Parkes Appendices:

 

Return to Parkes Family

 

Date: 21/1/2013

 

Parkes Appendices: 1-1

1.        Appendix 1: Willenhall 1-3

Walsall Local History Centre 1-4

2.        Appendix 2: Lock Making in Walsall 2-1

3.        Appendix 3: Bobbington (from GENUK) 3-1

4.        Appendix 4: Trysull 4-1

Trysull Church History 4-1

5.        PARISHES 5-1

INKBERROW 5-1

MANORS 5-3

CHURCHES 5-12

ADVOWSON 5-14

CHARITIES 5-15

Footnotes 5-16

6.        BRITISH HISTORY ONLINE Extracts 6-1

CROPTHORNE 6-1

MANOR 6-3

CHARLTON 6-4

NETHERTON 6-7

CHURCHES 6-7

ADVOWSON 6-9

CHARITIES 6-9

The Window Lye's Charity. 6-9

Holland's School. 6-10

Footnotes 6-10

FLADBURY 6-14

MANORS 6-16

AB LENCH or ABBOT'S LENCH 6-17

THROCKMORTON 6-19

HILL 6-20

WYRE PIDDLE 6-21

CHURCHES 6-23

ADVOWSONS 6-27

CHARITIES 6-28

Hamlet of Hill and Moor. 6-29

Chapelry of Stock and Bradley. 6-29

The Church Lands. 6-29

Hamlet of Wyre Piddle. 6-29

Footnotes 6-29

ALCESTER 6-37

Borough 6-44

Economic And Social History 6-45

Common Fields And Inclosures 6-46

Manors 6-47

Mill 6-51

Church 6-51

Advowson 6-53

Nonconformity 6-55

Charities 6-56

Footnotes 6-58

ARROW 6-65

Manors 6-67

Church 6-71

Advowson 6-72

Charity 6-73

Footnotes 6-73

BIDFORD 6-76

Broom 6-78

Barton 6-79

Manors 6-80

Broom 6-82

Barton 6-84

Church 6-84

Advowson 6-86

Mills 6-87

Charities 6-87

Footnotes 6-88

Exhall 6-92

Manors 6-95

EXHALL 6-95

Church 6-97

Advowson 6-100

Charities 6-100

Footnotes 6-101

Temple Grafton 6-103

Manors 6-106

Grafton 6-106

Church 6-110

Advowson 6-110

Charities 6-111

Footnotes 6-111

GREAT ALNE 6-114

PRIVATE   RESIDENTS. 6-114

COMMERCIAL. 6-115

7.        Enclosure Awards for Haselor Parish 1767 7-1

8.        Changes: 8-1

 


1.     Appendix 1: Willenhall


"Willenhall is a populous village and township, with a railway station and a canal wharf, on the turnpike midway between Walsall and Wolverhampton, being three miles from each of these towns. It is in the south division of Offlow Hundred and is an ancient chapelry in the parish and parliamentary borough of Wolverhampton, but it has lately been divided into three district parishes. It is in the manor of Stow Heath, of which the Duke of Sutherland and TW Gifford, Esq, are joint lords, but the land (about 1980 acres) belongs to a number of freeholders. It is an improving place, and since 1801, its population has increased from 3143 to upwards of 10,000 souls. Its inhabitants are mostly employed in the manufacture of locks, keys, bolts, latches, chafing dishes, gridirons, currycombs, etc. It is said that more locks, of all kinds, are made here than in any other town of the same size in England or Europe.
In Domesday Book, this place is called Winehala, from the Saxon word for victory, and it was probably so designated in commemoration of the great battle fought in its vicinity in 910.
Little London, a large village half a mile N, and New Invention, three miles N of Willenhall, are both in this township, except a small part of the latter, which is in Wednesfield.
Portobello, a large and improving village, half a mile W of Willenhall, and Lane Head, about a mile N of the village, near the canal, are in this township, which also contains other populous hamlets. A branch canal was cut here in 1841."
[From History, Gazetteer and Directory of Staffordshire, William White, Sheffield, 1851]



Walsall Local History Centre

Willenhall in History

 

The first record of the settlement of Willenhall is from the eighth century when a treaty was signed there by King Ethelbald of Mercia. Willenhall was then referred to as Willenhalch which in Anglo-Saxon meant 'the meadowland of Willan'. Willenhala was mentioned in the Domesday Book (1086) as a very small settlement, and it remained so until the growth of industry in the 18th century.

In the Middle Ages, Willenhall was included in the parish of Wolverhampton. Although there was a church in the village, people would have to travel to Wolverhampton for weddings and funerals. It was not until 1840 that Willenhall had a parish church. St. Giles was the first church to be built. The present church is the third on the site, dating from 1867.

Willenhall was a small agricultural village throughout the Middle Ages, in 1666 the population was only about 300. The population did not increase dramatically until the 18th century when iron and coal began to be fully exploited. The town grew up around the Market Place and Stafford Street with many tiny streets crammed with houses, workshops and pubs. Evidence of the town's growing prosperity is still visible today in the Dale House, once the home of the Hincks family and 33 Market Place, the home of the Clemsons, both maltsters.

To make trading easier, New Road was opened in the early 19th century. Outside the town itself, settlements grew up around local industries. The area around Lane Head and Sandbeds had a thriving mining community and Portobello grew around the brickmaking industry. There was a lot of coal mining in the Willenhall area until the 19th century when the industry came to a dramatic halt after a strike when the mines were flooded and lost forever. The main industry in Willenhall, for which it has become famous, is lockmaking. Lockmaking began in the area in Elizabethan times mainly in Wolverhampton, Willenhall and Bilston. It was concentrated in Willenhall by the mid 19th century; one source quotes 340 lockmakers in Willenhall in 1855, mostly in small workshops. Locks at this time were made entirely by hand. Young apprentices filed the metal which resulted after many years in their having hump backs. This deformity was so prevalent that Willenhall became known as 'Humpshire'. Famous lockmakers in Willenhall include Josiah Parkes & Sons, Yale & Towne and John Harper & Co.

Poor housing and lack of any proper sanitation led to a cholera epidemic in 1849 when 292 people died. The epidemic shocked the town into improving conditions and in 1854 the Willenhall Local Board of Health was founded, a forerunner of Willenhall Urban District Council which took over in 1894. To reflect a growth in civic pride several municipal buildings were erected, the Town Hall and Library building in Clemson Street in 1866, a public baths in 1938. The memorial park was opened in 1922 in honour of those killed in World War 1.

Willenhall became part of Walsall Metropolitan Borough in 1966 but remains very much a town with its own identity.

Walsall Local History Centre




2.     Appendix 2: Lock Making in Walsall




The local availability of coal, iron ore and limestone encouraged the growth of the iron industry in the Black Country which together with other metal trades such as brass manufacture provided materials for the many specialist metalworking industries in the area, such as the lock and keymaking trades. The lock trade was carried on chiefly in Wolverhampton and Willenhall, although there were also lock makers in Bilston, Wednesbury, Darlaston, West Bromwich and Birmingham.

A huge variety of locks were produced. The most important types were padlocks, till and chest locks, cabinet locks and house door locks. Door locks could be of two main types: mortice, which were fitted into the woodwork of the door, and rim locks, which were screwed to the surface of the door. Towns and villages in the lock-producing area would specialise in certain types.

In the early part of the nineteenth century keymakers and locksmiths in general worked in small isolated groups of ones and twos, independent of each other, but all engaged in one aspect or other of providing locks and keys. Many of these locksmiths and keymakers made use of apprentices and when the latter had served their time they were replaced by new ones so that the ‘master’ did not have to pay the much higher wages of a journeyman. As a result the apprentice would be almost forced to become a small master himself. This accounts for the relatively small number of large manufacturers in the West Midlands at that time.

The conditions in the numerous workshops were often poor. Young children would set to work as soon as they were strong enough to hold a file. The fact that Willenhall was known colloquially as ‘Humpshire’ is evidence, of course, of the toll that this took in causing deformity. A contemporary observer of this characteristic gave the following grim details:
"The right shoulder blade becomes displaced and projects. The right leg crooks and bends inwards at the knee like the letter ‘K’, this is the leg which is hindermost in standing at the vice. The right hand also has, frequently, a marked distortion, almost everything it holds takes the position of the file. If the poor man carries a limp lettuce or a limper mackerel from Wolverhampton market they are never dangled, but always held like the file. If he carries nothing, his right hand is in just the same position."
Work was hard and hours were long. In the middle of the nineteenth century the average weekly wage for lockmakers in Willenhall was 18s – 30s a week. Hours at that time were 6 a.m. – 7 p.m. in summer, 7 a.m. – 8 p.m. in winter, although they were often exceeded.
The factory age of mechanisation led to the decline of the small independent master, with his manual skills, giving rise to large manufacturers. John Harper & Co. was one of the first, Josiah Parkes was established in 1840. Towards the end of the nineteenth century the old hand press began to disapppear, and the power press replaced it, while steel sheet replaced wrought iron.
Today, Willenhall is still the most important lock making town in the country and has become home to many of the most famous names in the British lock making industry, including Josiah Parkes, Legge, Century Locks and Yale.


