildman, James, Salt Savanna 275/ 44
1812: Wildman, James, Salt Savanna 255/ 38
1816: Wildman, James, Salt-Savanna 262/ 122
1817: Wildman, James, Salt Savanna, 264/1TT
1818: Wildman, James B., Salt Savanna, 265/120
1820: Wildman, James B., Salt Savanna 265/ 31
1821: Wildman, James B., Salt Savanna 258/ 36
1838: Wildman, James B., Salt Savanna 205
1839: Wildman, J. B., 1148 acres
1844: Wildman, JB Salt Savanna, 1780 acres

Jamaica Vere 38 (Salt Savanna)
Claim Details & Associated Individuals
19th Jun 1837 | 272 Enslaved | £5286 19S 5D
Parliamentary Papers p. 291.
T71/858: claim from James Beckford Wildman, of Vere, as owner-in-fee. Counterclaim from John Edward Collett and his wife, as tenants in tail. Counterclaim also from George Booth Maxwell ('Claims as tenant for life of 1/2'), under the provisions of the will of George Booth, dated 29/08/1768. He also denies the validity of assignment of 25 May 1791 and has instituted a suit in chancery against the claimant which is now pending. Adjudged to J. B. Wildman on 19/06/1837. 01/07/1837: 'Letter of Pyne & Richards giving notice of appeal on behalf of GBMaxwell'. 01/02/1839: 'Order of Council granting petition to withdraw appeal'.

T71/1606: letter, dated 20/05/1836, from Capron & Co., Saville Place, states that, in 1791, George Booth Maxwell (the counterclaimant) sold and conveyed his life interest in a moiety of Salt Savannah to the late Mr Wildman, who then bought life interest in the other half from another person, and the reversion in fee simple. In 1808, George Booth Maxwell brought a Bill in Chancery to have the 1791 deal set aside no proceeding for 15 years in this suit: 'if the compensation Act had not been passed it is quite evident that no further proceedings would have been undertaken.' The Court of Chancery were asked to use discretion, and appear to have done so, and paid the award to the Accountant General but allowed James Beckford Wildman to make an application by counsel to them for further directions to make such award as to them shall seem fit. Letter, dated 08/06/1837, from George Booth Maxwell, George St., Hanover Sq., asking: at what time does the hearing take place? Memorial from James Beckford Wildman, dated 12/03/1836, as replication was late by 'an accidental and involuntary omission on our part.' The Memorial includes a description of John Edward Collett and Rachael Theresa (his wife) as 'of Enfield Wash, Co of Middx'. Their claim rested on overturning the 1791 sale. Parliamentary Committee decision, dated 13/02/1839: the withdrawal reveals G.B. Maxwell to have been in prison for debt at the time.


https://www.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/person/view/16645
John Holmes
Profile & Legacies Summary 1763 – 1836

John Holmes first comes to light in the 1796 Jamaica Almanac where he is listed as an Ensign in the Vere regiment of the militia. His career in the militia and in public service can be traced through the Almanacs: Lieutenant (1802), Lieutenant Colonel (1808), Colonel (from 1817), Assistant Judge or Magistrate (1824), Church Warden (1824), Treasurer of Vere Free School (1824). From 1820 he was a Member of Assembly for Vere.

From at least 1809 he was owner of a property with between 18 and 24 enslaved people, referred to in the birth record of his son in 1813 as Twickenham, in the 1832 Jamaica Almanac as Kimble and in the slave compensation records and his will as Twickenham estate. Given the gradual fluctuations in the number of enslaved people and stock he registered in the givings-in from 1809 to 1832, this is assumed to be the same property.

John Holmes worked as an attorney on several large estates as well as taking responsibility for properties as an executor of the previous owner. In the 1817 Slave Registers he registered 264 enslaved people on Salt Savanna estate in Vere with Thomas Addison as attorney to the absentee James Beckford Wildman. In the 1820 Slave Registers he registered 266 enslaved people on Salt Savanna, again with Thomas Addison as attorney for James Beckford Wildman. In 1820 he also registered 132 enslaved people on Springfield estate in Vere as attorney to Robert Murchison and registered 88 enslaved people in 3 different registrations as attorney to the heirs of Robert White and Robert Glasgow. The Jamaica Almanacs of 1826 and 1827 list him as in lawful possession of enslaved people and stock on Grimatt estate in Vere as an executor (with William Smith) of Thomas Samson. The 1828 Almanac lists him as proprietor of Grimatt but by 1831 this had been sold to Alexander Murchison. The 1828 Almanac also lists him with the heirs of John Pusey Edwardes against Pusey Hall estate with 272 enslaved people and 100 stock. In the 1831 Almanac is is listed against Smithfield estate (presumably also as attorney). In the 1832 Slave Registers he registered enslaved people on Dry River estate as attorney to the absentee John Rodon. In 1834 he claimed compensation for enslaved people on Stretton Hall estate with Henry Lord Garrigues as executors of Edward White.

John Holmes had at least 7 children, all born and baptised in Jamaica. Elizabeth, 'A Quadroon' was born 05/01/1800 and died at Salt Savanna and was buried the following day in the churchyard she was named as the daughter of John Holmes in her burial record. Thomas Holmes, 'A mustee' was baptised 07/09/1806. John Holmes, 'A Quadroon infant', was buried at Salt Savanna 02/12/1807. George Wood Holmes, 'a mustee infant son of John Holmes' at Salt Savanna estate was privately baptised 12/08/1810. Samuel Benjamin Holmes, 'mustee infant son of John Holmes' was born 15/03/1813 and baptised at his Cottage called Twickenham 09/07/1813. Francis Edward Holmes, 'Mustee son of John Holmes' was baptised 23/11/1817 and is assumed to have predeceased his father as he is not mentioned in this father's will. Susan Frances Holmes, 'a free Mustee 6 months old, daughter of John Holmes Esq.' was baptised 31/12/1820.

In his will John Holmes left £100 sterling each to his sons Thomas Addison Holmes, George Wood Holmes and Samuel Benjamin Holmes and left his personal effects and Twickenham estate to his reputed daughter Susan Frances Holmes.

John Holmes, Gentleman of Twickenham, age 73 years, was buried 10/04/1836.

His three surviving sons emigrated to London where they can be found in the census and death records. Thomas Addison was living in Sydney Place, Bethnal Green, in 1841, age 36, Clerk, with his wife Eliza and seven children (all born in London). By 1861 he was at 21 Cambridge Road, Bethnal Green and by 1871 at 32 Groombridge Road, Hackney, where he died 28/02/1874 leaving personalty under £300. Samuel Benjamin Holmes married Maria Eagle 12/08/1832 in Shoreditch and can be found age 57 in the census of 1861, a tailor, in Portsea, Hampshire and in 1881 at 3 Sardinia Street, St Clements Danes, London. His death was registered Q1, 1890 in Strand, London. George Wood Holmes married Ann Abbs at St Dunstan's, Stepney, 26/08/1834 he appears age 41, an undertaker, living at 2 Great James Street, Marylebone with his wife and son Henry George in the census of 1851. George Wood Holmes died at 2 Great James Street, 02/02/1855.


The Abolition of Slavery, 1837 (Google books)
Enclosure 2, in No. 41.

EXTRACT of a LETTER from Matthew Farquharson, Esg. dated Spring Mount, 14 April 1835.
I AM happy in adding that the estates under my charge are all doing well, seldom having occasion for the interference of the special magistrate. At Salt Savanna estate, Vere, we have averaged 10 hogsheads sugar weekly for six weeks, with a 10-horse power engine, one set of coppers, five in number at Low Ground, Clarendon, nine hogsheads sugar weekly for three weeks, water-mill and five coppers, commencing early in the morning and stopping the mill before eight at night: both these estates belong to Mr. Wildman. We are in fact doing much better under the present than the old system, upon Mr. W.'s properties.


http://www.law.mq.edu.au/research/colonial_case_law/colonial_cases/less_developed/jamaica/r_v_aberdeen_adam_and_preston/

R. v. Aberdeen, Adam and Preston [1814]

Slave Court

6 December 1814

Source: The Ipswich Journal (Ipswich, England), 11 February 1815, issue 4066, from the British Library's 19th Century Newspapers site. See also Trewman's Exeter Flying Post or Plymouth and Cornish Advertiser (Exeter, England), 16 February 1815, issue 2580


A special Slave Court was held at the Alley, in Vere, (Jamaica) on the 6th of Dec. for the trial of the following slaves, viz. - Aberdeen, Adam, and Preston, belonging to Salt Savannah estate, charged with the murder of another slave, named Thomas, the property of John Holmes, Esq. by burying him alive. It appeared from the evidence, that the parties were all Congoes, and had made a play according to the custom of their country, when Thomas dug a grave in which he laid himself down, desiring his companions to cover him up for the space of one hour but that if he did not rise again in another place in that time, they were to open the grave. Aberdeen and Preston were appointed to close up the grave, and Adam to play on the gombah (African music), all of which was punctually performed. Some other negroes belonging to the estate appeared, however, before the ceremony was completely finished, and had sense enough to open the grave but it was too late, the unfortunate victim of his own credubility [sic] being dead. His Honour the Custos charged the Jury on the crime, when they found them guilty of Manslaughter and the following sentence was passed, viz. each to receive 30 lashes on the spot where the catastrophe took place, in the presence of all the estate's negroes, then to be severally burn in the hand, and to suffer one month's solitary confinement in the country gaol.

James Wildman


James Wildman also had Papine Estate. Thomas Wildman (1740-95) was a lawyer and a trustee for the William Beckford when he inherited at the age of 9. Thomas’s brother, James (1747-1816) was overseer for Beckford estates in Jamaica. By 1802 relations between Beckford and the Wildman brothers were severed, they having presented him with a bill for £86,000 for their services and taking his Esher plantation in Jamaica in lieu of payment. Wildman made no attempt to return to Parliament. He died 23 Mar. 1816.

James Beckford Wildman (1788 - 24th May 1867) M.P. eldest son of James Wildman of Chilham and Joanna, daughter of J. Harper of Jamaica. Godchild of Alderman William Beckford. Born Jamaica, educated Winchester 1800-6 and Christ Church, Oxford 1808; Lincolns Inn 1811. Married 9 Oct. 1820, Mary Anne, daughter of Stephen Rumbold Lushington. The couple had 2 sons and 5 daughters. He succeeded his father to Chilham Castle and Esher estate Jamaica in 1816. Served as MP for Colchester 1818-26.


4.2               Misceallaneous Propeties


from MAP1804 and Jamaica Almanacs
A summary of properties mentioned in various texts related to their position on the 1804 map and a mid 20thC Jamaican road map (pre 1950's air survey). The latter map shows many estate names, while the 1804 map shows owners' names. Where possible, lat/long reference has been established. This can be referenced to the Jamaica grid.
The owners are listed as found in the Jamaica Almanacs.

Berlin: St Elizabeth.

17 55N 77 33W, on SE end of Santa Cruz Mountains.
1804:- Cerf
1811-24:- Almanac, Henry Cerf
1833-40:- Hyman Cohen

Blenheim: Vere

17 57N 77 31.5W, 6.5 miles north of coast.
1804:- not shown, blank area.
1809:- George Brooks
1815-24:- George Brooks
PRO has reference to Accounts of Blenheim & Cranbrooke plantations of John Moffatt, 1806-7 WO 9/48.

Bloomsbury:

2 miles North of Giddy Hall.
1824:- George Spence.
1858:- Augusta Cooper (nee Spence, and married to John Maitland, died).

Burnt Ground: St Elizabeth.

18 02N 77 44.5W
1804:- J Brooks
1804:- G Brooks, 1 mile north of here.
1808:- George Brooks (m Sarah Wright).
1811:- Almanac, George Brooks.

Burton & New Ground

1811 (1809): Burton’s: John Chorley, 62/0, New Works: John Blackburn, 213/20
1812 (1811): Burton’s: John Chorley, 60/0, Blackburn: Wallen’s etc, 437
1816 (1815): John Blackburn: Wallens, 234/156, Burton’s, 55/69, New Works, 204/184
1817: John Blackburn, Wallens, 234/144, Burton’s & New Works, 260/361
1818: John Blackburn, Wallens, 213/167, Burton’s & New Works, 219/286
1820: John Blackburn, Wallens, 241/9, Burton’s & New Works, 253/97
1821: John Blackburn, Wallens, 239/2, New Works, 342/74
1822: John Blackburn, Wallens, 237/184, New Works, 350/306
1823: John Blackburn, Wallens, 239/185, New Works, 310/286
1824: John Blackburn, Wallens, 313/175, New Works, 308/323
1833: John Blackburn still.
1838: Henry Lowndes: New Works 220, Wallens 220.
1840: Henry Lowndes, New Works 2060 acres, Wallens 1760
1845: A Sutherland, New Works, 2000 acres.

Enfield: Vere

17 57.5N 77 29W, 6.5 m inland from South Coast.
1804:- Booth
1815-22:- William Burt Wright.
1824-38:- William Burt Wright, est of.

Kensworth: Vere.

17 56N, 77 30.2W, 5.5 miles inland, north of Cut River mouth.
1804:- either Golburns or Stimpsons.
1815-20:- Robert Benstead Wright.
1822:- RB Wright, est of.
1824-6:- Kenilworth.
1833-38:- N Wright. ("Kinworth")
1840:- Nicola Wright.

Lowerworks: St Elizabeth.

1/2 mile NW of Black River centre, off Lacovia Road.
1804:- No indication.
1811:- Joseph Royal.

Meribah: St Elizabeth.

1811-26:- John Wright.
1833:- John Wright, decd.

Middlesex Pen: St Elizabeth

A Cooper property later.
JG 16/8/1813:
For Sale, Middlesex Pen, in the Parish of St Elizabeth, containing about 700 acres of land, on the direct road from Kingston to Savanna la Mar, 4 miles distant from Lacovia and 8 miles from Black River about 250 acres are in well established Guinea Grass Pieces, fenced chiefly with stone walls, 50 acres in Common Pasture, also fenced, the remainder in Woodland. The YS River runs through the property which is very seasonable, and well worthy the attention of any Person desirous of purchasing a Pen. For terms apply to Messrs Boyles & Co, Kingston or to William Rowe esq, St Elizabeth.

Mount Olivet: St Elizabeth.

17 59N 77 43.5W, E side of Santa Cruz Mountains, N of main road.
1804:- Williams marked near there, but not exact.
1811-24:- Thomas J Williams.
1840:- John Earl. (also Chelsea)
1845:- J Earl, heirs of.

Mount Lebanon: St Elizabeth.

18 26N, 77 56W, 2 miles NW of Giddy Hall.
1804:- Smith's
1811:- Alexander Rose
1812: Rose, Alexander, 57/89
1816 Rose, Alexander Mount-Lebanon   

1818 Rose, Alexander Mount-Lebanon   

1821 Rose, Alexander Mount-Lebanon   

1821 Rose, Mary

1821 Rose, Wm. A. and George Norfolk

1825 Rose, Alexander, dec. Mount-Lebanon   

1826:- Alexander Rose, decd.
1830 Rose, Alexander, dec. Mount Lebanon   

1830 Rose, William A. Norfolk

Rose Hill: St Elizabeth.

About 2 miles WNW of Giddy Hall.
Roses Valley,
in St Elizabeth, is named after the first owner, William Rose (Jamaica Almanacs, 1811) of this now defunct estate. Roses Valley is now a village in the centre of which is a Baptist Church, There is also Roses Valley Post Office.                 DPNJ.

Southampton: St Elizabeth.

18 00.5N 77 41.5W,
1804:- J Wright
1804:- W Wright at South Valley, nearby.
1811:- Robert B Wright.

Stretton Hall: (also Streten), Vere.

17 12N 77 42W, on Salt River Bay, 1 mile N of river.
1804:- Wright & Glasgow.
1811:- James Wright, deceased.
1815:- Wright & Glasgow, executors of
1820-22:- White & Levys.


Tophill, St Elizabeth.

Between Junction and Treasure Beach. Small elongated town in 2010.
1811: Powell, Sarah, Tophill 35/ -


Ashton Pen


- Once owned by the Burlton family with Mount Charles     HBJ1840
   once owned by Earl family,                         HBJ1915
   1915: 365 acres
   1998: now a smart Greathouse hotel just outside Black River.
2008: AM stayed there opinion reserved! Very poorly converted into hotel - front door and immediate hall only original part remaining.
     From Jamaica Gazette, 30/1/1813 (AM 4/2008): Ashton Pen, part of Longwood Pen, containing 300 acres situate in district of Santa Cruz, and binding upon Emmaus Pen. To save trouble, the considerate money is £1500 down, or £2000 by instalments of 1 & 2 years. Applications are to be made to James Miller or George Graham Stone, attorneys to John Mitchell esq.
From Government Gazette, 1813, Ashton Pen, part of Longwood Pen,

St. Elizabeth’s, Dec. 17, 1817. (Jamaica Gazette)

For SALE, ASHTON, a most desirable residence, situate two miles from B1ack-River, commanding an extensive and picturesque view of the Sea and surrounding Country:  This Property contains 320 Acres of Land, about 100 of which are in Guinea-Grass, well divided with Stone Walls, the remainder in Ruinate, Logwood, and Common Pasture. The House consists of a Dining and two Bed-Rooms, below, a spacious Drawing and two Bed Rooms above, a detached wing with excellent Out-Offices, and a mason .work Kitchen and Wash- House; the whole worthy the attention of any Family wishing for a genteel country residence. Part of the purchase money will be required down, and, time given for the remainder on approved Security : To prevent unnecessary applications the premises are valued at £600. currency. Apply to JOHN SALMON.
 
"Brett Ashmeade-Hawkins" 24/9/06.

    Unfortunately the house was converted into a rather shabby hotel in the early 1990s and the original building has been altered almost beyond recognition. Sadly most of it is now half-hidden behind a mass of incongruous modern additions.
   Please find attached three pictures showing Ashton Great House as it once looked when the Burlton and Earle families lived there.



   They are as follows (these are held by AM, but not on line as they may be in copyright):
1. Ashton in 1832. Copy of an original drawing by Miss Storer. Private Collection[ii].
2. Ashton in 1964. Copy of an original  photograph by the late T.A.L. Concannon. Concannon Collection. National Library of Jamaica.
3. Ashton in 1981. Copy of an original watercolour by Prudence Lovell. Jamaica, National Building Society Collection.

Jamaica Gazette, 22 January 1813: To be sold, Ashton Pen, being part of Longwood Pen, containing 300 acres, situate in the district of Santa Cruz, in the parish of St Elizabeth, and binding on Eammaus Pen. To save trouble the consideration money is £1500 down, or £2000 by instalmets of one and two years. Applications to be made to James Miller or George Gresham, Attornies to John Mitchell, Esq. (20180313_141844)

    The drawing showing Ashton in 1832 really captures it as it originally was. It stands on a high hill in the midst of over 350 acres of English-style parkland. The house had wonderful views of both Black River and the sea from the front and also the mountains from the back. Most importantly it was always delightfully cool and a pleasant escape from the constant heat and humidity of the nearby town of Black River.
    The late T.A.L. Concannon, an English architect who was the leading architectural historian in Jamaica from the late 1940s to the early 1970s, always described Ashton as an 18th Century house. However it is really quite different from most 18th Century Jamaican houses and I tend to think that it was probably built in the Early 19th Century instead. I would say sometime  between 1810 and 1815. It has almost a Regency feel to it.
     As you can see Ashton was actually three storeys high, which was somewhat unusual for Jamaica since most houses were usually two storeys. The ground floor was a raised basement built of cut-stone and it contained a "hurricane room", a wine cellar and various storage rooms. The first floor and second floors were built of wood, solid mahogany boards, and the roof was covered with cedar shingles cut and cured on the plantation.
     A double staircase of stone led up to a pillared entrance portico on the first floor and into a projecting entrance hall with open wooden jalousies on all sides. This entrance hall led into a central hallway on the right of which was a large Dining Room and on the left of which was a large Drawing Room. Both of these rooms had tall arched doorways and very high ceilings, with glass sash windows and wooden jalousies on three sides. This allowed the slightest breeze to pass through both rooms, constantly keeping them cool. A beautiful mahogany staircase led to the second floor were there were 6 bedrooms. The bedroom above the entrance hall was said to be the coolest room in the entire house and at one time it was used as a Study by James Edward Burlton. He always kept a large brass telescope standing in the window to keep an eye on the shipping in the harbour at Black River.
     The old Slave Kitchen was in a separate building behind the Great House and was connected to the back veranda of the house by a covered pillared walkway.  The Stables and Servants Quarters were also in separate buildings behind the house. To the right of the Great House stood a separate one storey wing known as the "Bachelors Quarters". It is not shown in the drawing of 1832 and must have been built later on, possibly in the 1840s. According to family tradition it was used to house the Overseer and Bookkeepers and also visiting Sea Captains and it contained a splendid Billiards Room for their amusement.
    Plantation life probably seems dull now to our modern eyes. but the Burltons and the Earles enjoyed a very active social life in the 19th Century. They frequently entertained visitors from Britain and from other parts of the Island. British Governors, Commanders-in-Chief and Admirals or Commodores, on official tours around Jamaica, would have been frequent guests at Ashton, along with their A.D.C.s and Staff. Long visits of a month or more would have been exchanged with family and friends who owned plantations in other parts of the Island and there would have been trips to Spanish Town, to Kingston and occasionally home to Britain. Grand Balls and Receptions were often held at the Black River Court House and numerous dinner parties, formal dances and musical evenings were constantly being held in the town houses in Black River and in the Great Houses on the plantations. Jamaica merchants and planters were well-known for their lavish hospitality, with vast quantities of fine food and drink, and wonderful parties that lasted for days. All this was made possible in those days by the huge retinues of servants.
     St. Elizabeth was famous for breeding thoroughbred racehorses. Black River had a fashionable racetrack and grandstand, and some plantations such a Emmaus Pen, just adjoining Ashton Pen, even had their own private racetracks. Race meetings were crowded events, attended in force by the local Gentry, and visitors from other parishes, anxious to show off their new carriages and the latest fashions from Europe. The Highgate Hunt, supported by the local Anglo-Irish gentry such as The Cuff family, frequently met in St. Elizabeth, to ride to hounds. Later on there was Polo at Gilnock Hall Estate, Tennis and Golf at Malvern, and weekend Shooting Parties on all the country estates during "The Season". Shooting began in Jamaica on "The Glorious 12th" of August, exactly the same as in Scotland, and guests were invited down for the long weekend from Kingston and Montego Bay and even came out for the Winter from England, to shoot quail, snipe, plover, wild pigeon and wild duck. These were elaborate social affairs, each with an army of beaters and bird dogs and the usual servants and shooting luncheons. There was even the occasional crocodile hunt in the swamps of the Black River.
     In the late 19th Century, due to the export of Logwood, Black River became one of the richest towns in Jamaica, and it was actually the first town in Jamaica to have electricity. The Farquharson and Leyden families, who had two beautiful Victorian mansions at Black River, Invercauld and Magdala, competed with each other to entertain in the grandest manner. Mrs. Leyden, who had once been an Opera singer in Paris, was the leading Society hostess of Black River during the Victorian era. Old St. Elizabeth families such as the Farquharsons, the Griffiths, the Dalys, the Robertsons, the Hendricks, the Levys, the Cuffs, the Earles, the Calders, the Muirheads, the Myers, the Brownes, the Muschetts and the Coopers, would have been frequent guests at her mansion, to listen to visiting Opera singers, Orchestras and Classical Pianists. A fashionable Spa at Black River attracted International Society including British aristocrats, titled Europeans and even the King and Queen of Belgium. One of the first Motor-Cars in Jamaica was imported into Black River in 1904 by the Griffith family of Hodges Pen and, after the First World War, came the "Dance of the Millions" in the 1920s with new Rolls Royces, free-flowing  Champagne and endless Cocktail Parties.
     All this has long since vanished and today, in a modern, noisy, crowded, rundown Third World Jamaica, it is increasingly hard to visualize the graciousness of the old British Colonial Jamaica that we knew and loved. If I had not seen the last vestiges of this world with my own eyes, and had not listened to the stories of my Mother and Grandmother and others of their generation, most of whom have now passed away, it would all seem to have been part of some sort of insubstantial dream, just a romantic vision of the past, more myth than history. To most Jamaicans today it is a world as alien and as remote as that of Slavery itself, yet it still existed when I was a child and a few traces of it still survive even to this day.

Booth Mentions:


MI of Jamaica:
NEW WEST GROUND, KINGSTON (contd)
MRS. ARABELLA BOOTH, DIED 15th JUNE, 1837, AGED 70 YEARS

Clarendon Patented survey 1670:
George Booth, 1200 acres
Robert Wright 100
St Thomas: Thomas Booth 12

1784:
VERE TROOP, Militia of Horse

Capt. John Ashley

1st Lieut. Thomas John Parker

2d Lieut. John Gall Booth

1787:
Vere Troop, Horse
2d Lieut., John Gall Booth

1790 & 1796:
Vere Troop:
Captain, John Gall Booth


1805:
Vere Regiment:
Ensign JG Booth.

1808:
Vere Regiment of Foot:
Lt JG Booth

1817:
Vere Vestryman:
Samuel Booth


1824 Vere Troop of Horse:
Lieutenant: Samuel Booth 3/8/1821

Vere 1811:
Booth, J. G., Farm 62/ 13
Booth, J. G., deceased, Mount Pleasant 58/ 12
Booth, Samuel, Asia 41/ 19

Vere 1816:
Booth, John Gall, heirs of, Mount-Pleasant 42/ 20

Booth, Samuel, Asia 24

Vere 1818:
Booth, Samuel, Rest, 24/11
Manchester 1818:
Booth, John Gall, heirs of, Mount Pleasant, 38

Booth, John Gall, Farm, 64/29

Clarendon 1820:
Schroeter and Booth, 23
Vere 1820:
Booth, Henry, 10

Booth, Robert W., 2/ 20

Booth, Samuel, Rest 29/ 2
Manchester 1820:
Booth, John Gall, Farm 81/ 33

Booth, John G. heirs of, Mount Pleasant 33/4

St Andrew 1822:
Booth, Annabella, Rowlington Pen 18/ 1

Vere 1823:
Booth, Henry, 3/ 16

Booth, Robert W., 3

Booth, Samuel, Rest 25/3
Manchester 1820:
Booth, John Gall, Farm 74/ 30

Booth, John Gall heirs of, Mount Pleasant 35/ 4

Vere 1823:
Booth, Henry, 5

Booth, Robert W., 2/ 18

Booth, Samuel, Rest 29
Manchester 1823:
Booth, John Gall, Farm 78/ 31

Booth, John G. heirs of, Mount Pleasant 35/ 5

Manchester 1824:
Booth, John Gall, Farm 115/ 23

Ditto.............., Mount Pleasant 32

Vere 1824 Vestrymen:
Booth, Samuel,
Booth, Robert W.

St Andrew 1824:
Booth, Annabella, Rowlington Pen, 26/ 3

Vere 1825:
Booth, Annabella, 6

Booth, Robert W., 6 / 30

Booth, Samuel, Rest 26 / 4
Manchester 1825:
Booth, John G. deceased, Farm 113/ [torn]

Ditto.............., Mount Pleasant 40/ [torn]
St Andrew 1825:
Booth, Annabella, Rowlington Pen, 26/3

St Andrew 1826
Booth, Annabella, Rawlington Pen, 25 / 4

St Catherine 1826:
Booth, Joseph W. 8/0
Silverwood, Samuel, as guardian of E. L. Booth 6/0

Vere 1826 (all slaves, not all have stock):
Booth, Annabella, 23

Booth, Robert W., 6 / 21

Booth, Samuel, Rest 28 / 4

St Catherine 1827:
Booth, Joseph W., 7
Silverwood, Samuel, as guardian of F. L. Booth, 6
St Andrew 1827:
Booth, Annabella, Rawlington Pen, 32/3

Clarendon 1828:
Booth, Annabella, 11

..ditto, administratrix, 20

Booth, Rebecca, 51/10
Vere 1828:
Booth, Annabella, 17

Booth, Robert W., 18

Booth, Samuel, Rest, 24
Manchester 1828:
Booth, J. G., deceased, Farm, 85
St Catherine 1826:
Booth, Joseph W., 14
Manchester 1828:
Booth, J. G. estate of, Farm, 80
St Andrew 1828
Booth, Annabella, Rawlington Pen, 31/4

Clarendon 1829:
Booth, Rebecca, 54/10
Vere 1829:
Booth, Annabella (or Ansabella?), 9

Booth, Robert W., 9

Booth, Samuel, Rest, 28/6
St Andrew:
Booth, Annabella, Rawlington Pen, 40/4

Vere 1828:
Booth, Annabella, 15

Booth, Henry, 5/5

Booth, Robert W., 17/27

Booth, Samuel, Rest, 25/6

St Andrew 1831:
Booth, Annabella, Rollington Pen, 42/5
Vere 1831:
Booth, Robert W., 9/18

Booth, Samuel, The Rest, 25/8

Clarendon 1831:
Booth, Annabella, 8

St Andrew 1832:
Booth, Annabella, Rollington Pen, 38/ 4
St Dorothy 1832:
............... for estate of Catherine Booth 4
Manchester 1832:
Booth, John Gaul, heirs of, 99
Vere 1832:
Booth, Robert W. 11/ 17

Booth, Samuel, The Rest 20/ 7

St Andrew 1833:
Booth, Annabella, Rollington Pen 40/ 7
ST Dorothy 1833:
............... for estate of Catherine Booth 4
Vere 1833:
Booth, Robert W. 8/ 13

Vere 1839:
Constable: Joseph L Booth.

St Andrew 1840:
Booth, Arabella, *Rollington pen, 12

Vere 1840:
Booth, R. W. estate of, 300
Burrell, George P., executor of Booth, 137

Manchester 1845:
Booth, J. W. Gains, 27
St Catherine 1845
Marshall, J. F. Booth’s pen, 17
Vere 1845:
Booth, W. P. Milk-River, 25

Booth, W. P. Rest, 10
Booth, S. Milk-River, 16

Booth, R. B. March Quarter, 66

Booth, R. B. Serpentine River, 1100


Moravian Church in Lititz, St. Elizabeth:
James Booth Feb 9, 1830 Alligator Pond Dec 25, 42 W.A.Prince P.L. Simon Booth (father)

Michael Booth Feb10,1834

1. William McLeod was born Abt. 1802. He married Adah Jane Booth May 02, 1827 in Manchester (Source: B0059 Manchester Parish Register I, 1817-1836, p. 310 #3.). She was born Abt. 1802.

More About William McLeod:

Purpose of travel: Free person of color

Residence: 1827, Manchester

More About Adah Jane Booth:

Race/nationality/color: Free person of color

Residence: 1827, Manchester

Cohens: St Elizabeth.

1804:- Shown in 2 places NW of Black River, S of Giddy Hall:
18 04N 77 55.5W, between Brompton and Fiffes
18 03.5N 77 45.5, Mt Salus??
1822-24:- Cohen & Co. Heathfield. (Manchester)
1833:- Hyman, Heathfield & Berlin.
1833:- Judah Cohen, Potsdam & Corby Castle
1838:- Hyman, Apropos & Albion (Vere) & Berlin.
1838:- Judah, Potsdam & Corby Castle.
1840:- Hyman, Berlin, Apropos, Isle, Albion
1840:- Judah, Potsdam, Colby Castle, Heathfield, Berwick, Maidstone,  Bath & Chatham.

Hyman's:  Vere.

Maybe Dean's Valley, 18N 77 43W
1804:- Hyman's
1804:- Hyman's also 1 mile west of Santa Cruz.

Wrights: Vere.

1755:- shown on Minho (Dry) River, east bank. In 1804 perhaps "Richmonds", roughly opposite Gibbons.

Wrights: St Elizabeth.

1804:- shown 1 mile NE of Lacovia, at Greenfield or Petersfield.

Pusey Hall:

17 38N 77 15W, North of Rocky Point, Carlisle Bay.


Wright Images W 19

1804:- Pusey Hall.
UCL awards:

Jamaica Vere 42 (Pusey Hall Estate)

AWARDEES Richard Godson Henry Hargreaves
Claim Details & Associated Individuals

5th Oct 1835 | 236 Enslaved | £5018 7S 11D
Claim Notes

Parliamentary Papers p. 19.

T71/858: shows 'Henry and Richard Godson Hargreaves [sic] absentees'. Corrected by hand to Henry Hargreaves and Richard Godson.

T71/56 p. 107: enslaved persons were registered in 1832 by Jno Melmoth, as attorney to Henry Hargraves and Richard Godson esqs.

Jamaica Vere 43 (Pusey Hall Estate)
 AWARDEES Susan Goulburn & Rebecca Ross
Claim Details & Associated Individuals

29th Feb 1836 | 32 Enslaved | £618 1S 9D
Claim Notes

Parliamentary Papers p. 19.

T7/858: claim from Thomas Heney, of Vere, as the agent of Rebecca Ross and Susan Goulbourn.

T71/56 p. 54: Susan Goulburn registered 5 enslaved persons in 1832.

T71/56 p. 125: Rebecca Ross registered two enslaved persons, as guardian.

Wint: Vere.

1804:- on Milk River, north of Main road crossing, on east bank. Also there were Mrs Booth's.
1811:- John P. Wint.
1804:- Myers were shown about 1/2 mile west of Giddy Hall Settlement
Mrs Parchment's shown near south coast, between Jack's Holt and White Horse.


Thomas Hercey Barratt

Particulars of the Estates of Mile Gully and Spitzbergen, and Harmans or Harmony Run, in the Parish of Manchester : Paradise, Piper's or Smith's Penn, Mumbies & Blackwall, in the Parish of Vere, and Garbrand Hall and Mullet Hall, in the Parish of Saint Thomas in the east, all in the Island of Jamaica, containing alltogether 15,932 acres, or thereabouts : which will be sold by auction, in seven lots, or in such lots as the chief Commissioners shall determine at the time of sale, by Messrs. Leifchild & Cheffins, before Henry James Stonor, Esq., Chief Commissioner, at the Court of the Commissioners.

Other Title

In the Court of the Commissioners for the Sale of Incumbered Estates in the West Indies (Jamaica)

Incumbered Estates in the West Indies (Jamaica)
Copies of the estate maps are in the Estate Map folder, and available from the Library of Congress: https://www.loc.gov/resource/g4961gm.gct00414/?sp=1


Jamaica, particulars of a valuable Sugar Estate : known as Carlisle, containing 900 acres, or thereabouts, and a piece of land belonging thereto, containing 163 acres or thereabouts, in the Parish of Clarendon (Vere District) in the Island of Jamaica, together with the buildings, fixtures, machinery and live & dead stock thereon : which will be sold by auction, in one lot, by Messrs. Hards, Vaughan & Jenkinson, before James Fleming, Esq., Q.C., and Reginald John Cust, Esq., Commissioners for Sale of Incumbered Estates in the West Indies, at the Sale Room of the Commissioners.

Title from accompanying text. "In the matter of the Estate of Issac Baruh Lousada, deceased." "Sale on Wednesday, the 14th day of May, 1879." Accompanied by text: In the Court of the Commissioners for Sale of Incumbered Estates in the West Indies, Jamaica. ([4] unnumbered pages : cadastral data, annotations ; 44 cm, folded to 28 x 11 cm). "At the Auction Mart, Tokenhouse Yard, in the city of London, on Wednesday, the 14th day of May, 1879, at one o'clock precisely. The purchaser will have an indefeasible Parliamentary Title under the Seal of the Court." Available also through the Library of Congress Web site as a raster image.



Mile Gully

Culture in Education

Manchester’s Culture and History - Past to the Present

05/11/2013

Manchester Parish Development Committee

Trainer: Mrs. Blackwood Meeks

In 1799, an advertisement appeared in the Jamaica Mercury and Kingston Advertiser for the sale of a property referred to as ‘Mile Guely’. Names of persons connected with the transaction were: Thomas Blen___, Robert Miller, Thomas R__, John Allen and William Hays. The Manchester Vestry Minutes mention that Mile Gully Pen had 148 slaves and 320 stock, and that the sum which the estate had to pay to the area’s way warden for upkeep of the roads, etc., was £43.13.4. There are later references to Mile Gully Pen, which was owned in 1815 by Thomas H. Barrett – whose family was among the first English settlers who received land patents in Jamaica from the King of England. However, the estate may have been in operation from as early as the 1790s. By 1818, the property was chiefly a supplier of coffee and young steers, which were respectively sold in London and to the local plantations, Garbrand Hall and Paradise Estate.

The crop account of 31st December 1819 to 31st December 1820 for Mile Gully Pen, which by this time belonged to the heirs of the deceased Thomas Barrett, records a shipment of three puncheons of rum, 27 tierces of coffee and 30 tierces of sugar to London. In 1820, Garbrand Hall Estate was sold a bull and two cows for a total cost of £80; Alexander Campbell was sold 16 cows for £288; Paradise Estate sold two fat calves for £40 and 700ft cedar planks for £42; and 5,000ft cedar in log shipped to Mullet Hall Estate in St. Thomas-in-the-East, though no cost was given. The manager of Mile Gully Pen was then James Matthew White while the overseer was George Lindsay. Also in 1820 was a slave return of the property where 232 slaves were accounted for.

By 1840, Mile Gully Pen was owned by John Nunes although a substantial acreage (7,942 acres) was owned by Haten Pearson; and by 1846 Mile Gully Pen was being operated jointly with Spitzbergen Plantation and had reported a total earning of £848.12.9 for the period 1st January to 31st December 1846.

In the 1882 Return of Properties, Mile Gully Pen was a vast 4,000 acres property, which was owned by A.W. Heron. The estate produced coffee on only 16 acres of the land, while 800 acres were devoted to common pasture/guinea grass, with the remaining 3,184 acres a woodland. Mile Gully Pen ceased to exist as a separate operation of a person or family by 1920.


 

4.3               Unity & Blagrove

This is included as my first visits to Jamaica were at Unity house, formerly part of Cardff Hall, once owned by Blagrove.

John Blagrave
, the famous mathematician, was the son of John Blagrave of Bulmershe Court, near Sonning in Berkshire, by Anne, daughter of Sir Anthony Hungerford of Down Ampney in Gloucestershire (as well as East Shefford). He was born in Reading, but the date of his birth is unknown: probably early in the 1560s. He received his early education in his native town and, afterwards, entered St. John's College, Oxford. He did not, however, take a degree, but retired to his patrimony at Southcote Manor (Reading). He also had houses on the Seven Bridges in the town and at Swallowfield. John devoted himself to his favourite study of mathematics and became esteemed, as Anthony Wood declares, 'the flower of mathematicians of his age'.

He published four works: 1. The Mathematical Jewel, showing the making and most excellent use of a singular instrument so called, in that it performeth with wonderful dexterity whatever is to be done either by quadrant, ship, circle, cylinder, ring, dial, horoscope, astrolabe, sphere, globe or any such like heretofore devised (1585). 2. Baculum, Familliare Catholicon sive Generale: a book of the making and use of a staff newly invented by the author, called the Familiar Staff, as well for that it may be made usually and familiarly to walk with as for that it performeth the geometrical mensurations of all altitudes (1590). 3. Astrolabium Uranicum Generale: a necessary and pleasant solace and recreation for navigators in their long journeying (1596). 4. The Art of Dialling, in two parts (1609).