 

3.     Appendix 3: Bobbington (from GENUK)


"Bobbington parish, on the western verge of the county, nine miles SW of Wolverhampton, has 418 souls and 2630 acres of land, of which 22 souls and about 500 acres, with part of the hamlet of Halfpenny Green, are in Shropshire. The Earl of Stamford and William Moseley, Esq, are the principal proprietors of the soil, and the latter, who has a pleasant seat here, called Leaton Hall, is lord of the manor and impropriator, having purchased the tithes of the late Thomas Whitmore, Esq, of Apley.
The Right Hon Sir L Shadwell, the Rev John Pratt, Mr Thomas Bowen, and a few smaller owners have estates in the parish."
[From History, Gazetteer and Directory of Staffordshire, William White, Sheffield, 1851]

Census
The population of Bobbington parish was as follows:
1801 -- 381
1811 -- 366
1821 -- 393
1831 -- 426
1841 -- 418

"Bobbington Parish Church is a small ancient structure, and is in the diocese of Hereford. The perpetual curacy is in the patronage of TC Whitmore, Esq, and incumbency of the Rev George Hilder Betterton Gabert, MA, of Claverley."
[From History, Gazetteer and Directory of Staffordshire, William White, Sheffield, 1851]
Bobbington was originally a chapelry to Claverley parish in Shropshire until it became a separate ecclesiastical parish in 1726. It was in Lichfield diocese as a part of Bridgnorth peculiar until it was transferred in 1846 into Hereford diocese. It was transferred back into Lichfield diocese in 1905




4.     Appendix 4: Trysull

"Trysull, a small village, five miles SW of Wolverhampton, comprises within its parish 3310 acres of land, and 541 inhabitants, of whom 213 are in Seisdon hamlet. Lord Wrottesley is lord of the manor, but a greater part of the soil belongs to John Pudsey, Henry Jesson, John Perry, and D & W Banton, Esqrs, who have neat houses in the parish.
Seisdon, a pleasant hamlet, gives name to Seisdon Hundred and Union, and lies near the borders of Shropshire, one mile W of Trysull, where there is a narrow bridge of several arches over the River Smestow. Upon a lofty height, which forms the boundary line between the two counties, is the ancient entrenchment of Apewood Castle. Daniel Banton, Esq, owns and occupies several farms here, and was the first agriculturalist in the county who used guano, which in these 'free trade times' may be called the farmers' sheet anchor. Upon one of his farms, Mr Benton has a mill employed in thrashing the grain, and in grinding for his livestock. His thrashing machine performs at one time the operations of thrashing, winnowing, shaking the straw, piling the barley, bagging up the grain, and weighing ready for market."

Trysull Church History

"The Parish Church, All Saints, is a small ancient edifice, having the figure of a bishop carved on its north wall. It was enlarged, and beautifully restored, in 1844.
The living is a vicarage, annexed to that of Wombourn. The patronage is in certain trustees, and incumbency of the Rev William James Heale, MA."

[From History, Gazetteer and Directory of Staffordshire, William White, Sheffield, 1851]

Census: The population of Trysull parish was as follows:
1831 -- 562                          1841 -- 541

 

 

 

 



5.     PARISHES

 

INKBERROW

Contents

INKBERROW
MANORS CHURCHES ADVOWSON CHARITIES Footnotes
Intanbeorgan (viii, ix cent.); Inteberg (xi cent.); Inkbarewe (xiii cent.); Inkeberwe, Inkebergh, Incebarrow (xiv cent.); Inkebarrow (xvi cent.).
The parish of Inkberrow is situated on the eastern boundary of the county, due east from the town of Worcester. It covers an area of 6,879 acres, (fn. 1) of which 2,168 are arable land, 4,085 permanent grass and 203 woods. (fn. 2) The soil is sand, clay and marl, with a subsoil of Keuper Marl with occasional bands of sandstone. (fn. 3) The chief crops are wheat, barley, oats, roots and beans. The land rises from about 200 ft. above the ordnance datum in the west of the parish to 450 ft. at New End on the Ridge Way. Stone quarries are worked, for local purposes only, at the Stone Pits about half a mile from the village. Papermaking was carried on at Inkberrow during the first half of the 19th century, but the industry became extinct about 1850. The mills were at Midsummer Meadow, Pool Mill and Little Nobury, the last surviving a long time after the others were demolished. Glove-sewing employs some of the female population of Inkberrow, and a large proportion of the residents at the northern part of the parish, both male and female, work in the needle factories at Astwood Bank.

Brandon Brook forms part of the northern boundary, and another brook, unnamed, runs through the parish from north to west, finally joining Piddle Brook in the south. From the Ridge Way, now the high road from Redditch to Evesham, which forms the eastern boundary of this parish, the Salt Way (fn. 4) runs west through Edgiock and Shurnock to Droitwich. Another road leads westward from the Ridge Way through the village of Inkberrow to Worcester.
The village of Inkberrow is pleasantly situated on undulating ground and contains some good examples of half-timber work. The church stands on the east side of the village in a large churchyard surrounded by stone walls. To the north of the church on the opposite side of the by-road leading to it is the vicarage, (fn. 5) a house of some size, enlarged and altered externally in 1837. A previous rebuilding took place in 1762. Some of the internal walls, however, are of oakframed timber work, which must have formed part of a much earlier building. Upon the south side of the same road, between the church and the main street of the village, is the Old Bull Inn, a half-timbered house probably of 16th-century date. At the junction of this by-road with the main street is a small triangular green, on the south side of which is a good house of c. 1600. At the south end of the village a second byroad leads off to the eastward, and here are some picturesque cottages of halftimber with thatched roofs, most of them on bases of local white sandstone. At Little Inkberrow, about half a mile to the north-west of the main village, is a good stone farm-house of the first half of the 17th century known as the 'Stone House' Farm. The plan is of the normal central entrance-hall type, and the interior has been much modernized. The windows, where they remain in their original condition, have stone mullions.
From Inkberrow, which lies in the centre of the parish, roads branch off to the hamlets of Edgiock and Holberrow Green in the north, to Stockwood in the west, and to Cookhill in the east.
There are moats at Holberrow Green Farm and Dragon Farm, and at Morton Underhill and Thorne. There is also a moat in good preservation on the glebe at the foot of the hill, below the vicarage.
Cookhill Priory, about 3 miles to the east of Inkberrow, stands on the site of the nunnery founded by Isabel Countess of Warwick in the 13th century. Of the original buildings all that remains above ground are portions of the east and north walls of the chapel and probably the nucleus of the adjoining range, which is of half-timber cased with brick. The greater part of the buildings of Cookhill nunnery excepting the chapel appear to have been demolished when the site of the monastery was granted to Nicholas Fortescue in 1542. A new house was erected, which incorporated portions of the original establishment, and seems to have inclosed a courtyard, open on the north. The eastern range is flush with the east wall of the chapel, which it adjoins, and dates, in part at least, from the 15th century. The buildings upon the south and west sides appear to have been demolished by Captain John Fortescue in 1763 when a new hall and drawing room were built on the west side of the eastern range. In 1783 the chapel was rebuilt by the same owner, and within the last few years a new addition has been made by which the west front of the remaining part of Nicholas Fortescue's original house has been almost entirely hidden.
The chapel, as it stands at present, is of red brick, with the exception of the original portion of the east and north walls. It is lighted on the north by two windows, each of two lights, with pointed heads, and there is a pointed doorway in the stone-faced west wall, with a quatrefoil window above it. The whole is crowned by an embattled parapet, behind which rises a hipped roof covered with slates. All these details date from the 18th-century rebuilding referred to above. The lower part of the splayed jambs of a large east window, now blocked, with image brackets on either side, and the east respond of a north arcade, are visible internally. From this the arches appear to have been of two orders, separated by a casement, the outer continuous and moulded with a swelled chamfer and the inner supported by an attached semicircular shaft with a plain bell capital and moulded semi-octagonal abacus. The aisle, into which this arcade must have opened, has disappeared, but on the external face of the space of wall included between the respond and the east end of the chancel is a piscina with a trefoiled ogee head and plain circular basin, probably earlier than the arcade, the remaining respond of which can hardly date from an earlier time than the last decade of the 14th century, to which period the jamb of the blocked east window may belong. At the north-east internal angle is a curious recess, about 5 ft. in height, with plain square head and jambs, the purpose of which it is difficult to determine. In the blocked east window is placed a painted alabaster bas-relief of the Virgin, in the style of the early 15th century, which may have formed part of a reredos. Some fragments of tiles of the same date are also preserved, including portions of the four-tile Talbot pattern so often met with in the county. In a vault beneath are buried many members of the Fortescue family. In the floor are slabs commemorating John Fortescue, who died in 1692, his wife, who died in 1664, William Fortescue, who died in 1706, and a slab now almost illegible commemorating a John Fortescue, the date of whose death cannot now be deciphered. On the south wall is a mural tablet to the Captain John Fortescue who rebuilt the chapel; the inscription states that he was 'one of the last Survivors of the memorable Crew of the Centurion, which sailed round the World under the Command of Commodore Anson.' He died in 1808 in his 87th year. His youngest daughter is commemorated on the same tablet. On this wall are also tablets to his wife, who died in 1780, his eldest daughter, and to the wife of a preceding John Fortescue, who died in 1764. On a wooden panel, still hung upon the wall, is recorded the history of the house, drawn up and painted under the direction of Captain John Fortescue.


Interior of Chapel, Cookhill Priory, Inkberrow

In the east wall of the garden which runs in a southerly direction from the south-west angle of the house, and is put together of fragments of masonry of the original buildings, is a portion of a late 14th-century bas-relief of the Annunciation. Only the upper part now remains, and the whole is much decayed. The heads of the angel Gabriel and the Virgin, with the top of a lily, can, however, be plainly distinguished. The roof of the older portion of the house appears to be of the 15th century, a fact which would seem to show that this is a portion of the original conventual buildings, remodelled by the Fortescues when they took possession of the estate. Some 16th and 17th-century panelling still remains. In the year 1765 a portrait of Charles I was discovered in the double panelling of the room on the first floor at the north end of the house adjoining the chapel. In a room at the south end of the house he is said to have slept.
Captain John Fortescue's addition, two stories in height, is of red brick with stone dressings, and is designed in a simple and dignified style. The walls are crowned by a stone cornice surmounted by a parapet of brick. The new portion to the south of this is designed in a corresponding style.
A bell, which local tradition asserts to have belonged to the Centurion, is still preserved. It is, however, inscribed 'William Ffortescue August 9 Anno 1619,' which shows it to have been the personal property of the family more than a hundred years before the Centurion expedition, nor is it likely that Captain Fortescue, who sailed in a subordinate capacity, took the bell with him. (fn. 6)
Under the northern half of the garden on the south side of the house is the basement of the southern range of buildings demolished in the 18th century. At the south-west angle of the garden is a brick garden-house of the 17th century. The ground falls away in terraced slopes on the west side of the house, which is situated near the summit of the hill from which it takes its name. The line of the moats may be very plainly distinguished. The area which they include is subdivided by a cross moat on the west, while a small branch at the north-west corner of the system originally fed the stew-ponds, two of which can still be traced by depressions in the ground. A portion of the moat is still filled with water. On the summit of the hill, to the east of the house, is an ancient camp, in a very perfect state of preservation, the circle of the moat being entire. The main road, called the Ridge Way, which runs from north to south, and forms the eastern boundary of the grounds, divides Worcestershire from Warwickshire; from the front of the house a very extensive prospect is commanded over the whole county, the horizon being terminated by the Malvern Hills.
Cladswell and New End lie to the north of Cookhill. (fn. 7) Knighton and Little Nobury (fn. 8) are two small hamlets in the south-east of the parish. Morton Hall, now the property of Mr. Gilbert Player, and Morton Farm lie in the north to the east of the hamlet of Morton Underhill. Thorne lies in the extreme south of the parish. Another hamlet named Stockwood is in the north-west.
A Roman coin of the time of Hadrian was found at Inkberrow about 1810, and is now in the possession of Mr. G. L. Eades of Evesham. (fn. 9)
An Inclosure Act for Inkberrow was passed in 1814, (fn. 10) and the award is dated 6 August 1818. (fn. 11)
The following place-names occur: Tokene Ok, (fn. 12) Russhemore Causey, (fn. 13) in the 14th century.

MANORS

The manor of INKBERROW formed part of the inheritance of Hemele and Duda, who bequeathed it to the church of Worcester. It was, however, later claimed by Wulfheard son of Cussa, and the contention between him and the bishop was settled in 789 at the Synod of Calchyth (Chelsea). (fn. 14) There it was agreed that Wulfheard should hold the land for his life, and after his death it should pass to the church of Worcester. (fn. 15) This agreement was confirmed in 803 at the Council of Clovesho by Bishop Deneberht, (fn. 16) and again by King Ceolwulf I of Mercia (821–3). (fn. 17)
In 977 Bishop Oswald granted one mansa of land in Inkberrow to his servant Athelstan. (fn. 18) Seven years later the same bishop granted the land of four manentes to a certain matron named Wulfflaed. (fn. 19)
At the time of the Domesday Survey there were two manors at Inkberrow, both being held by the Bishop of Hereford. One, comprising 5 hides, he held of the Bishop of Worcester's manor of Fladbury (fn. 20) ; the other which gelded for 15½ hides, of the king in chief. (fn. 21) The latter holding had been wrongfully held by Earl Harold, but King William restored it to the bishopric of Hereford. (fn. 22) The Bishops of Worcester seem afterwards to have claimed the overlordship of both manors. The manor of 5 hides was held of the manor of Fladbury until the beginning of the 14th century or later. (fn. 23) About 1186 a dispute arose between the Bishops of Worcester and Hereford as to the overlordship of Inkberrow, and it was decided that the latter owed the service of a knight's fee to the former. (fn. 24) This agreement apparently included both the Domesday manors, and in 1323–4 the overlordship of the Bishop of Worcester was still recognized. (fn. 25)
The Bishops of Hereford apparently continued to hold the manor in demesne (fn. 26) until towards the end of the 12th century, when Bishop Robert Folliot gave it in exchange for 'Eston' to John son of John Marshal, who was to hold it of the bishop for the service of half a knight's fee. (fn. 27) This agreement was confirmed in 1253 (fn. 28) and again in 1355, (fn. 29) and the overlordship of the Bishop of Hereford was recognized until about the end of the 14th century, (fn. 30) the manor in 1397–8 being said to be held of the Prior of Hereford. (fn. 31) In 1307–8 it was said, evidently in error, to be held of the king in chief as of the marshalsy of England. (fn. 32) In 1435–6 the overlord of Inkberrow was not known, (fn. 33) and in 1476 the manor was said to be held of George Duke of Clarence for the service of one knight's fee. (fn. 34)


See of Hereford. Gules three fleurs de liscoming out of leopards' heads reversed or.

John Marshal, who by the agreement mentioned above became tenant of the manor of Inkberrow, died without issue in 1193–4, when he was succeeded by his brother William, who in right of his wife Isabel became Earl of Pembroke. (fn. 35) He or one of his predecessors had erected a castle at Inkberrow, and in 1216 William Cauntelow was ordered to provide him with wood for repairing it. (fn. 36) William Marshal died three years later, and his son William obtained in 1230 a grant from the king by which his manor of Inkberrow was freed from the regard and view of the foresters. (fn. 37) The earl died in 1231, and his widow Eleanor daughter of King John (fn. 38) received permission from her brother Henry III to reside at Inkberrow Castle until the king should assign her dower of her husband's lands. (fn. 39) Richard Marshal, brother and successor of William, being a firm opponent of the king's foreign advisers, was proclaimed a traitor in 1233, (fn. 40) and the custody of Inkberrow Castle (then called domus) was given to Baldwin de Lisle. (fn. 41) In October of that year, however, the Sheriff of Worcester was ordered to convoke his whole county at Inkberrow, and to destroy the castle and cause the wood in the park to be sold for the king's use. (fn. 42) A grant of this manor or that of Begeworth, whichever he should select, was made in January 1234 to Morgan de Carleon. (fn. 43) Richard Earl of Pembroke died in Ireland in April of that year, (fn. 44) and the manor of Inkberrow was restored to his brother and successor Gilbert, (fn. 45) who seems to have remade the park there, as in 1234 he obtained a grant of ten does and five bucks from Feckenham Forest to stock it. (fn. 46) In the following year he was evidently building a residence, for the bailiffs of Feckenham were ordered to give him ten oaks from Werkwood to roof his houses at Inkberrow. (fn. 47) On his death in 1241 his brother Walter succeeded, but he died without issue four years later. (fn. 48) His widow Margaret (formerly wife of John de Lacy Earl of Lincoln) appears to have held the manor until her death in 1267. (fn. 49) Anselm, brother and heir of Walter Earl of Pembroke, died shortly after his brother, his heirs being his five sisters or their descendants. (fn. 50)


Marshal. Party or and vert a lion gules.