In private life, Blagrave was distinguished for his charity. He concerned himself with the welbeing of others and is once said to have have cast out a dumb devil from a maid at Basingstoke (Hampshire) by invoking the name of the Tetragrammaton and that of the Blessed Trinity. His father settled upon him, in 1591, the lease for ninety-nine years of lands in Southcote, which he in turn bequeathed this to his nephew, the regicide Daniel Blagrave, son of Alexander Blagrave of Southcote Manor, the famous Chess-Player, and his wife, Margaret; and as many as eighty other relatives are said to have benefited from his will. To his native town of Reading, he left certain legacies, one of which provided annually the sum of twenty nobles to be competed for by three maid servants of good character and five years' service under one master, to be selected by the three parishes of the town. The whimsical conditions of this bequest required that the maids should appear on Good Friday in the town hall before the mayor and aldermen and, there, cast lots for the prize. The losers had the right of competing a second and third time.

Blagrave died on 9 Aug 1611 and was buried, in the same grave as his mother, in the church of St. Lawrence in Reading, wherein an elaborate monument of himself, surrounded by allegorical figures, was erected by Gerard Christmas. He married a widow, whose daughter is named in his will, but he left no issue.


Jamaica Gleaner

The Blagrove legacy: The Oliver Cromwell years and be­yond

Oliver Cromwell

23 Dec 2018 Anthony Gambrill

PRECISELY WHEN John Blagrove came to Jamaica is unknown, although he was a ‘regicide’, a supporter of Oliver Cromwell who had designs on Spain’s Caribbean and South America possessions.

By 1689, he owned 700 acres in Hanover originally known as Maggotty, named for the river running through his land. It was later renamed Kenilworth. On his death, he also owned plantations in St Ann - Orange Valley, Unity, Pembroke and Cardiff Hall. His

will listed properties covering 1,880 acres, he possessed 929 slaves, £54,000 in currency while owing £32,000 of debt.

He was not so fortunate in family matters. His son, Thomas, died at 21, a year after his marriage to El­izabeth Campbell. Their union had produced a single child named John, named after his grandfather. Being a minor, although inherit­ing from his justdeceased father the plantations his grandfather had acquired, John Jr was to be legally in the care of a guardian for many years.

GRAND TOUR

As was the custom among the male offspring of wealthy propri­etors, John went to England to be educated at Eton, then Oxford. He also undertook the ‘Grand Tour’ of Europe designed to broaden his mind, if not also to let him sow his wild oats. It was during this era that he sat for the renowned Ital­ian portrait painter Pompeo Batoni. His conventional portrait was the necessary finishing touch of the Grand Tour for upper-class gentry. The portrait is in our Na­tional Gallery.

In 1777, John married Anne Shakespeare before returning to Jamaica to take up the manage­ment of his estates, where he was to spend the next 25 years residing at Cardiff Hall. The couple had four sons - none of whom out­lived their father - and four daughters. Three of the children

were born between 1780 and 1782, when the Blagroves were in Eng­land possibly to avoid the threat of tropical diseases inflicted on new­borns. Two of the sons were to get caught up in the Napoleonic Wars in France. Charles died in France in internment, while Peter even­tually escaped returning to Ja­maica where he died aged 30.

As well as allowing for nine natu­ral children by three different mothers, John Blagrove’s will ap­pears to have deliberately failed to include his son, John Williams Blagrove, who, in fact, had been incarcerated for many years in a lunatic asylum favoured by the elite for its ‘discretion’ in Hack­ney, London.

Cardiff Hall was John Blagrove Jr’s with the plantation typically producing sugar for molasses and rum, as well as pi­mento, breeding cattle and horses, even growing coffee. He was noted for improving his breeds of cattle by importing stock from Britain. He also brought in race horses to take part in competitions held on race courses in Runaway Bay. He represented St Ann in the House of Assembly, following the tradition of his father who briefly sat for Hanover.

He died in 1824 having returned to Britain in 1805. Here he had bought and rebuilt Ankerwycke House in Wraysbury, Bucking­hamshire, later moving to Hamp­shire. The imposing remains of the Kenilworth, ex-Maggotty sugar factory, can still be seen on the site of the Heart Institute in

$1 TO EACH SLAVE

Curiously, the Times of London in a complimentary vein quoted his will:

“And lastly, to my loving people, denominated and recognised by the laws as, and being in fact my slaves, in Jamaica, but more esti­mated and considered by me and my family as tenants for life, at­tached to the soil, I bequeath a dollar for every man, woman, and child as a small token of my regard for their faithful and affectionate service and willing labours to my­self and my family, being recipro­cally bound in one general tie of master and servant in the pros­perity of the land, from which we draw our mutual comforts and subsistence in our several rela

tised on by the hired labourer of the day in the UK), the contrary of which doctrine is held only by the visionists of the puritanical orders against the common feeling of mankind.” At the time, he was the owner of 1,500 slaves in Hanover and St Ann.

I am in debt to Friends of the Ge­orgian Society of Jamaica for pointing out that the longestheld Jamaican-Cromwellian patent was held by the Blagrove family in St Ann, which ended in 1974 with the sale of Hopewell, near Discovery Bay.

I Anthony Gambrill is a playwright and historian. Email feedback to columns@gleanerjm.com.

 

 


 

5        Road & Parish Changes

The following are extracts from
“Acts of Assembly”
Passed in the Island of Jamaica
From the year 1681 to the year 1768, inclusive
In two volumes
Saint Jago de la Vega, Jamaica
Printed by Lowry and Sherlock, printers, Booksellers and Stationers
MDCCLXIX

Surveyors

 

Act 24 1683 P38 - An Act for regulating Surveyors,

BE it enacted by the Governor, Council, and Assembly; and it is hereby enacted and ordained by the Authority of the same, That no Person whatsoever shall presume to act or perform the Office or Employment of a Surveyor-general within this Island, before he hath given good and sufficient Security in the Sum of Four Thousand Pounds, current Money of this Island, for the just and faithful Performance of his Office and Trust, according to the Duty of his said Office and Employment, and that the Bonds for Security be carefully kept and recorded in the Secretary's Office; and upon any Damages received by any Person from the said Surveyor, or any deputed under him, in the negligent or corrupt Performance of his or their Surveys, and due Application thereon made to the Governor, the said Bond shall be put in Suit, and due Recovery thereof made for such Damages as they shall prove to have received, in the same Manner and Form as is declared and provided by the Act, entitled, An Act requiring all Masters of Ships and Vessels to give Security in the Secretary's Office.
II. Provided always, and it is the true Intent and Meaning of this Act, That it shall and may be lawful for any Person or Persons whatsoever to survey, re-survey, and run any dividing Lines, and give Plats of any Land already patented, or that shall be patented or surveyed within this his Majesty's Island, except where the King is or shall be a Party; in which case only the Surveyor-general, his Deputy or Deputies, or any other Person thereunto lawfully authorised by the Governor for the Time being, shall survey, re-survey, or run dividing Lines, and give Plats thereof; any Law, Custom, or Usage seeming to the contrary in any wise notwithstanding.
III. Be it further enacted and ordained by the Authority aforesaid, That the Surveyor-general, or any other Person thereunto lawfully authorised, as aforesaid, shall, by himself, or his Deputy or Deputies, execute every such Order or Warrant for the surveying or running out of Lands, as from time to time shall be directed to him or them, as aforesaid, within a reasonable Time after the proving of such an Order or Warrant; that is to say, in any Place within the Parishes of St. Catharine, Port Royal, or St. Andrew, within one Month; in any Place within the Parishes of Vere, Clarendon, St. Dorothy, St. John, St. Mary, St. Thomas in the Vale, St. David, or St. Thomas to Windward, within Three Months; and in any other Parish whatsoever within this Island, within Six Months; upon Penalty of one Hundred Pounds, current Money of this Island, for every such Default; the one Half to our Sovereign Lord the King, his Heirs and Successors, for and towards the Support of the Government of this Island, and the contingent Charges thereof; and the other Moiety to the Person aggrieved, or to him that shall sue for the same; to be recovered in any of his Majesty's Courts of Record within this Island, by Bill, Plaint, or Information, wherein no Essoin, Protection, or Wager of Law shall be allowed.
IV. Provided always, That if any Person under the Pretence of surveying Lands, shall cause the Surveyor, or any of his Deputies, to take a Journey, and when he comes at the Time and Place assigned, shall not be there ready to shew him the Land that is to be surveyed, so that he cannot Perform the same; the Parties aforesaid shall pay and satisfy unto the said Surveyor or his Deputy, Ten Shillings per Diem for every Day he shall so lose, for his Pains and Charges in the said Journey.
V. And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That the said Surveyor-general, by himself, or his Deputy, erect his Office at the Town of St. Jago de la Vega, under the Penalty of Five Hundred Pounds, current Money of this Island., to be recovered and levied as aforesaid; and that he, or his Deputy, keep or attend his Office from Eight to Eleven in the Forenoon, and from Two to Five in the Afternoon, every Day, except Sundays and Holidays, under the Penalty of Forty Shillings, to be recovered by Warrant from any justice of the Peace, to the Uses aforesaid; any Custom or Ufage heretofore to the contrary notwithstanding.
VI. Provided, That a Power be left in the King's Majesty, and his Officers, to re-examine the Surveyors for what concerns his Majesty.


1683 Act 25 Vol 1 P39

An Act for further directing and regulating the Proceedings of Surveyors.
FORASMUCH as it hath been found by Experience, that the Act, entitled, An Act sor regulating Surveyors, hath not sufficiently provided against the several Abuses by sundry evil-disposed Surveyors formerly, and now also often done and committed, contrary to their Duty and the Trust reposed in them, to the Damage of his Majesty, and of his liege People of this Island, and which in some cases may tend to the utter Ruin of many of his good Subjects; for Prevention whereof, be it enacted by the Governor and Council, and Assembly, and it is hereby enacted and ordained by the Authority of the same, That no Surveyor whatsoever presume to deliver any Plat, whereby any Parcel of Land shall pass the Broad Seal of this Island, before he hath himself, in his own Person, actually surveyed and measured the said Land on every Side thereof, where it is accessible and possible to be done, and hath also seen the Lines fairly made, and the Corner-trees marked with the first Letters of his Name and Surname, expressed in the Order; and that the said Plat shall truly represent the respective Parcels of Land, with their true Bounds and Bearings, and expressing the Sort of Wood every Corner-tree is of, with the Alphabetical Marks aforesaid, and also insert the Scale of the same, either drawn or expressed therein, under the Penalty of Fifty Pounds for every such Default.
II. And be it further enacted and ordained by the Authority aforesaid, That where any Surveyor shall be called, or employed to survey or re-survey any Parcel of Land, bounding upon any Land already taken up, the said Surveyor, before he presume to run upon any such Lines, shall give Notice thereof to the reputed Owners or Possessors of the said Land, if he know them, and that they are Inhabitants in the Precinct where the said Survey or Re-survey is intended to be made or done; and if he does not know the Owners of the said Land, or that the said Owners dwell not in the Precinct, that then he give Notice to the Two next Neighbours, under the Penalty of Twenty Pounds for every such Default.
III. And be it further enacted and ordained by the Authority aforesaid, That no Surveyor shall presume to survey or lay out any Land to pass the Broad Seal of this Island, directly or indirectly, for his own Use, but shall employ some other Surveyor to do the same, under the Penalty of Fifty Pounds.
IV. And whereas sundry Surveyors have practised to give Plats to pass the King's Grant for several Parcels of Land, upon some of which Parcels they have, either through Negligence or evil Design, never made any actual Survey, viz. either marking one Corner-tree or more, and running and marking no Line, but projecting the Whole, or else some Part where the natural Situation of the Land would well permit the due Survey and cutting Lines, which tends to the Dishonour of his Majesty, and great Damage, even in some case to the Ruin of many of his good Subjects of this Island; be it therefore enacted and ordained by the Authority aforesaid, That all present Surveyors who have given Plats, whereby any Parcel of Land hath passed the Broad Seal of this Island, without actual surveying on all Sides where the Situation of the said Land makes it possible to be done, shall on Request to them made at any Time, complete any former Survey, according to the Plat by them given, running fair Lines where they had before projected only, and marking Trees in the said Lines with Three Notches in Wood-land, according to Custom, and making fitting Marks in other Lands.
V. And it is hereby also provided, That no Surveyor, or who hath executed the Office as a Surveyor, is hereby obliged to make Re-survey, or cut Lines in Lands which have been patented more than Four Years; and whatsoever Surveyor, or that hath executed the Office of a Surveyor in this Island, shall, after due Request, as aforesaid, deny, refuse, or delay to cut the above said Lines, and rectify the above mentioned Errors, in such Manner as is before expressed, shall forfeit for every Three Months they shall so deny, refuse, or delay the same, the Sum of Twenty Pounds, to be recovered in any Court of Record in this Island; one Half whereof to our Sovereign Lord the King, for the public Use of this Island, and the other Half to the Informer, Party injured, or who will sue for the same.
VI. And for Prevention of Disputes and Differences that may arise also of an evil Practice of some Surveyors, who, when an Order hath been given for running out Land, have made their own Advantage of the same, running it out for other Persons; it is also hereby enacted, That every Surveyor shall, at any Time when an Order for the Survey of Land is offered him, immediately take a Memorandum thereof, with the Place where the Party bringing it desires it should be run out, mentioning also the Time of the Receipt thereof, and shall also write the same on the Back of the said Order, and shall also survey the said Land accordingly for the said Person, if he be ready in reasonable Time, after due Notice by the said Surveyor given to shew the said Land; and if it shall so happen, that the said Surveyor shall have received an Order already, which he believes is for the said Parcel of Land, he shall then declare the same, and also shew the said Order, if desired, under the Penalty of Forty Pounds for every such Default; and every Surveyor shall, on every Survey, return Two Plats of the said Survey into the Patent-office, the one to be left there, and the other to be affixed to the Survey into the Patent office,
VII. And it is hereby also further enacted, That the Clerk of the Patents shall affix one of the Two Plats delivered him by the Surveyor (as above provided) unto the Grant, and keep the other Plat in the said Office, without any Embezilment of the same; and that the Secretary of this Island shall record a true Copy of the Plat so affixed to the Grant or Patent, next unto the Record of each respective Grant or Patent; and that the Clerk of the Patents shall receive for writing an original Patent, Ten Shillings, and no more; and if the Clerk of the Patents, or Secretary of this Island, shall offend against any of the Clauses of this Act, he or they, who shall so offend, shall forfeit the Sum of Twenty Pounds for each Offence by him or them committed.
VIII. And it is also hereby enacted, That every Surveyor, or Clerk of the Patents, or any other Person, in whose Hands soever any original Plat is lawfully lodged, shall, on Request by any one made, give a true Copy of any Plat in their Copy of an Possession, and receive Two Shillings and Six-Pence for the same, and no more; and whosoever aforesaid shall refuse or deny the same, shall forfeit Forty Shillings for every such Offence, to be recovered by Warrant from any justice of the Peace; one Half of which Forfeiture to be received by the said justice, and paid by him to the Church-wardens, for the Use of the Poor of the Parish, and the other Half to the Party complaining.
IX. And whereas in an Act, intituled, An Act for regulating Fees, it is made lawful for every Surveyor to receive Two Pence per Acre for all Lands by him surveyed, viz. for the Survey of the same, and no more; it is hereby enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That it shall and may be lawful for every Surveyor receive one Penny per Acre more than the said Act allows; that is, Three Pence per Acre for surveying any Quantity of Land, and no more.
X. And it is hereby enacted, That every Person who shall receive a Commission from the Governor to be a Surveyor in this Island, shall give Bond, with sufficient Surety, in the Sum of Three hundred Pounds, for the true and just Performance of his Office, before he act in the same, under the Penalty of Fifty Pounds for every such Offence; the said Bond to be carefully kept and recorded in the Secretary's Office, that upon any Negligence or corrupt Performance of their Office, it may be put in Suit, in the same Manner as is declared and provided for the Recovery of the Bond for Security given by all Masters of Ships and Vessels, and appointed in the Act, entitled, An Act requiring all Masters of Ships and Vessels to give Security in the Secretary's Office.
XI. But it is hereby provided nevertheless, That if the Surveyor-general shall keep his Office, and Perform the Duties herein required, both in his own Person and his Deputies, and as is provided in an Act, entitled, An Act for regulating Surveyors; that then it shall and may be lawful for the said Surveyor-general to employ Deputies, as formerly hath been done; but that his Bond of Four thousand Pounds, mentioned in the aforesaid Act, shall remain cautionary for Security, that himself, and also his Deputies, do well observe and Perform all the Directions and Clauses of this Act for future Surveys, under the several Penalties therein expressed.
XII. Be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That if Robert Felgate, or any Person whatsoever, who have any original Plat in their Custody, do not return the same into the Patent-office at or before the Five and twentieth Day of March next ensuing, shall, upon due Conviction thereof, for every Plat so kept back, forfeit the Sum of One hundred Pounds.
XIII. And it is also hereby enacted and ordained by the Authority aforesaid, penalties, That all Penalties mentioned in this Act, and no Provision made where they shall be recovered, or how disposed of, shall be recovered by Bill, Plaint, or Information, in any Court of Record within this Island, wherein no Essoin, Protection, or Wager of Law shall be allowed; one Half of which Forfeitures shall be unto our Sovereign Lord the King, towards the Support of the Government of this Island, and the contingent Charges thereof; and the other Half to him or them that shall sue for the same; any Law, Custom, or Usage to the contrary notwithstanding.


Parish Boundaries



1683: Boundary of St Elizabeth & Clarendon

Act 26: A supplementary and explanatory Act. Vol 1 P42, 1683

III. Be it enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That a North-north-West Line  from the Head of Swift River to the South Bounds of St Anne's, shall be the Easterly and Westerly Bounds of the Parishes of St. Elizabeth and Clarendon.


1703: Dividing St Elizabeth

Vol 1. Act 45, P73

An Act for dividing the Parish of St. Elizabeth into Two distinct Parishes for the Ease of the Inhabitants.

WHEREAS the Parish of St. Elizabeth is of such large Extent, that the Inhabitants, without long Time of Warning, extraordinary Fatigue, Loss of Time, and great Expense, cannot convene and appear on public Occasions, either at Church, Election of Members to serve as Representatives in Assemblies, choosing Church-wardens or Vestrymen, laying on Taxes, appointing Surveyors, and many other Privileges, as Subjects of England, are thereby lost: And whereas the Quantity of Land, Number of Settlements, and Inhabitants contained in the said Parish, are sufficient for Two several and distinct Parishes; Be it therefore enacted and ordained by her Majesty's Lieutenant-Governor, Council and Assembly, and it is hereby enacted and ordained by the Authority of the same, That the said Parish of St. Elizabeth be divided, and The Parish of is hereby divided into Two separate and distinct Parishes, at a Place commonly called and known by the Name of Scott's Cove, in Syrranam Quarters, from thence due North-east, shall divide the said Two Parishes; and from the East-ward of the said Division to the Parish of Clarendon and Vere, shall be a distinct and separate Parish, to be called and known by the Name of the Parish of St. Elizabeth; and to the Westward of the said Dividing, as aforesaid, to the South Bounds of the Parish of St. James, shall be a distinct and separate Parish, and is hereby called and to be known by the Name of the Parish of Westmoreland; which said Two Parishes shall be, and for ever hereafter taken and esteemed, to all Intents and Purposes, Two distinct Parishes, separate from each other, and be called and known by the Name of the Parishes of St. Elizabeth and Westmoreland, and have, use, exercise, and enjoy all and every the Powers, Authorities, Benefits, and Privileges, Rights, Immunities, and Customs, that all or any of the Parishes or Precincts within this Island have or ought to have, use, exercise, or enjoy of common Right, or by virtue of any general Act or Acts of this Country, as fully, amply, and effectually, as if they had been Two distinct and separate Parishes or Precincts, and therein by Name expressly mentioned and specified; any Law, Custom, or Usage to the contrary notwithstanding.

II. And whereas it may be supposed that the Parish of St. Elizabeth, before the separating and dividing thereof, was indebted and in Arrear, in taxing, levying, and paying some public Debt, or Sum of Money: And whereas there is already, before the dividing of the Parish, as aforesaid, Money taxed, collected, or paid to the Church-wardens or Constables; therefore be it enacted and ordained by the Authority aforesaid, That the Church-wardens which shall be next chosen for each of the Two several and respective Parishes, shall have and receive, sue for, or recover such Proportion of the Money already taxed, levied, or paid, as was taxed, levied, collected, or paid in or by the Inhabitants of the Parish of Westmoreland before they were divided; and that each of the said Parishes shall raise Money according to the Proportion aforesaid, for the Payment and discharging such public Debts as were due from the Parish of St. Elizabeth at the Time of the dividing the fame into Two separate and distinct Parishes; any Law, Custom, or Usage in any wise to the contrary notwithstanding.



1723: Westmoreland divided.

Act 76 Vol 1 P136

An AEl for dividing the Parish of Westmoreland into two distinct Parishes, for the Ease of the Inhabitants.

WHEREREAS the Parish of Westmoreland is of such large Extent, that the Inhabitants, without long Time of Warning, extraordinary Fatigue, Loss of Time, and great Expense, cannot convene and appear on public Occasions, either at Church, Election of Members to serve as Representatives in Assemblies, choosing Church-wardens or Vestrymen, laying on Taxes, appointing Surveyors, and many other Privileges, as Subjects of England, are thereby lost: And whereas the Quantity of Land, Number of Settlements, and Inhabitants contained in the said Parish, are sufficient for two separate and distinct Parishes; Be it therefore enacted and ordained by the Governor, Council, and Assembly of and for this Island, and it is hereby enacted and ordained by the Authority of the same, That the said Parish of Westmoreland be divided, and is hereby divided into two separate and distinct Parishes, in Manner following: that is to say, That such Part of the said Parish as lieth on the South-fide of. the Place commonly called and known by the Name of Negril by North, by a dividing Line to be carried directly from Negril aforesaid, unto King's Valley River, where the King's Road, leading to the North-side of this Island, cuts the said River, and from thence, by a due East Course, to the River called Great River, shall be a distinct and separate Parish, to be called and known by the Name of the Parish of Westmoreland; and to the Northward of the said Place called Negril by North, by such dividing Line as aforesaid, unto the South Bounds of the Parish of St. James, shall be a distinct and separate Parish, and is hereby called and to be known by the Name of the Parish of Hannover; which said two Parishes shall be for ever hereafter taken and esteemed, to all Intents and Purposes, two distinct Parishes, separate from each other, and be respectively called and known by the Names of the Parishes of Westmoreland and Hanover, and respectively have, use, exercise, and enjoy all and every the Powers, Authorities, Benefits and Privileges, Rights, Immunities and Customs, that all or any of the Parishes or Precincts within this Island have, or ought to have, use, exercise, or enjoy of common Right, or by virtue of any general Act or Acts of this Country, as fully, amply, and effectually, as if they had been two distinct and separate Parishes or Precincts, and therein by Name expressly mentioned and specified; any Law, Custom, or Usage to the contrary notwithstanding.

II. And whereas it may be supposed that the Parish of Westmoreland, before the separating and dividing thereof, was indebted and in Arrear in taxing, levying, and paying some public Debt or Sum of Money; and whereas there is already, before the dividing of the Parish, as aforesaid, Money taxed, collected, or paid to the Church-wardens or Constables, therefore be it enacted and ordained by the Authority aforesaid, That the Church-wardens which shall be next chosen for each of the two several and respective Parishes shall have and receive, sue for and to be divided recover such Proportion of the Money already taxed, levied, or paid, as was taxed, levied, collected, or paid in or by the Inhabitants of the Parish of Hanover before they were divided; and that each of the said Parishes shall raise Money according to the Proportion aforesaid, for the Payment and discharging such public Debts as were due from the Parish of Westmoreland at the Time of dividing the same into two separate and distinct Parishes; any Law, Custom, or Usage in any wise to the contrary notwithstanding.


1739: St Elizabeth/Vere/Clarendon Boundary


Act 121, Vol 1 P232.

Browne has this boundary in its earlier position, it is shown on Craskell & Robertson as in this act.

An Act for the uniting of those parts of Carpenters Mountains, heretofore esteemed part of the parishes of St Elizabeth and Clarendon to the parish of Vere (12 May 1739)

Whereas those parts of Carpenter’s Mountains, lying in the parishes of St. Elizabeth and Clarendon, being far, distant from the usual places of the meetings of the justices and vestry of the said respective parishes, and the plantations in the said mountains being much infested with rebellious negroes, the inhabitants of the said mountains cannot, without long time of warning, extraordinary fatigue, loss of time, and great expense and difficulties, convene and appear on public occasions, either at church, election of members to serve as representatives in assemblies, choosing churchwardens or vestrymen, assessing taxes, appointing surveyors, and attending the quarterly sessions and trials of negroes whereby many privileges to the inhabitants of those parts of the said mountains, as subjects of Great-Britain, are in a great measure lost: And whereas the uniting those parts of the said parishes of St. Elizabeth and Clarendon, called Carpenter’s Mountains, bounding from the mouth of Milk River ten miles (this must be a misprint – on Craskell, it is about 2 miles up the Milk River) up the same river-course to the bounds of Sutton and Sperry, and thence, with a north-west line, cross the mountains to Manatee Savannah, and along the top of the said mountains to Alligator Pond, and along the sea-side to the mouth of Milk River aforesaid, according to the plan annexed, would be the most effectual remedy for the ease and relief of the inhabitants of the said mountains from such their difficulties, without much inconvenience to the inhabitants, either of the parishes of St. Elizabeth or Clarendon: May it please your most excellent majesty that it be enabled; Be it therefore enacted by your Majesty’s governor, council, and assembly of this you island of Jamaica, and it is hereby enabled by the authority of the same. That those parts of Carpenter’s Mountains, heretofore esteemed part of the said parishes of St. Elizabeth and Clarendon, bounding as herein before described, according to the said plan annexed, shall for ever hereafter be united and annexed to, and be taken and esteemed, to all intents and purposes, as part of, the said parish of Vere; and that the inhabitants of those parts of the said Carpenter's Mountains herein before described, and their heirs, representatives, and successors, shall for ever hereafter have, use, exercise, and enjoy, all and every the powers, authorities, benefits, rights, immunities, and privileges, which all or any of the inhabitants of the said parish of Vere, or their heirs, representatives, or successors ought to have, use, exercise, or enjoy, of common right, or by virtue of any general act or acts of this island, as fully, amply, and effectually, as if those parts of the said mountains, now or heretofore in the said parishes of St. Elizabeth and Clarendon, had been originally in, or part of, the said parish of Vere, and had never been deemed or taken to have been in, or esteemed as part of, the said parishes of St. Elizabeth and Clarendon, or either of them; any law, custom,. or usage, to the contrary notwithstanding.

II. And whereas the inhabitants of those parts of the said mountains, before the passing of this act esteemed to have been in the said parishes of St. Elizabeth and Clarendon, or one of them, may have been indebted, or in arrear, in or by reason of some public or parochial taxes, debts, or sums of money:

And whereas before the passing of this act, money might have been assessed, taxed, collected, or paid to the churchwardens or constables of the said respective parishes of St. Elizabeth and Clarendon: Be it therefore enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the churchwardens, already chose for the parishes of St. Elizabeth and Clarendon, shall respectively have and receive, such proportion of the money already assessed, taxed, levied, or paid, as were, taxed, levied, collected, or paid, in or by the inhabitants of those parts of the said Carpenter’s Mountains, before the passing of this act esteemed to have been in, or parts of, the said respective parishes of St. Elizabeth and Clarendon, or as if this act had never been made; and that the inhabitants of those parts of the said mountains, heretofore in the said parishes of St. Elizabeth and Clarendon, shall raise money, according to their assessments, and in such proportions, for the payment and discharge of such public debts as were due from, or ought to have been paid, by, the inhabitants of those parts of the said mountains, before the passing of this act deemed to have been in the parishes of St. Elizabeth and Clarendon, or either of them, and pay the same to such person and persons, and in such manner and form, as if this act had never been made and that the justices and vestry of the said parishes of St. Elizabeth and Clarendon shall have the same powers and authorities, and shall and may assess, collect, and levy, all such acreages as are or may be due from the inhabitants of those parts of Carpenter’s Mountains, before the passing of this act esteemed to have been in the said parishes of St Elizabeth and Clarendon, in as large and ample manner as they had, or could or might, have, done, before the passing of this act: any law, custom, or usage, to the contrary notwithstanding.

1744: Road from St Ann to St Thomas in the Vale.

Vol 1 Act 140 P262.
An Act for making and opening a Road, fit for Wheel-Carriages, from the Parish of St. Anne to the Parish of St. Thomas in the Vale; and for empowering other Trustees to execute so much of the Trusts as remain unexecuted by or under an Act, entitled^


Southside to Savanna la Mar, 1823 Magistrates Guide

Southside to Savanna- la- Mar Distance from Kingston to Spanish-Town 13 miles, Spanish- Town to Old-Harbour 12, Old-Harbour to Clarendon 12, Clarendon to Green-Pond 16, Green-Pond to May-Hill 5, May-Hill to the Gutters 5, the Gutters to Goshen 5, Goshen to Lacovia 12, Lacovia to Black- River 12, Black- River to Robin's River 16, Robin's River to Savanna-la- Mar 16; total 124.


Division of Salt Savanna

 1709 Vol 1 Act 55, P91

An Act for dividing the common or salt Savanna, in the Parish of Vere.

WHEREAS our late Sovereign Lord King Charles the Second, by his Act 55.

gracious Letters Patent under the Great Seal of this Island, bearing Date

the Twentieth Day of January, which was in the Thirty-sixth Year of his Reign [1685 Plat 2/34/79], for the Considerations therein mentioned, did give and grant unto Robert Varney, late of the Parish of Vere, Esq; and his Heirs for ever, a certain Parcel of Land, lying and being in the said Parish of Vere containing by Estimation Two thousand and six hundred Acres, commonly called The common or salt Savanna (there being included in the Plat thereof Seven hundred Acres, formerly patented by Robert Smart of the said Parish; as likewise sixty Acres, formerly patented by Arthur Goodwin, of the said Parish; in all Three thousand three hundred and sixty Acres; bounding then North-easterly upon Capt. John Goddard, under the Brazileto Mountain; North-west on John Downer and Samuel Gale; Westerly, upon Col. William Ivy, the King's Road, Arthur Turner, George Osborne, Edward Green, Edward Brumpfield, Robert Barriffe, Richard Twarton, and Capt. Christopher Horner; South, on the said Horner and Richard Barriffe; Easterly, on Mr. John Lory, Capt. Homer,; the Sea and Morass, Robert Windall, Peter Killby, and John Loyd; North-easterly, on Valentine Mumby; and East, on Capt. Henry Rymes, as by the Plat thereof to the said Patent annexed appears) to have and to hold the same Premises, with their and every of their Appurtenances, unto him the said Robert Varney, his Heirs and Assigns for ever, under such Rents, Provisoes, Conditions, and Services, as are therein and thereby more particularly expressed and set forth: And whereas the said Two thousand and six hundred Acres of Land were patented by the laid Robert Varney in his Name, in Trust only for and at the special Instance and Request of several of the Inhabitants of the said Parish, to the Intent that the said Robert Varney should give and make a Title unto Thirty-three Acres and a half, for one Seventy-seventh Part of the said Land, be it more or less, to each such Inhabitant; which was afterwards by him the said Robert Varney accordingly, and pursuant to the said Trust, given and Performed: But in regard, no Division thereof in a legal Manner was then, or at any Time since hath been made among the said several Proprietors, whereby it hath remained and still doth remain as an undivided Interest; which hath occasioned not only several of the said Proprietors to enclose, fall, and manure greater Quantities of the said Land than their Shares or Proportions have amounted to, but several other Persons who have not any manner of Interest in, or the least Colour of Pretence of Right unto the said Land or any Part thereof, to enclose, fall, and manure several Parcels of the said Land, and to make great Sums of Money, and other Advantages thereby, contrary to all Law and Justice, and to the Prejudice of all the said Proprietors: And whereas a Division of the Land by a regular Course of Law, by reason of the great Number of Parties interested therein, and for several other Causes, is rendered almost, if not altogether impracticable; be it therefore enacted by the Governor, Council, and Assembly of this her Majesty's Island of Jamaica, and it is hereby enacted by the Authority of the same, That the Hon. Henry Lew, Richard Asdeburgh, John Carver, Edward Fearon, and James Rule, Esqrs. be, and are hereby appointed Commissioners for to view and inspect the several and respective Titles of the Proprietors of the said Land, to cause a Just and equal Division of the same to be made unto the said Proprietors, according to the true Intent and Meaning of this Act; which said Commissioners being first sworn so to do by the Chancellor of this Island, or such Person or Persons as he shall by Dedimus appoint to administer the said Oath, are hereby impowered to appoint and administer an Oath unto any Two such honest able Surveyors as they or the major Part of them shall approve, to make a Just and equal Division of the said Land, according to the Directions of this Act.

II. And forasmuch as the best and most valuable Part of the said Land lies together, and may be with the greatest Ease and Convenience distinguished, divided, and separated entirely and apart from that which is much more ordinary, and of less Value; the said Surveyors are hereby impowered and required to may make such distinct Division, taking into each Division such a Quantity or Number of Acres as the Commissioners in their Judgments shall direct: Which Division into Two Parcels being first made, the Surveyors shall proceed to divide again each of the said Two Parcels into Seventy-seven equal Parts, that each Proprietor may have his Proportion of the good and bad Land; which said Division being made, as aforesaid, and each Seventy-seventh Part of the said respective Parcels of Land having a particular Number assigned thereto, the said Commissioners, or the major Part of them, shall cause Seventy-seven Pieces of Paper, of equal Shape and Bigness to be numbered, from Number One to Seventy-seven, and put into or under some proper Covert; from whence the said Proprietors shall draw the said Pieces of numbered Papers, which shall determine each Share of Land of the same Number to such Proprietor that shall happen to draw the fame; and the said Commissioners, or the major Part of them, shall make Assignment of each such Share according to the respective Lots or Numbers so drawn.

III. And forasmuch as the Number of Proprietors whose Title shall appear to be approved of by the said Commissioners, or the major Part of them, may be different from that of the said Vendees of the aforesaid Patentee; and for the avoiding any Confusion that may happen thereby, it is hereby enacted and ordained by the Authority aforesaid, That in case, and whenever more Claimers than one shall appear to have Right and Title to but one full Share, or Seventy seventh Part, containing Thirty three Acres and a Half, be the same more or Right to but less; that then, and in such Case, the said Commissioners shall direct and appoint one of the said Proprietors to draw a Lot for one full Share; which said Lot so being drawn, the said Commissioners, or the major Part of them, shall cause the said full Share to be divided by the said Surveyors into such and so many distinct Parts as the said several Proprietors of the said full Lot shall appear to have a Right and Title to.

IV. And it is hereby further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That the said Commissioners shall have and receive for each Day they shall be employed in Execution of this Act, Twenty Shillings each Commissioner per Diem; to be paid them by the several Persons that shall claim or have Lots assigned them at that particular Time and Place of Meeting, when and where the said Lots shall be assigned: Which said Commissioners are hereby impowered to order and appoint such proportionable Sum or Sums of Money as the said Commissioners shall think most reasonable for defraying all such further Charges as shall arise from or be incident to the said Division, Meeting, and Assignment: And in like Manner, whensoever one or more Claimers, Proprietor or Proprietors, shall require or occasion a Meeting of the said Commissioners, or the Majority of them, in order to inspect, view, hear, or determine such their Claim or Claims; that then, and in such case, the said Commissioners, or the major Part of them, shall appoint and order as well the said Twenty Shillings for each of themselves as such other the Claimer or Claimers, Proprietor or Proprietors proportionable Part of the Charges of the said Division and Assignment, as aforesaid: And in case any such Claimer or Proprietor shall refuse to pay such their proportionable Part of such Charges so allotted them by the said Commissioners, or the major Part of them; that then, and in such case, the said Commissioners, or the major Part of them, are hereby impowered to issue out their Warrant to any Constable to distrain upon the Goods and Chattels of such Person or Persons so refusing to pay, as aforesaid, and the same to fell by public Outcry, first giving Notice of such Sale at some public Place of the Precinct where such Distraint shall be made, returning the Overplus (if any such shall be) to the Owner, deducting Twelve Pence in the Pound to the Constable, for such his Distress and Sale, as aforesaid.

V. And the said Commissioners, or the major Part of them, are hereby further impowered and enabled, upon due and satisfactory Proof to them made of the Right, Title, and Property of any Claimer or Claimers, in and to such their proportionable Part of the said Land, snd his, her, or their Lot or Lots being duly drawn, to assign to each such Claimer such his proportionable Part or Parts of the said Land, as by his, her, or their Lot or Lots shall befal unto him or them, mentioning the several Buttings and Boundings of the said proportionable Part or Parts so assigned; which said Assignment is hereby declared to invest the Fee-Simple of the said proportionable Part or Parts so assigned in him, her, or them, to all Intents and Purposes whatsoever; any Law, Custom, or Usage to the contrary thereof in any wise notwithstanding.

VL And forasmuch as several Persons that may appear to have a Right to and Interest in some Part or Share of the said Land, having Confidence of such their Right and Interest, have erected Buildings, made Indigo Works, Wells, and other Improvements, on several Parts of the said Land; which said Parts or Shares may probably by Lot happen, befall, and be assigned over unto some other Claimer and Proprietor; it is therefore hereby further enacted, That the said Commissioners, or the major Part of them, be impowered, and are hereby impowered to value and esteem such Buildings and Indigo Works, Wells, or other Improvements, as they shall think them reasonably worth; and to award such Sum or Sums of Money to be paid to him, her, or them that shall have erected such Buildings, made such Indigo Works, Wells, or other Improvements, as aforesaid, by him, her, or them to whom the said Shares mail by Lot befall and be assigned, as the said Commissioners, or the major Part of them, shall value and esteem the said Buildings, Indigo Works, Wells, or other Improvements, to be reasonably worth: And upon Refusal of such payment by the Party or Parties so awarded to pay the same, that then, and in such case, the said Commissioners are hereby impowered to issue out their Warrants of Distress for the said Sum or Sums of Money so awarded to be paid in lieu and full Assurance of such Buildings, Indigo Works, Wells, or other Improvements, as they are before impowered for the defraying the Charges incident to the Divisions and Assignment, as aforesaid.

VII. And to the Intent that the said Divisions and Assignments may be timely executed and Performed, according to the true Intent and Meaning of this Act; it is therefore further enacted, That the Commissioners, or the major Part of them, be hereby impowered and required to meet at such Place as they shall think convenient on the second Tuesday in June next ensuing, then and there to appoint said the said Surveyors; which said Surveyors so appointed, shall, upon due Notice given them by the said Commissioners, or the major Part of them, of the certain Time and Place, and when and where they shall attend the said Commissioners, in order to their being sworn, and laving out and dividing the said Land, according to the Directions and true intent and Meaning of this Act, are hereby required to attend accordingly: And at all Times hereafter the said Surveyors shall attend the said Commissioners, at such Times and Places as they the said Commissioners, or the major Part of them, shall appoint.