The manor of Inkberrow probably fell to the share of the youngest sister Joan wife of Warin Monchesney, and was forfeited by her son Sir William de Monchesney, for in 1274–5 it was in the possession of William de Valence, who had married Monchesney's sister Joan, and received in 1265 a grant of his brother-in-law's forfeited estates. (fn. 51) In 1274–5 William was accused of appropriating about 5 acres of common land in the manor, (fn. 52) and about the same time others of the co-heirs of the Earl of Pembroke claimed, and apparently obtained, certain rents and services in the manor. (fn. 53) In 1290 the steward of Feckenham was ordered to restore to William de Valence his wood pertaining to the manor of Inkberrow, (fn. 54) and two years later William obtained licence to inclose his fish stew and 80 acres around it to enlarge his park of Inkberrow. (fn. 55) He died in 1296, and a third of the manor was assigned to his widow Joan, (fn. 56) who held it until her death in 1307–8. (fn. 57)
Aymer de Valence Earl of Pembroke, her son and successor, died in 1324, (fn. 58) having previously in 1310 granted the manor to John de Hastings, (fn. 59) lord of Bergavenny, and the heirs of his body, with remainder to the earl, who retained a life interest in the estate. John de Hastings died in January 1324–5 holding the manor of Inkberrow, which then passed to his son Lawrence, a child of six. (fn. 60) The custody of the manor during his minority was granted in 1331 to the Bishop of Worcester, (fn. 61) and later to the Bishop of Winchester. (fn. 62) Lawrence proved his age in May 1341, (fn. 63) and held the manor until his death in 1348. (fn. 64) John, his son and successor, died in 1375, leaving a son John. (fn. 65) He died childless in 1389, being killed in a tournament at Woodstock. Disputes arose between his co-heirs as to the partition of his estate, (fn. 66) but the manor of Inkberrow appears to have been among the estates which with the lordship of Bergavenny had been settled by John Earl of Pembroke, father of the last earl, in default of his issue upon his cousin William de Beauchamp, his mother's sister's son. (fn. 67) Reginald Grey de Ruthyn was found to be cousin and heir of the whole blood to John Earl of Pembroke, and he and other claimants to the estate of the earl were dealing with the manor of Inkberrow in 1400–1, (fn. 68) but in 1428 it was in the possession of Joan Lady Bergavenny, widow of William de Beauchamp above mentioned, (fn. 69) and she held it until her death in 1435. (fn. 70) She was succeeded by her granddaughter Elizabeth, wife of Sir Edward Nevill, and the manor has since descended in the same family, (fn. 71) being now in the possession of William Nevill Marquess of Abergavenny.


Valence. Burelly argent and azure an orle of martlets gules.


Hastings. Argent a sleeve sable.

A survey of the manor was made in 1392, and the house appeared then to be in a ruinous state. There was a chapel outside the wall, built of stone and roofed with shingles and slate. (fn. 72)
The lord and tenants of Inkberrow enjoyed common pasture in the waste land of Stock in Fladbury, but about 1382 the Bishop of Worcester appropriated the waste of that manor and made no reservation of common for the tenants of Inkberrow, though he had common in Valence Wood or Kereford Wood in the manor of Inkberrow. (fn. 73

The manor of LITTLE INKBERROW was held of the manor of Fladbury in the 12th century, (fn. 74) and was so held until the beginning of the 14th century. (fn. 75) Before the end of that century the overlordship was vested in the lords of Great Inkberrow. (fn. 76)
The manor seems to have been held at an early date by the Beauchamps, for in the Domesday Book of the bishopric of Worcester compiled about 1182 William de Beauchamp held 5 hides in Little Inkberrow of the land of Hebrand of the manor of Fladbury, and under him they were held by Nicholas Oute. (fn. 77) In 1259 William Beauchamp of Elmley granted to John de Bereford for life a messuage and 2 carucates of land in Inkberrow at a rent of a sparrowhawk. (fn. 78) John in 1274–5 restored the estate to William's son, William de Beauchamp Earl of Warwick. (fn. 79) John, lord of Little Inkberrow, is mentioned in 1290, (fn. 80) and in 1298–9 William Davey (fn. 81) and John de Inkberrow were holding these 5 hides in 'Lesser Inkberrow and Davids Inkberrow,' probably as undertenants of the Beauchamps. (fn. 82) William Davey is doubtless to be identified with the William David or William de Inkberrow whose son Peter in 1304–5 recovered land in Inkberrow against John de Inkberrow and his son Philip. (fn. 83) In 1311–12 John de Inkberrow gave to Guy de Beauchamp Earl of Warwick a messuage and 2 carucates of land in Little Inkberrow, and all the tenement which Margery wife of Henry de Stoke held of him for her life. (fn. 84) Guy, who died seised of the manor of Little Inkberrow in 1315, seems to have obtained a confirmation of John's grant from his widow Agnes la Holylond of Worcester. (fn. 85) The manor then followed the same descent as Elmley Castle (fn. 86) (q.v.) and was granted by Thomas de Beauchamp, twelfth Earl of Warwick, about 1370 to Ralph de Tangelegh for life. (fn. 87) On the earl's forfeiture in 1396 the reversion of the manor passed to the Crown, (fn. 88) and was granted in 1398 to the king's nephew Thomas Duke of Surrey. (fn. 89)
In 1420–1 Sir Ralph Arderne died seised of the manor, (fn. 90) but it is not known how he acquired it. His son Robert succeeded, and from that time the manor followed the same descent as Pedmore (q.v.) until the death of Robert Arderne in 1643. (fn. 91) It was divided like Pedmore among his four co-heirs. (fn. 92) The quarter which fell to the share of Dorothy Bagot was sold in 1680 by Arderne Bagot to Nathaniel Tomkins, B.D., (fn. 93) and he probably acquired another quarter from one of the other co-heirs, for his widow Margaret Tomkins settled half the manor in 1711 on her son Pakington Tomkins. (fn. 94) George son of Pakington seems to have acquired the rest of the manor, as he was dealing with the whole in 1758. (fn. 95) He died unmarried ten years later, when his brother Thomas succeeded. (fn. 96) Pakington George Tomkins, LL.D., son of Thomas, sold it in 1791–2 to William Smith. (fn. 97) Thomas Smith conveyed the manor in 1819 to Daniel Winter Burbury and William Whateley, (fn. 98) but William Smith was still in possession later in the same year. (fn. 99) The further descent of the manor has not been traced.


Arderne. Ermine a fesse checky or and azure.

In 1382–3 it was presented at the manorial court that the lord of Inkberrow had waif and stray, outfangthef and infangthef throughout the demesne of Little Inkberrow. (fn. 100)
MORTON UNDERHILL (Morton-next-Inteberg, xiii cent.; Comynes Morton, xiv cent.; Mourton Underhill, xv cent.) was held of the manor of Great Inkberrow. (fn. 101)
In 1274–5 Henry de Bradlegh and Margery his wife (fn. 102) conveyed to Geoffrey del Park land in 'Holberwe Morton,' which Geoffrey was to hold of them at a rent of a clove gillyflower. (fn. 103) At the end of the 13th century the manor of Morton Underhill was held by Richard, lord of Morton, his surname not being given. (fn. 104) Early in the following century the manor passed to Thomas West, (fn. 105) who granted it for life to Roger Podde, (fn. 106) and sold it in 1334–5 to John Comyn and Joan his wife. (fn. 107) John Comyn presented to the chapel of Morton in 1338, (fn. 108) but died before 1346, when Philip Irreys held the manor. (fn. 109) Philip was perhaps the second husband of Joan Comyn, for she as Joan Comyn presented to the chapel in 1349, (fn. 110) and was succeeded before 1355 by John Comyn. (fn. 111) After his death towards the end of the 14th century the manor was divided between his four daughters, Millicent wife of William Aghton, and afterwards of Richard Massey, Ellen wife of James Dineley, Joan wife of John Farrington, and another whose name is not known. (fn. 112)
James Dineley and Ellen in 1408 conveyed their quarter of the manor to Roland Dineley. (fn. 113) Both this quarter and another seem to have passed to Robert Dineley, for in 1420 he and his wife Joan sold a moiety of the manor to Thomas Gower of Woodhall. (fn. 114) This moiety followed the same descent as Woodhall (fn. 115) (q.v.) in the Gower family (fn. 116) until 1628 when Woodhall was sold. Morton Underhill was retained by William Gower, who then took up his residence at Holdfast in Ripple, (fn. 117) and it passed under his will to his widow Anne. Conveyances of the manor made by his son William in 1647 and 1648 were probably connected with the fulfilment of this will. (fn. 118) The further descent of this moiety of the manor has not been traced.
John and Joan Farrington settled their quarter in 1402 upon themselves for life with remainder to their sons Christopher and Richard in tail-male. (fn. 119) Christopher and his wife Alice sold it in 1436 to Thomas Hugford. (fn. 120) John Hugford, who was probably son of Thomas, (fn. 121) died about 1485–6, leaving as his heirs his two daughters Alice and Anne, and his grandson John Beaufo, son of Joan, his eldest daughter. (fn. 122) The quarter of the manor eventually passed to John Beaufo, who died in 1516, and was succeeded by a son and grandson of the same name. (fn. 123) Thomas Beaufo, son of the last John, sold the manor in 1592 to Richard Gower. (fn. 124)
The descent of the remaining quarter of the manor has not been traced from the end of the 14th century until 1537, when it belonged to John Hyde and his wife Ellen. (fn. 125) It is possible, however, that this estate is referred to in a grant by the Crown in 1546 to Oliver Lawrence of land at Morton Underhill, 'parcel of the lands of Robert Bonhull, lord of the town of Morton Underhill,' seized by Henry VI because granted by the said Robert without licence to a certain chantry in that town. (fn. 126) John and Ellen Hyde sold it in 1543–4 to Richard Wagstaff and George Hunt, (fn. 127) who conveyed it in 1544 to William Gower. (fn. 128) This William was probably William Gower of Woodhall, to whom a moiety of the manor already belonged, but on his death this quarter, instead of passing with Woodhall to his eldest son John, probably passed to a younger son Richard, (fn. 129) who, as stated above, bought the other quarter of Thomas Beaufo. This moiety of the manor passed from Richard Gower to his son Edmund, (fn. 130) who sold it in 1612 to Thomas Ailworth. (fn. 131) In 1624–5 Thomas Ailworth and Edward and Thomas Ailworth, who were perhaps his sons, sold half the manor of Morton Underhill to Thomas Dyson. (fn. 132) Thomas Dyson, (fn. 133) or a descendant of the same name, was dealing with half the manor in 1685, (fn. 134) and it was perhaps this moiety which was conveyed in 1768 by Alexander Jesson and Jane Jesson, spinster, to Thomas Farrer. (fn. 135) The manor subsequently passed to the Cowley family, who held it for some 150 years. It is now the property of Mr. Charles Loxley, who bought it a few years ago from the Perks family. (fn. 136)
Oswald, Bishop of Worcester, granted a lease for three lives to the thegn Athelstan of land at THORNE (Thorndune, ix cent.; Torendune, xii cent.; Thorneden, Thorne, xvi cent.; Thorn, xix cent.) in 963. (fn. 137) This manor, which is not mentioned in the Domesday Survey, was held of the Bishop of Worcester as of the manor of Fladbury. (fn. 138)
It was held under the Bishops of Worcester from early times by members of the family of Marshal, John Marshal holding 3 hides of land there in the time of Henry II. (fn. 139) William Marshal held half a fee there early in the 13th century. (fn. 140) The Marshals' interest passed with Great Inkberrow Manor to the Earls of Pembroke, (fn. 141) and Thorne was held of that manor until the 16th century. (fn. 142)
The tenant under the lords of Great Inkberrow in the middle of the 13th century was perhaps Adam le Boteler, as he granted to the hospital of St. Wulfstan a load of corn annually at Thorne. (fn. 143) In a return of knights' fees belonging to the manor of Inkberrow taken in 1375–6 it is stated that James de Boys had held Thorne, and, as a James de Boys paid a subsidy of 4s. 6d. at Inkberrow in 1280, (fn. 144) he was probably holding Thorne at that time. Part of the manor passed before 1346 to Christine de Boys, for at that date she held it jointly with John Gerard, Nicholas Somery, Philip le Freeman and Geoffrey Colman. (fn. 145) The last-named had been dealing with land in Thorne in 1330–1, (fn. 146) and was evidently a descendant of Roger Colman, who paid a subsidy of 2s. 6d. at Inkberrow in 1280. (fn. 147) In 1357–8 Geoffrey Colman seems to have transferred his interest in the manor to Thomas son of John de Throckmorton. (fn. 148) In 1428 William Gerard and Edmund Crowley held half a fee in Thorne which John Gerard and his coparceners had held, (fn. 149) and John Gerard still held land at Thorne in 1431, (fn. 150) but at the same date John D'Abitot of Croome was said to be holding the manor of Thorne. (fn. 151)
Robert Russell died in 1493–4 seised of this manor, which then passed to his son Robert, (fn. 152) who died in 1502–3, leaving a son John. (fn. 153) He (then Sir John Russell) died in 1556, (fn. 154) and was succeeded by a son Sir Thomas. The manor then followed the same descent as Strensham (fn. 155) (q.v.) until the death of Sir Thomas Russell in 1633. (fn. 156) The further history of this manor has not been traced, but Prattinton records a sale of 'the manor or reputed manor of Thorn' in 1812. (fn. 157)