VIII And the said Commissioners are hereby further impowered and required give Notice at some public Place in the Parish of Vere, whenever they intend to meet in the said Parish, in order to inspect and view the Titles of the several Claimers, and make Assignments of the said Land, Five Days before the said several and respective Times of Meeting.

IX. Provided nevertheless, That nothing in this Act contained shall extend to prejudice or destroy the Right, Title, or Interest: of the aforesaid Robert Smart, his Heirs, or Assigns, in and to Seven hundred Acres of Land; and of the aforesaid Arthur Goodwin, his Heirs and Assigns, in and to Sixty Acres of Land, included in the Plat of the aforesaid Two thousand six hundred Acres of Land, as is before specified.

X. And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That in case the aforesaid Commissioners, or any one of them, shall be sued or impleaded for any thing that he or they shall act or do, by virtue and in pursuance of, and in compliance with this Act, it shall and may be lawful for the said Commissioners, or any of them, to plead the General Issue, and give this Act in Evidence, which shall be allowed as good and valid, to all Intents and Purposes whatsoever, in bar of such Suit or Action, in any of her Majesty's Courts of Record in this Island; any Law, Custom, or Usage to the contrary thereof notwithstanding.

XI AND be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That if any Surveyor or Surveyors, Constable or Constables, shall neglect his or their Duty, as in this Act is required, they shall respectively forfeit the Sum of One hundred Pounds; to be recovered in her Majesty's Supreme Court of Judicature in this Island; one Half of which Forfeitures shall be to our Sovereign Lady the Queen, her Heirs and Successors, for and towards the Support of the Government of this Island, and the contingent Charges thereof; and the other Half to the Informer, or him or them that shall sue for the same, wherein no Essoin, Protection, or Wager of Law shall be allowed, or Non vult ulterius prosequi be entered; any Law, Custom, or Usage to the contrary notwithstanding.




New Leeward Road

 

1705, New Road over One Eye Savanna:


This road is shown on Browne (surveys 1730-49) but not on Sloane. It follows the Porus River, but continues further north than the modern Mandeville to Gutter road. Browne shows the road continuing past Fosters and Dickenson’s and crossing the Black River at Barton Bridge, where is appears to stop, although later maps show it carrying on South round the morass towards Lacovia.

An Act for the making and keeping clear a public Road from Clarendon to St. Elizabeth’s, over One-Eye Savanna.

WHEREAS the present Highway from St. Jago de la Vega into the Parishes of St. Elizabeth and Westmoreland, in that Part from Swift River over Long Bay and the Devil's Race, is very inconvenient and dangerous, by reason of

the Quick-sands along the Sea-shore, and the Narrowness and Difficulty of the Pass over the Devil's Race: And whereas by several credible Persons that have travelled in the Woods and Mountains between Porus Savanna in the Parish of Clarendon, and Forsters Plantation in the Parish of St. Elizabeth, it hath been found, that a more commodious and shorter Way may be cut through the Woods from Porus Savanna aforesaid, by the Cisterus to Martin's and by One-Eye Mountain to Forsters Plantation, in the Parish of St. Elizabeth aforesaid: And it being requisite, as well for her Majesty's Service in conducting speedy Succours to each Place, as for the necessary Use of her Majesty's liege People, that a public Road be laid out from the said Parishes of St. Elizabeth and Westmorland into the Parish of Clarendon aforesaid; be it therefore enacted by her Majesty's Governor, Council, and Assembly, and it is hereby enacted and ordained by the Authority of the same, That a new Highway or Path shall be, with all convenient Speed, run out and made, leading from the Cross to Burnt Savanna, and through St. Jago Savanna by Mr. John Sutton's Penn, and so over St. Jago Savanna to Porus Savanna, in the Parish of Clarendon, according to the most direct and convenient Course it can be laid out; and from Porus Savanna aforesaid by Martin’s, and from Martins to the Cisterus, and from the Cisterus by One-Eye Mountain aforesaid, and from thence the most direct and best Way leading to Forster's Plantation in St. Elizabeth's aforesaid.

II. And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That the Commissioners for the respective Parishes, in this Act to be hereafter nominated and appointed, shall and may, and they are hereby impowered and required to administer an Oath to the Surveyor of the Highways or Way-wardens of each respective Parish, forthwith upon the Return of the Surveyors, who are to run and lay out the laid Road or Highway, to the Commissioners in this Act to be hereafter named; which said Surveyors are to be appointed by the said Commissioners: And after such Return to be made and delivered by the said Surveyors to the said Commissioners, the said Commissioners are to deliver the same to the said Way-wardens or Surveyors of the Highways, who mail thereupon forthwith proceed to the Execution and Discharge of the several respective Duties, as is required in and by an Act, entitled, An Act for the Highways, as in all other Cases of Public Roads and Highways, which said Highway shall be cut sixty Foot broad, according to an Act of this Island, entitled, An Act for the Highways, and well cleared by the Way-wardens of the Parish of Clarendon aforesaid, by the Labour of the Negroes belonging to the said Parish, by them to be warned for that Purpose, so far Westwardly as the Bounds of the said Parish shall be found to extend; and the remaining Part of the Way to Fosters Plantation, as aforesaid, shall be cut and cleared in like Manner by the Way-wardens of St. Elizabeth's: And the said Highway being so cut and cleared, shall for ever hereafter be deemed and taken as a Public Road; and shall, as often as Occasion requires, be maintained, repaired, and cleared, and kept in good Order by the Way-wardens of the said Parish of Clarendon, from the Cross aforesaid to the Westward Bounds of the said Parish of Clarendon, and by the Way-wardens of the Parish of St. Elizabeth, from thence to Forsters Plantation aforesaid, and thence by or through Dickenson’s Plantation to the next Highway, leading to the Parish of Westmoreland, through the Parish of St. Elizabeth aforesaid.

III. And to prevent all Disputes which may arise about the Bounds of the said

Parishes of St. Elizabeth and Clarendon, or otherwise however touching the Execution and Performance of this Law, be it further enacted and ordained by the Authority aforesaid, That Jonathan Gale, John Cambel Esq; Jonathan Dickenson, John Forster, and John Hodges, Gentlemen of the said Parish of St. Elizabeth; Peter Beckford, Edward Pennant, Edward Fearon, Thomas Roden, and Thomas Cargil, Esquires, of the Parish of Clarendon, be and are hereby appointed Commissioners to inspect and take Care of the due Execution of this Act; which said Commissioners, or any Three of them, shall and are hereby required to meet at the Cross in Clarendon the first Thursday in November next, in the Year of our Lord One thousand seven hundred and five, and there to choose and appoint one lawful and sworn Surveyor for the Parish of St. Elizabeth, and another for the Parish of Clarendon, who shall immediately proceed to the running out of such a Path as by this Act is appointed to be made a Highway, with the most Conveniency to the Public, and the least Prejudice or Damage to any particular Person, from the Cross, as aforesaid, to Burnt Savanna, and through St. Jago Savanna by the said John Sutton's Pen, as aforesaid, to Porus Savanna in Clarendon Parish, to Forsters Plantation in St. Elizabeth's aforesaid; and shall run out, fix, and ascertain the Bounds of the said two Parishes of St. Elizabeth and Clarendon, according as the same is appointed by a former Act of this Country for the Division of the said two Parishes; and the same so ascertained shall mark out with Stakes or other notable Marks exactly in the Line, to the End a Post of good and durable Timber may be fixed, and for ever kept and maintained therein, when the said Highway comes to be cleared; on which said Post, so to be fixed, shall be cut or carved in good legible Characters, on the Westerly Side thereof, St. Elizabeth; and on the Easterly Side thereof, Clarendon, and the same shall be always known, reputed, and taken as the Boundary of the said two Parishes, and to which these said two Parishes respectively are hereby obliged to clear, and for ever maintain: And in case any Surveyor or Surveyors, so to be chosen respectively, shall neglect or refuse immediately to proceed to the running out the intended Path and Line, as aforesaid, that then, and in such Case, they shall respectively forfeit the Sum of Fifty Pounds.

IV. And it shall and maybe lawful for the said Commissioners, or any Three of them, to appoint Two such other lawful sworn Surveyors, as they shall think fit, who are hereby impowered to act and do in the Premises as by this Act is required and intended, instead of the other Surveyors intended to be chosen respectively by the Commissioners for the said two respective Parishes of Clarendon and St. Elizabeth aforesaid, under the like Penalty of Fifty Pounds; and the said Surveyors so to be chosen and appointed, shall, as soon as they have run out the said Path and Line, make Return of their Doings therein to the said Commissioners, or any Three of them, who shall cause the same to be recorded by the Clerk of the Peace of each of the said Precincts of Clarendon and St. Elizabeth; and that the said Surveyors shall be paid by the Church-wardens of each Parish, for the Work by them done on account of each Parish, as shall be adjudged by the Commissioners aforesaid, or the Majority of them, to be paid out of the Parish Stock respectively.

V. And it is hereby further enacted by the Authority aforesaid. That the said Commissioners having received the Return of the Surveyors, as aforesaid, shall cause Two Copies of the same to be fairly drawn out, one whereof they shall forthwith send to the Way-Wardens of the Parish of Clarendon, and the other wardens to the Way-wardens of St. Elizabeth's,, with their strict Orders to each and every of them in Writing, that they respectively, as before in this Act is appointed, immediately proceed to the cutting down and clearing the said Highway, so as the same may be completed and finished within Eighteen Months after the passing the said Act: And for the better doing and effecting thereof, the said Way-wardens of the said several Parishes, and every of them respectively, are hereby authorised to issue out their Warrants to the Constables and Tythingmen, to warn the Inhabitants of the said Parishes to furnish such Numbers of able Negroes or Slaves, together with such a Number of white Men-drivers to oversee them, as shall be appointed by the Justices and Vestry of each respective Parish, together with such Tools, Provisions and other Necessaries, as shall be thought by them necessary for carrying on the said Work, and finishing the same within the Time hereby limited and appointed, as aforesaid: And whosoever shall fail to send in his or her Proportion of Workers, with such Tools as shall be convenient, shall for every Head pay Three Shillings per Day upon Conviction thereof; to be recovered before any Justices of the Peace by the Surveyors respectively; any thing in this, or any other Act to the contrary thereof notwithstanding.

VI. And if the said Way-wardens, or any of them, shall refuse to do, or neglect his or their Duty in cutting or clearing the said Highway to the Extent of their respective Bounds, as hereby is appointed, he or they so offending shall respectively forfeit the Sum of Fifty Pounds, current Money of this Island: And in case the said intended Highway shall be neglected, and not maintained in good Repair by succeeding Way-wardens, he or they that shall so offend therein, shall respectively lie under the Pains and Penalties provided in an Act of this Island, entitled, An Act for the Highways: And if any Commissioner, Justice, or Surveyor, by this Act appointed, shall neglect his or their Duty, touching the Premises, or any Part thereof, he or they shall respectively forfeit the Sum of Fifty Pounds: And if any Vestryman, Constable, or Tythingman shall neglect his or their Duty, they shall respectively forfeit Twenty Pounds; all which said Forfeitures shall be one Half to the Informer, or to him or them that shall sue for the same; the other Half to the Church-wardens of each of the respective Parishes, to the Use of the said Highways: And all other Forfeitures, not exceeding Forty Shillings, shall be recovered by the Church-wardens of the said Parishes respectively, by Action of Debt before any Justice of the Peace; and if above Forty Shillings, in any Court of Record of this Island, wherein no Essoin, Protection, or Wager of Law shall be allowed, or Non vult ulterius profequi be entered; any Law, Custom, or Usage to the contrary thereof in any wife notwithstanding.


The “New Windward Road” Act 151 1747 P284


This is the road described by Long, the latter part of which is the existing road down the May Day Hills to Gutters, and in Liddell probably went over the hills south of St Jago, up past Green Pond past Elgin, Knockpatrick and Moreland as on the map extract below. On a modern map, it is probably the road from Patrick Town, just north of Plynlimmon to pear Tree




An Act for laying out a Road from Pepper Plantation over May-Day Hills, in the Parish of St. Elizabeth, to St. Jago Savannah, in the Parish of Clarendon.

Act for the laying out and making good and convenient Roads between the different Parts of this Island, and from each to the Capital, cannot but contribute much to the future peopling, fettling, and cultivating of the Country, as well as to the Ease, Safety, and Advantage of the present Inhabitants, by promoting and facilitating an Intercourse of Commerce and Communication in Times of Peace, and of Aid and Council, in case of any public Danger: And whereas the Roads at present leading from the Leeward to the Windward Parts of this Island, are on many Accounts extremely incommodious; and it is therefore intended, as well for the Reasons aforesaid, as for the particular Benefit of the Parishes of St. Elizabeth and Westmoreland, and for the more easy Attendance of the Representatives, and others, upon the public Service at St. Jago de la Vega, to lay out and make a good and sufficient Road from Pepper Plantation over May-Day Hills, in the Parish of St. Elizabeth, to St. Jago Savannah, in the Parish of Clarendon; may it therefore please your most Excellent Majesty that it may be enacted; and be it enacted by the Governor, Council, and Assembly of this your Majesty's Island of Jamaica, and by Authority of the same, That a good and sufficient Road be forthwith laid out and made from Pepper Plantation over May-Day Hills, in the Parish of St. Elizabeth, to St. Jago Savannah, in the Parish of Clarendon; and that the Sum of Three hundred Pounds, out of the Monies to arise by virtue of an Act, entitled, An Act to oblige the several Inhabitants of this Island to provide themselves with a sufficient Number of White Men capable of bearing Arms, or White Women, or pay certain Sums of Money in case they shall be deficient, and applying the same to several Uses; and for adding Commissioners to those appointed for ordering and inspecting the Works to be performed in and about the Fortifications, passed or to be passed in this present Session of Assembly, be for that Purpose vested in the Honourable John Gale and Isaac Gale, Esqrs. and Barnart Andriess Woodstock, Nicholas Newton, Francis Cooke, Benjamin Blake, Norwood Witter, Francis Sadler Hals, Richard Beckford, Joseph Armstrong, and George Raxtead, Esqrs. and the Survivors and Survivor of them, who are hereby nominated and appointed Trustees and Commissioners for the said Road; to be received by them, or such Person or Persons as they, or any Three or more of them, shall appoint; and they, or any Three or more of them, are hereby authorized and empowered to receive and apply the same, and to enter into and execute all Contracts, and in general to do and transact all things necessary in that Behalf, to be done, laid out, and expended in making and perfecting the said road; and that the further Sum of Three hundred Pounds be, and the same is hereby also vested in them the said John Gale, Isaac Gale, Barnart Andriess Woodstock, Nicholas Newton, Francis Cooke, Benjamin Blake, Norwood Witter, Francis Sadler Hals, Richard Beckford, Joseph Armstrong, and George Raxtead, the said Commissioners; and that the Sum of Two hundred Pounds, part of the said Sum of Three hundred Pounds, shall be raised and paid by the said Parish of St Elizabeth, by an Assessment to be made by the Justices and Vestry of the said Parish, and which they are hereby empowered to make and levy in such Sort, Manner, and Form as other Parish Charges are made and levied in the said Parish, by the Laws and Statutes of this Island; and the remaining Sum of One hundred Pounds shall be raised and levied by the Parish of Westmoreland; to be assessed and levied by the Justices and Vestry of the said Parish, in Manner aforesaid: And that the respective Church-wardens of the said Parishes of St Elizabeth and Westmoreland, shall raise and levy the said several Sums of Two hundred Pounds, and One hundred Pounds, and shall pay the same into the Hands of the said Commissioners, or any Three of them; to be applied by them, or any Three or more of them, in Manner aforesaid, on or before the twenty fifth Day of December next ensuing.

II. And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That the said Trustees and Commissioners, or any Three or more of them, do and shall, on or before the First Day of May, which shall be in the Year of our Lord One thousand seven hundred and forty-eight, or as soon after as the same can be conveniently done, lay out and expend the said Sums of Three hundred Pounds, and Three hundred Pounds, or so much thereof as shall be necessary for laying out, making, and perfecting such Road, as aforesaid; and they are for that Purpose hereby authorized and empowered, by Warrant or Writing under their Hand and Seals, or under the Hands and Seals of any Three or more of them, to order and empower any Person or Persons whom they, or any Three or more of them shall employ, and with whom they shall contract or agree for that Purpose; and his or their Workmen, Servants, or Slaves, or other Person or Persons to be employed by him or them, to survey, run out, level, drain, raise, ditch, fence, and inclose, and by any Manner of Ways or Means necessary or convenient for that Purpose, to make, or cause to be made, a good and effectual Highway, not exceeding the Breadth of Sixty Feet, in any one Place or Part thereof, and not less than Forty Feet broad, where so much can be cleared and laid open; and the same to be in as straight and direct Lines, and with as few Turnings and as little Declination as the Nature of the Soil and Quality of the Lands thro' which such Road is to be carried, and the Exigency of the Work to be done, can admit of: And that it shall and may be lawful to carry on and prosecute such Work, in Manner aforesaid, and under such Restrictions, Provisos, and Limitations, as are herein after specified, although the Lands through which such Roads are to be made now are or shall then be vested in his Majesty, his Heirs and Successors, or any other Person or Persons whatsoever.

III. And whereas the making and perfecting the said Road, and the keeping the same in Repair, may be attended with an Expense exceeding the Sums hereby appropriated for that Use; be it therefore further enacted and is hereby further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That the said John Gale, Isaac Gale, Barnart Andriess Woodstock, Nicholas Newton, Francis Cooke, Benjamin Blake, Norwood Witter, Francis Sadler Hals, Richard Beckford, Joseph Armstrong, and George Raxtead, the Commissioners and Trustees aforesaid, and the Survivors of them, or any Three or more of them, or such Person or Persons as they or any Three or more of them may appoint, as aforesaid, shall and may erect, or cause to be erected One or more Gate or Gates, Turnpike or Turnpikes, in, upon, or across any Part or Parts of the said Road; and there shall receive and take the pikes, Toll or Duty following, before any Horse, Cattle, Coach. Berlin, Landau, Chariot, Chaise, Chair, Kitterin, Wagon, Wain, Cart, or other Carriage, shall pass through the fame; to wit, For every Coach, Berlin, Landau, Chariot, Chair, or Chaise drawn by Six Horses or Mules; the Sum of Three Shillings and Nine-Pence; for every of the said Carriages drawn by Four Horses only, the Sum of Two Shillings and Six-Pence; for every Chaise, Chair, or Kitterin drawn by Two Horses, the Sum of Fifteen- fence; and for every one drawn only by One Horse, Seven-Pence Half-penn; and for every Wain, Wagon, Cart, or Carriage for Goods, Provisions, or Merchandizes only, with Four Wheels, and drawn by Three or more Steers, Horses, Mules, or Asses, the Sum of Five Shillings; for every Two-wheeled Cart, or other Carriage of the like Kind, or to the like Use, and drawn by less than Three, Two Shillings and Six-Pence; for every Horse, Mare, Mule, or Ass, laden, and not drawing as aforesaid, Seven-Pence Halfpenny; for every Drove of Steers, Oxen, or neat Cattle, the Sum of Twelve Shillings and Six-Pence per Score, and so in Proportion for a greater or lesser Number; for every Drove of Calves, Sheep, Hogs, Goats, Lambs, or Kids, the Sum of Five Shillings per Score, and so in Proportion for a greater or lesser Number; for every White Person journeying on Horseback, Seven-Pence Half-penny; and for every Person riding on a Mule or Ass, Seven-Pence Halfpenny.

IV. Provided always, That this Act do not extend to charge with the said Toll any Person or Persons Carriages, Cattle, and Things, that may from Time

to Time be employed in the actual Service of the said Trustees and Commissioners, in the making or repairing the said Roads, or collecting the said Tolls: And the said respective Sums of Money shall be received and taken as and for a Toll or Duty, and the Money thereby to be raised is, and shall hereby be vested in, the said Trustees and Commissioners, and be applied and disposed of for the making, keeping, and repairing the said Road, in such Sort, Manner, and Form as before and herein after is mentioned: And the said Trustees and Commissioners, or any Three or more of them, are hereby empowered and authorized by themselves, or such Person or Persons as they or any Three or more of them shall appoint, to levy the said several Tolls or Duties, upon any Person or Persons who shall, upon Demand thereof made, neglect or refuse to pay the same, by Distress of any Horse or Horses, Cattle or Carriages, or the Goods thereon laden, from which such Toll is or ought to arise, or upon any other the Goods and Chattels of him or them who ought to pay the same; and such Distress to impound, keep or detain, until such Toll or Duty, with all Costs and Charges reasonably incident to the same, be paid and satisfied; and further to sell and dispose of the same, in such Sort, Manner, and Form, as Distress for Rent Arrear, may be sold and disposed of by the Laws and Statutes of Great Britain.

V. And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That such Toll and Duty to be raised and levied, be by the said Trustees and Commissioners applied to and for the laying out and making of the said Road, and the keeping of the same in Repair, and the Charges incident thereto; and to and for no other Purpose whatsoever.

VI. And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That if any Person or Persons having, or being in the Care, Management, or Occupation of any Lands adjoining or near to such Road, shall willingly or wittingly suffer any Person or Persons to take or make Use of any Roads or By-Paths through such Lands, whereby to Prevent the Payment of  such Toll or Duty as aforesaid, the Person Or Persons so offending, as well the Owner or Occupier of such Lands as the Party making Use of such Artifice to avoid the Payment of the Toll or Duty aforesaid, upon Complaint, in open Session, or before Two or more of his Majesty's Justices of the Peace for the Parish or Precinct where such Offence shall be committed, and due Proof thereof made by Oath of one or more credible Witness or Witnesses, or other probable Circumstance, shall respectively forfeit to the said Trustees and Commissioners Six Times the Value of  such Toll or Duty, or Forty Shillings, at the Election of the said Trustees and Commissioners, or any Three or more of them; to be applied by them, or any Three or more of them, to the Use of this Act. And further, to prevent such Frauds and Abuse as aforesaid, that it shall and may be lawful to and for the said Trustees and Commissioners, or any Three or more of them, to erect and place one or more Gate or Gates, Turnpike or Turnpikes, on the Side or Sides of the said Road, cross any Lane, Path, or Way, leading from the said Road, and there to demand, levy, and take such Toll or Duty, and to have such Remedy for the same as aforesaid, so as the same do not amount to a double Charge, or exacting for the one and the same Thing in one and the same Day.

VII. And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That it shall and  may be lawful to and for such Trustees and Commissioners, or any Three or more of them, from Time to Time, as Occasion shall require, by such Warrant, or Writing as aforesaid, to appoint one or more Overseer or Overseers, Surveyor or Surveyors of the said Roads, and one or more Receiver or Receivers, Collector or Collectors of the said Toll or Duty, with  such reasonable Salary, Hire, or Reward as they shall think fit; and them or any o; them so appointed to remove, and others in their Place and Stead to put; and that it shall and may be lawful to and for the said Overseer or Overseers, Surveyor or Surveyors, or any of them, their Servants and Slaves, or any others by them commanded, ordered, or appointed to seek for, dig, carry away, and make Use of, for the making or repairing the said Read, any Stones, Gravel, Sand, or other such like Materials, in any common Savannah or other uncultivated Ground not inclosed, next adjoining or most convenient to such Roads.

VIII. Provided always, That nothing in this Act shall be construed to extend to empower the said Trustees and Commissioners, or any Person or Persons acting under them, or by virtue of this Act, either in the laying out, making or repairing the said Road., to molest, disturb, or trespass upon any Person or Persons whatsoever, or his or their Dwelling-house, Out-houses or Curtelage, Works, Negro-Houses, Cane Pieces, Plantin Walks, or other Provision-Grounds, or in any Settlement, Pen, Pelinck, Pasture, or other inclosed Grounds whatsoever; but that upon Complaint made by any Person or Persons so mole ed, injured, or trespassed upon, - in open Session, or before Three or more of his Majesty's Justices of the Peace for the Parish or Precinct where the same shall happen, it shall and may be lawful for the said Justices in Sessions, or for such the said Justices to whom such Complaint shall be made, (and they are hereby strictly injoined and required so to do) summarily to hear the Parties so complaining, and such Witnesses as they shall offer to produce upon Oath, as likewise the said Trustees and Commissioners, and the Persons so appointed by them and their Witnesses; and upon the Whole to make such Order, either for the proceeding in the said Work, or slaying the same, as to them shall seem meet; such Order so made to be binding upon all Parties, till the said Matter can be heard and determined, in the Supreme Court of Judicature of this Island, either by Action of Trespass, to be brought by the Party so complaining, or by Removal of the said Proceedings, either by Certiorari, at the Instance of the said Commissioners, or any of them, as the Case shall happen or require.

IX. And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That the Collector or Collectors, Receiver or Receivers so to be appointed by them the said Trustees and Commissioners, or any Three or more of them, shall and may demand, take, and receive the said Toll and Duty, and all such Remedy for the same as is herein before mentioned and expressed; and further, that the said Collector and Collectors, Receiver and Receivers be, and are hereby made liable and accountable to the said Commissioners and Trustees, either according to such particular Contracts as shall be made and shall subsist between them, or, in general, for all such Sums as they shall respectively receive, over and above such Hire, Wages, or Salary, as is herein before mentioned and provided for.

X. And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That if it shall happen that any Dispute shall arise between the said Trustees and Commissioners and the said Receivers and Collectors, or any of them, or any other of their Deputies, Servants, or Substitutes, concerning the Sums received or to be accounted for, or otherwise, or for or concerning any other Thing whatsoever, that the same shall be decided and determined in such Sort, Manner, and Form, and such Order therein made, so to be obeyed and complied with, until the same shall be brought to a final Determination in the Supreme Court of Judicature of this Island, either on Removal of such Proceeding by Certiorari, or other proper Action to be brought by the Party grieved, in such Manner and Form as is herein before mentioned and provided.

XI. And for the further providing for the laying out and making the said Road, and the Expenses and Exigencies thereof; be it further enacted and ordained, by the Authority aforesaid, That it shall and may be lawful to and for the said Commissioners, and the Survivors, of them or any Three or more of them, from Time to Time, as Occasion shall require, by Lease or Mortgage of the said Tolls and Duties herein before laid, with Covenants, to execute the Powers herein given, or Alignment of the same, to raise any Sum or Sums of Money that shall be by them thought necessary for the Purposes aforesaid.

XII. Provided always, That this Act, and every Part thereof, shall be and remain of Force for the Term of Fourteen Years from the passing thereof, and from thence to the End of the next ensuing Session of Assembly, and no longer.

XIII. And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That this Act shall be deemed and taken to be a public Act, and shall be judicially taken Notice of as such by all Judges, Justices, and others, without specially pleading the same.



1750: More on 1747 Act


P322:
An Act for the more effectually carrying into Execution an Act entitled,

An Act for the laying out a Road from Pepper Plantation over May-Day Hills, in the Parish of St. Elizabeth, to St. Jago Savannah, in the Parish of Clarendon,

WHEREAS the Commissioners appointed by an Act entitled, An Act; Act for laying out a Road from Pepper Plantation over May-Day Hills, in the

Parish of St. Elizabeth, to St. Jago Savannah, in the Parish of Clarendon, passed in the Year of our Lord One thousand seven hundred and forty-seven, by reason of their great Distance from that Part of the Country through which the Road intended by the said Act to be laid out, have not been able to make a Quorum of the said Commissioners so often as was necessary to complete the same: For Remedy whereof, and that the said Road may be effectually and expeditiously laid out and finished, we, your Majesty's most dutiful and loyal Subjects, the Governor, Council, and Assembly of this your Majesty's Island of Jamaica, do most humbly beseech your Majesty that it may be enacted; be it therefore enacted by  he Governor, Council, and Assembly of this Island, and it is hereby enacted and ordained by the Authority aforesaid, That all the Commissioners appointed in and by the said Act, shall, from and after the passing of this Act, cease to be Commissioners, except Bernard Andreas Woodstock, Joseph Armstrong, and George Raxsted, Esqrs.

II. And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That they, the said

Bernard Andreas Woodstock, Joseph Armstrong, and George Raxsted, together with John Morse, Esq; shall be Commissioners for putting the said Act in Execution; and they, or either of them, mail exercise all the Rights, Jurisdictions, Powers, and Authorities, given by the before recited Act to the former Commissioners, or any Three of them.

III. And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That all and every the former Commissioners and their Executors and Administrators, and all other Persons whatsoever, in whose Hands any Money shall be and remain, belonging to or applicable to the said Road, shall forthwith pay the same into the Hands of the said Bernard Andreas Woodstock, Joseph Armstrong, George Raxsted, and John Morse, or one of them.

IV. And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That the said Bernard Andreas Woodstock, Joseph Armstrong, George Raxsted, and John Morse, or either of them, shall be, and they are hereby authorized to bring Actions for, and to recover in their, or either of their Names, either in Law or Equity, and to receive all and every Sum or Sums of Money belonging or applicable to the said Road, and to give Acquittances upon receiving the same; and they, or either of them, are further hereby empowered to do all and every other Act and Acts, Thing and Things, which the Commissioners appointed in and by the said recited Act, could or might lawfully do; any Law or Statute to the contrary notwithstanding.


Repairing St Jago – Pepper Road Vol 2 Act 32, 1762 P69

An Act, for amending and keeping in repair a Road leading from Pepper Plantation over Mayday Hills in the Parish of St Elizabeth, to Saint Jago Plantations in the Parish of Clarendon; and for vesting in Trustees the toll raised by a Turnpike on the said Mayday Hills for the Purposes aforesaid.

WHEREAS an Act entitled an Act for the laying out a Road from Pepper Plantation over the May Day hills in the Parish of St Elizabeth to Saint Jago Savannah in the Parish of Clarendon, expired the last session of the assembly, and whereas the making and keeping in repair good and sufficient Roads will contribute much to the settling and cultivating this Island as well as to the Ease, Safety and Advantage of the Inhabitants thereof, by facilitating an Intercourse of Commerce and Communication in Times of Peace, and of Aid and Council in case of public Danger; and whereas the aforesaid Road leading over Mayday Hills cannot, by the ordinary Course provided by the Laws of this Island for repairing the Highway, be effectually amended and kept in good repair; to the intent that so necessary a Road may be with all convenient Speed amended and kept in good and sufficient Repair, may it please your most Excellent Majesty that it may be enacted, Be it therefore enacted by the Governor, Council and Assembly of this your Majesty's Island of Jamaica; and it is hereby enacted by the Authority of the same, that the Honorable John Scott, the Honorable Norwood Witter and the Honorable Zachary Bayly, Esquires, Members of your Majesty's Council; John Olyphant, Robert Dellap, John Campbell, William Lewis, James Dawes, Alexander Crawford, Thomas Fearon, Luke Spencer Dowell and Walrond Fearon, Esquires, Members of the present Assembly, and Julines Beckford, George Raxtead, David Mitchell, Christopher Brooks, Thomas Wallin, Esquires, and the Reverend John Venn shall be, and they are hereby nominated and appointed Trustees, for the surveying, ordering, amending and keeping in Repair the said Road, leading from Pepper Plantation over Mayday Hills in the Parish of Saint Elizabeth, to Saint Jago Plantations in the Parish of Clarendon; and also, for putting in Execution all other the Powers in and by this Act given, and they and that the Survivors of them, or any three or more of them, or such Person or Persons as they or any five or more of them shall authorize or appoint, shall and may, from and immediately after the passing of this Act, erect or cause to be erected, one or more Gate or Gates, Turnpike or Turnpikes in, upon, or across any Part or Parts of the said Road, and their shall receive and take the Toll or Duty following, before any Horse or other Beast, or any Coach, Berlin, Landaw, Chariot, Chair, Chaise, Ketterine, Wain, Cart, or other Carriages shall pass thro' the same; to wit, for every Coach, Berlin, Landaw, Chariot, Rates of the Chair or Chaise drawn by six Horses or Mules, the Sum of Seven Shillings and Sixpence; for every of the aforesaid Carriages drawn by four Horses or Mules only, the Sum of five Shillings; for every Chaise, Chair or Ketterine, drawn by two Horses or two Mules, the Sum of two Shillings and Sixpence; and for every one, drawn only by one Horse or Mule, one Shilling and Threepence; and for every Wain, Waggon, Cart or Carriage for Goods, Provisions or Merchandizes only, with four Wheels and drawn by three or more Steers, Horses, Mules or Asses, the Sum of Ten Shillings; for every two wheeled Cart or other Carriage of the like kind, or to the like Use and drawn by less than three Steers, Horses or Mules, five Shillings; for every Horse, Mare, Mule or Ass, loaden and not drawing as aforesaid, one Shilling and threepence; for every drove of Steers, Oxen or Neat Cattle, the Sum of one Pound five Shillings per Score, and so in Proportion for a greater or lesser Number, for every Drove of Calves, Sheep, Hogs, Goats, Lambs, or Kids, the Sum of Ten Shillings per Score, and so in Proportion for a greater or lesser Number; for every Person journeying on Horse-back, one Shilling and threepence; for every Person riding on a Mule or Ass, one Shilling and threepence.

II. Provided always that this Act doth not extend to charge with the said Toll, any Person or Persons, Carriages, Cattle and Things that shall from Time to Time be employed in the actual Service of the said Trustees in the amending or repairing the said Road, or collecting the said Tolls; and the said respective Sums of Money shall be received and taken as and for a Toll or Duty, and the Money thereby to be railed is and shall hereby be veiled in the said Trustees, and be applied and disposed of, for the amending and keeping in repair the said Road, in such Sort, Manner and Form as herein after is mentioned; and the said Trustees or any three or more of them, are hereby empowered and authorized, by themselves or such Person or Persons, as they or any five or more of them shall appoint, to levy the said several Tolls or Duties upon any Person or Persons, who shall upon Demand thereof made, neglect or refuse to pay the same, by distress of any Horse or Horses, Cattle or Carriages, or the Goods thereon loaden, from which such Toll is or ought to arise, or upon any other the Goods and Chattels of him or them, who ought to pay the same, and such Distress to impound, keep or detain, until such Toll or Duty, with all Costs and Charges reasonably incident to the same be paid and satisfied; and further to fell and dispose of the same, in such Sort, Manner and Form, as distresses for Rent-Arrears may be sold and disposed of, by the Laws and Statutes of Great-Britain.

III. And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That such Toll and Duty so to be raised and levied shall be, by the laid Trustees applied to and for the amending and keeping in good and sufficient repair the said Road, and the charges incident thereto, and to and for no other Purpose whatsoever.

IV. And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, that if any Person or Persons, having or being in the Care, Management, or Occupation of any Lands adjoining or near to such Road, shall willingly or wittingly suffer any Person or Persons to take or make Use of any Roads or bye Paths through such Lands, thereby to prevent the Payment of such Toll or Duty as aforesaid, and the Person or Persons so offending, as well the Owner or Occupier of such Lands, as the Party making Use of such Artifice, to avoid the Payment of the Toll or Duty aforesaid, upon complaint in open Session, or before two or more of his Majesty's Justices of the Peace for the Parish or Precinct where such Offence shall be committed, and due Proof thereof made by Oath of one or more credible Witness or Witnesses, or other probable Circumstance, shall respectively forfeit to the said Trustees, six times the Value of such Toll or Duty, or Forty Shillings, at the Election of the said Trustees, or any three or more of them, to be applied by them or any three or more of them, to the Uses in this Act mentioned; and further, to prevent such Frauds and Abuses as aforesaid, that it shall and may be lawful, to and for the said Trustees, or any three or more of them, to erect and place one or more Gate or Gates, Turnpike or Turnpikes, on the Side or Sides of the said Road, cross any Lane, Path or Way leading from the said Road, and there to Demand, levy or take such Toll or Duty, and to have such Remedy for the same as aforesaid, so as the same do not amount to a double Charge, or exacting for the one and the same Thing, in one and the same Day.

V And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That it shall and may be lawful, to and for such Trustees, or any five or more of them from Time to Time as Occasion shall require, by such Warrant or Writing as aforesaid, to appoint one or more Overseer or Overseers, Surveyor or Surveyors of the laid Roads, and one or more Receiver or Receivers, Collector or Collectors of the said Toll or Duty, with such reasonable Salary, Hire or Reward, as they shall think fit, and them or any of them so appointed to remove, and others in their Place and Stead to put, and that it shall and may be lawful, to and for the said Overseer or Overseers, Surveyor or Surveyors, or any of them, their Servants and Slaves or any others by them commanded, ordered or appointed, to seek for, dig, carry away and make Use of, for making or repairing the said Road, any Stones Gravel, Sand or other such like Materials, in any Common, Savannah or other uncultivated Ground, not enclosed, next adjoining or most convenient to such Roads.

VI. Provided always, that nothing in this Act shall be construed to extend, to empower the said Trustees or any Person or Persons acting under them, or by Virtue of this Act, either in the laying out, making or repairing the said Road, to molest, disturb or trespass upon any Person or Persons whatsoever, or his or their dwelling House, Out house or Curtelage, Works, Negro houses, Cane Pieces, Plantain Walks or other Provision Grounds, or in any Settlement, Penn, Polink, Pasture or other inclosed Grounds whatsoever; but that upon Complaint made, by any Person or Persons so molested, injured or trespassed upon, in open Session, or before two or more of his Majesty's Justices of the Peace, for the Parish or Precincts where the same shall happen, it shall and may be lawful for the said Justices in Sessions, or for such of the said Justices, to whom such Complaint shall be made, and they are hereby strictly injoined and required so to do, summarily to hear the Parties so complaining, and such Witnesses as they shall offer to produce upon Oath, as likewise the said Trustees and the Persons so appointed by them, and their Witnesses, and upon the whole to make such Order, either for the proceeding in the said Work, or flaying the same, as to them shall seem meet, such Order so made to be binding upon all Parties, till the said Matter can be heard and determined in the Supreme Court of Judicature of this Island, either by Action of Trespass to be brought by the Party so complaining or by removal of the said Proceedings, either by Certiorari at the instance of the said Trustees, or any of them, as the cafe shall happen or require.

VII. And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That the Collector or Collectors, Receiver or Receivers, so to be appointed by hem, the said Trustees, or any five or more of them, shall and may demand, take and receive the said Toll and Duty, and have all such Remedies or the same, as is herein before mentioned and expressed; and further, that the said Collector and Collectors, Receiver and Receivers, be, and they are hereby made liable and accountable, to the said Trustees, either according to such particular Contracts as shall be made and shall subsist between them, or in general, for all such Sums as they shall respectively receive over and above such Hire, Wages or Salary as is herein before-mentioned and provided for.

VIII. And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That if it shall happen, that any dispute shall arise between the said Trustees, and the said Receiver and Collectors or any of them, or any of their Deputies, Servants or Substitutes concerning the Sums received, or to be accounted for, or otherwise, or for or concerning any other Thing whatsoever, that the same shall be decided and determined in such Sort, Manner and form, and such Order therein made, so to be obeyed and complied with, until the same shall be brought to a final Determination, in the Supreme Court of Judicature of this Island, either on Removal of such Proceeding by Certiorari, or other proper Action to be brought by the Party grieved n such Manner and Form as is herein before mentioned and provided.