Russell of Strensham. Argent a cheveron between three crosslets fitchy sable.

The Throckmortons seem to have retained the interest in the manor acquired from Geoffrey Colman in 1357–8, for, though no deeds have been found relating to this part of the manor from that time until 1581, Sir Robert Throckmorton then died seised of the manor, (fn. 158) which followed the same descent as Throckmorton (fn. 159) until 1604–5, when it was sold by Thomas Throckmorton to Edward Turvey and John Surman. (fn. 160)

COOKHILL (Cochul, xiv cent.; Cokehill, xv cent.; Cockhilla, Cookehill, xvi cent.). About the middle of the 13th century Osbert D'Abitot held a knight's fee in Inkberrow and Croome under William de Beauchamp, who owed service for it to the Bishop of Worcester. (fn. 161) Osbert was still holding the estate, which then included land in Cookhill, in 1315–16. (fn. 162) Maud of Croome D'Abitôt, who was perhaps Osbert's widow, gave 2½ hides at Cookhill to the nuns of Cookhill, (fn. 163) who in 1346 held 'the half fee in Inkberrow which Osbert D'Abitot formerly held.' (fn. 164) The manor remained in the possession of Cookhill Priory until its dissolution about 1538, (fn. 165) when it passed to the Crown. It was granted in 1542 to Nicholas Fortescue, a member of the king's household, in tailmale. (fn. 166) He died in 1549 and was succeeded by his son William, (fn. 167) who died in 1605. (fn. 168) The latter's eldest son and successor, Nicholas Fortescue, had considerable difficulty in proving he was not concerned in the Gunpowder Plot, he being a zealous Roman Catholic and a near neighbour of the Winters and Catesbys, (fn. 169) and having a considerable quantity of armour in his house at Cookhill. (fn. 170) He was knighted in 1618–19 (fn. 171) and died in 1633, leaving a son and heir William. (fn. 172) John Fortescue son of William, who succeeded his father in 1649, (fn. 173) took an active part in the Civil War as a Royalist leader, (fn. 174) and was forced to compound for his estates in 1650 for £234 15s. 5d. (fn. 175) He took the 'oath of abjuration' on 20 March 1650. (fn. 176) In 1663 he petitioned for and obtained a grant of the remainder, in default of issue male of Nicholas Fortescue, vested in the Crown, of Cookhill Priory, 'long pertaining to his ancestors,' because 'he had suffered for his loyalty and had been active in promoting the Restoration.' (fn. 177) He died soon afterwards, and was succeeded by John, who disinherited his eldest son Nicholas, and dying in 1692 left the manor of Cookhill to his second son William. (fn. 178) On his death in 1706 he was succeeded by his only son John, (fn. 179) who died in 1758, leaving as his successor his son Captain John Fortescue. (fn. 180) He was followed in 1808 by his only son John Fortescue, (fn. 181) who was dealing with the manor of Cookhill in 1821 and 1823, (fn. 182) and sold it about that time. The purchaser was evidently Sir Thomas Cotton Sheppard, who sold it in 1829 to John Phillips. (fn. 183) He died in 1836, and his daughter Miss Phillips held it for life under the terms of his will. On her death in 1907 it passed under the above-mentioned will to Mr. Frederick Griffiths, who sold it in that year to Mr. Philip Antrobus, the present owner. (fn. 184)


Fortescue of Cookhill. Azure a bend engrailed argent between cotises or in a border gobony argent and azure.

Another estate at Cookhill held of the manor of Great Inkberrow, (fn. 185) sometimes known as the manor of Cookhill, belonged to the Russells of Thorne. It is mentioned for the first time in 1493–4 when Robert Russell died seised of the manor of or land in Cookhill. (fn. 186) It followed the same descent as Thorne until 1592–3, (fn. 187) when it is mentioned for the last time.

EDGIOCK (Eggoke, Egeoke, Edgeock, xvi cent.; Egioke, xvii cent.; Eiock, xviii cent.) is first mentioned in 1543–4, when Sir George Throckmorton mortgaged the so-called manor of Edgiock to John Legh of London. (fn. 188) In 1580 Sir John Throckmorton, sixth son of Sir George, (fn. 189) died seised of a capital messuage in Edgiock. (fn. 190) His son and heir Francis was attainted and executed for high treason in 1584, (fn. 191) and his possessions in Edgiock were granted to Thomas Combes in 1587. (fn. 192) William and John Combes sold them to John Edgiock, (fn. 193) whose family had long been settled at Edgiock. (fn. 194) John died in 1596, (fn. 195) and his son Sir Francis Edgiock (fn. 196) sold the manor in 1609 (fn. 197) to John Savage, who settled it in 1613 on his second son John. (fn. 198) John Savage the elder died in 1631, (fn. 199) and in 1634 John Savage the son settled the manor on his wife Mary daughter of Sir John Rous. (fn. 200) John died before 1656, and in November of that year his widow conveyed the manor to Sir Thomas Rous for a settlement on her daughter Hester and her husband Thomas Appletree. (fn. 201) On 1 March 1685 the latter's son John settled the manor on his wife Ann, with remainder to his sons Thomas, John and William. John gave the estate to his son Thomas on 10 March 1711. (fn. 202) The latter raised a mortgage for £1,450 on the manor in 1713 and died about 1728, when it was sold. (fn. 203) Francis Baber was probably the purchaser, as he made a conveyance of the manor in 1740. (fn. 204) On his death about twenty years later the manor was sold by Hugh Baber to Thomas Petty, (fn. 205) but the manorial rights have now fallen into abeyance.


Edgiock. Azure two cinqfoils in the chief and a fleur de lis in the foot all or.


Savage. Argent six lions sable.

George Louis Fawdrey of New End, Astwood Bank, Redditch, now owns the site of the old manorhouse, and the manor farm forms part of an estate belonging to University College, Oxford. (fn. 206)
The manor-house at Lower Edgiock was taken by the parish in 1787 and used as a workhouse. It was a half-timber building, and the last remains of it were demolished about 1890. (fn. 207)
Gilbert Marshal Earl of Pembroke held land in KNIGHTON (Cnitteton) at the time of his death in 1241, (fn. 208) and Robert de Wyneby held a knight's fee at Knighton of the lord of Great Inkberrow in 1375–6. (fn. 209) Later this estate must have reverted to the lords of Great Inkberrow, for in 1476 Sir Edward Nevill Lord Bergavenny died seised of the park of Knighton, parcel of the manor of Inkberrow. (fn. 210) The park still existed in the middle of the 17th century, (fn. 211) and was said in 1392 to contain 78 acres and to be stocked with deer. (fn. 212) An estate at Knighton is still held by the Marquess of Abergavenny, but Little Knighton Farm belongs to Mr. Philip Antrobus.
There was an old manor-house near Knighton, which was burnt down many years ago. The site can still be recognized by some stones, a well and some trees which must have been in the garden. Local tradition has called it the manor of CANK, and the site is so marked in the ordnance map, but in deeds belonging to Mr. Philip Antrobus, whose family has owned the property for many years, the estate is called Barrel's Manor. The present Barrel's Wood, adjoining Cank, is part of Lord Abergavenny's property. (fn. 213)
Land at Inkberrow, with the manor of Dormston, was conveyed in 1271–2 by Reginald de Imworth and his wife Maud to John de Bottelegh, who was to hold it at a rent of 10 marks. (fn. 214) In 1283–4 Maud widow of Reginald de Imworth sold this rent to Philip de Nevill. (fn. 215) It was possibly this estate or part of it which was given in 1328–9 by Robert de Okley to Richard de Hawkeslow and his wife Nichola. (fn. 216) From Richard and Nichola the estate passed to their three sons, Richard, William and John, in succession. (fn. 217) John was succeeded by a son Geoffrey, whose son Thomas was in 1405–6 in controversy with William Russell as to this estate. (fn. 218) Possibly it passed, like the manor of Hawkesley in King's Norton, to the Staffords, for an estate at Inkberrow was forfeited by Humphrey Stafford at the beginning of the reign of Henry VII, and granted with his other Worcestershire estates to John Pimpe and John Darell. (fn. 219) It then seems to have followed the same descent as Hawkesley in King's Norton (q.v.), and may have passed with it to the Middlemores, as land in Little Inkberrow was included in the marriage settlement of John Middlemore of Hawkesley when he married Amphillis daughter of John Goodwin in 1553. (fn. 220)
An estate at Inkberrow was held by the Mortimers. It probably originated in land and rent in the manor of Inkberrow assigned to Agatha wife of Hugh de Mortimer, as one of the co-heirs of Anselm Earl of Pembroke. (fn. 221) It was said in 1300–1 and 1398 to be held of the king in chief, (fn. 222) and in 1360–1 to be held of the Bishop of Worcester. (fn. 223) The estate is called a manor in 1300 and in 1405. In 1284–5 John de Mortimer and Geoffrey de Parco made an agreement by which the estate was to belong to Geoffrey for life, with reversion to John. (fn. 224) Maud de Mortimer died seised of this estate in 1300–1, when her son Edmund succeeded. (fn. 225) He died about four years later, (fn. 226) and this land was assigned to his widow Margaret, (fn. 227) who granted it for life to Thomas de Stokeslee. On the death of Thomas about 1359 the land was delivered to Roger de Mortimer Earl of March, as heir of Edmund Mortimer, (fn. 228) and it passed with the title of Earl of March until about 1414, when it is mentioned for the last time. (fn. 229)
A water-mill is mentioned in Inkberrow in 1307–8, (fn. 230) and by 1323 there were two water-mills and one windmill there (fn. 231) belonging to the lords of the manor. A windmill belonged to the manor of Little Inkberrow in the 14th century. (fn. 232) There is a ruined windmill at Holberrow Green, and another, which stood on a hill near the Mearse Farm in the lane leading to Cladswell, was pulled down quite recently.
The vicar of Inkberrow as early as 1375–6 held a manor at Inkberrow, for which he did the service of a quarter of a knight's fee to the lord of Great Inkberrow. (fn. 233) The glebe land belonging to the vicarage was valued at 24s. in 1535–6, (fn. 234) and a manor was still held by the vicar at the end of the 18th century. (fn. 235)

CHURCHES

The church of ST. PETER consists of a chancel 26½ ft. by 19½ ft., north chapel 15 ft. wide by about 19 ft. in length, nave 61½ ft. by 23½ ft., south transept opening out of the nave 19 ft. by 15 ft., north aisle 14 ft. wide, north porch, and western tower 14 ft. square; these measurements are all internal.
Evidence of a 12th-century building upon the site is seen in the south wall of the nave, which has a plinth of the extraordinary projection of 18 in. There is little doubt that the courses below the plinth-mould, where the wall is over 4 ft. thick, belong to the 12th century, the wall above having been thinned down when it was rebuilt in the 15th century. The earliest architectural feature of the church, with the exception of the north doorway, is the chancel, which replaced the former one about 1390. Its axis inclines to the north from that of the nave, and it had a vestry against the north wall. It is probable that the addition of a south transept was made about the same time, but of this only the arch opening into it remains, the rest having been rebuilt in 1780. The east jamb of this archway shows the thinning of the wall from 4 ft. at the floor level to about 2 ft. 10 in. at its upper part, and a straight joint outside at the thicker face shows the return of the nave wall, and points to the transept being a later addition. About 1420 the south wall of the nave was rebuilt and the tower added shortly after. Later in the century, about 1480, the north aisle and the north porch were built, the earlier (probably 13th-century) doorway being moved outwards with the wall. Early in the next century the aisle was extended eastwards over the site of the earlier vestry. The old foundations were retained, but as they were square with the chancel and not with the nave and aisle it became necessary to set the new walls askew on the older work. The east and the two angle buttresses of the aisle were re-used in the new east wall, and the place of the latter occupied by a buttress of different detail. A wide archway was opened into the chancel, and the wall north of the chancel arch was cut back on the slope. Beyond the rebuilding of the south transept, known locally as the Dormston chapel, in 1784, nothing else appears to have been done structurally until 1887, when the east and south walls of the chancel were rebuilt, the latter being moved a few inches outward; at the same time the chancel arch was reconstructed, using many of the old stones, while the north porch was rebuilt, a west gallery removed, and the tower archway opened out. The south and west doorways were also re-opened and other restoration work done to the walls and roofs, the roof of the chancel being entirely renewed.


Plan of Inkberrow Church

The three-light east window with the whole of the east wall is modern, but the north-east window has two lights in a square head of late 14th-century date. The 16th-century archway to the westward of it has a four-centred arch of two chamfered orders, the inner carried by shafts with moulded capitals.
The south-east window is of two lights under a traceried head of 15th-century character. The piscina and sedilia below the window, with the south priest's doorway, are practically modern. The sedilia contain one old stone, which suggested the design of the new work, while the jambs of the doorway at the ground level are original. The south-west window is like that at the north-east, but only the outer orders of the jambs and lintel are old. As stated above, the east and south walls are modern; the north wall is of uncoursed square ashlar with a moulded plinth. The open-timbered roof is modern.
The pointed arch spanning the south transept is of two chamfered orders, the inner of which springs from modern corbels on square jambs. The east window of the transept is a modern one of two trefoiled lights under a square head; the south window is poor, of three trefoiled lights under a three-centred head. There are three windows in the south wall of the nave, all of 15th-century date; each has three lights under a pointed traceried head. The doorway between the second and third window has modern jambs and an original four-centred head. The wall is divided externally into three bays by buttresses, of which the upper portions are new. The north arcade of the nave consists of four bays with large octagonal columns having moulded bases and capitals. The arches are two-centred and of two chamfered orders. The roof of the nave is comparatively modern and has a pointed barrel vault plastered between the timbers.