IX. AND whereas, there are many Owners or Possessors of Lands joining to, or upon the said Road, and near to the Ends or Limits of the same, who may be put to great Expenses, were they subjected to pay the full Toll or Rates, not only on the necessary Occasions of sending their Cattle of different kinds to Water or Work, but also for the Carriage of Provisions from their Grounds or Timber for the Building or repairs of their Works, be it therefore enacted, that the Trustees aforementioned or any three or more of them be impowered, to agree with the said Owners or Possessors of Land joining to or upon the said Road, or with the Attorneys or Overseers of such Owners or Possessors of the said Lands, upon such Terms as to them may appear reasonable, for yearly or half yearly Sums, to be paid to the Collector or Collectors aforesaid, towards keeping the said Road in repair, instead of the Toll or Rates before specified and expressed.

X. And be it further enacted that this Act, and every Part thereof shall be and remain in Force, for the Term of Fifteen Years, from the passing thereof, and from thence to the end of the next ensuing Session of Assembly, and no longer.

XI. And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That this Act shall be deemed and taken to be a Public Act, and shall be Judicially taken notice of as such, by all Judges, Justices, and others without specially pleading the same.

XII. And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That the Secretary of this Island, do cause this Act to be printed, and send two Copies thereof to each of the Trustees herein before named and appointed, the Expense whereof shall be paid him by the Receiver General out of any Monies in his Hands unappropriated.




Also Private acts:
30G2 re 7 Rivers & Martin Williams
26G2 re Francis Smith etc

23G2:
An act for the laying out, making and repairing, a road from Chesterfield plantation in the parish of St Elizabeth, through Montpelier plantation, belonging to Francis Sadler Hales, esq, to the north sea (17 nov 1750)



Extract from Long: on Western Road

This great Western road, which leads from Spanish Town, traverses St. Jago Savannah, and the bridge of Milk River, in Clarendon; not far beyond which is the estate which belonged to the late lord Ol—ph—t. Soon after leaving this, the ascent begins over May-day Hills, continuing rocky for about half a mile, till it narrows into a gloomy path between two hills, over-hung with the interwoven boughs of trees on each side, which form an agreeable shade. At the end of two or three miles further on is a small plantation and pimento-grove; and, beyond this, the way opens suddenly upon a pretty rising lawn, on the highest part of which stands a little villa, belonging lately to Mr. W—stn—y, who is said to be a natural son of the late duke of L—ds. This villa over­looks a diminutive vale, through which the high road passes, and extends its narrow prospect to another delightful, rising spot, of a circular form, and fringed with stately trees. A number of kids, lambs, and sheep, are pastured in the glade, or roam on the sides of the adjacent hills, which are fenced in with a wall of craggy mountains, richly cloathed with wood. In rural charms few places exceed this little spot. The road across this assemblage of high lands is extremely curious in every part, and worthy the traveller’s attention. There are none in England, nor I believe in Europe, resembling it. It divides the May-day Ridges, as it were, through the middle; the breadth of which, from East to West, is upwards of fourteen miles; it is about fifty feet in width, and confined on each side by a majestic wood, that is almost impervious to the sun. The lofty trees, so close arranged, form a living wall; and, inter­mingling their leafy branches, afford a cooling shade during the greater part of every day throughout the year. The Tavern of Knock-patrick (belonging also to Mr. W—stn—y), the next settlement we come to, stands very commodiously, and enjoys a most excellent climate. The English beans, pease, and other cu­linary vegetables of Europe, grow here, in most seasons of the year, to the utmost perfection. A gentleman who supped here could not help remarking, that the victuals were literally brought smoaking-hot to table; a phenomenon seldom observed in the low lands, where the air is so much more rarefied. A species of the tarantula spider is said to be often found in this part of the country. The woods abound with paroquets, and pigeons of various sorts. The laghetto, and other useful trees, such as maho­gany, cedar, pigeon-wood, &c. This tavern stands in the midst of these woods, and as yet has but a very small tract of cleared ground about it. Every appearance of the road to the Westward of it is similar to what is observed on the approach to it from the Eastward, till the hills begin to decline, and the parish of St. Elizabeth breaks upon the view. From the different parts of this declivity, the prospects are finely variegated, and, from some stations, are extended not only over the champaign-country of this parish, but into great part of Westmoreland many miles: but one of the most pleasing scenes is, the spacious trail of open land, called Labour-in-vain Savannah, which appears partly of a vivid green, and partly of a russet colour. One side of it is girt about with romantic hills and woods; the other, towards the South, is washed by the sea; the middle sweep is graced with scattered clumps of trees and under-wood; which objects all together combine in exhibiting a very picturesque and beautiful appearance.




 

6        WEIGHTS, MEASURES & COINAGE

 

6.1               Land Areas – Acres, Roods & Poles


From Wikipedia, 3/2017:

(square) rod, pole or perch = 25.29 sq m
1 pole x 1 pole = 1 (square) pole = 30.25 square yards = 1 (square) pole


40 (square) poles = 1 rood,
Rod, pole and perch are rather complicated. First, they are different names for the same unit of length, which is five and a half yards (see length page). To shorten the explanations, I use one unit rather than all three. Next, they could also be used as a unit of area. So a 10 perch allotment would be 5.5 yards wide by 55 yards long, or 10 square perch. To make my explanations clear, I say '(square) rod' to mean rod as a unit of area.

rood = 1011.71 sq m =1210 square yards = 1 rood
40 (square) poles = 1 rood
1 furlong x 1 pole = 1 rood


4 roods = 1 acre
Old records of land mention areas measured in '... A, ...R, ...P'. This will be acres, roods and (square) poles or perch.
Old American records refer to a 'goad', which may be the same as a rood, although a goad may be other sizes as well.
acre = 0.4 hectares = 4840 square yards = 1 acre

1 furlong x 1 chain = 1 acre
10 square chains = 1 acre
4 roods = 1 acre

640 acres = 1 square mile
An acre is a conventional measure of area. It was defined in the time of Edward I (1272-1307) and was supposed to be the area that a yoke of oxen could plough in a day. Acre is derived from the Latin for field, but the common field system of medieval times in Britain was ten acres. An acre is a furlong long and a chain wide. In fact, an archaic word for furlong was 'acre-length' and for chain 'acre-width'. See the length page for furlong and chain.

The Scottish and Irish used to have different values for their acres. The Scottish acre was 6150.4 square yards and the Irish acre was 7840 square yards.

Hide =  ?40 hectares = ?100 acres = 1 hide
A hide was enough land to support a house-hold, usually between 60-120 acres (24-48 hectares). A hide of good land was smaller than that of poor quality. Hides are used in the Doomsday Book. However, I have a reference of a hide as 100 acres.

A correspondent wrote: An oxgang was viking measure used in the Doomsday Book, and was the area of land that an ox could plough in one season. Since oxen were usually used in teams of eight, the area that eight ox could plough was called a bovate, or carucate. So an oxgang was about 15 acres, and a bovate was 100-120. Just to make it more awkward, parts if England not under Danelaw used the virgate, which was twice the size of an oxgang (because you used two ox instead of one), and a carucate was then known as a Hide.



6.2               COINS USED IN JAMAICA


8 Ryals = 5/- Jamaican currency
8 Pistoles = 10/- currency
5 Moidore = £10 currency
12 Hd Joe = £33 currency
17 cwts. doubloon = 18/- currency
Half Johannes
Quarter Joe
Half Moidore

Barrel Sizes

https://sizes.com/units/hogshead.htm


An English and later British unit of capacity, a quarter of a tun, = 63 wine gallons. After conversion to imperial measure in 
1824, the hogshead became 52.5 imperial gallons, about 238.7 liters. See beer and ale for a chart showing its changes over time for those commodities. See wine barrel for a chart showing its changes in value and its relation to other wine measures. Abbr., hhd.

In Ceylon, a law in force in 1900 fixed the hogshead at 63 gallons.

In addition to the legal value, the hogshead had various conventional commercial values, depending on the commodity.

 

Mid 19th century,
according to Waterston

20th century

beer

54 imperial gallons

 

brandy

45–60 imp. gal. some say 57

60 imp. gal. 273 liters

claret

46 imp. gallons

46-49 imp. gal. 209-225 liters

madeira, marsala

 

46 imp. gal. 209 liters

port

 

58 imp. gal. 264 liters

Scotch whisky

55–60 imp. gallons

 56 imp. gal. 255 liters

sherry

 

55 imp. gal. 250 liters

sugar (West Indies)

1,456–1,792 pounds avoirdupois.

 

Tobacco

1,344–2,016 pounds avoirdupois.

 

Hock, Rhine and
Moselle wine

30 gallons

 


sources

1

See these statutes: 1 Richard III, chapter 132 Henry VI chapter 14


Another source gives a hogshead of sugar as 272 kgs (600 lbs): this looks more likely with a specific gravity of about 1 for the sugar as packed and 60 gallons or so.

PUNCHEON


An English measure of capacity for wine, one third of a tun. This unit is also called a firkin or tertian.  After 
1824 it = 70 imperial gallons, about 318.2 liters.  Previously it had been 84 wine gallons. See wine barrel for a chart showing its relationship to other wine measures.

It also had other conventional commercial values, for particular commodities:

Mid 19th century, according toWaterston

brandy

100 to 110 imperial gallons

molasses

1,120 to 1,344 pounds av.

rum

90 to 100 imperial gallons

Scotch whiskey

112 to 120 imperial gallons

Lederer speculates that the 18th century American pon, a cask in which sugar was shipped, was a shortening of puncheon.1

1. Richard M. Lederer, Jr.
Colonial American English. A Glossary.
Essex, Connecticut: A Verbatim Book, 1985.


CUSTOMARY  (OLD) WEIGHTS & MEASURES

Apples, Bushel lb 40 & up
Almonds, seron cwt 1.1/4 to 2s
      basket cwt 1.1/4 to 1.1/2
      Jordan, box lb 25
Anchovies, barrel lb 30
Beef (Irish), tierce of 38 pieces lb 304
Brandy, hogshead imp. gals 45 to 60
Puncheon imp. gals 100 to 110
    1/4 cask imp. gals 20 to 25
Bricks, load No. 500
Bullion, bar lb15 to 30
Butter, firkin lb 56
   tub lb 84
   barrel lb 224
Calico, piece yds 28
Carnphor, box about cwt 1
Candles, barrel lb 120
Cheese, stone lb 16
Cider, pipe imp. gals 100 to 118
Cinnamon, bale lb 92.1/2
Cloves a rnatt, lb 80 chest. lb 200
Coal, ton (10 sacks of 2 cwt) cwt20
Newcastle chaldron of 3 wains cwt 52.1/2
    estimated for boats at cwt 53
Cochineal ,seron lb 140
    bag lb 200. 70,000 insects to a lb
Coffee, tierce cwt 5 to 7
   barrel cwt 3 to 11
   bag cwt 11 to 11
Mocha, bale cwt 2 to 2.1/2
Cocoa bag, about cwt 1,
   cask, cwt 1.1/4
Cotton Wool (Virginia, Carolina, Georgia, West Indies)
   bale lb 300 to 310
    (New Orleans, Alabama) lb 400 to 500
   (East India) bale lb 320 o 360
   (Brazil), bale lb 196 to 250
   (Egyptian), bale lb 1 80 to 280
Currants, butt cwt 15 to 20
Figs, Faro, frail lb 32
Malaga lb 56
   barrel lb96 to 360
Fish, maze fish 615
   last.. fish 13,200
Fish, warp fish 4
   a long hundred fish 132
   a barrel of herrings. gals 32
    keg of sturgeon gals 4 to 5
Flour, peck or stone lb 14
   boll of 10 pecks or stones lb 140
   sack or 2 bolls lb 280
   barrel , lb 196
Ginger (Jamaica), bag, about . cwt 1
   (Barbados), bag, about cwt 1.1/4
   (East India), bag, about cwt 1
Glass seam of lb 120
Gum Arabic, E. I. chest cwt 6
Turkey, chest cwt 4
Gunpowder, barrel . cwt 1
   last 24 barrels or 2,400 lb
Hide: dicker skins 10
   last dickers 20
Hock aum . gals 30
Honey, gallon lb 12
Hops, pocket 1 cwt 1.1/2 to 2
  bag nearly cwt 2.1/2
Indigo, E.I. about 3.1/2 maunds lb 260
   (Guatemala) seron . lb 250
Lead, tother, or fodder lb 2,400
Mace, case, about cwt 1.1/2
Molasses, puncheon cwt 10 to 12
Muslin, piece yds 10
Mustard, cask lb 9 to 18
Nutmegs, casks lb 200
Nuts (Barcelona) lb 126
   (Messina), bag cwt l.1/2 to 1.3/4
Oil, tun wine gals 252
   imp. gals 210
   ton lb 1,770
Olive, Oil, chest of 60 flasks imp. gals 125
   jar imp, gals 25
Opium (East India.),chest 2 maunds, or lb 149.1/3
   (Turkey).. lb 136
Pepper (black), Company's bag lb 316
   free trade bags lb 28, 56, 112
   (white), bag, about cwt 1.1/2
Pilchards, hogshead (about 3,000 fish) gals 40
Plums. 1/4box. about lb 20
Plums, carton lb 9
Pork (Irish), tierce, 80 pieces, or lb 320
Potashes, barrel lb 120
Potatoes, bag lb 112 and 168, bushels 4 & 5
Quicksilver, bottle, about lb 84
Raisins,
   Valencia, box, from about lb 30 to 40
   a drum, about lb 24
   a barrel cwt 1
   (Malaga), a cask cwt 1
   (Turkey), a cask cwt 2.1/2
   (Ma)aga), a box lb 22
Rice, (East India), bag about cwt 1.1/2
   (American), cask cwt 6
Resin, barrel, about cwt 2
Rum, puncheon gals 90 to 100
   hogshead gals 45 to 50
Soapbarrel lb 256
   firkin, lb 64
Soda, cask cwt 3 to 4
Steel, faggot lb 120
Stone of iron lb 14
   butcher's meat lb 8
   glass lb 5
   hemp lb 32
   cheese lb 16
Straw load 11 cwt 64 lb
   truss lb 36
Sugar (West India), hogshead cwt 13 to 16
   tierce cwt 7 to 9
   (Mauritius), mat or bag cwt 1 to 1.1/2
   (East India), bag cwt 1 to 1.3/4
Tallow, cask, about cwt 9
Tapioca, barrel, about cwt 1.1/4
Tar, barrel imp. gals 261
Tea, India, Ceylon, Pakistan, East Africa,Indonesia.:
   chest, 19 in x19 in x 24 in approx. lb 110
   half chest 18 in x 18 in x 20 in approx lb 100
Tiles, load tiles 1,000
Tobacco, hogshead cwt12 to 18
Train Oil, gallon lb 9
Turpentine, barrel cwt 2 to 2.1/2
Vermilion, bag lb 50
Whisky (Scotch), puncheon imp. gals 112 to 120
   hogshead imp. gals 55 to 60
Wool, pack lb 2,403
   tod lb 28

MEAT WEIGHT

8 pounds 1 stone
25 stone (beef) 1 barrel
28 stone (pork) 1 barrel
Irish Beef Irish Pork
8 pounds 1 piece 4 pounds = 1 piece
38 pieces 1 tierce 80 pieces = 1 tierce
 

FISH MEASURE SCOTCH LIQUID MEASURE

2 fish = 1 hand 4 gills = 1 mutchkin
37.1/2. imperial galls. = 1 cran 2 mutchkins = 1 choppin
13,200 fish = 1 last 2 choppins = 1 pint
 
COAL WEIGHT
14 Pounds 1 Stone.
28 1 Quarter Cwt.
56 1 Half Cwt.
1 Sack of 112 Pounds 1 Cwt.
1 Double Sack of 224 Pounds 2 Cwt.
20 Cwt or 10 Large Sacks 1 Ton.
21 Tons 4 Cwt 1 Barge or Keel.
20 Keels, or 424 Tons ' 1 Ship Load.
140 Cwt or 7 Tons 1 Room
25.1/2 Cwt 1 Chaldron.
By the Weights and Measures Act of 1889, all coal had to be sold by Avoirdupois Weight. A truck of coal weighson an average about 8 tons.

COKE MEASURE

3 Bushels = 1 Sack, 12 Sacks = 1 Chaldron.

TIMBER MEASURE

100 Superficial Feet of Planking = 1 Square.
120 Deals = 1 Hundred.
108 Cubic Feet . 1. = 1 Stack.
120 = 1 Cord.
50 Cubic Feet of Squared Timber, or }
40 , of Unhewn or 1 Load or Ton. } 1 Load or ton.
600 Square . of 1" Planking }

WOOL WEIGHT

7 Pounds 1 clove
14 lb or 2 cloves 1 stone
2 Stones, or 28 lb 1 tod
6 Tods 1 Wey
2 Weys 1 sack
12 Sacks 1 last
20 Pounds 1 score
12 Score, or 240 lb 1 pack
In different counties the stone of wool varies from 12 lb to 16 lb but the statutory value is 14 lb. Wool is weighed by wool weight only.

BREAD AND FLOUR WEIGHTS

1 quartern of flour 3 lbs. 8 ozs. avoirdupois
1 quartern of bread 4 lbs. 5 ozs. 8.1/2. drs. avoirdupois
1 peck of flour 14 lbs. avoirdupois
1 peck of bread 17 lbs. 6 ozs. 2 drs. avoirdupois
1 bushel of flour 56 lbs. (4 pecks)
1 sack of flour 280 lbs. (5 bushels)

WHEATEN BREAD

lb oz drm
A Peck Loaf weighs 17 6 2
A Half-Peck Loaf 8 11 1
A Quartern Loaf 4 5 8.1/2
A Quartern (or Quarter-Peck) of Flour 3 8 0
A Peck or Stone of Flour 14 0 0
A Bushel of Flour 56 0 0
A Sack of Flour, or 5 Bushels 280 0 0
Under wartime regulation bread had to be sold in loaves of 1 lb 14 oz or 15 oz.
Bakers are forbidden by Statute to sell bread by the peck or quartern.
 

CHEESE AND BUTTER WEIGHT

8 Pounds make 1 Clove or Half Stone.
32 Cloves or 256 lb 1 Wey in Suffolk.
42 Cloves or 336 lb 1 Wey in Essex.
56 Pounds of Butter 1 Firkin.
84 1 Tub.
224 1 Barrel.
 

GLASS WEIGHT

5 Pounds make 1Stone.
120 Pounds or 24 Stones 1Seam.
 

HAY AND STRAW

36 Pounds make 1 Truss of Straw.
56 Pounds 1 Truss of Old Hay.
60 Pounds 1 Truss of New Hay.
36 Trusses 1 Load.
1 Load of New Hay 19 Cwt 32 lb.
1 Load of Old Hay 18 Cwt.
1 Load of Straw 11 Cwt 64 lb
1 Cubic Yard of New Hay 6 Stone or 84 lb.
1 Cubic Yard of Old Hay 8 Stone or 1 Cwt





7        OTHER PLACES of INTEREST & PARISH INFORMATION

 

7.1               Geographical Features of Note

 

Round Hill


Round Hill is included as it appears in several grants and deeds and is an imposing landmark on the coast on the eastern extent of Carpenter’s Mountains.
Extracts from Report of a field meeting to south-central Jamaica, 23rd May, 1998[9].
  Round Hill is an imposing, roughly oval-shaped limestone massif orientated in an approximately east-west direction. It is bounded to the east and south by the floodplain and mangrove swamps of the Milk River, and to the west by similar wetlands within the lower reaches of the Alligator Hole River. To the north, Round Hill is bordered by conical hills and enclosed depressions forming poorly developed kegelkarst, which gives way in the northwest to collapse dolines around God‟s Well and to small limestone gorges associated with uplands containing some enclosed depressions in the Alligator Hole River area. Much of the southwest margin of Round Hill is skirted by a gently sloping, apron-like footslope covered with scrubland vegetation and comprising limestone conglomeratic debris with many fallen limestone blocks on its surface, which terminates at the coast as an 8-10 m high seacliff, below which is a discontinuous beach containing black sand.

Although Round Hill is composed of limestones of the Newport Formation, there is a general lack of typical, large-scale karst landforms on its surface. For the most part, the slopes of Round Hill are broadly convex to rectilinear, but are occasionally broken by benches and steps, particularly on the north- and south-facing slopes, which can be interpreted as „structural benches‟, probably marking bedding planes or structural trends within the limestones. There are also numerous gullies and possible old landslide scars cut into the flanks of Round Hill, especially on its southwest-facing slopes, whilst many former drainage lines can be traced on its surface on all aspects of the massif. These gullies and drainage lines are predominantly relic phenomena and were presumably cut during periods of more significant rainfall than at present, or, alternatively, secondary permeability of the limestones has now advanced to a stage where all rainfall simply infiltrates below the surface. Many of the gullies which drained to the lower slopes, especially on the colluviated footslopes on the southwest flanks of Round Hill, are associated with fans and talus cones, comprising conglomeratic limestone debris and larger fallen blocks. The distal ends of some of these fans are exposed in the seacliff to the west of Farquhar‟s Beach as Holocene conglomeratic beds containing predominantly limestone boulders and pebbles in a reddish, rendzina-like matrix. The conglomeratic beds contain moderately rare calcified root remains and calcrete horizons, and also are associated with semi-continuous paleosol horizons. This suggests that the mass movement and fluvial processes which formed the fans and talus cones were episodic, and punctuated by periods where the fans were at least temporarily stabilised by a vegetation and soil cover. The gastropods within the conglomerates confirms their terrestrial origin as mass movement and fluvial deposits laid down in a debris fan and talus cone environment. Generally on all aspects, the base of Round Hill is marked by an abrupt break of slope, below which are much gentler slope.....
    The coastline from the mouth of the Milk River to Farquhar‟s Beach is a sandy beach backed by mangrove swamps. It is one of several black sand beaches that occur along the south coast of Jamaica (see above). West of Farquhar‟s Beach, the coastline is marked by a low seacliff, which is about 8-10 m high, and exposes the Round Hill beds and overlying distal fans/talus cones. The cliff is generally poorly stabilised, and many fallen blocks of both these units litter the beach below. The more stable sections of the cliff are buttressed by the more resistant components of the Round Hill beds. Uncommonly, the cliff is broken by gullies, whilst slumped sections occur to the extreme west of the cliffline. The slumps could be the product of wave action undermining the base of the cliff, though they may also be related to groundwater movements to the southwest of Round Hill. For the most part, the mass movements within the slumped cliff zones can be classified as small-scale slab and toppling failure, with some rotational components....
    “Raised beach‟. Edward Robinson (1967b, p. 46) described this unit as “... a thin deposit of raised beach sand, containing marine molluscs of modern aspect”, that he considered to lie unconformably on the Round Hill beds. We use „raised beach‟ in the broad sense herein, that is, a beach feature elevated above present sea level, whether this position results from either uplift of the land or a drop in sea level (Lowe and Walker, 1997, p. 84). At the time of deposition of the „raised beach‟, the eroded surface which now forms the unconformity on the Round Hill beds presumably formed a wave-cut, rocky shore platform. This was subsequently buried by the “raised beach‟ and overlying distal fans/talus cones.


Note: much of Jamaica has raised beaches on the shore.


7.2               Other Relevant & Surrounding Properties



Fellowship property owned by Jno S. Cooper 1915  HBJ1915

Font Hill,


in St Elizabeth & Westmoreland, named from Font Hill Manor, was owned by Sir William Beckford, Lord Mayor of London, an absentee landlord of sugar plantations in Jamaica in the 18th Century.  DPNJ.

This was a big Estate in the SW corner of St Elizabeth owned by the Beckford family until they went bust in 1821, when it passed from the family.  Octavius M. described at his burial in 1840 as a Planter, resident at Font Hill. A Samuel M married Camilla Beckford, both of Font Hill, in 1850.
In April 2002, the Font Hill estate is a research forestry plantation  owned by Petrol Company of Jamaica: the original greathouse has disappeared.

Fullerswood (Salmon):

"Jamaica Surveyed" by BW Higman describes a plantation called Fullerswood which in 1860 was owned by John Salmon: it is on the East bank of the Estuary of the Black River in St Elizabeth: this John Salmon was probably the Executor of Francis M.'s will.

Seen in April 2002, but now a relatively modern house of little interest: could be seen to have been originally an attractive entrance. Repainted entrance walls 2/2022.

Palisadoes

 is a ten mile strip which links Port Royal to the mainland. The peninsula was formed when a group of cays, swept by currents and winds, eventually merged. At first Port Royal could only be reached by a boat from Kingston Harbour, but there is now a road to it which also takes travellers to Norman Manley - originally Palisadoes - Airport, which is situated on a bulging section of Palisadoes and is Jamaica's principle airport. Of interest as this was a major burial ground, where Frederick Lewis Maitland's mulatto mistress was buried.DPNJ.

Port Royal

(extract) ... It became famous as a port at which naval celebrities were stationed. Among these were: George Brydges: Lord Rodney (1739-42) Vice-Admiral John Benbow, who was stationed in Jamaica in 1702 Admiral Edward Vernon (1739-42), C in C West Indies Admiral Sir Peter Parker, Bt (1778-82) and Admiral Horatio Lord Nelson (1779-1805).  ..... At that point chiefly a resort for seamen, Port Royal was again nearly demolished, this time by a violent hurricane on the 28th August, 1772. .....               DPNJ.

Roses Valley,

in St Elizabeth, is named after the first owner, William Rose (Jamaica Almanacks, 1811) of this now defunct estate. Roses Valley is now a village in the centre of which is a Baptist Church, There is also Roses Valley Post Office.                 DPNJ.

Dictionary of Place-Names in Jamaica (extracts) Inez Knibb Sibley (Institute of Jamaica 1978).

Chew Magna,

in St Elizabeth, near Balaclava, was named by the Roberts Family after the place in Keynsham, England from which they came.

Fort William

near Savannah la Mar, was part of an estate owned by William Beckford, an early English settler, and named after him.

Morningside

is in St Elizabeth. The place name originates in Edinburgh, Scotland. Many Scotsmen were early settlers in St Elizabeth.

Greenwich Estate

London Times 25 June 1805:
Greenwich Estate, Jamaica, by Mr Farebrother
At such Place and Time as shall hereafter advertised
The highly valuable estate of Greenwich situate in the Parish of Vere, on the south side of the island of Jamaica consisting of extensive plantations, in the most improved state of cultivation, with the stock of negroes etc. Particulars will be given in due time, and information  obtained by application to GJ Robinson, Esq, Lincoln’s Inn New square and at Mr Farebrother’s Office, 7 Beaufort buildings, Strand.

Jamaica Vere 29 (Greenwich)
Claim Details & Associated Individuals
2nd Nov 1835 | 107 Enslaved | £2359 2S 0D

CLAIM DETAILS Claim Notes
Parliamentary Papers p. 19.
T71/858: claim from Boddington & Davies, of Vere, as owners. 'Stand over for explanation as to reasons Registry in name of heirs of Ratcliff'. Documents were produced including an assignment from Geo. Ratcliff to Samuel Boddington and Geo. Adam Davies, dated 1822.  Awarded to Samuel Boddington as surviving trustee under these deeds [?].
Times 05/10/1864 p. 16: Greenwich estate was auctioned off with Friendship estate by the executors of Samuel Boddington.

The South Australian Advertiser (Adelaide, SA ) Monday 4 July 1859
THE LAST MAIL.

AN ESTATE DESTROYED.-By the West India mail, we learn that the Greenwich estate, at Vere (Jamaica), the property of the Hon. Edward Thompson, had been destroyed by fire, with all the cane pieces, except one, and 200 hogsheads of sugar. (nla.gov.au/nla.news-article1194761)



Harmony Hall

1845: 1337 acres heirs of W McKenzie

Jamaica Vere 37 (Harmony Hall)

Claim Details & Associated Individuals

5th Oct 1835 | 159 Enslaved | £3018 16S 11D

CLAIM DETAILS

Claim Notes

Parliamentary Papers p. 19.

T71/858: claim by Mrs Mary McKenzie, as owner in fee (withdrawn). Counterclaim by Joseph Brooks Yates, as 'assignee of certain mortgages for £5000'. Counterclaim included also Rev. (?) George Stevens Byng and his trustees (the Duke of Richmond and the Earl of Wiltshire), claiming 1/3rd of the estate and an annuity of £300 per annum charged upon the estate subject to the mortage of £5000 vested in Messrs. Brooks Yates.

Jamaica Almanac: Harmony Hall is shown as owned by the heirs of P. Mackenzie (1815) and by Mary Mackenzie (1833).

T71/1185: counterclaim from the Rt. Hon. George Stevens Byng and his trustees, namely the Duke of Richmond and the Rt. Hon. John Earl of Wilts, in reversion expectant on decease of Mary Mackenzie. Mary Mackenzie, of Twickenham, was the widow of Peter Mackenzie (and grandmother of George Stevens Byng).



Monymusk

Owned by the family of Archibald Grant of Monymusk, Aberdeen, 1696-1778.

The Monymusk Estate in Jamaica came into the Grant family with Elizabeth Clark's daughter, Mary Calender. Elizabeth was the widow of a doctor in Jamaica who married the first Sir Archibald as his 3rd wife. Her daughter Mary married Sir Archibald's son (3rd Bt.) by his 2nd wife in 1755.

GRANT, Archibald (1696-1778), of Monymusk, Aberdeen.
b. 25 Sept. 1696, 1st s. of Sir Francis Grant, 1st Bt., of Cullen of Buchan, Banff, Lord Cullen, S.C.J., by his 1st w. Jean, da. of Rev. William Meldrum of Meldrum, Aberdeen
bro. of William Grant. educ. adv. 1714 L. Inn 1725.
m. (1) 17 Apr. 1717, Anne, da. of James Hamilton of Pencaitland, E. Lothian 2da.
(2) c.1731, Anne (d. bef. 1744), da. of Charles Potts of Castleton, Derbys., 1s.
(3) 18 Aug. 1751, Elizabeth Clark (d. 30 Apr. 1759), wid. of Dr. James Callander of Jamaica, s.p.
(4) 24 May 1770, Jane, wid. of Andrew Millar of Pall Mall, publisher and bookseller, s.p. suc. fa. as 2nd Bt. Mar. 1726.

Surinam Quarters & James Bannister


Major General James Bannister:
Calender of State Papers 1670:
April 6.    169. Warrant to the Duke of York. Whereas Major James Bannister, late Governor of Surinam, having bought a vessel of 80 tons for the removal of his family and estate thence, in attending his Majesty's pleasure has kept the vessel six months at his great charge, it is his Majesty's pleasure that his Royal Highness deliver to said Major Bannister provisions for 15 men for six months, with ropes and a mainsail, to encourage him towards the voyage. 1 p. [Dom. Entry Bk., Chas. II., Vol. 25, p. 154 đ.]
April 6.    170. Warrant to the Commissioners of Ordnance. To deliver to Major James Bannister, late Governor of Surinam, six small guns, each weighing about 7 cwt., with their furniture, six barrels of powder, and a proportionable quantity of shot. 1/2 p. [Dom. Entry Bk., Chas. II., Vol. 25, p. 155.]
Nov. 6.     316. Commission appointing Major James Bannister Major-General of all the forces in the island of Jamaica, under the orders of the Governor and Lieutenant-Governor. Also note of the provisions necessary for victualling his ship. Endorsed, Mr. Ranger's note for provisions and other necessaries for Major Bannister's vessel, and with notes by Williamson. 50l. or 60l.. given to Major Bannister for providing himself with these things. Two papers. 3 1/2 pp. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXV., Nos. 84, 85.]
Nov. ?      317. Draft in Williamson's hand, with corrections, of the above commission to Major James Bannister. 1 p. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXV., No. 86.]
Nov. ?      318. Copy of commission to Maj. Bannister, not so full, but to the same effect as the above. [Col. Entry Bk., No. 27, p. 84.]
Nov. 6.     319. Names of the persons agreed unto to be inserted in the commission and instructions for fetching off the English from Surinam, viz., Major James Bannister, Capt. Francis Yates, Thomas Stanter, Lieut. Henry Masey, Capt. James Maxwell, Lieut. Tobias Bateman, Capt. Christopher Reader, Henry Ayler, Master of the America, Richard Colvile, Master of the Dutch Flyboat, and John Ranger, Master of Major Bannister's Flyboat; any three to be a quorum, of whom Bannister, Yates, or Ayler to be one; to whom only the additional instructions (after shipping the English from Surinam) are to be directed, impowering Bannister (and in case of death or absence, Yates and then Ayler) to give orders to the masters of the two merchant ships. Lord Arlington promised to speak to the Duke of York about the instructions to the masters of the hired merchant ships. 1 p. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXV., No. 90*.]
Nov. ?      320. Draft commission to Major James Bannister and others [names not given in this copy, see preceding] for removing the English and settling all disputes at Surinam. Refers to the Articles of Surrender of Surinam between Col. Wm. Byam and Admiral Abraham Crynsens, which were confirmed by the Treaty of Breda, and afterwards ratified by said Crynsens and others on 20/30 April 1668; also the orders of the States General of the 4th and 21st August past, to Commander Lichtenberge, Governor of Surinam [see ante, No. 219]. For the better execution whereof, and that all disputes may be fairly settled, his Majesty has appointed the aforesaid Commissioners to demand and treat with Commander Lichtenberge concerning the execution of all that has been agreed upon or granted to his Majesty's subjects in that Colony, particularly as to their liberty of departing thence with their slaves and goods. Draft, with corrections in the handwriting of Williamson, who has endorsed it, Minute, 1670. 4 pp. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXV ., No. 87.]
Nov. 6.
Whitehall.  324. Instructions to Major James Bannister, Capt. Francis Yates, Thomas Santer, Lieut. Henry Masey, Capt. James Maxwell, Lieut. Tobias Bateman, Capt. Christopher Reader, Henry Ayler, Richard Colvill, and John Ranger, the King's Commissioners for bringing off from Surinam his Majesty's subjects, their families, and estates. Calendared ante, No. 304. 3 pp. [Col. Entry Bks., No. 77, pp, 29–31, No. 78, pp. 80–84, and No. 93, pp. 11–12.]
Nov. 6.
Whitehall.  325. Additional instructions to Major Jas. Bannister, Capt. Fras. Yates, and Henry Ayler. As soon as they are freed from Surinam to sail for Barbadoes, St. Kitts, or any of the Leeward Isles or Jamaica, and suffer such people as desire it to settle there. To send home an account of their proceedings, and whether the Articles for the first surrender of Surinam made by Col. Byam have been observed. 1 p. [Col. Entry Bks., No. 77, p. 32, No. 78, pp. 85–86, and No. 93, p. 13.]
Nov. 6.
Queen Street.     326. H. Slingesby, Secretary to the Council of Trade, to Joseph Williamson, Secretary to Lord Arlington, at his lodgings in Scotland Yard. Having notice that Sir Philip Frowde's son, one of his clerks, whom he ordered to call upon Williamson for copy of the Articles of Surinam had misbehaved himself, and left a note about said Articles in a slighting way, begs to have a copy of said paper, with an account of his clerk's carriage in the business. Yesterday, upon Major Bannister's motion for leaving out of his commission and instructions some of the English planters at Surinam, who might be unwilling to leave the place, it was ordered by the Council that Thomas Stanter and Lieut. Tobias Bateman be left out, and one Gerrard Marshall, Master Mate of the America, put in; which Williamson will be pleased to have done. 1 p. [Col. Papers, Vol. XXV., No. 90.]




7.3               PARISH INFORMATION



Parish Records:


St Elizabeth lists few Base born children before about 1750, the use of the phrase “reputed” (child) of the father did not appear until the later half of the 18thC.

Burials in St Elizabeth only recorded the whites.
Clarendon only has burials from 1805.

Kingston records only from 1722 “since the dreadful storm which happened on the 28th August 1722”.

Vere records missing from 1720-1730.

7.3.1   Clarendon

Clarendon Capital & Parish Church


The Gleaner, 9 January 2012:

With respect to a story in The Gleaner of Saturday, January 7, titled 'How Clarendon's first capital got its name', your writer, Christopher Serju, referring to Chapelton, begins his story with the statement: "Its claim to being the first capital of Clarendon is undisputed." Chapelton is, in fact, the second capital of Clarendon, and May Pen is the third.

The parish of Clarendon was created in 1664 and named after Sir Edward Hyde (1609-1674), Lord High Chancellor of England (1657-1667), who was made the first Earl of Clarendon in 1661. His family motto was 'The Cross, the Test of Faith', and so the capital of the new parish was named 'The Cross', and its position in the southern part of the parish is noted on old maps of Jamaica on the main road from Old Harbour travelling west, after passing through Colbeck and Rosewell.

The first parish church of Clarendon (The Church of the White Cross) was the third Anglican church built in Jamaica (after Spanish Town and Port Royal). Elections for the first Jamaica House of Assembly were held there in 1664. The church was built of brick in the shape of a cross the Rectors lived there with their slaves who worked the glebe. Its ruins may be seen in the bushes at The Cross (not to be confused with Palmer's Cross, which is nearby) and I recommend that it receive some protection as a heritage site.

In 1774, Edward Long wrote: "The hamlet, or village of the Cross, is situated about six miles from Old Harbour Bay, on the great roads leading, one to leeward, the other to Old Woman's Savannah. It consists of about 10 houses, near the parish church, which is a handsome brick building, of four ailes. Hard-by, likewise, stands the skeleton of the parsonage house, which at present is converted into a cooper's shop a metamorphosis that is not at all wonderful for the inhabitants of this hamlet, being mostly Jews and Mulattoes, afford no very agreeable neighbourhood to a Protestant divine."

Cross church set precedent

Beyond the Cross Church, the main road forked, one branch going towards the north coast (through the Pedro Valley) and the other going along the south coast (around Round Hill).

As cultivation in Clarendon shifted further inland, a chapel of ease (St Paul's) was built by the military barracks in the northern part of the parish at first the settlement around it was called 'Chapel', then 'Chapel Town', and now 'Chapelton'. Later, Chapelton became the parish capital, but 'The Cross Church' remained the parish church, until it was finally destroyed in 1815, whereupon St Paul's became the parish church for Clarendon.

May Pen was a small hamlet until the coming of the railway in 1885, which spurred its development. It became the third capital of Clarendon in 1938, but it is the only parish capital without a cenotaph, as the one for Clarendon was built when Chapelton was the capital.
PETER ESPEUT



7.3.2   CORNWALL - General Information


1784 Almanac:
The County of Cornwall contains 1,522,149 acres, has 5 Parishes, and 10 Towns or Villages.

General state of the County of Cornwall:
388 sugar plantations
561 other settlements
above 93,000 slaves
and the produce in sugar about 67,000 hogsheads,
and about 69,500 cattle

REVIEW OF THE STATE OF THE WHOLE ISLAND
Total
Negroes 255,700
Sugar estates 1061
Produce 105,400 hogsheads of sugar
Other settlements 2018
Cattle 224,500
20 Parishes, in which are 36 Towns and Villages, 18 Churches and Chapels, and about 23,000 white inhabitants.




7.3.3   ST ELIZABETH PARISH INFORMATION


Extracts 1784 Almanac:             ST. ELIZABETH
   The town of Lacovia does not contain more than 20 houses: here the  Quarter Sessions and Petty Courts for the parish are held. Black River  has about 50 houses, and a fine Bay for shipping. This parish has 39  sugar-works, 190 other settlements, and 16,000 slaves.
   Lacovia, in St Elizabeth, is said to have been the La Caoban of the Spaniards, in the early days referred to by the inhabitants as "Coby". Lacovia was the first capital of St Elizabeth.          DPNJ.
    Middle Quarters is in St Elizabeth. The reason for the name is uncertain. It is claimed in the old days the Quarter Session of the court was held here and that might have something to do with the name. Middle Quarters in now the location of a large-scale shrimp trade conducted by the villagers.
DPNJ.
   Miss Parchments shown between Jack's Holt & White Horse of South coast.

MAP1804.
PRO Jamaica "Blue Book" of Government Statistics, 1823.
Rector of St Elizabeth Rev Williams, appointed 21/5/1821.
Pay: £270 stlg, 378, Currency + fees 326-10-2.5d = £C704-10-2.5d.
1823 population: 697 whites, 1918 free, 18802 slaves.

Downloaded from internet 13/5/2003
Parish Information 
Population  148,900 (1999) 
Literacy Rate  67.5% (1994) 
Educational Institutions 1999/2000 (M.O.E.C) 
Public  Independent 
Tertiary  1 
Tertiary  -  Vocational/Agricultural  1  Vocational/Agricultural  1 
-  -  Business Education  - 
Technical High  1  -  - 
Comprehensive High  5  -  - 
Secondary High  4  Secondary High  1 
-  -  Secondary High
(with preparatory department)  1 
Special  -  Special  - 
Junior High  -  -  - 
Primary and Junior High  5  -  - 
All Age  35  -  - 
Primary  35  -  - 
Infant  -  Kindergarten/Preparatory  5
Other Agencies providing education and training are Basic Schools and H.E.A.R.T NTA.


BLACK RIVER – Alison Morris


St. Johns Church History 

The Early Church

 

175 years seems like a good long time for this church building to have been in existence. But when you consider that worship has been taking place in this place for 300 years (give or take a few years), then you realize that the 175 is just a mark in the road. The worship journey will continue long after we’re gone. And even 300 years will seem small, as future generations look back on the history of our remarkable church.

 

From early reports on the state of the Anglican Church in Jamaica, we know that the original church that was on this spot was built after 1679, but before 1723. We find it mentioned in the 1739 will of John Campbell, who left £50 for the purchase of a communion cup for the Black River Church.

 

The family tradition seems to have been carried on.

 

Nearly 100 years later, John Campbell’s descendants, the Shakespears, gave the church the silver communion service which is still in use. It bears the date 1838, the year in which the present church was built.

 

 
 


D:\BR church beach river\IMG_0499.JPG

 

 

The church seems to have been reconstructed a number of times. In 1774, Edward Long mentions it in his History of Jamaica, as a “handsome edifice of brick, lately rebuilt”. By 1802, it is described as being “shabby and much neglected” in the diary of Lady Nugent (wife of the then Governor of Jamaica). With Black River’s tendency to get hit by earthquake, hurricane and fire, it’s no wonder that the church had to be reconstructed from time to time!

 

What was the church like in those early years?

 

First of all, the Black River Church was in all likelihood not the original Parish Church, since Black River was not always considered the capital of St. Elizabeth. Jamaica had been divided into parishes for political as well as religious reasons, and the parish churches were central to the governance of each parish. Black River and Lacovia both contended for the title of parish capital.

 

It wasn’t until the 1770s that the issue was settled and the capital fixed in Black River. The Parish Church was responsible for recording Christenings (and thereby births), Marriages and Deaths, as there was no civil registry at that time. From these records, we know that our churchyard is filled with hundreds of graves, although few can be seen above the surface today. Soldiers, sailors, merchants, landowners, mothers and children. Whites, free blacks and coloureds. Residents of Black River as well as people from outside the town. No slaves.

 

The congregation in the 18th and early 19th centuries would have looked very different from what it looks like today. Our church was the church of the upper classes, which means that the membership was mainly white, or close to white. Those Ministers who wanted to bring Christ’s message to the slaves were likely to meet with opposition. Many slaveowners, who were often church members, were resistant to attempts to evangelise their slaves.

 

The church itself owned slaves, who worked on the over 200 acres of land (Glebe lands) in the church’s possession in the Brompton area, where the Rectory was located. The original tract of land had been about 1300 acres, but most of this was sold in the 1750s to buy slaves, who were used to work on the remaining acreage. At the time of emancipation, the Rector received compensation for the slaves who worked on the Glebe. These lands were later sold and a new rectory was built in Black River in 1935.

Why was the church rebuilt in 1838? Some have suggested that was due to a fire in1812, but this is unlikely to have been the reason, as there is evidence of the church having been in heavy use in the intervening years. In 1832, during the Christmas Rebellion, it was used to house the soldiers who had been sent by the Governor to subdue the slave revolt in St. Elizabeth. Duncan Robertson, whose memorial tablet is to be found in the church, is remembered for the lead role he played in helping to contain the rebellion.

 

Whatever the reason, it seems providential for the Black River Church to have been reconstructed in 1838, the year of emancipation. It was time for the church, which for so long had played a role in supporting slavery, to embrace change. The change was gradual, and in fact had started from even before emancipation.

 

The church records from the late 1700s indicate that many free non-whites were interred in the church yard. Especially notable are the tombs that we pass over nearly every time we enter the church from the western entrance. Scotsman and Black River merchant Duncan Hook, who died in 1779, had a non-white family. His mulatto mistress, Elizabeth Duncan, as well as their four infant children and one adult daughter are all buried near him.

 

When Lady Nugent visited in 1802, she was surprised that so few whites were present at Easter Day service. According to her, most of the congregation was either black or brown. This struck her as unusual, suggesting that perhaps the Black River Church was more inclusive than was the norm in the other churches she had visited. Of course it may just have been that the white members didn’t attend Church that day, because it was expected to be a long service - Communion was only given two or three times a year. The Rector at that time was Thomas Warren, an Englishman who served Black River for 33 years.

 

The tablet on the church tower gives us an insight into the building of St. Johns as we know it today. A section of it reads as follows:

THE first stone of this

CHURCH was laid on the 13

day of July in the year of our

LORD 1837

 

 
 

 


                                                                          

 

 

 

The man at the helm in 1837 was the Revd. Thomas Pierce Williams. He was born in Jamaica, and educated at Cambridge University. Ordained as priest in 1813, he served as Headmaster of Wolmer’s School from 1813-1814. He had assumed duties as Rector in Black River in 1820, and stayed during the turbulent years of pre and post emancipation, until 1851. A tablet to his memory can be found in the church.

The church bell and clock date from this period. The bell was cast in London in1848 at Whitechapel Foundry, the makers of Big Ben and the American Liberty Bell. The clock is dated 1839.

 

We do not know when the church began to be called St. John’s, but it was certainly had that name at the time of its consecration in 1843 by Bishop Christopher Lipscombe.

 

 

 

 

 

 
 


C:\Documents and Settings\Morris\Local Settings\Temporary Internet Files\Content.Word\DSC03842.jpg

 

 

After emancipation, the church became very involved in education. Munro College and Hampton School were built in the 1850s from bequests left by Robert Hugh Munro and Caleb Dickenson, memorial tablets to whom are mounted near the sanctuary. Contrary to the wishes of their benefactors, these institutions ended up being schools for the elite. But St. Johns was also a leading light in the education of the poor. Church schools were built throughout the Cure, with the Parish Church running their operations. There were church schools in Black River, Pondside, Crawford, Cambridge and Arlington, to name a few. This tradition has continued up to the present day, with the church being the driving force behind the building of Black River High School in 1970.

 

The church was one of the first buildings in Black River to receive electricity in the early 1890s, thereby making it one of the first churches in Jamaica to be lit by electric current. It had light for a few years until Black River lost electricity in 1899.

 

 The 1890s through to the early 1900s saw a time of major development at St. Johns, under the leadership of Revd.Charles Melville, who became Canon during his incumbency in Black River. Revd. Melville was a skilled craftsman, and in 1902 carved the mahogany reredos which adorns our sanctuary. The three paintings on the reredos were done by Miss Norah Shaw, a local artist.

 

IMG_1140.JPG

 

After being damaged in1907 by the earthquake that destroyed Kingston, major upgrading of the building took place in 1908-1909. Revd. Melville designed a new roof, had choir stalls built, and the external concrete stairs to the gallery added. He tried to institute a medical scheme for poor members, in order to discourage them from resorting to the obeah-man when they couldn’t afford a doctor! He was responsible for the church getting a new organ, the one we use today. This organ was built in England in 1911, and installed in 1915. The organ was pumped by hand by a paid organ blower until an electric blower was bought in the 1950s.

 

There have been a few alterations to the church building in the last 50 years. The marble font, which was originally at the back of the church, was moved to its present location in 1968. The church was reroofed in 1980. Successive ministers and congregations up to the present time have made it their duty to preserve and maintain this beautiful historical monument whose longevity we lovingly celebrate this year.

 

 

Allison Morris

July 2013

 

 

GENERAL

POSITION/SIZE/DESCRIPTION

St Elizabeth is in the south-western section of the island. It has an area of 1212.4 square kilometres (468.1 square miles). There are three mountain ranges - the Nassau Mountains to the north-east, the Santa Cruz Mountains which, running south, divide the wide plain to end in a precipitous drop of 1600 feet at Lovers' Leap, and the Lacovia Mountains to the west of the Nassau Mountains.
The Black River is the main river supported by many tributaries including Y.S., Broad, Grass and Horse Savannah. It is the longest river in Jamaica {53.4 kilometres (33 0 miles)} and it is navigable for about 40 kilometres (25 miles). It has its source in the mountains of Manchester near Coleyville where it rises and flows west as the boundary between Manchester and Trelawny then goes underground near Troy. It reappears briefly near Oxford and goes underground again for several miles to reemerge near Balaclava and tumbles down gorges to the plain known as the Savannah, through the Great Morass and to the sea at Black River, the capital of the parish.
Because of the limestone formation there are 44 caves in the parish. They include Mexico, the longest in the island. Yardley Chase Caves near the foot of Lovers' Leap, Wallingford Caves near Balaclava, famous for the fossil remains of large extinct rodents and Peru Cave near Goshen which has impressive stalactites and stalagmites. Preservation areas and wetland sites include:
National Park:                                Cockpit Country
Lower Black River Morass Wetland Sanctuary:   Luana Point Swamp
Lower Black River Morass Wildlife Sanctuary:  Luana Font Hill
Scientific/Nature Reserves:                   Holland Swamp Forest.
Much of the land in the parish is dry grassland called savannahs, marsh and swamp, forests and scrub woodlands. The land is used mainly for agriculture and the farmers here who produce a variety of crops are noted for their skilful farm practices. Earlier the land was used to grow sugar cane and for pasture. It still has one sugar factory on Appleton Estate which is noted for its fine blends of rum. To the north of Appleton lies the Cockpit Country which crosses into Trelawny.
Mineral deposits include bauxite, antimony, white limestone, clay, peat and silica sand which is used to manufacture glass.

BRIEF HISTORY

It is believed the parish was named after the wife of Sir Thomas Modyford, the first English Governor of Jamaica. It originally included most of the south-west part of the island but in 1703 Westmoreland was taken from it and in 1814 a part of Manchester.
The Tainos/Arawaks also lived in this part of the island. There is evidence of their occupation in the cave at Pedro Bluff. When the Spaniards came they established ranches on the savannahs. The walls and wells they left are reminders of their presence.
When the English settled on the island after its capture from the Spanish in 1655, they concentrated on planting sugar cane but the ranches had been so well developed that the tradition continued. In some places buildings with 'Spanish wall' (masonry of limestone sand and stone between wooden frames) can still be seen. St Elizabeth became a prosperous parish and Black River an important seaport. In addition to shipping sugar and molasses Black River became the centre of the logging trade. Large quantities of logwood were exported to Europe to make a Prussian-blue dye which was very popular in the 18th and 19th centuries. Synthetic dyes have now replaced natural dyes so although there are still large quantities of logwood growing wild in some areas there is no longer any demand for it. Today, however, it still supports the honey industry as honey made from logwood blossoms is very popular.
Because of its prosperity electric power was first introduced in Jamaica in a house called Waterloo in Black River in 1893. In 1903 the first motor car to come to Jamaica was imported by the owner of Waterloo. In those days the town had a horse-racing track, a gambling house and a mineral spa for the well-to-do at the west end of the town.
St Elizabeth probably has the greatest racial mixture in Jamaica. When the Miskito Indians came from Central America to help track the Maroons in the 18th century they were given land grants in this parish. In the 18th century too, Loyalists from the Carolinas settled in the Great Morass and attempted to grow rice. In the 19th century Scots and Germans migrated to the parish and this accounts for pockets of distinct racial mixtures in the parish. However, in the 20th century there was steady emigration from St Elizabeth and other parts of Jamaica to Panama, Costa Rica, Guatemala and Cuba to work on railway construction and banana plantations.
With the closure of the port in Black River in 1968 the parish could have become a backwater had bauxite not been discovered. More recently efforts are being made to develop a different kind of tourism in which the community is more involved and which can show off the many ecological features of the parish. The parish lends itself to this kind of development and the annual St Bess Homecoming is enticing its sons and daughters to invest there. In addition to a strong farming base, craft is also being revived and the future looks promising.
Munro College for boys and Hampton School for girls were established by the Munro and Dickenson Trust in1856 and 1858 respectively. Several secondary schools have been built in the last 50 years.

POPULATION: 148,900 (1999)

CAPITAL: Black River
MAJOR TOWNS: Santa Cruz, Malvern, Junction, Balaclava


MAJOR INDUSTRIES/SOURCES OF EMPLOYMENT


Sugar: This is one of the oldest industries in the parish. The one remaining factory is the Appleton Estate which has given its name to the fine blends of rum it produces.

Bauxite: When bauxite deposits were discovered in the parish, Kaiser Bauxite company began mining in the early 1950s. Alpart started mining and alumina manufacturing at Nain. This was closed in 1975 but the mining of ore continues.

Fishing: River fishing is unequalled in Jamaica and sea fishing is also very good. Middle Quarters is known as the Shrimp Capital of Jamaica. Vendors sell pickled crayfish to passing motorists and the industry is said to earn $3.000.000.00 a year.

Crafts: St Elizabeth is noted for its straw work - hats, bags, baskets, mats, etc. Sisal and thatch are grown locally to support this.

Agriculture: This is the mainstay of the parish noted for its watermelons, seasoning, tomatoes, onions, cassava, pineapples etc. It is one of Jamaica's 'bread baskets'. Its farmers constantly work against drought conditions in some places.

Food Processing: There is a food processing plant at Bull Savannah for tomatoes, carrots and pineapples which are distributed under the brand name Village Pride. There are pimento leaf oil factories at Giddy Hall. Bogue and Braes River.

Tourism: St Elizabeth has significantly increased its room capacity for tourists and is strongly pushing a tourism package with a difference - community tourism which would include eco-tourism. There are indications that over a half of the estimated 1,000,000 tourists who visit the island each year over a half are interested in what the south coast has to offer.

Other industries: Glass, abrasives, Hodges Ceramic Supplies Ltd and Silica mines.


MAJOR HISTORICAL/CULTURAL/RECREATIONAL/ECOLOGICAL SITES


The Great Morass: This is the island's largest wetland which has an area of 125 square miles. The lower morass extends from the Black River to Lacovia and the upper morass is above Lacovia. It is a complex eco-system and a preserve for more than 100 bird species. It is a refuge for about 300 crocodiles. Fed by the Black River the morass has plenty of crayfish and fish including the God-a-me that can live out of water in mud and moist leaf litter. Sometimes a manatee can be seen near the river estuary. The morass provides a livelihood for the 'shrimp' sellers at Middle Quarters. There is now evidence of pollution and the Black River and Great Morass Environmental Defence Fund is attempting to have the area declared a national park.

YS Falls: These falls are considered by many to be Jamaica's most spectacular waterfalls. Eight cascades separated by pools ideal for swimming fall for120 feet. Limestone cliffs and towering lush vegetation enhance the scene. It is on private property but is open to the public for a fee. There is a picnic ground and transportation to the falls. The estate raises racehorses and Jamaica Red cattle

Bamboo Avenue: This two and a half mile 'avenue' of bamboos on the main road between Lacovia and Middle Quarters was planted by the owners of Holland Estate in the 17th century to provide shade in the heat of the savannah. A former owner was John Gladstone, father of the famous British prime minister. It was a sugar estate and the factory has only recently been closed. Although battered by hurricanes and the occasional fires it is still attractive. It is maintained by the staff of the Hope Botanical Gardens in Kingston.

Font Hill Wildlife Sanctuary: The Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica owns this 3150 acre wildlife reserve. It has two miles of coastline. Scrubby acacia and logwood thickets cover much of the area. Near to the coastline are interconnected lagoons and swamps. It is a haven for birds. Eight endemic species can be seen there including the pea dove, the white-bellied dove and the ground dove, the smallest dove in the world. It used to be a cattle ranch earlier.

St John's Parish Church: Although a tablet on the tower notes the laying of a foundation stone in 1837 it is believed that this yellow brick church is much older. The church has a pair of monuments erected in 1828 to the memory of Robert Hugh Munro and his nephew Caleb Dickenson. Munro bequeathed his estate in trust to his nephew and the church wardens and their successors to form a free school for the poor children of the parish. This bequest formed the Munro and Dickenson Trust which opened the Munro and Dickenson Free School in Black River in 1856, fifty-nine years after Munro's death and eventually Munro School for boys and Hampton School for girls, the oldest public educational institutions in the parish. The tombstones outside the west entrance are for Duncan Hook (1741 -1779) and his four children by a 'free mulatto' who lies beside him. He had to have a special act of Assembly passed to give his mistress and their children the same legal status as white people. Without it they could not have been buried in the churchyard.

Lacovia Tombstones: At the junction of the Lacovia main road and one of the roads to Maggoty lies two tombstones. On one is a large marble slab with the inscription "To Thomas Jordan Spencer". The other is unmarked. The story goes that a duel at a nearby tavern resulted in the death of both men. The engraved coat of arms has been traced to Spencer of Anthrop, an ancestor of the late Sir Winston Spencer Churchill of World War 2 fame.

Appleton Estate: Tucked in the Siloah Valley between the Nassau Mountains and the Cockpit Country lies Jamaica's oldest rum distillery on the Appleton Estate. The rums bear the estate's name and have been produced there since 1749. The estate is now owned by J.Wray & Nephew, Jamaica's largest producers of rum.

Pondside Lake: This is the largest fresh water lake in the island situated about six miles from Black River on the road to Mountainside. It is officially known as the Wally Eash Pond. According to legend this pond was once a district which, like the Yallahs Ponds in St Thomas, mysteriously disappeared leaving a pond in its place. A man and his dog left the district at night and as he was returning to the spot where the house should be he stepped into water. The district had sunken while he was away and he was the only one saved.

Accompong: Situated on the south side of the Cockpit Country, Accompong is the only remaining village in western Jamaica inhabited by the descendants of the Maroons. It was reputedly named after the brother of the great Maroon leader Cudjoe, and it was a common name among the Akan speaking tribes of West Africa. The settlement was formed after the treaty between the Maroons and the English in 1739. When the second war with the English broke out in 1795, the Accompong Maroons remained neutral and were left untroubled at the end of the war when all the other Maroon settlements were destroyed. On the 6thof January each year a traditional ceremony is held to commemorate the signing of the treaty with the English in 1739 which gave them their freedom. Their head of government is the Colonel who is elected by secret ballot every five years. He is assisted by a council which he appoints. Most of the Maroons have gone to other parts of Jamaica to live but they are still proud of their African heritage.


7.4               The History of St. Elizabeth

St. Elizabeth is thought to been named in honor of Lady Elizabeth Modyford, wife of the first Governor of Jamaica (1664-71). Prior to 1703, the parish stretched across the current parishes of Westmoreland, Hanover and Manchester. The size of the parish is 1,212.4km2. Originally it included a great section of the western end of the island which officially became Westmoreland in 1703. The final subdivision occurred in 1814 where a part of the southern section was further subdivided into present day Manchester.

When Columbus arrived in Jamaica in the fifteenth century, he reportedly found Tainos along the South coast. To date, evidence of their occupation can be found in Black River and also in a cave on the Pedro Buff. The Spaniards, encouraged by the monarchy soon became occupants of the country including St. Elizabeth. The Spaniards, later enslaved the Tainos, mistreated them and passed on diseases. Many of them died from the treatment from the Spaniards or from the diseases transmitted.

On the plains Spanish heritage is maintained in place names like the town of Santa Cruz. The Spaniards were stockmen, which they preferred to farming. Their choice of stock was cattle which were reared primarily on the Pedro Plains. The Spanish occupation in the area turned out to be for a short period of time as they were ousted by the English. This occurred in the 17 century. The defeated Spanish either fled to neighboring territories or were killed.

When the English came to Jamaica they encountered the Maroons, a community with grew as slavery grew. The Maroons established independent communities in the mountains. One such was Accompong Town. Accompong still exists as a Marron community. The English period of colonisation was marked by extensive sugar production. Some prominent estates were located in Holland, Vineyard and Fullerswood.

Currently, in Southern St. Elizabeth, there are some residents who are descendants of Europeans. One group is those that came to the area in the 17 century from a failed Scottish expedition, known as the Darien expedition.

Outside of sugar there was some diversification for example in 1770 Goshen was a cattle farm which sold livestock to neighboring estates. It is also recorded to have shipped over three thousand mahogany planks.

The Nineteenth Century

In 1893, at the efforts of two merchants the Leyden brothers St. Elizabeth became the first place in Jamaica to acquire electricity. The parish church of 'St. John the Evangelist' was also founded in 1837. The St. Andrews church outside of Gilnock was built in the 1840s by a Duncan Robertson originally a 'chief of the Scottish clan Robertson of Struan.'

The 1800 was a time of manufacturing as during that time the Lacovia Manufacturing Company was engaged in the manufacturing of paper from Bamboo. The Logwood industry gained prominence from the late 1800s to the early 1900s. The value of logwood was in the dye that was extracted from it. The dye was used for in the colouring of textiles. The logwood was harvested and shipped from inland through the waterways. For example in Elim Logwood was shipped by the connecting tributaries to Black River 20 miles away. While there was a steady demand for logwood, Black River remained a prosperous town. In 1893-94 the export value of logwood from Jamaica surpassed that of traditional leading crops of sugar and coffee. However, after some time the industry collapsed as a result of the discovery of synthetic dyes.

The parish was also the scene of a health crisis as there was the outbreak of a cholera epidemic in 1850. It was said to be very devastating and the manpower or coffins were insufficient to bury the fatalities. For fear of transmission the victims from the outbreak were buried in a specific part of the cemetery where penguin plants were planted to cover it.

The Twentieth Century

For Black River the nineteenth hundreds heralded a fire which damaged over half of the town's commercial district. In 1903 the first car to be brought into the island by MR. H. W. Griffiths of Hodges Pen - 'a four cylinder New Orleans' from England, came to St. Elizabeth. It was also in the 1900s that the bauxite industry was developed in the parish. Currently on a lull, it is a part of the mining activities throughout the country since 1943. In the parish it is manufactured by Alumina Partners of Jamaica (ALPART) headquartered at Nain in the parish. In 1980 the target they set was 1.3 million tones. Elsewhere in the parish there was another Bauxite Processing Plant Known as Revere which was closed in 1975.

In 1968 the port of Black River was closed which saw the town losing a commercialization atmosphere that it has not regained since. In the 1980s there was a proposal for a rice project under the Black River Upper Morass Project which was hoped to suit domestic demand of rice. During the 19 century, Southfield cemented itself as a vegetable producing area despite the predisposition for drought. In 1949-50 they recorded a production output of 12 million pounds of tomatoes.

In June 1979, the town of Newmarket was the scene of a flood which resulted in the entire area being flooded for several days. This tragedy resulted in 85 billion gallons of water with area covered in up to 95 inches of water. There were forty one casualties and damage to property was estimated to be millions. It is said that this was not the first incidence of flooding which had occurred on at least four occasions the earliest being in 1899. In 1979 a new town was built a mile from the flood site to replace the old town.

Notable things about St. Elizabeth

•  The Black River which is 44 miles is the longest river in the island. The path of the river intermingles with other parishes such as Manchester and Trelawny and re-emerges into what is known as the BlacK River.

•  St. Elizabeth has 44 caves most notable are: - the Wallingford Caves where fossil remains have been found and the Peace Cave where Cudjoe on behalf of the Maroons singed Peace Treaty.

•  Lacovia is the first capital of the parish. Courts were initially heard alternately in Lacovia and Black River until it was relegated to Black River.

•  Uncertainty surrounds the age of the Parish Church of St. John the Evangelist/ The Black River Anglican Church. The church is the site of a monument belonging to Robert Hugh Munro and his nephew Caleb Dickinson the founders of Munro and Hampton College in the parish. The church also has a memorial tablet to Duncan Hook (1741- 1779) and four of his children by a free mulatto Elizabeth Duncan.

•  The police station and the hospital are thought to be former sites of an army barracks.

•  Black River constitutes the largest remaining crocodile refuge in Jamaica.

•  Hampstead Great house ruins was once the site of summer residences of governors of Jamaica.

•  The parish had a race track which was a mile long and attracted persons from all over the country; compliments of the Leyden brothers former plantation owners and planners of the town.

•  Balaclava has a 70 m 800ft tunnel; the area was a former coffee and ginger trade point..

Sources Used

Ali, Arif. Jamaica Absolutely. London: Hansib, 2010. Print.

"Black River :a Town of Many Firsts." Jamaica Gleaner 29 July 2001, Outlook sec.: 2. Print.

Bowen, Glenn. "Mid- Island Spotlight." The Weekend Star 27 May 1988: 39. Print. "Enchanting Holland Bamboo." Sunday Gleaner 26 Nov. 2006, Outlook sec.: 10. Print.

Gunther, Margaret. "Georgian Society Outings: Historical Highlights of Black River." Daily Gleaner [Kingston] 5 Nov. 1973: n. pag. Print.

Fincham, Alan. Jamaica Underground: The Caves, Sinkholes, and Underground Rivers of the Island. Barbados: Press U of the West Indies, 1997. Print.

Floyd, Barry. Jamaica: An Island Microcosm : [by] Barry Floyd. London: Macmillan, 1979. Print.

Hawkes, Alex D. "Jamaican Places- Lovers Leap. A Sheer Perspective 1700 Feet into Foaming Sea." The Daily Gleaner 6 Aug. 1970: 3. Print.

Higman, B W. Jamaica Surveyed: Plantation Maps and Plans of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. Jamaica: Institute of Jamaica Publications, 1988. Print.

Historical Society Bulletin

Insight Guide. Singapore: APA Publications, 1983. Print.

Jacobs, Headley P. The Parish of St. Elizabeth. Kingston: West Indian Publishing Co. Ltd, 1953. Print.

Kirkpatrick, W. The Gleaner Guide to Jamaica: A Complete Handbook for the Use of Tourists. Kingston: Gleaner, n.d. Print.

"Lacovia Had No Share of Glory." Jamaica Daily News 11 Apr. 1980: n. pag. Print. "Legends and Folklore of St.Bess." The Jamaica Daily News [KIngston] 11 Apr. 1980: n. pag. Print.

Mcfarlane, Keeble. "A Romantic Notion, Yes...but Is It Practical." Jamaica Observer 4 June 2011: 9. Print.

"New Market: New Town Officially Open." 12 Dec. 1983: 1. Print.

Notes from National Library

Perkins, Wilmot. "St. Elizabeth: Water Is All We Need." The Sunday Gleaner 14 Apr. 1957: n. pag. Print.

Reynolds, C.Roy. "Where Time Almost Stood Still." Daily Gleaner 6 May 1964: 3. Print.

Salmon, R. D. "The Plight of Balaclava." Daily Gleaner 27 Oct. 1973: n. pag. Print. Senior, Olive. Encyclopedia of Jamaican Heritage. St. Andrew, Jamaica, W.I: Twin Guinep Publishers, 2003. Print.

Shepherd, Verene. Transients to Settlers: The Experience of Indians in Jamaica, 1845-1950. Leeds, England: Peepal Tree, 1994. Print.

"St. Elizabeth." Sunday Gleaner 16 May 1970: n. pag. Print.

"St.Elizabeth Needs a New Lease on Life." Daily News 2 Mar. 1983, Mid Island Spotlight sec.: 5. Print.

Williams, Paul H. "All Roads Leads to Accompong." Jamaica Gleaner4 Jan. 2012, Hospitality sec.: 3. Print.




7.4.1   Savanna-la-Mar

Extracts 1784 Almanac:     WESTMORELAND

….is the county town, where the Assize courts are held for the county of Cornwall, the last Tuesday in March, June, September, and December: it has lately been ornamented by an elegant court-house, and contains about 100 other houses. In the parish are 89 sugar estates, 106 other settlements, and 18000 slaves

7.4.2     St Thomas in the Vale

 


8        JAMAICA ALAMANACS, & HANDBOOKS ETC



4 volumes (1824, 1826, 1840 & 1845) were examined in the Royal Commonwealth Library collection now in the University Library, Cambridge (7/2000). The remainder of the extracts were from a website on Jamaica Genealogy (jamaicanfamilysearch.com)
The local Government in those days, was called the “Justices and Vestry.” It comprised the Custos Rotulorum (Chairman), four senior Magistrates, the Rector of the Anglican Church and the two Church Wardens with ten Freeholders who were to be elected annually as Vestrymen.



8.1               ALMANACS EXTRACTS


1751 Civil List: no sig
1776 Civil List: John Wedderburn, Magistrate, Westmoreland
John de la Roach, magistrate, St E
Dr William Wright, Surgeon General to Navy
Hanover: George Spence
St Elizabeth: John James Swaby

1779 Magistrates:
Hanover: George Spence
Westmoreland: John Wedderburn
St Elizabeth: John James Swaby

1784 Magistrate
Hanover: Custos Hon George Spence
Westmoreland: John Wedderburn, Thomas Thistlewood
St Elizabeth: John James Swaby

Militia
St Elizabeth:
William B Wright, Major Charles Wright, Lt Robert Wright, Lt
Westmoreland:
John & William Tomlinson, Ensigns
Hanover:
Henry Scrymgeour, Lt

1790 Magistrates:
Westmoreland: John Wedderburn, James Robert Tomlinson

Militia
St Elizabeth:
William B Wright, Major Robert B. Wright, Lt
Westmoreland:
William Tomlinson, Lt.
Hanover:
Henry Scrymgeour, Lt

1793: (Royal Gazette)
Andrew Wright Vestreyman, St Elizabeth
CAVEATS entered in the Office

Jan 31 Wright, Alexander by William Hislop

1794, July, died:
In this town, Mr. Charles Wright, lately of Europe

1796:
Westmoreland:
Magistrates:
Also of the Quorum
James Robert Tomlinson
James Wedderburn
Commissioner of Workhouse: James Wedderburn.

St Elizabeth
Coroner: JB Wright
Horse Militia
Hanover Windward: William Sinclair, Lt.
Militia
St Elizabeth:
Robert B. William & Andrew Wright, Capt
JC Wright, Ensign Robert Wright, Lt

1802 Westmoreland:
Magistrates:
Also of the Quorum
James Robert Tomlinson
James Wedderburn
Commissioner of Workhouse: James Wedderburn.

St Elizabeth
Coroner: JB Wright
Horse Militia
Hanover Windward: William Sinclair, Lt.
Militia
St Elizabeth:
Robert B. William & Andrew Wright, Capt
JC Wright, Ensign Robert Wright, Lt

1808 Civil list
               Richard Pusey, attorney at law
               Alexander Rose, JP, St Elizabeth


1811                         (Property/slaves/stock)
St Elizabeth   Brooks, George  -Burnt Ground, 40/10
               Barnes, Jonathan, decd - Rosely Hill, 43/31.
               Cerf, Henry - Berlin & Potsdam, 50/176
               Campbell, Peter - Holland, 421/202
               Maitland, Francis - Giddy Hall, 74/140
               Royal, Joseph - Lower Works 29/323
               Rose, Alexander - Mount Lebanon, 38/42
               Smith, John - Mount Charles, 66/12    
               Sinclair, Alexander - Prospect, 85/-
               Wright, Andrew, decd - Mitcham, 116/174
               Wright, William B - Cornwall, 79/-
               Wright, John - Meribah, 79/134.
               Wright, Robert B - Southampton, 48/126.
               Williams, Thomas J. - Mount Olivet, 100/28.

Vere           Booth, JG - Farm, 62/13
               Booth, JG Decd - Mount Pleasant, 58/12
               Booth, Samuel - Asia, 41/19
               Edwards, J P, - Pusey Hall, 360/157
               Wint, John P - 50/-                   
               Wright, James, decd - Streten Hall, 82/56
Westmoreland   Watkins, Hannah - Logwood, 46/6
               Wedderburne John, Spring Garden etc, 1,524/ 1,877
               Wedderburn Sir David & Andrew,
                  Blue Castle and Blackheath 602/ 633
               Leslie Hon. William, Lindores 59/ 41 (cf Margaret 
               Dick)
Clarendon:        Wint, Thomas - Bellmont, 75/87

1812:
slaves/stock
Westmoreland: Tomlinson W., deceased, Culloden 31/ 97
              Tomlinson, Thomas, Bluefields 116/123
              Wedderburn, John, Spring Garden etc. etc., 2322/1285
              Wedderburn, Sir D., Black Heath etc. 686/ 353
              Watkins, Hannah, Logwood penn 35/ 5

St Elizabeth: Angel, Sarah, Providence 43/ 11
              Angel, Thomas M., Lookout 33/ 50
              Brooks, George, Burnt Ground 37/ 36
              Brooks, Martha, Rocky Mount 25/ 3
              Cerf, Henry, Berlin etc., 602/ 214
              Campbell, Peter, Holland 409/ 30
              Maitland, Francis, Giddy Hall 74/ 142
              Royal, Joseph, Lower Works 29/ 331
              Rose, Alexander, Mount Lebanon 57/ 89
              Sinclair, Alexander, Prospect 41/ 30
              Smith, John, Mount Charles 68/ 15
              Wright, Andrew, deceased, Mitcham 118/ 169
              Wright, John, Meribah 54/ 76
              Wright, Charles, ___ 30/ 30
1815
St E.         Cerf, Henry - Potsdam, Berlin & Malvern Well, 643/-
              Maitland, Francis - Giddy Hall & Mitcham, 197/456
              Smith, John - Mount Charles, 22/13
              Sinclair, Alexander - Prospect, 53/60
              Wint, Mary - Caen-Wood, 43/10
              Wright, John - Meribah, 56/42
Vere          Booth, John Gaul, heirs of - Mount Pleasant, 42/20
              Booth, Samuel, - Asia, 24
              Brooks, George - Blenheim
              Edwards, Hon John P, Pusey Hall - 303/232
              Wint, John Pusey, - Ryde, 131/15
              Wright & Glasgow, exec of, - Stratton Hall, 72/112
              Wright, Robert Benstead, - Kensworth, 45/12
              Wright, William Burt, - Enfield, 103/16
Westmoreland   Thompson, Mary - Truro 49 
               Wedderburn, John, Spring Garden 467/319 [?]
               .............Jerusalem 273/ 267 [last digit torn]
               ..................Mint 248/ 213
               .................Retreat 368/ 261
               .................Moreland 230/ 232
               .................Paradise 154/ 476
               .................Mount-Edgecumbe 260/ 246
               Wedderburn, Sir David, Blue-Castle 300/ 385

1816:
St Elizabeth:  Maitland, Francis - Giddy Hall & Mitcham, 197/450
Delaroche, John, Carisbrook 150/ 250
Sinclair, Alexander, Prospect 53/ 60
Burton, Zechariah, Lucky-Valley 25/ 4
Burton, Elizabeth, Content 65

Vere: Wint, John Pusey, Ryde 131/15
Wright & Glasgow, executors of, Stratton-Hall 72/ 112
Wright, Robert Benstead, Kensworth 45/ 12
Wright, William Burt, Enfield 103/ 16

1817:
St Elizabeth:
Maitland, Francis, Giddy Hall, T(orn) & Mitcham, T
Burton, Zachariah, Lucky Valley, 25/T
Burton, Elizabeth, Content, 70/T
Burton, Francis, 16/30

[Burton, Francis B.] Trahen, 12
[Rose, Alexander], Mount Lebanon, 54/85
Wint, Mary, Caen Wood, 44/10

Health Officer at Black River, Dr. Alexander Rose

1818
St Elizabeth:  Maitland, Francis - Mitcham, 114/185
               Maitland, Francis - Giddy Hall, 75/224
               Smith, John, Mount Charles, 29/14
Burton, Elizabeth, Content, 71
Burton, Francis, 16/30
Burton, Francis B. Trahen, 4/7
Burton, G. William, 8/49
Burton, Hannah, 8/10
Burton, John, junior, 4/1

1820
Manchester:
               Booth, John Gall - Farm, 74/30.
               Booth, John Gall heirs of - Mount Pleasant, 35/4
               Maitland & Roberts - 80 (prob Silver Grove)
               Wint, John Pusey - Ryde, 115/12              
               Wint, Mary - Caenwood, 64/31
               Wright, William Burt, - Enfield, 137/17
               Wright, Robert Benstead, Kensworth - 61/8
               Sinclair, Alexander, Prospect 73/ 8
St Elizabeth:
               Cerf, Henry - Berlin, 409/13
                            Corby Castle, 96
                                  Nile, 40
                            Potsdam, 251/28    
               Cohen, Abraham S - 2/1
               Cohen, David - 6
               Maitland & Roberts - 42/179 (prob Mitcham)
               Maitland, Frances - Giddy Hall, 71/240
               Nembhard, Ballard B, decd Hounslow      85/440
               Sherman, Judith - 13/9
               Smith, John - Mount Charles, 28/5
               Wright John - Meribah 79/4
               Wright, Nathaniel - 24/3
               Wright, Thomas - 2/2
Vere:             White & Levys - Stretton Hall, 81/22.
                  Brooks, George - Blenheim, 118/20
Westmoreland:
               Wedderburn, James, 8/ 1
               Wedderburn, John, Endeavour 15/ 4
               Wedderburn, John, Jerusalem 291/ 213
               ................, Mint 224/ 197
               ........., Moreland 216/ 210
               ........., Mount Edgcumbe 241/ 450
               ........., Paradise 140/ 183
               ........., Spring Garden 418/ 310
               ........., Retreat 354/ 250
               Wedderburn, Sir David, Blue Castle 263 330
               Wright, Catherine, 5
1821
St Elizabeth:  Maitland & Roberts - Mitcham?,38/194
               Maitland, Francis - Giddy Hall, 70/217
               Smith, John, Mount Charles 30/ 20
1822
Manchester:
               Maitland & Roberts - Silver Grove, 80
               Wint, John Pusey - Ryde 112/11
               Wint, Mary - Caenwood, 71/2
               Wright, Robert B, estate of - Kensworth, 70/20
               Wright, William Burt estate of - Enfield, 174/27
St Elizabeth
               Cohens & Co. - Heathfield 96/4
               Maitland & Roberts - Mitcham, 41/219
               Maitland, Frances - Giddy Hall, 66/220
               Smith, John - Mount Charles, 28/5
               Sherman, Judith - 12/4
               Wright, John - Meribah, 80/76
               Wright, Nathaniel - 12/3
Westmoreland:
               Wright, Catherine - 5.
Vere:          Brooks, George - Blenheim, 134/17