Inkberrow Church from the North-east

The chapel north of the chancel is lighted in its east and north walls by windows of four lights with traceried two-centred heads. In the east wall north of the window and partly obscured by an 18th-century monument is a shallow recess for a figure. The three north windows of the aisle are each of three lights and have two-centred heads with vertical tracery.
The north doorway is an earlier one re-used, with square jambs, continuous moulding, and a fourcentred rear arch. The west window of the aisle, which is of four lights, has been considerably restored. The buttresses of the aisle are all of two stages and are surmounted by pinnacles broken by grotesque beasts at the parapet string-course level and topped by crocketed finials. The second buttress from the east is, however, finished with a trefoiled gablet. The parapet is embattled with returned copings, and a moulded plinth is carried round the walls. The southern of the pair of buttresses against the west wall stands on a diagonal plinth, which can only be the base of a former nave angle buttress, removed when the aisle was added.
The roof is a modern flat one, but the corbels of the former 15th-century roof remain in position on both sides.
The north porch, which was rebuilt at the restoration, was of similar date and design to the aisle, with pinnacled buttresses and an embattled parapet. The outer archway is of modern stonework, with the exception of the label, which has carved human head stops. Over the doorway a diagonal pinnacle rises from a carved corbel in the string-course.
The tower is three stages high with two buttresses on each outer face, carried up to the third stage; the stair turret projects at the south-east corner. The archway to the nave has a pointed head of two chamfered orders and is closed by a modern screen. The west doorway, which is of original date, is of two moulded orders with a four-centred arch, and above it is a four-light traceried window. The second stage has small rectangular lights on its outer faces, and the third or bell-chamber is lit by two-light windows with four-centred heads in the north, west and south walls; the east window differs slightly from these. The parapet is embattled, with pinnacles at the angles, and is enriched with grotesque gargoyles at the level of the string-course, placed at the angles and near the centre of each side. The tower is ashlar-faced.
The font is apparently of early 13th-century date. It is square in plan, the bowl having vertical sides partly moulded, and hollowed on the lower edge. On each face are three circular carvings, all with varying flower patterns, except on the east side, where the second one bears the Agnus Dei. The hollow chamfer below is enriched with dog-tooth flowers. At the top of the font is the beginning of an inscription,
 EST HIC FON. . . . The stem is square and plain and the base has a roll and splay on its upper edge. The pulpit may be of 18th-century date, and there is some 17th-century oak panelling around the north chapel, which now serves as a vestry.
There are several fragments of 15th-century glass in the church, the largest being in the west window of the north aisle with figures of St. Catherine and another female saint (? St. Margaret) crowned and holding a staff. Other fragments remain in the east and south-west windows of this aisle.
There is a large altar tomb of painted white marble in the south-east corner of the transept to John Savage 'of Edgioke, who had by his three wives sixe sonnes and four daughters.' He died in 1631. On the base is his effigy in full armour; the hands and feet are missing. On the sides of the base were formerly the kneeling figures of the children, but these have been removed, and some of them are lying loose on the top of the canopy. The arched canopy rests on Corinthian columns and has Gothic cusping to the coffered soffit, and surmounting it are small figures representing 'Time,' 'Hope,' and 'Faith.' The tomb is evidently not in its original position and was formerly either standing entirely free or touching the wall at one end only. On the tomb are the arms of Savage. In the transept also is a small brass inscription to George third son of Sir Francis Edgiock of Shurnock Court, died 1638, and another 17th-century brass to William Willis, an old servant of Sir Francis. Another wall monument is to Frances wife of John Sheldon of Nobury, 1690.
In the floor are several 17th-century and later slabs and in the porch is a stone to Thomas Dyson, 1651.
The six bells in the tower were cast in 1868.
The communion plate consists of a silver cup of 1592 with a baluster stem and a cover (originally gilt), a silver cup of 1629, a stand paten of the same date, a salver paten with an indistinct hall-mark, but engraved with the date of 1665, and a flagon of 1851.
The registers (fn. 236) before 1812 are as follows : (i) baptisms and burials 1675 to 1778, marriages 1675 to 1754; (ii) baptisms and burials 1779 to 1812; (iii) marriages 1754 to 1792; (iv) marriages 1792 to 1812.
The district church of ST. PAUL at Cookhill is a well-built stone fabric of a simple Gothic design, consisting of a chancel with an organ chamber and vestry on the north side, a nave with a bell-turret on the west gable and a south porch. It was erected and consecrated in 1876, on a site given by the late Marquess of Hertford, as a chapel of ease to the church of St. Peter.

ADVOWSON

In 1086 there was a priest in the Bishop of Hereford's manor of Inkberrow. (fn. 237) Part of the tithes (fn. 238) were appropriated to a prebend in Hereford Cathedral. The advowson of both prebend and vicarage was apparently vested in the Bishops of Hereford until the manor passed in the 12th century to John Marshal; the advowson of the vicarage then passed to him, that of the prebend remaining with the Bishops of Hereford. (fn. 239) The prebend remained in the gift of the Bishop of Hereford at least as late as 1562. (fn. 240) The advowson of the vicarage has since followed the descent of the manor. (fn. 241)
In 1305 the vicar received a licence from the Bishop of Worcester to let his church to farm and make a journey to Rome. (fn. 242)
By his will, dated August 1558, Richard Moore, vicar of Inkberrow, bequeathed 'the rood loft as I bought' to the church of Inkberrow to be set up within the half-year or else sold and the money given to the poor. (fn. 243)
There was a chantry chapel dedicated to St. Blaise at Morton Underhill, the advowson of which belonged to the lords of the manor. (fn. 244) The first recorded presentation was made in 1298 (fn. 245) and the last in 1362. (fn. 246) It was probably to this chantry that Robert Bonhull granted land in Morton Underhill, without licence, the land being on that account seized by Henry VI. (fn. 247)
There is said to have been a chapel at Little Nobury in the 13th century, (fn. 248) but it was in ruins in the 17th century, when Habington wrote, 'it hath byn graced with a chapell, whose deade carckas is withered to Haye.' (fn. 249)
In 1357 Thomas Colman obtained licence to alienate a messuage and a carucate of land in Holberrow and elsewhere to a chaplain to celebrate divine service daily in the chapel of St. Catherine in the church of Inkberrow for the souls of various members of the Colman family. (fn. 250)
In 1720 the house of R. Windle in Inkberrow was licensed for Dissenting worship. (fn. 251) A Baptist chapel was built there in 1861, and another at Cookhill was built in 1841. A Methodist chapel existed at Stock Wood in 1868. (fn. 252) It is now converted into a dwelling-house.


CHARITIES

The parochial charities are regulated by a scheme of the Charity Commissioners 19 February 1886.

They comprise the charities of :—
1. The Poor's Land, including the charities of the Conway family; Walter Smith, will, 1729; Mrs. Sarah Roper, will, 1782, and others. The trust estate consists of 51 a. 2 r. 12 p., situate in Knowlefield in this parish, awarded on the inclosure in 1818, let at £30 a year.
2. The Rev. — Vaughan.— Mentioned in the Parliamentary Returns of 1786, consisting of a rentcharge of 20s. issuing out of a farm called Morton Underhill.
3. Moses and Alice Mansell.—Founded in 1672, mentioned in the same returns and on the benefaction table, consisting of an annuity of 20s. issuing out of an estate at Cookhill.
4. John Phillips.—Mentioned in the same Returns, being an annuity of 20s. issuing out of the Pinhill Estate.
5. John Hobbins, by will 1735, gave 20s. a year charged on a close called Brook Meadow End at Great Alne, county of Warwick.
6. Daniel George, will proved at Worcester 8 November 1851, trust fund, £107 10s. 6d. consols.
7. Richard Adcock, jun.—Gift in 1861; trust fund, £53 15s. 4d. consols.
The sums of stock are held by the official trustees, producing together £4 0s. 4d. yearly. The net income was in 1909–10 distributed as to £8 15s. in bread, £12 15s. in coal, £1 4s. in widows' gowns and the remainder added to the coal and clothing clubs.
In 1851 Robert Hunt by deed gave £100 upon trust that the income should be distributed on St. Thomas's Day among the poor residing within Inkberrow and Morton Limit in bread, meat, fuel and clothing. The principal sum was invested in £107 13s. 5d. consols, held by the official trustees, producing £2 13s. 8d. yearly, which is distributed in half-crowns.
The church lands now consist of 40 a. 0 r. 30 p., allotted on the inclosure in 1818 in respect of other lands. There are no deeds showing the origin and trusts of the original lands, but in a terrier dated 1749 they are stated to have been given 'for the repairs and beautifying of the parish church.' The land is let at £30 a year.
In 1899 Lilla Haynes by her will devised certain real estate for the support of the Baptist chapel. The property was sold in 1901 and the proceeds invested in £268 9s. 8d. Birmingham Corporation 3 per cent. stock with the official trustees, producing £8 1s. yearly.

Footnotes

1

Of which 4 acres are covered by water.

2

Statistics from Bd. of Agric. (1905).

3

V.C.H. Worcs. i, 16.

4

V.C.H. Worcs. i, 213.

5

Charles I is said to have slept in the vicarage at Inkberrow on 10 May 1645 (Symonds's Diary [Camden Soc.], 166). An old book of maps left behind on that occasion is still preserved.

6

Walter's account of the voyage of the Centurion does not mention Fortescue's name.

7

In the 13th century William de Twyford gave to William Molyns 18d. rent from land called 'Ehgisht' in Cladswell (Prattinton Coll. [Soc. Antiq.], Deeds of D. and C. of Worc. no. 282).

8

Nobury seems at one time to have been a place of some importance, and is perhaps to be identified with the 'Neubir' where William de Valence had a liberty, to which he attached the men of Morton, Shell and Witton, about the middle of the 13th century (Hund. R. [Rec. Com.], ii, 284). The Zouches held land at Nobury, which probably passed to them about 1276, when Millicent wife of Eudo le Zouche obtained certain land in Inkberrow as co-heir of Eva de Braose, one of the co-heirs of Anselm Earl of Pembroke (Abbrev. Plac. [Rec. Com.], 266; see also Chan. Inq. p.m. 5 Ric. II, no. 62; 19 Ric. II, no. 52; 3 Hen. V, no. 46). In Habington's time (17th century) Lord Bergavenny was lord of the manor of Nobury, but the house was inhabited by the Savages (op. cit. ii, 144).