1823:
Manchester:
               Maitland & Roberts – Silver Grove, 79
               Wint, John Pusey – Ryde, 107/17.
               Wint, Mary – Caenwood, 70/26.
St Elizabeth:
               Maitland & Roberts - Mitcham, 41/266
               Maitland, Frances - Giddy Hall, 67/298
               Smith, John - Mount Charles, 28/5
               Sherman, Judith – Twickenham, 12/4
               Wright, John - Meribah, 81/84
               Wright, Nathaniel - 12/3
               Wright, Rebecca, 5
               Wright, Robert, 10/ 4

               Wright, Robert B., 10/ 4


1824: (Hardcopy & web site)
                  Name                    Property          Slaves/Stock
St Elizabeth:  Maitland & Roberts:     Mitcham        43/224
               Maitland Frances        Giddy Hall     68/320
               Burlton James E.        Mount Charles  55/15
               Spence George           Bloomsbury     50/20
               Williams Thomas John    Mount Olivet   103/24
Manchester:    Maitland & Roberts:     Silver Grove   81/0
St Elizabeth:  Wright John             Meribah        100/100
               Wright Nathaniel        -----          12/2
               Wright Rebecca          -----          5/0
               Wright Robert           -----          7/0
               Wright Robert B         -----          10/4
Manchester     Brooks, George          Blenheim       33
               Wright Robert B, est of, Kenilworth    85/0
               Wright Wm Burt, est. of, Enfield       190/00

1824:
St Elizabeth   Burlton, James E - Mount Charles 55/15
               Cerf, Henry - Berlin, 457/14
                             Corby Castle, 107
                             Potsdam, 247/9
               Cohens & Co - Heathfield, 96/4
               Maitland & Roberts, - Mitcham, 43/234
               Maitland, Francis - Giddy Hall, 68/320
               Sherman, Judith - Twickenham, 13/5
               Wright, John - Meribah, 100/100
               Wright, Nathaniel, 12/2
               Wright, Rebecca, 5
               Wright, Robert, 7
               Wright, Robert B, 10/4
Manchester     Maitland & Roberts, - Silver Grove, 81
               Wright, Robert B estate of - Kensworth 85
               Wright, William Burt, est of - Enfield 190
               Wint, John Pusey - Ryde 99
               Wint, Mary - Caenwood, 73/2
               Booth, John Gall - Farm, 115/23

Vere           Booth, Robert W - 3/19
               Booth, Samuel - Rest 25/4
Westmoreland   Wright, Catherine, 7

1825
St Elizabeth:  Maitland & Roberts - Mitcham, 42/274
               Maitland, Francis - Giddy Hall, 76/300

1826:
St Elizabeth:  Maitland & Roberts:      Mitcham        42/245
               Maitland Frances         Giddy Hall     72/231
               Burlton James E.         Mount Charles  48/32
               Sherman Judith           Twickenham     9/4
               Earl John                -----          3/0
               Nembhard, Ballard B, decd Hounslow      81/442
               Spence George            Bloomsbury     45/6
               Rose Alexander dcr          Mount Lebanon  48/26
Manchester: Maitland & Roberts:            Silver Grove       85/0
St Elizabeth:  Wright Ezekiel           -----        30/0
               Wright John              Meribah      70/23
               Wright Rebecca           -----        10/0
               Wright Robert            -----        11/0
               Wright Robert E          -----        20/10
Manchester     Wright Robert B, est of, Kenilworth   85/3
               Wright Wm Burt, est. of, Enfield      167/21

1827:
St Elizabeth:
Burlton, James E., Mount Charles, 50/50
Maitland, Frances, Giddy Hall, 74/228
Maitland and Roberts, Mitcham, 41/264

1828:
St Elizabeth:  Maitland, Ann, 72/226
               Maitland and Roberts, Mitcham, 40/241
               Burlton, James E., Mount Charles, 41/36
               Rose, Alexander, deceased, Mount Lebanon, 36/37
               Wright, Ezekiel, 2/1
               Wright, John, Meribah, 69/23
               Wright, Rebecca, Friendship, 5
               Wright, Robert B., 7/2
Manchester:    Roberts, George, Silver Grove, 86
Westmoreland:  Wedderburn, James, Mint, 335/37
               ..ditto, Moreland, 316/27
               ..ditto, Mount Edgecumbe, 251/380
               ..ditto, Paradise, 115/670
               ..ditto, Retreat, 326/38
               ..ditto, Spring Garden, 374/49
               Wedderburn, James, 10/5
               Wedderburn, Sir David, Blue Castle, 217/112

1829:
St Elizabeth:
            Burlton, James E., - Mount Charles, 77/55
              Maitland & Roberts - Mitcham, 37/244
              Maitland, Ann - Giddy Hall 78/197


1830:
St Elizabeth:
              Maitland & Roberts - Mitcham, 39/247
              Maitland, Ann - Giddy Hall 77/145

1831:
St Elizabeth:  Burlton, James Edward, Mount Charles, 79/118
               Maitland and Roberts, Mitcham, 39/247
               Maitland, Ann, Giddy Hall, 77/145
               Wright, Charles, 13
               Wright, John, deceased, Meribah, 67
               Wright, Nathaniel, 13/4
               Wright, Rebecca, Friendship, 5
               Wright, Robert B., Friendship, 7/2
Manchester:    Roberts, George, Silver Grove, 90
               Wint, Mary, Cowick Park, 82
               ..ditto, Look Out, 56/48
               Wright, Mrs., Kensworth, 86/4
Westmoreland:  Wedderburn, James, Mint, 323/42
               ..ditto, Moreland, 296/17
               ..ditto, Mount Edgecumbe, 258/358
               ..ditto, Paradise, 106/557
               ..ditto, Retreat, 327/47
               Wedderburn, James, 43/8
               Wedderburn, Sir David, Blue Castle, 221/114

1832:
St Elizabeth:
Burton, Bonilla, 4
Burton, Elizabeth, Content, 100
Burton, Frances, Spanish Quarters, 21
Burton, John,  Lorn Hill, 10/ 10
Facey, William, 7
Maitland and Roberts, Mitcham, 50/ 300
Maitland, Ann, Giddy Hall, 77/ 216
Rose, Alexander, deceased, Mount Lebanon, 72/ 70
Rose, Mary, 4/ 4
Rose, William A., Fort Rose, 20/ 20
Sherman, Judith, Twickenham, 8/ 5
Manchester:
Sinclair, Alexander, estate of, 100
Sinclair, James, Prospect, 14
Sinclair, Sarah, 16
Sinclair, Susanna, 18

1833:
St Elizabeth (slaves/stock)
Burlton, James Edward -       Mount Charles, 92/225
Campbell,               Holland, 322/200
Cohen, Judah -          Potsdam 317/40 - Corby Castle, 117
Cohen, Hyman -          Berlin 452/35 - Heathfield, 21
Earl, John -                  6
Maitland & Robert -     Mitcham, 60/350
Maitland, Ann -         Giddy Hall 100/300
Nembhard, William -     Kensington, 77
Rose, Alexander, decd, Mount Lebanon, 72/70
Sherman, Judith -             Twickenham 10/10
Wright, John decd -     Meribah 53
Wright, Rebecca -             Friendship 5
Wright, Robert B -            Friendship 7
Wright, Nathaniel -     12/5
Wright, Charles -             50.  

Westmoreland  
               Wright, Elizabeth, 4
               Wedderburn, James, Mint 332/ 53
               ...................Moreland 279/ 15
               ...................Mount Edgecombe 263/ 319
               ...................Retreat 311/ 37
               ...................Spring Garden 346/ 41
               Wedderburn, James, Paradise 99/ 558
               Wedderburn, Sir David, Bluecastle 222/ 121
Manchester     Roberts, George - Silver Grove 180
               Wint, Mary - Look-Out 55/61
               Wright, N - Kensworth 89/3


1838: (with numbers of "apprentices")
Manchester     Wint, Mary - Cow Park etc, 119
               Wright, N - Kinworth 91
               Wright, WB, decd - Enfield 154
               Cohen, Hyman - Apropos 39 - Albion 227
               Cohen, H&J - Isle 53
               Cohen, Judah - New Heathfield, 53
                            - Chatham & Bath, 79
                            - Berwick, 50
St Elizabeth  (apprentices)
               Maitland, Ann decd - Giddy Hall, 76
               Sherman, Samuel - Mitcham 44
               Burlton, James E - Mount Charles, 88
               Cohen, Judah - Potsdam 271 - Corby Castle - 101
               Cohen, Hyman - Berlin 332
               Gladstone, John, Holland, 250
               Nembhard, Eliza P - Kensington, 62

1838
Civil Lists:
St Elizabeth Vestrymen: James E Burlton, James Mullings, Matthew
Farquharson, John Maitland, Theodore Stone, F Hendricks, Edward
F Coke, John Earl, Alexander Cowan, Michael Myers
Militia: St Elizabeth,
Quartermaster Samuel Sherman
Asst Surgeon AW Maitland           

1839:
St Elizabeth Vestreymen: John Maitland

1840: (hard copy & website)
St Elizabeth:  Maitland Andrew dcr        Giddy Hall   2000 acres
               Sherman Samuel             Mitcham      807 acres
               Burlton James E            Ashton & Mount 1002a
                                                 Charles
               Wright Nathaniel           South Valley 115 acres
               Spence Joan Lean           Bloomsbury   226
               Spence George B            Upland          82 acres
               Cohen, Judah               Potsdam, 1710a
               Cohen, Judah               Colby Castle, 328a
               Cohen, Hymen               Berlin, 1412a    
               Earl, John                 Chelsea, 180a
               Earl, John                 Mount Olivet, 502a
               Earl & Muirhead            Roseberry, 802a  
               Nembhard, Eliza P          Kensington, 202a
               Gladstone, John,           Lacovia estate 2212 &

Holland, 4548.

               Cooper, David,             Lyndesaye-Lodge, 118
               McClymont, John,           Unity, 1000
               Wallace, Jane,             Mount Unity, 188
               Solomons, Eve,             Mount Lebanon, 1500

Manchester -   Cohen, H & J - Isle, 397a
               Cohen, Judah - Heathfield, 348a
               Cohen, Hymen - Apropos, 60a
               Cohen, Judah - Maidstone, Bath & Chatham, 1058a
               Cohen, Hymen - Albion 1350a
               Cohen, Judah - Berwick, 700a
               Roberts, George - Silver Grove, 1200a 
               Sweetman - Pusey Hill 403a
               Wint, Mary - Lookout, Caen Wood & New Hall, 951a
                            Cowick Park, 400a
               Wint, Diana - Content, 10a
               Wint, James - Mahogany Grove, 1000a
               Wright, Nicola - Kensworth, 500a
               Wright, Robert J, - Halsham, 50a
Vere           Booth, R.W. Estate of, 300a
               Burrwell, Geo P, exor of Booth, 137a.

Westmoreland:
               Wedderburn, --, heirs of, 3453
               ---Same, 1800
               ---Same, 2767
               ---Same, 1825
               ---Same, 1742
               ---Same, 1841
               Wedderburn, Daniel, 2131
               Wedderburn, James, 340
               Wedderburn, Eliza, 36
               Wright, F, 16a
St Elizabeth Civil List:
       Vestreymen: John Earl, Jno Maitland, Frederick Hendricks
       Militia Assistant Surgeon: AW Maitland.       
Also in this volume was a description of a new electric rotating machine, demonstrated in New York in 1837.  

1845:
St Elizabeth:  Maitland J  Kensington          300 acres
                           Giddy Hall          1150 acres
                           Rosehill            130 acres
               Sherman S   Mitcham             843 acres
               Sherman J   Mahogany House      10 acres
               Burlton James E, est of, Ashton & M/C 1209 acres
                       Black River &c          250 acres
               Earl J heirs of Mount Olivet    497 acres   
                           Wiltshire           600 acres
               Cooper J.   Sportsman Hall      10 acres
               Cooper B & Co   Newport & Black River  13 acres
               Cooper F    Pleasant Hill       50 acres
               Spence Joan L    Bloomsbury     226 acres
               Swaby JJ    Montpellier         3000 acres
               Swaby Ann   Spice Grove         26 acres    
               Gladstone A, Holland, Maybole & Stonehenge, 5185.

Hewitt, W. K.                Fellowship, 700
Barnes, N. A.                Middlesex, 15
Bent, J.                     Middlesex, 117
Rickard, J.                  Watt’s Middlesex, 530
Salmon, J.                   Magotty and Middlesex, 1440
Solomon, Eve,                Mount Lebanon, 750
Finlay, W.                   Mount Unity and Good Intent, 38
Parchment, W.                Mount Unity, 41
Swaby, Ann,                  Brownshill, 100
_Same,                       Mount Unity, 25
Segre, J.              Mount Unity, 25
Wallace, Jane,         Mount Unity, 180

Manchester:   Roberts George heirs of Silver Grove 1400 acres
Westmoreland:  Maitland R. Carpenter Hall      11 acres
St Davids:     Maitland C  Claugh na Cate      10 acres
St Elizabeth Civil List:
Assistant Justices & Magistrates: John Maitland
Militia Quartern Samuel Sherman
Militia Assistant Surgeon: AW Maitland
District Prison (Black River) Surgeon: AW Maitland.

1846:
This issue did not contain any returns of properties.
College of Physicians and Surgeons, Qualified Practitioners,
being fellows, Manchester:
            Maitland, Andrew Wright, Lic Ap. Cy. London
Militia St Elizabeth Assistant Surgeon: AW Maitland.

1851:
Magistrate: St Elizabeth John Maitland
Surgeon: A Maitland also physician to the poor.

1860 Voters:
St Elizabeth, Cooper, John M.
1861:
Magistrates St E, John Myers Cooper, Black River

1878 Trade Directory.
St Elizabeth,
     Black River, Maitland AK, propr Mt Charles Pen.
              Wedderburn, AA Inspector of Constabulary.
     Goshen, Cooper Wright, postmaster and planter of Santa Cruz.
              Wright JC prop Friendship Pen.
     Lacovia, Tomlinson, WJ, propr Cornwall Pen.


1878 Directory of Properties:
Ashton, J. W. Earle proprietor, Black River
Mount Charles, A. K. Maitland proprietor, Black River
Farm, J. M. Cooper proprietor, Middle Quarters
Giddy Hall, J. M. Cooper proprietor, Middle Quarters
New Shaftson, A. N. Sinclair proprietor and manager, Bluefields

1891: St Elizabeth,

Middle Quarters, Cooper J & WS, Giddy Hall Pen
Balaclava: Sherman & Roberts, storekeepers

Handbook of Jamaica, 1881: (OP 38520.972.01)
This was checked , but contained nothing of detailed interest.

Search of Jamaica Site:
William Rhodes Petgrave Wright listed with descendants, b abt 1835
Wint, Mary met Mr John Webb, she b abt 1773
Militia 1808: Westmoreland Artillery Lt M Wright.
                St Elizabeth Regt Ensign C Wright.
Seaman deaths:
1775, John Maitland, St Elizabeth, master of the "Atlantic".



9        Royal Gazettes

1782: PDF copy held.

Findmypast has the Jamaica Mercury & Kingston Weekle Advertiser

PRO, CO 141
/1 1794
   1809 BNA 1 issue.
   1811 – BNA                          1812 BNA
/2 1813 1st done                    /3 1813 2nd  done
/4 1814
/5 1815 1st                                             /6 1815 2nd
/7 1816 1st                          /8 1816 done
/9 1817 done                        /10 1817 done
/11 1818 done                       /12 1818 done
/13 1819 done                       /14 1819 done
/15 1820 ist                        /16 1820 2nd
/17 1821                            /18 1821 2nd
/19 1822 all done                   /20 1823 all done
/21 1824 May Dec  done              /22 1825 all done
/23 1826 Feb-Dec  done              /24 1829 all done
/25 1830 all done                   /26 1831 all
/27 1832 all done                   /28 1833 all done
/29 1834-35                         /30 1836 all (BNA 4 early ones)
BNA British Newspapers Archive (British Library Collection).

9.1.1   JG 28/8/1779 Re Supply of Cattle

AT a Meeting of the principal PENN-KEEPERS of the Parish of St, Elizabeth at Lacovia on the 23rd August 1779, Calib Dickenson, Esquire, was desired to take the Chair.

Resolved, That there are in this Parish about 10,000 head of Breeding Cattle.

Resolved, That we will supply the Forces now em­bodied, with the Fat Cattle we have, or may have fit for sale, upon the credit of this island, agreeable, to a vote of the Honourable House of Assembly of the 19th August 1779.

Resolved, That we will not take advantage of the necessities of the public, but agree to sell our Fat Cattle at the usual rates they have sold at.

Resolved, That in case any dispute shall arise between the agents appointed by William Harvie, Esq. commissary for supplying cattle, and the proprietors, respecting  the value of any cattle to be sold, we do hereby agree, to leave the price to be settled by William Smaking, John Delaroch, James Cooper Wright, John Freebairn, and Alexander Walker, Esqs. or any, or either of them.

Resolved, That the Penn keepers of this parish can immediately supply the contractor with 200 head of cattle.

Resolved, That, at the expiration of four weeks, we Will supply 200 head of Cattle, at the rate of 50 head per week.

Resolved, That, should the troops continue embodied so long at to consume the whole of the fat cattle in this country, we will in that case contribute to supply the troops from our Breeding Penns, in proportion with the rest of the island

(Signed) C. Dickinson*.

C. Dickenson, for J Vanheelen:      Eleanor Vassell.
Robert Brown.              John Delaroch.

Alexander Walter..         Jos. James Swaby.
Zach Benj Dockery          Francis Geo Smyth
James Cooper Wright        William Reeve
William But Wright         Thomas S Salmon
Humphrey Colhoun           William Sm???
William Salmon             John Harriers
Simon Facey                Thomas Smith
Thomas S Salmon               )  Mathew Smith
for the Rev Mr Tho Warren) Charles Farquarson



From  Jamaica Family Search:
5/1/1793-27/4/1793

12/1/1793:
St Elizabeth Vestreyman: Andrew Wright
3/3/1793:
Hanover vestreyman: William Sinclair.
23/3/1793
On Tuesday the 22nd a subscription purse, for two years old, two mile heats, was run for over the Race course at Lacovia, by Mr. Andrew Wright’s Bay Colt, and Mr. Salmon’s Pepper Filly, Brunettes. The first heat was won by the Colt, but in the second he ran out of the course and was distanced
April 6, 1793
Kingston, Jamaica, West Indies
PERSONS LEAVING THE ISLAND:
Mar 20 Joseph Cameron, Trelawny
“ Charles Murray, St. Thomas in the East
“ Archibald Sinclair, ditto
“ John Synes, St. Mary
Apr 3 Robert Boyd, Westmorland
Alexander Burton, Kingston
May 4, 1793
Kingston, Jamaica, West Indies
PERSONS LEAVING THE ISLAND:
William Sinclair, Hanover
13/4/1793:
The following is a copy of an Address from the Grand Inquest of the county of Cornwall, at the Assize Court, held in and for the said county, on Tuesday the second day of April, 1793, before the Honourable George Murray, Esq., one of the Assistant Judges of the Supreme Court, and one of the Justices of the Cornwall Assize , and his Associates, then sitting in the said Court of Assize, presented by them to the Court, previous to their being discharged:
Jamaica - Westmoreland
WE, the Grand Jurors for the County of Cornwall, having had presented to us, by the Honourable the Custos, a letter from the Right Honourable Henry Dundas, one of his Majesty's principal Secretaries of State, announcing that war had been declared by the supreme authority of France against his Majesty's kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland, and its dependencies, beg leave to return our thanks for the communication, and to express our perfect attachment to our King and happy Constitution, and readiness to exert our utmost abilities in the defence of the same and that we will collectively, as well as individually, use every endeavour to detect and apprehend all suspicious and seditious incendiaries who may attempt to disturb the peace and unanimity of this island, or this county in particular. -
James Wedderburn, Foreman. J. Hering, Wm Brown, D. Connell, Hugh Fraser, Robt. Minto, John Simpson, Henry John Wisdom, Joseph Hardy, James Stewart, Robert Boswell, Thomas Minto, G.F. Clarke, Sam. Cuninghame, Matthew Henegan, David Innes, James Berry, F. R. Tomlinson, Archibald Duthie, Thomas Robertson, James Jack, John Graham, Andrew Black.
    At the same Court, Thomas Bullman was indicted for speaking seditious words against the King and Constitution, and, after a most impartial hearing, he was found guilty, and sentenced to lie three months in jail, and on the King's birthday, to stand one hour in the pillory.

June 29, 1793
Kingston, Jamaica, West Indies
PASSENGERS ARRIVED:
On the Alexandre, Mr. D'Aguilar, Mr. Cuthbert, Mr. and Mrs. Brodie, Mr. Dasseray[?], Mr. Brown, Mr. Alves, Mr. McIntosh, and Master Ballin.
On the Jupiter, the Hon. Major Maitland of the 62nd regiment, Major McLachlan of the 10th regiment, Captain Ramsay of the Royal Artillery, Mr. James Maitland, Mr. Charles Fuhr, Mr. John Kelly, Mr. M. Geohagan, and Mr. Hugh O'Connor.

1794 Died
At Martha Brae, on the 18th last, Captain Benjamin Wright, of Rhode Island. He was for a number of years a reputable Merchant at Savanna la Mar
9/9/94 promotions:, Hon. Thomas Maitland, 62nd foot


Jamaica Royal Gazette Extracts:

1782:

Center for Research Libraries - Global Resources Network,
6050 S. Kenwood Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637-2804 USA
2/2014: downloaded most issues as PDF.
http://dds.crl.edu/CRLdelivery.asp?tid=8921

Extracts from Jamaica Family Search (1793).

Notices etc:

Notices were inserted for a number of weeks, so appear often.

Runaway slaves: 28/11/1781: Titus to Old Hope Estate, MW
13/3/1781: John Vassall dcd sells 840 acres near YS in St E.
8/6/1780: inter alia Burtons wanted slaves to rent, St TiV (V142-5, P24).


Votes of the House of Assembly


30/1/1800:
The sum of 100/. to the order of Thomas Anderson, John Pusey Edwardes, Robert Porter, Francis Badley, and Andrew Wright, or any three of them, towards repairing the road from the King's road, at Cocoa-Walk, to Calabash-Bay, in the district of Carpenter's Mountains, in the parish of Vere.
Cocoa Walk is about 8 miles East of Alligator Pond and the road is shown on Liddell 1888 map. It leads direct towards Andrew Wright’s Single Rock property on the old leeward road.

17/11/1802:
The sum of 250/. to the order of John Pusey Edwards, Alexander Schaw, Caffillis Schaw, Robert Porter, David Hutchinson, and John Pusey Wint, or any three of them, towards repairing the road from the King's road at Cocoa- Walk, to Calabash-Bay, in the district of Carpenter's Mountains, in the parish of Vere.


3/12/1802:
The sum of 150/. to the order of Alexander Schaw, John Pusey Edwardes, Robert Porter, John Pusey Wint, and Andrew Wright, or any three of them, towards repairing the road from Calabash-Bay to the interior of Carpenter's mountains.

6 March 1801:
The sum of £100 to the order of James Stewart, John Chamber, William

Kellit Hewitt, Robert Muschett, Andrew Wright, and Richard Boucher, or any

three of them, towards making a new road from Mitcham pasture in the parish of St. Elizabeth, through sundry new settlements, to Mr. Hewitt's Wilderness, in said pariah.

Wilderness is East of Silver Grove, Liddell shows a road up the side of the hill from Mitcham in the direction of Wilderness. It is shown on the modern maps as a dotted line.

3/12/1801:
The sum of £5. to the order of James Stewart, Matthew Smith, John Chambers William Kellit Hewitt, Robert Muschett, Andrew Wright, and Richard Boucher, or any three of them, towards carrying on the road from Mitcham pasture, in St Elizabeth, through sundry settlements to Mr Hewitt's Wilderness, in said parish.

17/11/1802:
A petition of sundry coffee-settlers in St. Elizabeth was presented to the house, and read, setting forth, "That the sum granted by the house last year, on the road from Mitcham pastures to the Wilderness, has been duly and economically worked out; but the same is insufficient for completing said road."

This looks as though it passes through Silver Grove to Mitcham, the remains of which are on the 1:50K 1950’s map as dotted.



The Columbian 1796/7


Columbian 1 Jan 1797:
Yesterday was killed by Mr Robert Benstead Wright, at his butchery near Goshen, a six year old Ox, of the Bakewell Breed, bred at Long Hill, and fattened on Goshen Pen, in St Elizabeth’s, the properties of Francis George Smyth esq, the four quarters weighed 1251 lbs. Goshen bounds northerly on Mitcham.

July 8 1826:

180R PUBLIC SALE, at Goshen Pen, St, Elizabeth’s, on Monday tbe 21 st day of August, if not previously sold, of which (in such case) timely Public Notice will be given, the whole of

THE BREEDING STUD,

consisting of Twenty-Five or Thirty Mares, of the best Strain of Blood, being descended from those well-known Horses Charlemont, Shovel, Drumater, the Knox Arabian, Omen, Hannibal, Barbarossa, and others, together with their Followers Of the present Year, got by Phantom and Hephaestion, to whom the Mares are again supposed to be stinted; also the two last - named Stallions; and Twenty to Twenty-Five Fillies, of the same Blood.

Terms of Sale—Cash, or approved Orders or Acceptances, previous to removal of the Stock, which is not to be delayed beyond four weeks, and a Deposit of Twenty per Cent. will be expected at the Sale.

To commence at the Hour of Ten in the fore-noon precisely. 

J. GRIFFITH.

SUGAR ESTATES IN CULTIVATION IN JAMAICA:

WESTMORELAND

Albany , Charlottenburg and Masemure - Anthony Charley
Belleisle - Heirs of Wm. Vickers (S. H. Morris)
Blue Castle - Samuel H. Morris



10    Hurricanes

 

10.1           Jamaica Hurricane of 3 October 1780


(NB there was another, almost as devastating on 1 August 1781, when John Maitland lost his ship – see below).

(found in PRO CO142?)


  It is said, a mighty wave rose out of the boiling sea and swept over the coast for a mile.
   The morning of October 3, 1780, dawned crisp and clear - a typical Jamaican day. In the southwestern part there was a slight wind and a few intermittent showers, but all in all things were calm and looking to remain so. By midday, all that changed. Here is how the Governor, Colonel John Dalling described this change of events in his official report to London:

"The sky on a sudden became very much overcast, and an uncommon elevation of the sea immediately followed. Whilst the unhappy settlers at Savanna-la-Mar were observing this extraordinary Phenomenon, the sea broke suddenly in upon the town, and on its retreat swept every thing away with it, so as not to leave the smallest vestige of Man, Beast, or House behind." (Black, 1965, p. 109).
    That was only the beginning of the destruction. The catastrophe Dalling described above was followed by what many called the most devastating hurricane to have hit the island up to that point in its history. By midday buildings on the southwest coast of the island began to sway back and forth as if they were balancing on a tightrope. Fires broke out and spread. By 4 p.m. the full force of the hurricane had arrived and the town of Savanna-la-Mar lay directly in its path. It is said, a mighty wave rose out of the boiling sea and swept over the coast for a mile. Along with the debris of the homes and businesses, two ships and a schooner were carried along and left stranded among mango trees.
     By nightfall, not one building was left standing in the town or for 30-40 miles on either side. In addition, all building in the parishes of Westmoreland , Hanover, and some in parts of St. James and St. Elizabeth, were demolished.
     Property owners were unable to identify their estate boundaries. Slave provision grounds were demolished. Trees and plants were blown away and flattened, mountains and valleys, denuded, the majority of its population, drowned or crushed to death.
     Rivers were running through new channels large lakes were seen in districts which a day before had been covered in cane fields huge rocks were hurled down from the highest mountains deep ravines formed across the roads, which were everywhere impassable (Gardner, History of Jamaica).
     In the days that followed, husbands looked for wives, mothers for sons, sisters for brothers, to no avail. It is impossible to tell just how many lives were lost. The dead lay unburied and disease began to spread.
     The destruction of the food crops resulted in a famine, and because the American War of Independence was being waged, none could be imported from the nearby colonies. Thousands of slaves starved to death.
    In Kingston citizens raised 10,000 pounds to help their countrymen in the west. The British government sent an additional 40,000 pounds. The damage, however, was estimated at 700,000 pounds.


Plato the Wizard


FOLKLORE PINS the devastation of this western town as the work of the runaway slave known as Plato the Wizard, from beyond the grave. Just before his 1780 execution, the renowned obeahman pronounced a curse on Jamaica - predicting that his death would be avenged by a terrible storm set to befall the island before the end of that same year.
It is said that Plato and his band of other runaways kept the parish of Westmoreland in a state of perpetual alarm from his stronghold in the Moreland Mountains. Plato warned that whoever dared lay a finger on him would suffer spiritual torments. It is not surprising that no slave would set traps for Plato even though the reward for his capture was great.
Plato, who like Tacky was an example of the type of spirit slavery could not hold, did have one weakness - rum, and it was to prove his downfall. During a time when his usual supplies were curtailed as a result of a massive hunt on for his arrest, he arranged with a watchman he knew well, to go out and get him some rum. The watchman decided to use the rum as bait. It was easier than he expected. Soon after he handed Plato the rum, he fell into a drunken stupor and right into the watchman's trap. Plato was captured, tried and immediately sentenced to death. In response, he coolly cursed any and everything in sight as a dreadful power is said to have descended on him. Plato terrified the jailer who tied him to the stake by announcing that he had cast an obeah spell on him and he did not have long to live. Soon after Plato's death, the jailer fell ill and died. Before the year was over, Plato's other curse came true - the island was hit by what was described as the "most terrible hurricane that ever spread death and destruction even in West Indian Seas." The region where Plato the Wizard had roamed free and died in betrayal was hardest hit.


Wrath of Plato's Spirit

 Jamaica was not the only island to suffer the effects of the hurricane of 1780. Martinique lost 7,000 people and Barbados, 4,300. Jamaica was ravaged again by another massive hurricane in the following year. Over a hundred ships were driven ashore, and all newly-planted provision grounds, destroyed.
More hurricanes followed in that decade alone - 1784, 1785, 1786. Could it be that Plato's spirit continued to hover over the island?
Hurricanes also swept Jamaica in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in the following years:
1804, 1815, 1818, 1830, 1832, 1844, 1874, 1879, 1880, 1903, 1916, 1917, 1944, 1951 (Charlie which damaged Kingston, Port Royal and Morant Bay) 1963, (Flora) and 1988 (Gilbert)
Sources: Gardner, W. J. (1971). A History of Jamaica. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. Robertson, C. (1987) Fight for Freedom. Kingston: Kingston Publishers Ltd. Black, C.V. (1965) The Story of Jamaica. London: Collins.


From Colonial Office files, CO137/79:


I am sorry to be under the disagreeable necessity of informing your Lordships of one of the most dreadful calamities that has happened to this colony within the memory of the oldest inhabitant.
On the morning of the 2 instant, the weather being very close, the sky sudden became very much overcast, and an uncommon elevation of the sea
.........
Then the quotation given above
......
This most dreadful catastrophe was succeeded by the most terrible hurricane that ever was felt in this country, with repeated shocks of an Earthquake which has almost totally demolished every building in the Parishes of Westmoreland, Hanover Part of St James and some parts of St Elizabeth's and killed, members of the white Inhabitants as well as of the negroes. The wretched inhabitants are in a truly wretched situation not a house standing to shelter them from the inclement weather not clothes to cover them, every thing being lost in  the general wreck. And what is still more dreadful Famine staring them in the face.
Kingston merchants £10000 value of different kinds of provisions etc.
W/mland £950000 loss. Hanover 1/4 property lost.

 from Governor Dalling to Lord George Germaine.
Letter dated 8 Oct to General Dalling (extract).
.... The weather had appeared very indifferent for some days before, but that morning the wind became more violent than usual, with a most terrible swell of the sea, which by after noon, increased to such a degree, that it has not left the wreck of six houses on both the bay & Savanna and not less than 300 people of all colours were drowned or buried in the ruins,....
Line of destruction, from Bluefields northwards.
Signed by inter ALIA, Thos Thistlewood, Thos & John Tomlinson.

Letter from John Campbell of Salt Spring, Hanover.
Letter from Montego Bay re destruction.
From the PRO, Kew, CO137/79 Page 41 on:
A report on the October 3 1780 Hurricane, Jamaica.

Extract from the Supp. to the Kingston Gazette, 14 Oct 1780.

 

St Jago de la Nega, Oct 12.
     At Savanna la Mar on the afternoon of Tuesday the 3rd Instant, about 3 o'clock, the wind began to blow very hard from the South-east, accompanied with heavy rain and by four had acquired such strength as to tear the trees up by the roots and strip houses of their shingles. Between five and six the sea began to rise and continued for near an hour to swell to a most amazing height, over flowing the ill fated town of Savanna la Mar and the low lands adjacent. From this time until eight o'clock, the force of the wind and the impetuosity of the waves, overthrew and demolished every house in that unfortunate place, and buried most of the inhabitants in the ruins. A little after eight it began to abate, but never the less continued to blow very hard until midnight, when the wind veered round to the westward. No pen can describe the horrors of the scene which morning presented to the sight of the few who survived to lament the fate of their wretched neighbours the earth strewed with the mangled bodes of the dead and dying, some with broken limbs, who, in that situation, had been tossed about during the storm, and afterwards left on the wet, naked earth to languish out the night in agonies with nor hand to help, or even pity them. Humanity recoils at the contemplation of such unheard of calamities and every feeling heart must melt at the dear recital.
    The names of the unhappy sufferers which we have yet been able to learn are: The Comptroller of that Port, Mr McDowal, Dr King, his wife and two assistants, Misses Forbes and Dallas, and four children, Mr Nesbit a carpenter, Mrs Allwood and three children, Mrs Gibson and two children, Mr John Fotzgerald, Dr Lightfoot, Mr William Antrobus junr, Messrs Aaron Touro and Moses Nunes, and the nephew of the latter, Miss Pesoa, a child of Mr Payne, Mr W McLean, his wife and children, Mr Slap, Mr Little, three quadroon children, and a great number of negroes. We are informed by Gentlemen who are just arrived from that quarter, that bodies of eighty white persons have already been found, and many more are expected to be dug out of the ruins, and it is thought not less than 400 whites and negroes must have perished in and about Savanna-la-Mar.
    The ships Henry, Princess Royal and Austin Hall, then at Anchor in the harbour, with two or three Doggers, were driven from their moorings, and carried a considerable way up into the Morass from whence it will be impossible to get them off. The Princess Royal had four anchors out, and the crew were attempting to get out a fifth, when the wind carried it fairly off the deck some distance into the sea. One of the ships went over the Fort, the parapet of which, at other times is about fifteen feet above the level of the water. The Trimmer, a packet from Rattan, which lay at Bluefields, was likewise sent ashore, but all hands were saved, though some belonging to the other vessels were lost.
    Throughout the whole Parish of Westmoreland, from the best information we can obtain, there is not a dwelling house, outhouse or a set of works on any of the estates left standing. The Canes, Corn, Plantain trees and every production of the earth destroyed. At one estate, Blue Castle, report says, that 200 negroes were killed in  a boiling house whither they had fled for shelter: along the sea coast many dead bodies scattered about, probably driven ashore from some wreck, meet the eye of the passenger and one uniform scene of desolation and devastation overspreads the face of that part of the country.
    From St Elizabeth, our accounts are much more favourable. Some estates there have suffered, but in a far less degree than those in Westmoreland, Hanover and St James, over which the greatest force of the hurricane seems to have passed. At Black River, a few houses are overthrown, but none of any consequence. Some plantain walks, cane and corn pieces are likewise destroyed.
    A letter from Lucea says that upwards of 400 persons, white and black, perished in that Town and neighbourhood.
    A Gentleman from Savanna-la-Mar gives the following relation of the fatal catastrophe of that devoted town.
    On Tuesday the 3rd Instant about one o'clock in the afternoon, the gale began from the S.E. and continued increasing with accumulated violence until four when it veered to the South and became a perfect tempest, which lasted in full force till near eight it then abated. The sea, during the last period, exhibited a most awful scene the waves swelled to an amazing height, rushed with an impetuosity not to be described, on the land, and in a few minutes determined the fate of all houses on the bay. Those whose strength or presence of mind enabled them to safety in the Savanna took refuge in the miserable remains of the habitations there, most of which were blown down, or much damaged by the storm, as to be hardly capable of affording a comfortable shelter to the wretched sufferers. In the Court House, forty persons, whites and of colour, sought an asylum, but miserable perished by the pressure of the roof and sides, which fell upon them. Number were saved in that part of the House of Mr Finlayson, that luckily withstood the violence of the tempest, - himself and another Gentleman, had by it (?), when the wind forced open the door, and carried away the whole of the lee side of it, and sought safety under the wall of an old kitchen, but finding they must inevitably perish in the situation, they returned to the house, determined to submit to their fate. About ten, the water began to abate, and at that time a smart shock of an earthquake was felt. All the small vessels in the bay were drove on shore and dashed to pieces. The ships Princess Royal, Captain Ruthwin, Henry Richardson and Austin Hall, Austin were forced from their anchors, and carried so far into the morass, that they will never be got off. The earthquake lifted the Princess Royal from her beam ends, righted her, and fixed her in a firm bed this circumstance has been of great use to the surviving inhabitants for whose accommodation she now serves as a house.
    The morning ushered in a scene too shocking for description - Bodies of the dead and dying scattered about the watry plains where the town stood, presented themselves to the agonizing view of the son of humanity whose charity lead him in quest of the remains of his unhappy fellow creatures! The number who have perished, is not yet precisely ascertained, but it is imagined 50 whites and 150 persons of colour are lost. Among them are numbered Dr King his wife and four children, his partner, an assistant, Mr Nesbit, a Carpenter and 24 negroes, all in one house. Dr Lightfoot, an Mr Antrobus were found dead in the streets. In the whole parish, it is said, there are not five dwelling houses, and not one set of works remaining the plantain walks all destroyed every canepiece levelled several white people, and some hundreds of negroes killed.
    In the adjoining parish of St Elizabeth, altho' the face of the country wore a less horrible aspect than at Westmoreland, much damage was done and several lives lost.
     Our accounts from Lucea, though not particular, are terrible indeed - the Town, except two houses, those of Messrs A & D Campbell and the adjoining tenement of Mr Lyons, levelled to the ground many lives lost, and in the whole parish of Hanover, but three houses standing - not a tree, bush or cane to be seen - universal desolation prevails! Of the wretched victims to this violation of the course of nature, we can only as yet name Messrs Aaron & Salmon Dias Fernandez, two ancient Gentlemen of the Jewish nation, one aged 81, the other 80, of respectable and venerable characters. Three young ladies, Misses Samuels, at Green Island - The elegant house of John Campbell Esquire at Salt Spring Kendall and Campbell town and of that of Mr Chambers, at Batchelors Hall, no longer adorn that rich and fertile parish - Captain Darling, Mrs Darling, and Mr Maxham, were dragged out, barely alive, from the ruins of an arch that supported a flight of steps, under which they had sheltered themselves - Fourteen or fifteen people of colour were buried in a  store that fell in upon them.

From the Cornwall Chronicle. Montego-Bay-, Oct. 7.

ON Monday night the 2d instant, about 12 o'clock, there came on a storm of wind and rain, which continued with unremitted- perseverance and violence from the S.E. until 12 o'clock on Tuesday; the wea­ther appeared to be then a little moderated, and continued so much abated until between 3 and 4 o'clock in the evening, as to furnish no immediate indications of an approaching storm  About 4 o'clock, the wind seemed to be quite southerly, but increased (accom­panied with incessant rain) to such an amaz­ing degree, as about dark to threaten ge­neral ruin, and destruction: The darkness of the night added now fresh horrors to the general apprehensions; and, a circumstance which on ordinary occasions would have been considered as peculiarly terrifying, the immense and prodigious flashes of lightning, which, regularly succeeded each other, was an alleviation to the general consternation, and the only security to the very few, whose particular situations permitted or inclined them to venture through the streets to af­ford comfort and relief to the distressea of their neighbours.

About 12 o’clock, from the best of our information, and our own recollection, the storm began to abate; but the many instances of devastation and distress which even then presented itself to our view, and which we began to be apprised of from different quarters of the town, afforded suggestions to the mind, which rendered the approach of morn truly terrible. Our descriptive powers, we acknowledge, are inadequate to the task of impressing our readers with pro­per ides of the many and variegated scenes of calamity and distress, which the new day presented to our view; the face of Nature seemed totally changed! the mountains, as if weary of their load, and drooping under the pressure of a superior influence, which they could neither support nor resist, had adopted a new form, and appeared dismantled of theft lofty verdant trees, which constituted their grandeur and excellence, and formerly had rendered them beautiful and agreeable to the sight.

It is importable, at present, to recount the particular losses of every individual: many houses in this town have been destroyed: among the principal sufferers are, Mr. Vin­cent, Dr. Mottershed, the estate of James Lugg, Mr.Whitaker, Mr. Stothert, and the barracks at Port Frederick.—The darkness ’ of the night rendered it impossible to attend to the fate of the ships Ladies Adventure and Lenox, which were in the harbour when  the storm commenced; the most probable and favourable conjecture which could be made, upon their being missed in the morn­ing, was their having put to sea in the night; and no symptoms of wreck having yet appeared to discredit this conjecture, we are in hourly and impatient expectation of seeing them, or hearing of their safety. Alt the smaller craft in the harbour, together with the ship Petersfield, which had been preserved and repaired after the shipwreck of last February, are totally lost; and the brigantine Jane, which had gone down a few days before to Great River, a place of apparent safety, had been drove a shore, but we are informed will he got off with very little damage.

Our informations from the country are truly alarming; few estates in this parish have escaped without some damage; many sets of works and dwelling, houses are thrown down, the canes in general have suffered much, but the loss of all the Plan­tain Walks without exception, is an aggra­vation of the general calamity, which can­not fail of exciting sentiments of compassion and regret for the condition of our fellow creatures, who may suffer for the loss of the most essential part of their support.

What we have yet received, falls far short of the accounts which we hourly receive of the damage done in Hanover and Westmoreland. On Lucea Bay only two houses remain standing, and his Majesty’s sloop Badger, which happened to be in the harbour, notwithstanding her being held by three anchors a-head, was drove ashore by the violence of the storm, with the loss of her masts, but we are informed will be got off. An universal devastation and ruin has prevailed in the country, all the estates and works are almost totally destroyed ; the dwelling houses of Batchelor’s Hall, Salt Spring, Campbelton, Kendal, and of the whole parish in general, are thrown down and in ruins; numbers of Negroes, and many white people, are said to be lost; those of the latter description, who have yet come to our knowledge, are Messrs. M. and S. Dias, Gentlemen of the Jewish nation, much respected and regretted by all their acquaintenances, and a carpenter at Haughton Tower estate.
Our accounts from Westmoreland are not authentic; from some gentlemen however, who are arrived from the Assizes held there, we learn, that Savanna la Mar is entirely demolished, not a single house having re­sisted the violence of the storm. but Mr. Lopez’s, and that all the shipping in the harbour are drove ashore. We nave no au­thority for saying any thing of the situation of the estates in that parish, but there is too much reason we fear, to apprehend that they have suffered equally with those in Hanover.

In alleviation to these accumulated scenes of disaster and distresses, we are nevertheless happy to inform our readers, that our information from Windward is much more favourable than we expected; few estates in Trelawney having sustained any other toss, than that of some Plantain Walks thrown down, and cane pieces lodged, and that the damage done in St. Ann’s is still left considerable.

On Saturday last sailed for Port-Royal, his Majesty’s ship Phoenix, of 44 guns, Sir Hyde Parker, Commander. —On Monday sailed for Fort St. Juan, his Majesty’s ship Scarborough, Charles. Hood Walker, Esq; Commander.—The same day arrived at Martha Brae a brigantine flag of truce from New Orleans.

St. Jago de la Vega, Oct 12.  At Savanna la Mar on the afternoon of Tuesday the 3d instant, about three o’clock, the wind began to blow very hard from the south-east, accompanied with heavy rains, and by four had acquired such strength as to tear the trees up by the roots, and strip the houses of their shingles. Between five and six, the sea began to rise, and continued for near an hour to swell to a most amazing height, overflowing the ill-fated town of Savanna- la Mar. and the low lands adjacent. From this time until eight o’clock, the force of the Winds and the impetuosity of the waves, overthrew and demolished every house in that unfortunate place, and buried most of the inhabitants in the ruins. A little after eight, it began to abate, but nevertheless continued to blow very hard until midnight, when the wind veered round to the Westward.—No pen can describe the horrors of the scene which the morning presented to earth strewed with the mangled bodies of the dead and dying, some. with broken limbs, who, in that situation, had been tossed about during the storm, and after­wards left on the wet, naked earth, to languish out the night in agonies, with no hand to help, or eye to pity them. Hu­manity recoils at the contemplation of such unheard of calamities; and every feeling heart must melt at the bare recital!

 The names of the unhappy sufferers which we have vet been able to learn are The Comptroller of that port Mr. McDowal, Dr. King, his wife, and two assistants, Messrs. Forbes and Dallas, and four children, Mr. Niscet, a carpenter, Mrs. Allwood and three children, Mrs. Gibson and two child­ren, Mr. John Fitzgerald, Dr. Lightfoot, Mr. William Antrobus, jun. Messrs. Aaron Touro and Moses Nunes, and the nephew of the latter, Miss Pesos, a child of Mr. Payne, Mr. McLean, his wife and children, Mrs. Slap, Mrs. Little, three Quadroon children, and a great number of Negroes. —We are informed by gentlemen who are just arrived from that quarter, that the bodies of eighty white persons have already been found, and many more are expected to be dug out of the ruins, and that it is thought not less than 400 whites and ne­groes must have perished in and about Savanna-la-Mar.

The ships Henry, Princess Royal, and Austin Hall, then at anchor in the har­bour, with two or three droggers, were driven from their moorings, and carried a considerable way up into the morass from whence it will be impossible to get them off. The Princess-Royal had 4 four anchors out, and the crew were attempting to get out a fifth, when the wind carried it fairly off the deck some distance into the sea. One of the ships went over the fort, the parapet of which, at other times, is about fifteen feet above the level of the water. The Trimmer, a Packet from Rattan, which lay at Bluefields, was likewise sent ashore, but all the hands were saved, tho’ some belonging to the other vessels were lost.

Throughout the whole parish of West­moreland, from the best information we can obtain, there is not a dwelling-house, out- house, or a set of works on any of the estates left standing. The canes, corn, plantain-trees, and every production of the earth destroyed. At one estate, Blue Cattle, report says, that 200 negroes were killed in a boiling-house, whither they had fled for shelter: Along the sea coast, many dead bodies scattered about, probably driven ashore from some Wreck, meet the eye of the passenger, end one uniform scene of defoliation and devastation overspreads the face of that part of the country.

From St. Elizabeth, our accounts are much more favourable. Some estates there have suffered, but in a far less degree than those in Westmoreland, Hanover and Saint James, over which the greatest force of the hurricane seems to have passed, At Black-River, a few houses are over thrown, but none of any consequence. Some plantain, walks, cane and corn pieces are likewise destroyed.

A letter from Lucea says, that upwards of 400 persons, white and black, perished in that town and neighbourhood.

A gentleman from Savanna la Mar, gives the following relation of the fatal catastrophe of that devoted town.

On Tuesday the 2d instant, about one o’clock in the afternoon, the gale began from the S. E. and continued increasing with accumulated violence, until four, when it veered to the South and became a perfect tempest, which lasted in full force till near eight, it then abated. — The sea during the last period, exhibited a most awful scene; the waves, swelled to an amazing height, rushed with an impetuosity not to be described, on the land, and in a few minutes determined the fate of all the houses on the bay. Those whose strength, or presence of mind, enabled them to seek their safety in the Savanna, took refuge in the miserable remains of the habitations there, most of which were blown down, or so much damaged by the storm, as to be hardly capable or affording a comfortable shelter to the wretched sufferers.—In the Court-house, forty persons, whites and of colour, sought an asylum, but miserably pe­rished by the pressure of the roof and sides which fell upon them. Numbers were saved in that part of the House of Mr. Finlayson, that luckily withstood the violence of the tempest,—himself and another gentleman had left it when the wind forced open the door and carried away the whole lee side of it, and sought their safety under the wall of an old kitchen, but finding they must inevitably perish in that situation, they returned to the house, determined to submit to their fate. .About ten, the waters began to abate, and at that time, a smart shock of an Earthquake was felt. All the small vessels in the bay, were drove on shore and dashed to pieces. The ships Princess-Royal, Capt. Ruthwin, Henry, Richardson, and Austin-Hall, Austin, were forced from their anchors, and carried far into the morass that they will never be got off. The earthquake lifted the Princess-Royal from her beam-ends, righted her, and fixed her in a firm bed; this circumstance has been of great use to the surviving inhabitants, for whose accommodation she now serves as a house.

The morning ushered in a scene too shocking for description-—Bodies of the dead and dying scattered about the watery plain where the town stood, presented themselves to the agonizing view of the son of humanity, whose charity led him in quest of the remains of his unhappy fellow creatures!—The number who have pe­rished, is not yet precisely ascertained, but it, is imagined 50 whites and 150 persons of colour are lost. – Amongst them are numbered Doctor King, his wife and four children, his partner, an assistant, Mr. Nesbit, a Carpenter, and 24 negroes, all in one house. — Dr. Lightfoot and Nr. Antrobus were found dead in the streets. In the whole parish, it is said, there are not five dwelling houses, and not one set of works remaining; the plantain walks all destroyed; every cane piece levelled; several white people, and some hundreds of negroes killed.

In the adjoining parish of St. Elizabeth, although the face of the country wore a less horrible aspect than Westmoreland, much damage was done and several lives lost.

Our accounts from Lucca, though not particular, are terrible indeed -—The town, except two houses, those of Messrs. A. & D. Campbell and the adjoining Tenement of Mr. Lyons, levelled to the ground; many lives lost, and in the whole parish of Hanover but three houses standing—not a tree, bush, or cane to be seen—universal defoliation prevails! Of the wretched victims to this vio­lation of the course of nature, we can only, at yet, name Messrs. Aaron and Solomon Dias Fernandes, two ancient gentlemen of the Jewish nation, one aged 81, and the other 80, of respectable and venerable characters. Three young ladies, Misses Samuels, at Green-Island.-- -The elegant house of John Campbell, Esq. at Salt Spring, Kendall and Campbell Town; and that of Mr. Chambers at Batchelor’s Hall; no longer adorn that rich and fertile parish.---Capt. Darling, Mrs. Darling, and Mr. Moxham, were dragged out, barely alive from the ruins of an arch that supported a flight of steps, under which they had sheltered themselves. —Fourteen or fifteen people of colour were buried in a store that fell in upon them.

Extract of a Letter from Black-River, October 10th 1780.

“On Tuesday last the storm began at this place, and was very violent till three o’clock P. M. when it increased to such a degree that it is beyond all description, the sea was 5 feet deep all over the Bay, it carried away every out-house on the Bay, and greatly damaged all the dwelling houses by making a passage through them; luckily no lives were lost.—The ship Active that lay in the harbour was drove on the shore, but is on a bank. of sand, and the Captain expects to get her off again—A Schooner from Lucea, loaded with salt was dashed to pieces, and every thing lost, the crew, very fortunately got ashore.—The Trimmer pacquet-boat from Rattan is cast away to leeward of Bluefields, but  the mails and crew are saved”

Extract of a Letter from Mr Nicholas To???am, Montego-Bay, October 9.

“A Lieutenant  and a few men belonging to his Majesty’s ship Phoenix, arrived here yesterday, arriving in a boat, and brought an account, that, some days ago, in a gale of wind, the ship sprung a leak and filled to the lower gun deck; fortunately for the ship’s company, who must otherwise have all perished she struck almost immediately  and Sir Hyde Parker, with- all his people (except about thirty, who were lost by the mainmast going over­ board) got on shore and found themselves three leagues to the eastwards of Cape Quiz in Cuba, that they had got their guns, ammunition, previsions, &c on shore and had fortified themselves ’tifl relief could be sent them from this island.”

Extract of a Letter from Capt. Harvey, of the sloop Hazard, dated October 9, seven miles below Savanna-la-Mar.

When the gale came on I had three anchors out, but finding it likely to increase, cut away the mast at two o’clock; at four drove and struck on a reef, cut away our cables and drove over it, lost our rudder and boat, and were then forced on a sand bank about three times the sloop’s length from the shore, in a cluster of bushes; had not a large tree stopped us, we should probably have been carried half a mile higher.—The gale was the most extraordinary I have ever met with; imagination is too confined to paint it. -The day before it came on, although it blowed very hard, I got eleven boat loads of goods on shore; happy for the proprietors if I had not been so active, as what I have on board is safe;  I need not tell you the fate of what was landed.  j

Four days after, I got to town, and; beheld a, sight that made me forget my own fatigues and danger —Numbers of people lying in the streets dead, unburied, and so intolerable a stench, that there is no approaching them with safety; if  some immediate assistance is not sent, a pestilence will probably ensue.—I have, for very obvious reasons, fortified my vessel in the best manner I could, until I can get her off, of which I have no doubt.



Petition from the Inhabitants of Westmoreland to the Governor

October 1780

Sir,
The remaining distressed inhabitants of the place where Savanna –la – Mar once stood beg leave to acquaint your Excellency of a most dreadful disaster which befell that unhappy town on Tuesday the 3rd inst. The weather had appeared very indifferent for some days before, but that morning the wind became more violent than usual with a most terrible swell of the sea which by afternoon increased to such a degree that it has not left the wreck of six houses in both the Bay and Savanna and not less that 300 people of all colours were drowned or buried in the ruins – such havoc never was seen in the memory of the oldest person living , nor can words or writing convey an idea suitable to the dismal scene.

Our account from the country and also from Hanover are equally melancholy, scare a house standing or any estate, and all the provisions destroyed. It is some comfort however to understand that the violence has not extended very far and that a line may perhaps be drawn from Bluefields directly northwards. What claims us most at present is the dread of famine, which stares us in the face, and it we have not some speedy relief of bread kind, the few that have survived that unfortunate day will most probably fall victim to the more terrible fate of perishing with hunger.

In this distress we must look to the town of Kingston for relief – their humanity it is to be hoped will not suffer us to perish for want nor take any advantage of our misery and wretchedness which God knows is nearly as bad as it can be. For the calamity has been so general this way that no one can help his neighbour, nor have many of us shelter for our heads from the inclemency of the weather or cloaths to cover us, even fire, dreadful as it is, is nothing to what we have so lately experienced.

We have likewise addressed the Admiral on this occasion, which we enclose, open to your Excellency and have no doubt you will back it with all your influence. As one instance of the destruction of the Inhabitants, we mention that of Doctor King’s house, in which were ten whites and about forty negroes, not one of whom escaped drowning, and the sea flowed up for more than half a mile beyond its usual bounds, even to the height of ten feet.

Signed by 30 Persons
Reference: Jamaica Archives 1B/5/18


10.2           John Maitland’s Hurricane 1 August 1781


This was the hurricane that wrecked John Maitland’s ship, the Hope off Black River, and probably resulted in his remaining in Jamaica.

Ten months later, on 1 August  1781, another hurricane struck Jamaica[10]. Governor Dalling reported that the effects were not so dreadful as those of the hurricanes of the previous year, “yet in several parishes and more particularly those of Westmoreland and Hanover, the damage is very great, in the destruction of the Plantain Trees and Corn by which the Negroes are chiefly subsisted - nor have the Shipping escaped.”
Jamaica 1 Aug 1781

Over 120 vessels were driven ashore, a large number of which are destroyed. Of the vessels lost, 30 are British men of war.

Political Magazine, November 1st, 1781

[John Bew (active-1774-90; d 12 April 1793) was a bookseller and publisher at 28–29 Paternoster Row in London. He was the publisher of The Political Magazine from 1780 to March 1785, when it was taken over by John Murray. The Magazine was a journal written for an audience of informed gentlemen and often included supplementary maps engraved by John Lodge. Bew eventually went bankrupt on 27 November 1790.]

 

Kingston.

   ABOUT eight o'clock on Wednesday evening, August 1st, a hard gale of wind came up from the southward, but soon after veered to different points of the compass; before nine it increased to a perfect hurricane, and continued to rage with unabating fury, till near eleven, the greatest of the time blowing from the South East, accompanied by a heavy and incessant rain; nor did the fury of the storm altogether subside, till about two o'clock in the morning;— the distressed situation of the shipping in the harbour, may be better conceived than described; 73 sail of vessels, including sloops, schooners, and shallops, were on shore between Russell's hulk and the wharf of John Vernon, Esq; and Co. and several others to the westward of the town; but being mostly light vessels, the greatest part of them either have been or will be got off, though not without considerable damage. The water in the harbour is supposed to have risen between four and five feet perpendicular; the planking of the wharfs in general being torn up, and many heavy articles that were upon them entirely carried away; of Messrs. Law and Hargrave's wharf, scarce the vestiges remain.

 

   The greatest part of the returned fleet being, at Port Royal, the account from thence is still more deplorable, two loaded vessels being either sunk or overset, and 24 run ashore between Salt Ponds and the Mosquito point.

   Many houses and piazzas in this town were blown down, and two negroes found drowned in the streets, in which torrents of water for several hours ran down with great rapidity.

   The number of lives that have been lost cannot at present be ascertained, but doubtless must be very great; in one plantain boat only, nine persons perished; as did the crew of the Ruby's boat at Port Royal, in endeavouring to assist a vessel in distress soon after the storm came on.

 

   Montego Bay, Aug. 11. Impressed with the most solicitous desire to believe and hope, thatch effects of the last storm had not been attended with all those dreadful consequences which we afterwards found bad attended it; and drawing our conclusions from the situation of things in and about this place, which have escaped much better than the severity of the weather gave us any reason to expect; our last Chronicle, we are now sorry to acknowledge, gave but an imperfect account of what we have since learnt to have been the unhappy fate of the neighbouring parishes.--

   A correspondent in Westmoreland has favored us with the following account:

   " I am sorry to acquaint you that the storm of Wednesday August 1st, has done so much damage to our shipping; it has drove ashore two ships, the Christiana and Juno, a small vessel of Neil's, and a brig belonging to Capt. Alex. Hamilton is totally lost, and himself and mate drowned; M'Ray's wharf is carried away; Doctors Pinkney and Ruecastle, Mess. Blake and Inglis's new houses and stores are thrown down; all the provision and fine crops of corn are destroyed; the canes are all laid flat, and there is hardly an estate in Westmoreland but has suffered in buildings; and through the whole parish of St. Elizabeth, the provisions in general are destroyed, and the canes greatly damaged."

   The accounts from Hanover are equally unfavorable; at Saxham estate, in that parish, the overseer and Cooper were killed in a house which had been thrown down by the violence of the storm.

   St. Mary's, St. Ann's, and Trelawney, have all suffered very considerably in their provisions and canes; and though we would not incline to aggravate the damage done in this parish, it is nevertheless certain, that many of the planters apprehend themselves in equally as bad a situation, in the article of provisions, as after the hurricane of the 3d of October last year.

   Advices from Savannah la Mar say, that two houses are blown down on the Bay, and most of the plantain walks and corn destroyed. In the parishes of St. George, St. Ann, and St. Mary, the sugar estates have suffered considerably, and the plantain trees all blown down.


Jamaica Gazette 11/8/1781: By a gentleman from Savanna la Mar, we learn that the gale was felt very severely at that place. Three houses are destroyed, and several very much damaged. His Majesty's ship Ulysses, having on board 20,000 sterling, of the parliamentary grant to the unhappy sufferers in Westmoreland and Hanover by the hurricane in October last, fought her safety by putting to sea, from Bluefields at 4 P. M. on Wednesday, and was not heard of when our informant came away on Saturday morning (she reappeared a week later in Port Royal). The brig Sir William Erskine, Capt. Hamilton, is lost; the Cap­tain, Mr. Bartlett, (a passenger) and four sea- men perished.—The Christiana, Captain Bain, drove on shore, and not likely to get off; two lives lost.—The Juno, Capt. Cuzneaw,. is on shore near Smithfield, no lives lost, and there is a probability of getting the vessel off.——The canes, Corn, and plantains in Westmoreland, are totally destroyed.—From St. Elizabeth up­wards, the storm was but little felt.

From St. Mary and St. Ann, we hear that the canes have suffered considerably, but that the plantains are all destroyed.
JG 18/8/1781: Between Fort-Aucusta and Green-Bay.

Drove on shore.—29 topsail vessels, and a great number of small craft.—By the very extraordi­nary and indefatigable exertions at Port-Henderson, in unloading the distressed ships, 19 sail have got off; six of which, driven down the Port-Henderson channel, received but little da­mage ; many of the others have suffered greatly, and must be hove down.—Ten (ail were at first thought to. be totally lost, and that a very small part of their cargoes would be saved, viz. the ships Clarendon, Fame, Orange-Bay, and brigt- Montgomerie & they were driven on the rocks near The Twelve Apostles.—The ships Carna­tic, Kingston, George St John, and two brigs, sugar loaded, and the ship.....loaded with wine, drove on the St. Andrew's shoal .and coral rocks towards Fort Augusta—-The Orange-Bay, contrary to expectation, was on the 15 th got off, by the care and activity of John Henderson esq. and most of the cargo will be saved; only one life was lost in that neighbourhood, viz. Mr. Al­lan, mate of the Orange-Bay^—A number of other vessels which did not yield to the force of the tempest, have been dismasted.

28th June, 1782. – Jamaica Gazette

THE unfortunate Sufferers by the Hurricane in Westmoreland (the real Objects of the Parliamentary Benefaction), who were so shamefully precluded from any Benefit of that benevolent Donation, will please meet at Savanna-la- Mar on the Wednesday of the next Cornwall Assize, to consult on some Mode of obtaining Redress, and to lay the Particulars of -their Wrongs and Grievances (by Petition) before the Governor-, Council, and Assembly, at their next Meetings to shew, that instead of the Money having been distributed according to the true Intent of that truly humane and charitable Act of the Mother Country, the greatest Part was divided (in a Manner shameful to the Trust reposed, and repugnant to every Sentiment of Humanity) among some of the least Sufferers, and most opulent People: in the Parish.

Those poor, distressed, and much insulted people of both sexes, who, having lost their all, and were dismissed with a few guineas, are likewise desired to attend the above meeting.

T0 show the gentlemen who acted in that business, the real and humane intentions of the benevolent people of England, the following advertisement, extracted from an English paper (the London Courant of the 22d June 1781), is inserted for their serious perusal.

In order to obviate some groundless objections that have been urged against subscribing to the Weft-India sufferers, the public may be assured, that though the sufferers are of several classes, yet those intended to be assisted, are only those of the lower, and distressed, in either Jamaica or Barbadoes :—the number of them are so great, that the Committee beg leave to assure the Public, that the grants made by Parliament, with the addition of any sums of money that can be expected to be ,raised by voluntary donations, must fall infinitely short of their real losses.

The writer of the above, a considerable sufferer by the Hurricane, has left his name with the printers which any gentleman may learn, on application to them.

 

JG 4 Aug 1781
On Wednesday forenoon a severe storm of wind, accompanied with heavy and incessant rains, came on here, and continued all that night, and a great part of the following day; the wind during that time veering from North- East to South-East,-—It blew with such violence during the night that numbers of the shipping and small craft in this harbour and that of Port Royal were driven ashore, and some of them irrecoverably lost.—From the hulks at the East end of this town to Passage Fort, not left than ninety vessels of different sizes are on shore, many of which have sustained very considerable damage; but we have not been able to collect their names, much less to ascertain the hurt re­ceived by each.
------------------ Of the fleet at Port-Royal, about thirty are on shore from Passage-Fort to the Twelve Apostles: amongst them are the Green Island, Watt; Carnatic, Gibbon; Mary, Frizwell; John, Watson; Thetis, Hardy; Ja­maica, late Grimsby; Mentor, Whitesides; Kingston, Hurst; Orange Bay, Ross; London, Peck; Henry, Logan; Montague, Casey; Arundel, Mann; George & John, Dears; Cham­bers, Langley; Hope, Simes; Dispatch, Tow­ers; Friendship, Ronaldson; Nanny, Brown; Fame, Eaton; True Briton, Stewart; Claren­don, Jordan; Lark, Backhouse; and Ransom, Bagnold; some of them, it is feared, will never be got off, and others not without much trou­ble and damage.— We have not learnt what number of lives have been lost, but in so general a devastation it must be considerable: upwards of twenty dead bodies have been found, and bu­ried on the Palisadoes, supposed to have perished in a flag of truce which sailed from Port-Royal on Wednesday morning, in company with two others, of whose fate we have also reason to be apprehensive.

His Majesty’s ship Southampton returned on Thursday morning in the storm from a cruise, wit the loss of some of her masts and spars, and other damage.





11    MONEY

 

11.1           Handbook of World Exchange Rates, 1590-1914

By Markus A. Denzel
(Extracts from Google)

Currency: Similarly to the several British colonics on the North American continent (see pp. 399f.) the relation between the colonial currency - here the pound of 20 shillings at 12 pence Jamaica currency - and sterling resulted from the fact that the most important circulating coin, the so-called 'piece of eight’ (peso de ocho reales) or the Spanish dollar, was valued differently in the two currencies. In 1669 the Spanish dollar was still equally valued in Jamaica currency and in sterling (4 shillings 2 pence) - so 100 pounds Jamaica currency were equal to 100 pounds sterling - but in 1672 it had already a value of 5 shillings Jamaica currency (111.11 pounds Jamaica currency for 100 pounds sterling), keeping it legitimately until the end of the 18th century. Unauthorized acts in 1688 and in 1758 as well as mercantile customs raised the value of the Spanish dollar up to 6 2/3 shillings Jamaica currency, so that the par of exchange (by custom) was 133.33 pounds Jamaica currency to 100 pounds sterling from the mid-1680s, 138.89:100 (in practice: 140:100) from the early 1720s and 148.15:100 from 1758. But also after 1758 "bills of exchange negotiated on the island maintained the old level of exchange” (MCCUSKER  (1978], p. 247). i.e. 140 pounds Jamaica currency for 100 pounds sterling, based on the internal rate of 6 ¼ shillings per Spanish dollar. The exchange rate quotations available since 1822 as premium quotations on the relation of 140 pounds Jamaica currency for 100 pounds sterling are a late reference to this kind of reckoning. Bills of exchange of this period were payable in Mexican or Colombian doubloons, the following ratio being common practice in trade: 1 doubloon = 64 shillings sterling or 106.67 shillings Jamaica currency (as officially fixed in 1838). Therefore 166.67 pounds Jamaica currency corresponded to 100 pounds sterling. From December 31st 1840 sterling currency was in force on Jamaica as in the mother country that is the pound sterling of 20 shillings at 12 pence (see pp. 3-5). However, it still look some time until the coins introduced from the American mainland finally lost their function as legal tender and basic medium of circulation in 1876 and "the shilling (sterling] was finally established as the practical standard of value in Jamaica" (CHALMERS (I893). p. 113). The circulating notes - initially called "island cheques” - issued by the Colonial Bank and the Jamaica Bank from 1828. were exclusively reserved for the "commercial and well to do classes” at least until the turn of the century while the coloured population only was using coins.

......Jamaica, a British domain since 1655 and crown colony since 1866, was probably the most important possession of the British Empire in the Caribbean and, at the same time, the bullion centre of the British possessions in the New World until the outbreak of the Mexican Wars of Independence in the 1810s. Exchange transactions had already been important for Jamaica since the second half of the 17th century, but "we know little ... about the drawing of bills on Jamaica" (McCUSKER [1978], p. 249): "Jamaicans drew bills of exchange on credit balances in London at rates of exchange that remained incredibly stable over much of the century ... What did vary was the usance ... Jamaica regularly drew bills payable well beyond the usual thirty- to forty-day period. Fifty, sixty, ninety days, and even longer, was not unusual. And such bills sold at a disadvantage" (ibid., pp. 248s.). From the early 1720s to the end of the 1830s the customary par of exchange at Jamaica was in practice 140 pounds Jamaica currency to 100 pounds sterling (from 1672 to the mid-1680s: 111.11, from then to the early 1720s: 133.33) (cf. ibid., p. 247 CHALMERS [1893], p. 103 cf. KELLY [1835]. vol. I. p. 361). According to the data collected by McCuskcr (until 1775), Jamaica quoted London primarily on or with slight fluctuations around this 'par of exchange' from the mid-1730s. For the period from 1776 to 1821 no data have been available until now.
From 1822 rates for Treasury bills on London were listed in the Blue Books. These Treasury bills were payable in Mexican and Colombian doubloons. In 1823 quotations for bills, payable in dollars of the same provenance (nominally equal to 1/16 doubloon), were added, being understood as commercial bills of the merchants of Kingston, the biggest town and financial centre of the island (founded in 1692) (cf. Blue Book. Island of Jamaica. 1836). The additional remark "payable in ..." had become necessary, because the assembly of the island issued unsecured paper money (the so-called 'island cheques') on a large scale after 1822 in order to compensate for the ceasing inflow of precious metals (doubloons and dollars) since the outbreak of the Mexican War of Independence and to maintain internal payment transactions. The exchange rates were not meant for this paper money, largely useless in foreign trade, but precisely for the doubloons and dollars that were highly sought after because of their international acceptance, although they were no longer in circulation. For this reason a considerable variable premium expressed as a percentage was put on the ‘par of exchange’ of 140 pounds Jamaica currency = 100 pounds sterling from 1822. This appeared as the actual quotation in the Blue Books of these years: "Bills have been sometimes at a premium of 20 percent, above the legal exchange [i.e. the 'par of exchange*], and they are seldom under 10" (KELLY [1835], vol. I, p. 361). The quotations for these two sorts of bills ended in the 1840s.

In 1834, £100 stlg = £140 Jamaican, but:
• As regards Jamaica, this is the nominal par of exchange. In real transactions of buying or selling bills, the exchange is thus adjusted:— if bills bear a premium, say twenty per cent, then a bill for £100 sterling is said to be equal to J£120 sterling this latter sum, turned into Jamaica currency at 40 per cent. makes a bill for £ 100 sterling require about J£168 currency. The relative value of the currencies of the mother country and colony varies, of course, from this ratio, as bills may at the time bear a higher or lower premium. In Barbadoes or the other colonics the currency, as compared with sterling, varies according to the demand for bills. In Jamaica £100 sterling is altcvt/s equal to £140 currency.

SUPPLEMENT TO THE ROYAL GAZETTE; September 1832


Vol. 1-1V.

FROM SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 1, TO SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 8, 1832.

No. 36.



THE QUARTERLY REVIEW AND THE CURRENCY.

The Quarterly Review, No. 94, published on Saturday, contains an article written with con­siderable ability, and deserving particular 'attention, “Upon the Rights of Industry and the Banking System.” The subject which this ar­ticle elucidates, and the views which it develops, are of peculiar importance, as being applicable to circumstances of immediate and practical in­terest. The writer appears to be well acquaint­ed with the principles and the details of the currency question, and in the following passage he has well explained the character of that question, and its intimate connection with the welfare of the productive interests of the country.
“This subject is considered by many as intricate, difficult, and abstruse, and avoided by all those who dislike the trouble of thinking, with the same shyness which they would exhibit on being questioned as to the construction of the pons asinorum, or the mysteries of vulgar fractions. But this indolence and apathy must be shaken off if we are to be saved from the de­struction which is rapidly enveloping the most valuable interests of this community. Our coun­try gentlemen must learn to penetrate the arcana of the exchanges, and fathom the depths of the banking system, if they mean to preserve their broad acres from the grasp of the mortgagee, and their title-deeds and mansions from the blaze of revolutionary fires. Difficult and ab­struse, indeed! yes, the subject is difficult; just as difficult to the public comprehension as is a  juggler’s trick, by which, with a  “hey presto,”, he conjures the half-crown we thought we had safe in our pocket, into his own. How the money vanished it is not easy to say; but it is never­theless certain that we had it, and ought still to have it, while he has got it. So it was exactly with the currency juggle. Few of the sufferers can explain or understand how it happened, but the fact is very plain to them, that they have some how lost a great deal of money, and other persons have got hold of it. A little considera­tion, however, may, we think, render the nature of the trick intelligible to the simplest. It is very clear that those who are in business pay nearly the same sum in taxes at present, as when the goods they deal in sold for double their present prices; so that they really pay two cwt. of wool or of cheese or of sugar, or two pieces , of cloth, linen, or calico, or two tons of iron or hardware, to the tax-gatherer, for one that they formerly paid; and the taxes, reckoned in goods, which is the only sure way of knowing their cost to the producers of goods by whom they are paid, are  nearly twice as  high at the end of sixteen years of peace, as they were at the close of as long a war! Is it wonderful then that the productive classes are labouring under severe distress? That peace, which usually brings plenty, has thrown away her emblematic horn, and selected hunger for her motto?’ And can there he any doubt that the fall in prices which has wrought this fearful evil, is the necessary result, foretold by ourselves and many others at the time, of the legislation of 1819 and 1826, which by crippling the banking system of England, and attempting to substitute a currency of dear metal for one of cheap paper, has caused a continually Increasing scarcity of money and contraction of credit? Pleasant no doubt it has all been to the tax-receivers, to the mo­nied men and the placemen, to discover that, while their income remained nominally the same, they could purchase with it a much larger quan­tity of good things; and the very richest branches of the agricultural tree, the Devonshires, the Spencers, the Fitzwilliams, &c. may have dropt without missing, a large portion of an enormous superfluity. But sad and ruinous have been the same times to the great body of the tax-payers, the producers of those same, good things, to the country .gentlemen of not over-grown estate, to the farmer, the tradesman, the merchant, the manufacturer, and the labourer, who found that while they were obliged to pay the same nominal sum to the tax-gatherer, they were every year receiving less and less, for their goods, until at last scarcely any thing is left for themselves.
 He then proceeds to state the general causes which occasion, variations in the value of money, and, consequently, variations in prices. He shows the manner in which the constant increase of those metals employed as money, by the increasing productiveness of the mines, encouraged the industry and augmented the wealth of every civilized, country. The working of the mines of Spanish America was stopped in 1810, by the revolutionary, troubles. According to the calculation made by Mr. Jacob, and quoted by the Quarterly Review, the consumption of the pre­cious metals from 1810 to 1830, has exceeded the production, by 66,611,440L. This amount is estimated to form one-sixth part of the coin of Europe and America, and consequently the whole amount of the precious metals in exis­tence is less by that proportion than, it was in 1809. Upon, the currency, of this country alone the effect of this disproportion between the pro­duction and consumption of gold and silver has been, according to. Mr. Jacob’s calculation, to enhance the value of 13 per cent. This enhance­ment of 13 per cent is superadded, we must re­member, to the effect, of the operation, of similar character but greater extent, which was per­formed in this country by substituting a metallic circulation for a circulation of depreciated paper. The practical effect of these combined operations, enhancing the value of the currency above 50 per cent. is accurately described in the following passage:-

 “If we reflect on the enormous mass of out-standing pecuniary engagements at all times due from the classes engaged in production to those who are not directly, producers, consisting of obligations to the public creditor, to the Government for the annual national expenditure, private debts of every kind, annuities, mortgages, rates, salaries, &c. all of which have to be paid out of the sums annually realised by  sale of the produce of the nation’s industry, we shall form some faint and imperfect idea of the pressure thrown on the productive classes by any conti­nued rise in the value of money, and conse­quently, of all their money engagements. The entire revenue of the non-producing classes of those persons, that is, who are not directly con­cerned in production, but derive their incomes from mortgages, funded property, annuities, sa­laries, interest of borrowed money, &c, is pro­portionally advanced in value by every advance in the value of money; but the difference is taken entirely out of the profits and wages, one or both, of the class of producers! The fall in the prices of the commodities employers bring to market, is so much abstracted from the expected net returns of their industry and capital, and, if considerable, must be made good out of the ca­pital itself. In their next venture they are obliged to reduce their expenditure to meet the reduced prices; and since it is impossible for them, to diminish many of their fixed money obligations, such as taxes and rates, and difficult to reduce others, as interest on borrowed capi­tal, &c., their principal and almost only resource is, to lower the wages of their workmen, who thus, become, inevitably sharers in the loss.— Prices continuing to fall, the same operation is repeated; and thus both profits and wages be­come further and further reduced; the distress extends itself generally through all gradations of producers, masters as well as men, manufac­turers, agriculturists, wholesale and retail dealers, in the home or the foreign market—and progressively augments in the intensity so long as prices continue on the average to decline. If, making abstraction of all the other pecuniary engage­ments to which industry is ever liable, we fix our attention on the public taxes alone, we see at once that the fall of 50 per cent, in prices since the war has actually doubled the weight of the taxes by doubling their value in commo­dities.

“When, for example, sugar sold at 50s. the cwt. the duty of 27s. was little more than fifty per cent. Now that the hundred weight of sugar sells at 23s. the same duty is much above a hun­dred per cent. Fifty millions in the present day are, indeed, equivalent, in the sacrifice required from the productive class to pay them, to one hundred millions in 1818! Certainly the close of the war left us saddled with a heavy debt and expenditure, enough, it might have been thought, to cripple the resources of any nation, however wealthy and industrious, but if this was the effect of the levy of fifty millions, out of the prices of 1818, what must be the pressure of the same no­minal account of taxation taken out of the prices of 1832? What the necessary result of that pressure, but the losses and beggary we perceive around us, which threaten to annihilate the pro­ductive industry of the Empire, to drive its re­maining moveable capital abroad, and leave its labouring classes, starving in idleness at home, a load of misery upon the soil, which cannot by law, shake them off?”

This passage well portrays the immediate ac­tion of a rise in the value of money, and the con­sequent fall in prices, upon individual transac­tions, and the writer then proceeds, with equal accuracy, to explain, the effect produced upon the general state of the country.

“This constant and continued fall in prices, unprecedented in the history of nations, inexpli­cable on any ordinary principles of trade, and only to be accounted for by the rise in value of money, caused by the increasing scarcity of the precious metals—unperceptible because the use of these metals as a measure of the value of all other valuable things kept their value to all ap­pearance stationary (inasmuch as the law de­clares their value shall be invariable when fixed quantities of metal are assumed by it as the unit of value); this cruel and relentless fall of prices it is which, day by day, and year after year, has mulcted the industrious of the reward due to their toil, robbed the employer of his expected pro­fit, and driven him either to desert his farm, shut up his mills, renounce all the capita1 he has embarked in them, and discharge his workmen, or at the best, to struggle on at a loss, by exacting from his men yet harder labour for a still scanter remuneration. When, indeed, the master is pinched, it is impossible but that the labourer should suffer with him. What effects hare followed to the English peasant from the general decline in the fortunes of the ordinary country Gentleman and farmer during the last sixteen years? Diminished wages, coarser, scantier fare, gradually accumulated wretchedness! Have not the same results been experienced by our manufacturing operatives, owing to the reduced profits and great comparative distress of the capitalists who had hitherto employed them?

But this is not all; for, besides the actual evils endured, and the dangers incurred, a great and certain mass of future suffering is in course of preparation through the vast destruction of the national capital which the depreciation of produce is rapidly effecting. A large proportion of the loss sustained by the industrious classes is taken from productive and added unproductive consumption, and must, therefore, be a direct abstraction from the capital of the country. Any one acquainted with the manufacturing districts, and aware of the number of factories that remain unoccupied and fast going to decay, and the abundance of machinery unused and unsalable in the same state—those too who have witnessed the imperfect and slovenly cultivation and management of land, the neglect of drains, roads, buildings, and fences, which has prevailed among farmers of late years, through the want of money, as they themselves declare, will be able to form some judgment of the annihilation of capital which has been going on for a considerable period.”

The foregoing extracts will show that the author of this article is well informed upon the subject which he has undertaken to discuss. He has, indeed, accomplished the object which he proposed, and has succeeded in proving—

“ That the unjust restrictions kept up by the present laws on the circulating medium of exchange, have had the effect, within a few years past, of silently but forcibly transferring a vast amount of property from the possession of one class to that of another, who had no just right or title to it,—of covertly despoiling, in short, one portion of the community, namely, the persons engaged in industry, for the benefit of another portion, the owners of fixed money obligations payable out of the labour and capital of the former,—it will be acknowledged that, until the laws which have perpetrated and continue to sanction this wholesale swindling are repealed, there is no safety for property; nor can there be any reliance on the stability of those other institutions, of which a confidence in the security of property is the indispensable foundation.”

Well would it have been for those who swayed so long the destinies of the country, if they had given to this subject the consideration which it deserved.

The conclusion to which these statements naturally and irresistibly leads, is plain and undeniable—

“ The knowledge of the fact,’ says the Quarterly Review, " that the main cause of the general distress lies in the comparative scarcity and consequent rise in value in the circulating medium, points out the nature of the remedy width eau alone correct the mischief— the extension namely, of that medium.”



Money and exchange rates in 1632

By Francis Turner

"There are two fundamental causes of madness amongst students: sexual frustration and the study of coinage."

Professor Karl Helleiner, quoting what is purportedly an old Austrian proverb

In 1632 Europe was filled with coins of varying values, issued by governments of varying degrees of trustworthiness. To make it worse each system had different ratios of the numbers of coins of one denomination that made up the next. About the only sure thing was that no one used a decimal system. For a modern reader all this is compounded by the changes in the relative costs of different things. Together it means that it is very hard to work out how much Grantville things should be sold for downtime and how much uptimers should expect to pay for things made by downtimers. This article is an attempt to shine some light on the issue but I would be the first to admit it does little more than outline the problem.

National Currencies

Money in the 17th century was primarily based on silver coins with gold used for larger transactions and smaller coins minted from copper, brass or tin. One of the reasons why there was considerable inflation in the 16th century was the vast influx of gold and silver from the Spanish looting of the new world. To add to this the rough ratio of gold:silver by weight gradually changed. In the medieval period the ratio was approximately 12:1 (i.e one unit of gold was worth 12 units of silver) but thanks to the vast discoveries of Latin American silver this ratio increased so that by the time Sir Isaac Newton was in charge of the Royal Mint in 1717 it was over 15:1. Needless to say this caused significant dislocation as cunning traders were able to take advantage of the mismatch in pricing but fortunately for 17th century Europeans the majority of this dislocation had occurred during the previous century and the ratio of ~15:1 was more or less fixed. However the disruptions to trade of the 30 years war meant that in different places the relative abundance of gold and silver as well as copper and other metals often varied thus altering the price and in some cases the value of the coins used. There were times when older coins especially were melted down to retrieve their metal as the metal was more valuable than the face value of the coin.

To step back a bit: in medieval Europe the standard silver penny was defined as being 1/240th of a pound of silver (by weight) and the soldus/shilling/sou was the weight of 12 pennies. This ratio was first applied by Charlemagne and was common across much of early 2nd millennium Europe. In England the familiar 1:12:240 ratio was made official by Henry II in 1158 who also defined the weight and purity of the penny and it lasted until 1971. Initially most realms only minted pennies or very small multiples of a penny (such as the English groat worth 4 pennies) however due to inflation, debasement of the coinage and so on the pound weight, penny based currencies gradually added additional coins and in different realms their values changed even though the ratios usually remained constant. This meant that an Englishman used to Shillings and Pence (20 Shillings to a pound, 12 pence to a shilling) would find it easy when he traveled to other places with the same ratios such as France (20 sou to a livre, 12 denier to a sou) or Italy (1 Lire = 20 Soldi or 240 Denari) but not so easy elsewhere. Although the pound (livre, lire etc.) and shilling(soldus,sou) were defined and used as a unit of account, for a long while there were no shilling or pound coins. However this did not stop kings, princes and other rulers issuing coins with names like "crown" or "angel", which had a value of some number of pennies or shillings (or their equivalent) but generally a different number in different places. These coins added to the confusion since they would be referred to in casual usage ("I lost 3 crowns at cards last night"), but would not be used in bills or accounts which stuck with three columns: L (pounds/livre/lire), s(shillings,sous,soldi) and d(pence, denari). Another unit of account which, in medieval times, was rarely if ever a coin was the mark. Unfortunately despite the general agreement about the theoretical weight of the penny, the number pennies to a mark varied being 144 in some parts of Germany, 160 in Britain and either 192 or 384 in Scandinavia.

Money of Account

Because of the gradual debasement and change of the actual coins used for every day transactions accounting was frequently done using some nominal coin. These nominal coins typically had known properties (e.g. 240x1.555g of sterling silver (92.5% pure) or 3.55g of 24 carat gold). As and when a ruler kindly debased his coinage by 20% merchants simply ignored the change in their internal accounts and just required 20% more from those paying in the new coin (and to other merchants at least they would also pay out 20% more). Most money of account was based on a silver measure - in French influenced Europe typically the livre de gros tournois: 970.56 grams of pure silver or 1012.76g of 23/24 pure silver - though some used a gold measure such as the Venetian ducat or the 1337 French écu à la chaise. In some cases (e.g. the Venetian Ducat) the reference coin remained current as well, in other cases (such as the gros tournois) it didn't. Money of Account was most often used in places where currency was frequently debased and/or where it changed radically as one ruler conquered another, more stable countries such as England typically did not use it. England and English merchants generally used the accounting measure we use today based on the actual coin (pound, dollar, penny) although during the wars of the roses and the early Tudor period this was not the case. In much of Germany the unit of account was based on either the gold Rhenish florin or the silver Reichsthaler which was generally considered to be worth 1.5 Rhenish florins.

International Currencies

In addition to the mish mash of national currencies, there were two international currencies, a gold one and a silver one with a fairly well defined rate of exchange between them. These were struck to a generally consistent weight by numerous states and coins from different states were thus generally interchangeable. The gold coin was the Venetian ducat, introduced in 1284, contained just over 3.5 grams of gold and was the first international coin. It was so successful that it was minted under different names by many European nations. In northern Europe it was called the Guilder or Gulden and it had a variety of other names such as the Florentine or Rhenish Florin, the Forint (Hungary) or the Scudo (Milan). The silver one was the Thaler (tallero, dollar, daler etc.) which was (supposed to be) a fixed weight of silver and was the equivalent in value to two of the golden ducats. The name thaler (from thal, "valley") originally came from the coins minted from the silver from a rich mine at Joachimsthal (St. Joachim's Valley, Czech: Jáchymov) in Bohemia, then part of the Habsburg Empire. It was also the equivalent of the Spanish peso ("heavy"), also known as the piece of eight because it was worth 8 reales, which was a silver coin minted by Spain since 1497.

The 2 gulden to a thaler rule was usually correct but both the gulden and the thaler of the time suffered from clipping and debasement so actual physical coins had to be weighed and ones with an unusual design would need to be assayed to check for lack of debasement. The amount of pure silver in a thaler was approximately an ounce (28 grams) but varied between 25 and 30 grams. For example the Swedish Riksdaler was 25.5 grams, whereas pesos nominally contained 27 grams. If it were that simple we could relax, but to make things worse countries also introduced thaler-like coins (some of which were called an something thaler) of varying weights. For example the Dutch had various daalders including the Rijksdaalder (Rix dollar) and the Leeuwendaalder (Lion dollar). The Lion dollar had 27.7g of silver was the equivalent of 40 stuiver/2 guilders, whereas the Rix dollar was 25% bigger (50 stuiver or 2.5 guilders). However since the lion dollar was the equivalent of the peso etc etc it was thus was more popular than the rix dollar or the other ones.

A Country by Country Survey

One of the more complicated tasks is to convert from one currency to another. Apart from England and France most places preferred to work with the guilder/florin/ducat and the thaler/daalder/dollar and the aforementioned fixed ratio between the two. Thus anything quoted in reals, pesos, ducats, florins, guilders or thalers is going to be easy to convert. Unfortunately while the ducat/thaler rule was good for cross border trade most states also had an internal currency that they frequently debased against these international standards. For example although Venice was a model of fiscal probity, a number of other Italian states were not hence the difference in the value of the Lira as stated in terms of a Ducat. This survey starts with the simpler countries and then goes on to the nightmare ones. German coinage of the era is described by one source as a "bottomless pit", thus, despite Germany being of great interest to the 163x reader or writer, it has been left to the last.

England (also Ireland and Scotland)

Although England did not directly use either guilders or thalers England's shilling was stable in the 1630s since parliament refused King Charles' efforts to debase the currency. In 1630 the conversion rate between English Shillings and Dutch Guilders was 2:1 that is to say one guilder was 2 shillings and hence one lion dollar was 4 shillings and one rix dollar worth 5 shillings or a crown. This means that for larger sums an English pound is worth 5 thalers or 10 guilders which makes for easy conversion. Astoundingly this ratio remained pretty much constant from the last currency revision of 1601 until the wheels fell off the gold standard in the twentieth century despite the fact that the thaler (dollar) changed from being a European reference currency to the currency of the United States of America. Irish coins were worth about 75% of their English equivalent (i.e. 1 Irish shilling was worth an English 9d). Scotland, despite the modern reputation of its inhabitants as canny businesspeople, had a severely debased currency which got worse and worse over time. The first indigenous currency in Scotland was the silver penny, coined by David I. In theory each pound weight of silver yielded 240 pennies (that is, 1 pound equaled 20 shillings, and 1 shilling equaled 12 pennies). However, the crown coined 252 pennies to the pound to make a profit. From the fourteenth century until the end of the sixteenth century debasement of the coinage resulted in the further divergence of the Scottish and English currencies. In the reign of James III (1460-1488) the pound sterling was worth 4 pounds Scots. In 1560, 5 pounds Scots equaled 1 pound sterling. From the time James VI of Scotland assumed the English throne until 1707 the exchange rate between the Scottish and English pound was fixed at 12:1, that is to say £1(English)=£12(Scots) or 1 Scottish shilling was equal to one English penny.

The English used the term mark to refer to two thirds of a pound (i.e. 160d or 13s 4d). There was no mark coin but some things were priced in marks, just as today some things are still priced in guineas. Common coins were the angel (10s) the crown (5s) in gold; the half crown (2s 6d), the shilling, the groat (4d) and the penny in silver; and the copper farthing (1/4d). There was also the golden unite (20s) and the silver sixpence, threepence, the ha'penny and half-groat or tuppence.

The Low Countries

The low countries suffered from being effectively split between the Spanish controlled part and the independant part however both used the same currency elements and because both were important trading powers they did not usually debase their currency, although some Dutch provinces did produce some very odd low-weight daalders. The currency was based on the guilder (i.e. ducat) with 20 stuivers to a guilder and 16 pennings to a stuiver. As mentioned above there were two important daalders - the Rijksdaalder (Rix dollar) worth 50 stuiver or 2.5 guilders and the Leeuwendaalder (Lion dollar) worth 40 stuiver or 2 guilders. Other coins included the groot (1/2 stuiver) duit (1/8 stuiver), the dubbeltje (2 stuiver), the kwartje (5 stuivers) schelling (6 stuivers), the 3-guilder coin and the monster Gouden dukaat worth 15 guilders.

Spain

Spain had a completely different currency system; consisting of maravedis, reals and pesos. There were 34 maravedis to a real and 8 reals to a peso. Fortunately the peso was equivalent to the thaler and thus it was easy to convert other values. A real was worth 6 English pence or 5 Dutch stuivers. Spain had suffered sufficient inflation that previously valuable coins such as the maravedi or the blanca were now essentially worthless. The real was divided into quarters (a coin called a quartillo) and the smallest coin was 2 maravedi (a 17th of a real). Other coins included escudos (=2 peso) and dubloons(=16 peso).

Italy

The Italian states had the standard Ducat (Venice) or Florin (Florence) as well as a system similar to the English and French one of 1 Lire = 20 Soldi, 60 Quattrini or 240 Denari. The problem was relating the Lira to the Ducat as a Lira was frequently debased (and hence so were soldi and denari) and thus a rather indeterminate thing. Typically in the 1630s there were about 6-7 lire to a Ducat or Florin. In Venice there was a fixed exchange of 6L 4s to a ducat but this only applied to Venetian lire.

Sweden

Sweden had the solid riksdaler as well as marks, öre, örtugar and penningar, with 1 mark = 8 öre = 24 örtugar = 192 penningar (usually). Although the Riksdaler remained constant (at 2 guilders or 1 peso) it was only used for external trade and the conversion between it and the more normal copper marks and öre used for internal trade varied after 1620. In 1604 a riksdaler was 4 marks (4 mark = 32 öre), but it steadily increased in value afer 1620. In 1632 I estimate that a riksdaler was worth about 2 copper dalar (i.e. 8 marks or 64 öre). To add to the confusion in the past in different parts of Sweden the ratio between marks and penningar varied: in Götaland a mark was worth 384 penningar, double the usual 192. This was supposed to be outdated but there is some evidence that the 384 ratio was still used by some people.

Poland

Polish controlled areas, that is to say Poland, Lithuania and parts of Prussia, used the zloty as follows: 1 zloty = 30 grosz = 90 Szelags = 540 Denars. Nominally the grosz was the same as the Bohemian groschen (24 to a thaler) and thus a Zloty should be the equivalent of the Dutch Rix Dollar. I do not believe it really was the same in the 1630s as Poland was as busy as its neighbours in debasing its currency, in fact there is evidence that there were 3 zloty to a thaler in the 1630s. It is unclear whether this thaler was the standard 2 guilder one, the 2½ guilder one or the german Reichstaler which was worth 1½ guilders.

France

The French currency was both impure being generally made of "billon", an alloy of copper and silver, and highly inflationary. France had Livres, Sous and (theoretically) Deniers although the smallest coin was the copper gros (4 denier) and also had the Ecu worth 3 livres. A French livre was worth approximately the same as a guilder in the early 1630s but the actual amount decreased steadily over time. English sources report that in 1625 a quarter écu (3/4 livre) was worth 1s 7½d implying that 1 livre was 2 Shillings and 2 Pence but in 1645 1 Livre bought just 1 Shilling and 6½ Pence and in 1653 1 Livre was equal to 1 Shilling and 3 Pence.

Denmark

Traditionally Denmark had marks, skillings and penninge with 16 skillings to a mark and 12 penninge to a skilling. This made the mark the same as the Svealand swedish mark (192 penningar = 1 mark). Danish coins were notorious for their lack of silver, and steadily decreased in value compared to their German neighbours during the 16th century. Given that the German coins were also getting worse this was quite a feat. However a decree of May 4, 1625 brought to an end an unsettled period in Danish monetary history and fixed the ratio of the rigsdaler to the mark and skilling: 1 rigsdalar was to equal 6 marks or 96 skillings. A Rigsdaler was the same as a Dutch lion dollar, that is to say 2 guilders.

Danish coins included the Rigsdaler or 6 mark coin, the  crown (4 marks), the mark coin and coins for 1,2,4 and 8 skillings

The Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman empire also used the Ducat for trade as well as local coins called the Akche, the Para and the Kurush. One Kurush or Piastre was the equivalent of 40 Para or 120 Akche but as with many other currencies value of these to a fixed currency such as the Ducat varied. There ware 200 Akche to a Ducat in 1584 (a few years earlier there had been 60) and it is not clear whether this had changed by 1630.

Germany and Bohemia

As noted above, German currency has been described as a bottomless pit by one of my sources. In Germany and nearby countries there were multiple currencies such as 60 kreuzer to the Gulden, 4 denar(pfennig/penny) to a Kreuzer 12 to a Groschen and 16 to a Batzen or 1 Gulden = 4 Mark = 24 Albus = 48 Schilling = 288 Heller depending on where you were. Not only were there a large number of coins the reformation wars had encouraged every mint to debase its currency thus coins were of widely varying quality. Because there were so many currencies that there is no hope of giving a conversion to any native unit of currency (Albus, Batzen, Mark, Groschen...) in most cases. In Bohemia the Thaler was the equivalent of 24 groschen and each groschen was (theoretically) 12 pfennigs however the 30 years war severely impacted the relationships since some coins were copper and others silver and silver became rather scarce. The Bohemian (Prague) groschen however generally seem to have been reliable since the rulers of Bohemia had access to the Joachim valley and thus the same silver mine that gave its name to the thaler. From the 1620s Ferdinand II issued the ducat, thaler, half, quarter, groschen (3 kreuzer), kreuzer, half kreuzer, and quarter kreuzers. Much of Germany used the Reichsthaler as a nominal unit of account to deal with the variations in coinage. A German Reichsthaler was 1½ guilders or three-quarters of a peso. Many German mints also produced "Reichsthalers" but the thalers produced frequently varied in weight and hence value.

Summary table

Country     Currency                                        Value in Guilders

Holland     1 Guilder = 20 Stuiver = 320 Penning                  N/A

            1 Leeuwendaalder = 2 Guilder

            1 Rijksdaalder = 2.5 Guilder

Venice            1 Ducat = 6L4s                                  1 Ducat = 1 Guilder

            1 Lire = 20 Soldi, 60 Quattrini or 240 Denari

Italy       As with Venice but the Lire/Ducat rate varied         1 Ducat = 1 Guilder

Spain       34 Maravedi = 1 Real, 8 Real = 1 Peso                 1 Peso = 2 Guilders

France            1/3rd Ecu = 1 Livre = 20 sous = 240 Denier                  1 Livre ~= 1 Guilder

England     1 pound = 20 Shillings = 240 pence                    2 Shillings = 1 Guilder

Scotland    As England                                      24 Scots Shillings = 1 Guilder

Denmark     1 rigsdalar = 6 marks = 96 skillings                        1 Rigsdaler = 2 Guilders

Sweden      1 mark = 8 öre = 24 örtugar = 192 penningar           1 Riksdaler = 2 Guilders

            1 riksdaler =~8 marks (variable)

Poland      1 zloty = 30 grosz = 90 Szelags = 540 Denars          1 Zloty = 2/3 Guilder (?)

Turkey      One Kurush/Piastre = 40 Para = 120 Akche        200 Akche = 1 Guilder (in 1584)

Bohemia     1 thaler = 24 groschen = 72 kreuzer = 288 pfennig           1 Thaler = 2 Guilders

Germany     1 gulden = 4 mark = 24 albus = 48 schilling = 288 heller    1 Gulden = 1 Guilder

            Also 1 groschen = 3 kreuzer = 24 pfennig = 48 heller

            many other coins. Unit of account the Reichsthaler    1 Reichsthaler = 1½ Guilders

The cost of living

Now that we know what a thalar or a ducat is worth in terms of other currencies how much did people need to live on? And how does it compare to prices today? A general guide is that in the early 17th century 1 English pence was roughly the equivalent of one English pound 400 years later. This means that 1 guilder is worth about £24 or US$36. This is only approximate and it is important to note that in the 17th century manufactured goods were much more expensive in relative terms than they are today. Due to the lack of mechanization clothing was expensive because it was such a labour intensive task. On the other hand taxation was more on imports, exports and farm production (tithes) than on general income. A lot of people could escape taxation altogether which means that their wages go further than you might expect.

Given the complexity of German currencies I am unsure how to relate such wages as I have found but it seems unlikely that they would differ too much from the clearly documented English wages of the period. A good English daily wage was 1s/day, assuming 50 weeks at 6 days a week that works out at 300s or £15/year. An unskilled labourer could expect less (perhaps 8d/day) and of course a highly skilled craftsman could expect more. However it is also worth noting that many wages for craftsmen were actually based on production (i.e. piecework) so the more you produced the more you got. One other point to note is that in many cases labourers were paid in kind, agreements to provide 1 suit of clothes/year or to supply food and lodging were by no means uncommon. The important thing to remember is that very few people had significant disposable income. For non-farmers purchasing food (and fuel both to cook and to keep warm) could easily be 4d a day or sometimes more. If you compare this with the wage rate this means that a 17th century worker could spend between a quarter and half of his daily wage on food. Adding in requirements to buy clothing and to pay rent and the amount left over for discretionary spending be it a friendly drink at the inn, to gamble with or to save up to buy a book, was under 10% of his wage.

Trade and debts between neighbours were quite often settled by barter, this included rents which could be a proportion of the harvest crop. This was a holdover of the feudal tithing regime but it was used because, despite the influx of South American silver, coins were still comparatively rare. Agricultural rents, when they were paid in coin to an absentee landlord, were of the order of a guilder/acre/year, less for pasture and more for arable land and often much more for prime meadows or orchards.


Sources

Google was invaluable during the cration of this document. However I found a lot of mutually incompatible documents so google on its own will lead to problems. The following seem to be correct and were mined for most of the above:

http://www.economics.utoronto.ca/munro5/MONEYLEC.htm

http://www.algonet.se/~hogman/slmynt_eng.htm

http://www.portsdown.demon.co.uk/coin.htm and http://www.portsdown.demon.co.uk/mark.htm

http://www.helmer-c.dk/Econhist/dk-money.htm

http://home.golden.net/~medals/staremoneta.html

http://www.anythinganywhere.com/info/a2z.htm and especially http://www.anythinganywhere.com/info/a2z/azgermany.htm

http://users.crocker.com/~jcamp/coins.html




12    MAPS, CENSUS & LANDHOLDERS

 

12.1           Jamaica Maps

Slaney 1678

http://jcb.lunaimaging.com/luna/servlet/detail/JCBMAPS~1~1~1608~102050002:Tabula-Iamaicae-Insulae#

COLLECTION NAME:

JCB Map Collection

Record

Accession Number:

8189

File Name:

8189-34

Call number:

Cabinet Blathwayt 34

Map title:

Tabula Iamaicae Insulae

Place of Publication:

[London]

Publisher:

Sold by Will: Berry at the Globe betwixt Chering Cross & White Hall

Publication date:

1678

Map size height:

43.4 cm.

Map size width:

61 cm.

Item description:

engraving

Geographical description:

Map of Jamaica. Cartographic elements include locations of settlements, bays, and rivers, degrees of latitude and longitude, sea banks, some topographical details, compass rose, and a scale. Decorative cartouche with a dedication to James, duke of York, includes military matériel such as drums, cannons, flags, and the royal coat of arms of England; scale cartouche shows coat of arms and motto of Jamaica.

Cartobibliographic notes:

One of four maps of Jamaica in the Blathwayt Atlas. The map, last in chronological order of the maps, is believed to have been made using information from surveyors John Vassall and Mordecai Rogers and is a considerable advance over John Man's second map (8189-35). James Stuart, duke of York, was the second son of Charles I and succeeded to the crown in 1685 on the death of his brother who died without heirs.The Blathwayt Atlas is a collection of 48 maps assembled between 1680 and 1685 as a reference atlas for the Office of Trade and Plantations, compiled by William Blathwayt, Secretary to the Lords of Trade and Plantations.

References:

Black, J.D., ed. Blathwayt Atlas, vol. II, p. 186-196

Geographic Area:

Caribbean

Normalized date:

1678

Creator:

Edward Slaney

Tabula Iamaicae Insulae

EXPORT

Active Media Group:

Active Media Group:


Barbados Map

COLLECTION NAME:

JCB Map Collection

Record

Accession Number:

8189

File Name:

8189-32

Call number:

Cabinet Blathwayt 32

Map title:

A New Map of the Island of Barbadoes wherein every Parish, Plantation, Watermill, Windmill & Cattlemill, is described ...

Place of Publication:

[London]

Publisher:

Sold by Mr. Overton at the White Horse without Newgate Mr. Morden at the Atlas in Cornhill Mr. Berry at the Globe at Charing Cross And Mr. Pask at ye Stationers Arms & Inkbottle on the North Side the Royal Exchange

Publication date:

[1675-76]

Map size height:

47.9 cm.

Map size width:

56.2 cm.

Item description:

Engraving

Geographical description:

Map of Barbados showing location of roads, individual farms, mills used for the grinding of sugar cane, and towns. Cartographic details include some topographical details, compass rose, and scale. Decorative elements include ships, fish, angels with navigational tools such as dividers. Decorative cartouche includes English royal coat of arms of Charles II, allegorical figures of a river goddess and god with oar and water vessel, a woman in armor [Britannia?], and a personification of plenty with cornucopia.

Cartobibliographic notes:

This is the first printed economic map of an English American colony and represents Barbardos at the height of its early sugar production.The map was drawn by Richard Ford, a Quaker, whose religious principles caused him to omit the names of many forts and to avoid the word, "church."The Blathwayt Atlas is a collection of 48 maps assembled between 1680 and 1685 as a reference atlas for the Office of Trade and Plantations, compiled by William Blathwayt, Secretary to the Lords of Trade and Plantations.

References:

Black, J.D., ed. Blathwayt Atlas, vol. II, p. 180-185

Geographic Area:

Caribbean

Normalized date:

1675

     

Creator:

Richard Ford


12.2           Jamaica 1670 census

http://genealogy-quest.com/collections/jamcens.html

Census of Jamaica

Abstract of the Whole: 23 September 1670

Parishes                Acres Patented    Familes     Persons

St. Thomas' Parish      14,825½           59         590

St. David's Parish      11,946¾           80         960

St. Andrew's Parish     29,199¾           194     1,552

St. Katherine's Parish  68,590            158     2,370

St. John's Parish       25,197¾           83        996

Clarendon Parish        39,260¾           143     1,430

Note 1                                           2,500

Note 2                  20,000                   1,500

                        209,020½          717   11,898

More: We calculate of Persons in the Towns of Port Royal

and St. Jago to be no less than, men, women and children    3,300

      15,198

Note 1: We likewise calculate the Privateers, Hunters, Sloop, and Boatmen which ply this Island, and are not reckoned in any of the above Parishes, to be at least 2,500 lusty able men.

Note 2: The four Parishes on the North Side, vizt., St. George's, St. Marie's, St. Anne's, and St. James, and the Leewardmost parish, St. Elizabeth, hath not been yet collected, as not worth it, by reason of its distance and new settlements, where we find about 20,000 acres patented, and calculate there cannot be less than 1,500 people

Sainsbury, W. Noel, ed., Calender of State Papers, Colonial Series (Volume 7), America and West Indies, 1669-1674, Preserved in Her Majesty's Public Record Office (Vaduz: Kraus Reprint Ltd., 1964) First Published London: HMSO, 1889. pp. 98-104.


http://www.genealogy-quest.com/collections/clarendon.html
 
Census of Jamaica
1670
Clarendon Parish
Sainsbury, W. Noel, ed., Calender of State Papers, Colonial Series (Volume 7), America and West Indies, 1669-1674, Preserved in Her Majesty's Public Record Office (Vaduz: Kraus Reprint Ltd., 1964) First Published London: HMSO, 1889. pp. 98-104.


 

THE SURVEY OF THE ISLAND OF JAMAICA (1670).

 

ST. THOMAS'S PARISH.

 

---

Acres

---

Acres

---

Acres

 

Thomas Amor -

-

10

Robt. Fargasson

-

24

Rice Prosser -

-

38

 

Southwell Atkins

-

1,070

James Gosling -

-

800

John Putnam -

-

200

 

Charles Barnett

-

90

Thomas Groves

-

238

Dearmon Regaine

-

145

 

John Bassett -

-

78

John Hooper -

-

140

More -

-

40

 

Thomas Booth -

-

12

John Hunt -

-

180

George Robbins

-

12

 

William Basnett

-

60

Thomas Hudson

-

390

Thomas Reese -

-

60

 

Capt. Thomas Browne

-

1,060

More -

-

120

Clement Richardson

-

846

 

Joseph Barger -

-

11

David Jones -

-

70

William Richardson

-

10

 

Francis Butterfield

-

30

Thomas Johnson

-

350

John Stokes -

-

25

 

Samuel Backs, Esq.

-

200

Widow Lawrence

-

73

John Stevenson

-

211

 

Christopher Cooper

-

690

Henry Lupton

-

400

Edmond Sweet

-

140

 

Cæsar Carter -

-

60

John Lucy -

-

92

Thomas Stacey -

-

120

 

Gawell Crouch -

-

100

Richard Layton

-

90

James Scott -

-

17

 

Thomas Carpenter

-

6

Nicholas License

-

264

Thomas Steward

-

60

 

John Clarke -

-

90

Samuel Lewis, Esq.

-

880

John Stephens -

-

60

 

Josiah Child and Mate

-

1,330

Edward Madox

-

30

John Salisbury

-

150

 

John Davenport

-

340

Thomas Manning

-

125

Walter Tresias -

-

120

 

Francis Davis -

-

120

Daniel Pearse -

-

8

Tobias Wilson -

-

50

 

Thomas Evans -

-

215

Charles Probert

-

64

Thomas Wiltshire

-

122

 

Stephen Evans -

-

300

Thomas Paulhill

-

700

John Wallis and Boucher

-

150

 

Col. Thomas Freeman

-

1,309 1/2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In this parish are families -

- 59

And by estimation people -

- 590

 

ST. DAVID'S PARISH.

 

---

Acres

---

Acres

---

Acres

 

Nicholas Alexander

-

760

Thomas Griffin -

-

15

Luke Phillips -

-

150

 

Robert Avery -

-

30

Matthew Halpin

-

60

Henry Poores -

-

40

 

Thomas Bend -

-

80

John Harris -

-

60

John Price -

-

140

 

Edmund Bates -

-

49

Thomas Harry -

-

120

Francis Powell

-

17

 

John Barton -

-

150

George Hooke -

-

90

Richard Pearce and Elliott -

-

90

 

John Banfield -

-

60

Henry Henderson

-

30

Matthew Price -

-

60

 

John Campion -

-

90

John Hobby and Alexander -

-

82

William Powell

-

30

 

More -

-

13

John Hobby -

-

126

Robert Puncher

-

60

 

Cornelius Cole -

-

90

George Hunt -

-

45

William Ring -

-

70 1/2

 

Henry Cole -

-

30

John Hutchins -

-

30

William Rives, Esq.

-

210

 

William Davis -

-

150

Samuel Hancock

-

60

Walter Roles -

-

40

 

Thomas Evans and Mate -

-

160

John James and Mate

-

70

Richard Richardson, Esq. -

-

1,034

 

George Elkin and Petty

-

563

Edward Jackson

-

30

Richard Richardson and Mate -

-

152

 

Edward Elliot and Pearse -

-

80

Peter Jacob -

-

30

Edward Reid -

-

30

 

Francis Fouracers

-

160

John Gerrard and Jourden -

-

30

Thomas Reid -

-

150

 

Lieut.-Col. Robert Freeman -

-

1,338 3/4

John Lamstead

-

30

James Rogers -

-

30

 

Col. Thomas Freeman

-

440

Major Richard Lloyd

-

1,370

Clement Richardson

-

50

 

Edward Fox -

-

90

Major Lloyd and Burton -

-

294

Thomas Ransdon

-

130

 

Thomas Fargar

-

345

Bryan Mascall, and Sylvester -

-

54

Robert Stubbs and Mate

-

66

 

Richard Gwinnell

-

140

Matthew Oliver

-

30

Jacob Stokes -

-

640

 

Morgan George

-

30

Robert Thompson

-

30

Jacob Stokes and Smith

-

1

 

William Sheldrake

-

35

Stephen Valley

-

55

Robert Woddard

-

60

 

Benjamin Smith

-

60

Thomas Whittle

-

60

William Witch

-

30

 

Robert Smith -

-

374

William Wolfe

-

30

John Wilson and William Parker -

-

30

 

Major John Saunderson

-

44

Henry Winkes and Mate -

-

65

John White and Elkins

-

30

 

Thomas Swaine

-

60

James Wallis -

-

30

John Wimble and Seamore -

-

152

 

John Terry -

-

58

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jenkin Thomas

-

18 1/2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Charles Thomas

-

30

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In this parish are families -

80.

And by estimation persons -

- 960

 

ST. ANDREW'S PARISH.

 

---

Acres

---

Acres

---

Acres

 

John Andrewes

-

4

John Cahaune and Mate

-

11

George Home -

-

218

 

Henry Archboule, Esq.

-

2,030

George Campe -

-

91

Francis Hope -

-

12

 

Thomas Aldworth

-

5

William Capon

-

6

John Hattevill -

-

20

 

John Akin -

-

7 1/2

John Clove -

-

20

William Jones -

-

60

 

John Bonnett -

-

5

Edmond de la Crez

-

660

Walter Jenkins

-

34

 

Edward Bussell

-

11

William Davison

-

240

John Johnson -

-

12

 

Robert Bull -

-

34

Nicholas de la Roch

-

6

Andrew Jewell -

-

30

 

Charles Benway

-

30

Richard Dunn -

-

60

John Jefferies -

-

24

 

Doctor Richard Brian

-

351

Henry Dawkins

-

15

Thomas Joyce -

-

30

 

John Barrett and Mates

-

90

Robert Davis and Morgan -

-

200

Samuel Keamor

-

30

 

Nicholas Barrett and Mate -

-

20

Francis Daniell

-

33 1/2

Abraham Keeling

-

60

 

Edward Berry -

-

279

Edward Exceceune

-

17

William Kilgress

-

8

 

Capt. Samuel Barry

-

400

John Edwards and Mate

-

56

William Cane -

-

13

 

Major William Buston

-

878

George Ecclestone

-

14

Nicholas Keine

-

643

 

Titus Boreman -

-

78

William Elder -

-

96

Jane Leader -

-

19

 

John Browning

-

22

Thomas Edmonds

-

70

Widow Lane

-

5

 

Widow Backhouse

-

28

Richard Feilder

-

100

Francis Larow -

-

48

 

James Barry -

-

27

Jeremiah Fowler

-

63

John Lewis -

-

600

 

James Boney -

-

50

Morris Fleyne -

-

42

Nicholas Leford

-

40

 

More -

-

12

Henry Ford -

-

100

Jacob Lucy and Company -

-

34

 

William Burt -

-

110

Thomas Flood -

-

3

William Launce

-

336

 

George Bennett

-

234

William Ford -

-

210

John Maverley

-

130

 

Nicholas Butler and Mate -

-

34

Jenkin Lloyd

-

7

William Mayo -

-

40

 

John Baugh -

-

11

Mary Fisher

-

7 1/2

Sir James Modyford

-

530

 

Francis Bussell and Smith -

-

60

William Groves

-

15

James Manderson

-

34

 

Henry Bowen and Mate

-

84

Luke Grose -

-

28

Owen Macarta -

-

56

 

Thomas Butler

-

31

Charles Griffin -

-

9

Alexander Mills

-

41

 

Phillip Botterill

-

22

James Grimes -

-

7 1/2

John Murrow -

-

14

 

Henry Banfield

-

21

Sampson George

-

40

Christopher Mayam

-

30

 

John Burdis and Mate

-

23

Robert Galloway

-

9 3/4

Robert Moody -

-

50

 

William Bent and Henry Bonner -

-

800

Widow Gay -

-

74

Richard Mapeley

-

28

 

George Blundall

-

15

John Garrett -

-

8 1/2

William Parker

-

10

 

John Belfield -

-

369

Daniel Garvin -

-

2 1/2

Wm. St. Onyon

-

10

 

Jasper Blanch -

-

6

Nathaniell Guy

-

190

John Priest -

-

80 1/2

 

John Cooper -

-

512

Morgan Hopkins

-

19

John Pond -

-

6

 

Samuel Conyers

-

216

William Hazard

-

11

Janes Pinnuck -

-

802

 

Thomas Cater -

-

100

Charles Hudson

-

44

John Potter -

-

142 1/2

 

Matthew Cotton

-

40 1/2

Lieut. - Coll. Richard Hope and ye Inhabitants -

-

970

Joseph Phypes -

-

84

 

Joseph Casteele

-

217 1/2

Lieut. - Coll. Richard Hope -

-

1,497

John Pitts

-

7 1/2

 

Richard Collinwood

-

50

Gowen Hill -

-

80

John Pearse -

-

80

 

Ancill Cole -

-

20

James Howell -

-

1,233

Capt. William Parker

-

1,534

 

John Cooke -

-

107

Richard Hussett

-

8

Robert Pyatt -

-

62

 

Capt. Thomas Clarke

-

605

James Hunt -

-

8

Capt. William Rivers

-

60

 

John Cape and Westbury -

-

22

John Hendy -

-

47

Ralph Rippon -

-

20

 

Markham Clouds

-

7 1/2

Nicholas Hancock

-

50

John Robinson

-

46

 

Anthony Collier

-

44

John Hone -

-

21

James Russell -

-

9

 

Thomas Brewer

-

211

Henry Hammot

-

6

Francis Russell and Mates -

-

53

 

Edward Stanton and Henry Bonner -

-

500

Gregory Hubbart

-

48

Moses Raco -

-

18

 

Edward Manton (sic)

-

374

Thomas Todd and Mate

-

49

Francis Scarlett, Esq.

-

1,000

 

John Spread -

-

9 1/2

Peter Tarragon

-

16

Thomas Taylor

-

18

 

Lieut. John Stanley

-

90

Anne Thorne -

-

156

Richard Thorne

-

16

 

Morris Sheham

-

4

William Tanton

-

24

William Wilson

-

80

 

David Spence -

-

7 1/2

Thomas Trinado

-

38

Hugh Weekes

-

44

 

John Stiles and Mate

-

67

Peter Turpin -

-

622

Charles Whitfield

-

950

 

Cornelius Struys

-

122

Thomas Tuttle -

-

40

William Warren

-

707

 

Thomas South -

-

60

William Terrill

-

15

Edward Wooden