9

V.C.H. Worcs. i, 219.

10

Priv. Act, 54 Geo. III, cap. 5.

11

Blue Bk. Incl. Awards, 190.

12

Felons were hung at Tokene Ok in the 14th century (Ct. R. [Gen. Ser.], portf. 210, no. 46).

13

Rentals and Surv. (Duchy of Lanc.), bdle. 14, no. 3.

14

Birch, Cart. Sax. i, 356.

15

Birch, op. cit. i, 356; Heming, Chartul. (ed. Hearne), 16, 17.

16

Heming, op. cit. 17, 19; Birch, op. cit. i, 427.

17

Heming, op. cit. 19.

18

Heming, op. cit. 185.

19

Ibid. 186.

20

V.C.H. Worcs. i, 289b.

21

Ibid. 299a.

22

Ibid.

23

Habington, op. cit. i, 226, 228.

24

Ibid. 229; Reg. G. Giffard (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), 351; Red Bk. of Bishopric of Worc. (Eccl. Com. Rec. Var. bdle. 121, no. 43698), fol. 69.

25

Chan. Inq. p.m. 17 Edw. II, no. 75, m. 56.

26

Habington, op. cit. i, 226.

27

Cal. Pat. 1247–58, p. 259.

28

Ibid.

29

Ibid. 1354–8, p. 197.

30

Chan. Inq. p.m. 17 Edw. II, no. 75, m. 56; Cal. Inq. p.m. 10–20 Edw. II, 387.

31

Chan. Inq. p.m. 21 Ric, II, no. 2.

32

Ibid. 1 Edw. II, no. 58.

33

Ibid. 14 Hen. VI, no. 35.

34

Ibid. 16 Edw. IV, no. 66.

35

G.E.C. Complete Peerage, vi, 200.

36

Rot. Lit. Claus. (Rec. Com.), i, 280b.

37

Cart. Antiq. QQ. 6; Cal. Chart. R. 1226–57, p. 113.

38

She afterwards married Simon de Montfort Earl of Leicester.

39

Cal. Close, 1227–31, p. 492. Gilbert Marshal Earl of Pembroke, then lord of Inkberrow, assigned her the issues of the manor in 1235 (Cal. Pat. 1232–47, p. 125).

40

G.E.C. Complete Peerage, vi, 201.

41

Cal. Close, 1231–4, p. 253.

42

Ibid. 543. The castle was probably only an earthwork with wooden defences, and was so completely destroyed that its site is not now known.

43

Cal. Pat. 1232–47, p. 36.

44

G.E.C. op. cit. vi, 201.

45

Ibid. 202.

46

Cal. Close, 1231–4, p. 518.

47

Ibid. 1234–7, p. 144.

48

G.E.C. op. cit. vi, 203.

49

Ibid.; Cal. Inq. p.m. Hen. III, 149.

50

G.E.C. loc. cit.

51

Ibid. 205. William restored Monchesney's estates some two years later, but must have retained Inkberrow.

52

Assize R. 1026, m. 47.

53

Abbrev. Plac. (Rec. Com.), 189, 192, 196, 266. In 1297–8 the manor of Great Inkberrow was held by Joan de Valence, Agatha de Mortimer and Milicent de Monhaut (Add. MS. 28024, fol. 148). The last two were descended from Sibyl de Ferrers and Eva de Braose respectively, two of the sisters of Anselm Marshal.

54

Cal. Close, 1288–96, p. 74.

55

Cal. Pat. 1281–92, p. 465.

56

Cal. Close, 1296–1302, p. 3.

57

Chan. Inq. p.m. 1 Edw. II, no. 58.

58

Ibid. 17 Edw. II, no. 75, m. 56.

59

John was a nephew of Aymer de Valence, being the son of his sister Isabel (G.E.C. op. cit. vi, 209).

60

Chan. Inq. p.m. 18 Edw. II, no. 83, m. 21.

61

Cal. Pat. 1330 4, p. 106.

62

Cal. Close, 1339–41, p. 66.

63

Ibid. 1341–3, p. 77.

64

Feud. Aids, v, 308; Cal. Pat. 1348–50, p. 239.

65

Chan. Inq. p.m. 49 Edw. III, pt. i, no. 70.

66

Ibid. 14 Ric. II, no. 134; 15 Ric. II, pt. ii, no. 179.

67

G.E.C. op. cit. vi, 211 n.; see also Chan. Inq. p.m. 49 Edw. III, pt. i, no. 70; Close, 11 Ric. II, m. 16, 29 d.

68

Feet of F. Div. Co. Mich. 2 Hen. IV. In 1397 Richard Earl of Arundel died holding a third of the manor of Inkberrow in right of his wife Philippa, widow of John de Hastings, the last earl (Chan. Inq. p.m. 21 Ric. II, no. 2).

69

Feud. Aids, v, 320.

70

Chan. Inq. p.m. 14 Hen. VI, no. 35.

71

Ibid. 16 Edw. IV, no. 66; (Ser. 2), cccxcix, 157.

72

Rentals and Surv. (Duchy of Lanc.), bdle. 14, no. 3.

73

Ct. R. (Gen. Ser.), portf. 210, no. 46.

74

Habington, op. cit. i, 226; Red Bk. of Bishopric of Worc. fol. 69 et seq.

75

Habington, op. cit. i, 228.

76

Chan. Inq. p.m. 49 Edw. III, pt. i, no. 70; 8 Hen. V, no. 85; Exch. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), file 1183, no. 7. In the Red Book of the Bishopric of Worcester there is a memorandum (c. 1288) that John de Inkberrow held Little Inkberrow of Henry de Mortimer, son of Agatha de Mortimer, one of the co-heirs of Walter Marshal Earl of Pembroke (fol. 80).

77

Habington, op. cit. i, 226; Red Bk. of Bishopric of Worc. fol. 81, 252.

78

Feet of F. Worcs. 44 Hen. III, no. 11; Add. MS. 28024, fol. 121.

79

Add. MS. 28024, fol. 121.

80

Cal. Fine R. 1272–1307, p. 281.

81

William David paid a subsidy of 3s. at Inkberrow in 1280 (Lay Subs. R. Worcs. 1280 [Worcs. Hist. Soc.], 34).

82

Habington, op. cit. i, 228.

83

Abbrev. Rot. Orig. (Rec. Com.), i, 145b.

84

Add. MS. 28024, fol. 121 d.

85

Cal. Inq. p.m. 1–9 Edw. II, 410, 411.

86

In 1369–70 Thomas Colman was paying a rent of 10 marks a year for the manor of Little Inkberrow (Close, 43 Edw. III, m. 8).

87

Ibid. 46 Edw. III, m. 15d.

88

Mins. Accts. bdle. 1123, no. 5.

89

Cal. Pat. 1396–9, p. 336.

90

Chan. Inq. p.m. 8 Hen. V, no. 85.

91

For references see Pedmore. Little Inkberrow Manor never belonged to Thomas Arderne, having been settled by his father John, who died in 1525, upon William son of Thomas (Exch. Inq. p.m. file 1183, no. 7; Chan. Inq. p.m. [Ser. 2], lxxxv, 75).

92

Feet of F. Worcs. Trin. 1645; Mich. 1658; East. 31 Chas. II; East. 32 Chas. II; Div. Co. East. 1651; Trin. 12 Chas. II.

93

Feet of F. Worcs. East. 32 Chas. II; Recov. R. Mich. 32 Chas. II, rot. 46.

94

Recov. R. D. Enr. Hil. to Anne, m. 10; Duncumb, Hist. of Heref. ii, 73.

95

Recov. R. Trin. 31 Geo. II, rot. 162.

96

Duncumb, loc. cit.

97

Ibid.; Feet of F. Worcs. East. 32 Geo. III.

98

Feet of F. Worcs. Mich. 59 & 60 Geo. III.

99

Recov. R. Mich. 60 Geo. III, rot. 164.

100

Ct. R. (Gen. Ser.), portf. 210, no. 46.

101

Chan. Inq. p.m. 21 Ric. II, no. 2; 14 Hen. VI, no. 35; Exch. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), file 1183, no. 5.

102

The nuns of Cookhill received land at Morton Underhill by gift of Robert son of Odo before 1288 (V.C.H. Worcs. ii, 157). They retained this land until the Dissolution (Valor Eccl. [Rec. Com.], iii, 262), and it was granted with the site of the priory to Nicholas Fortescue (see Cookhill).

103

Feet of F. Worcs. 3 Edw. I, no. 28.

104

Reg. G. Giffard (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), 507, 525, 526; Prattinton Coll. (Soc. Antiq.), Deeds of D. and C. of Worc. no. 44. Gilbert de Morton and Robert de Morton were returned as former owners of the manor in inquisitions as to knights' fees belonging to the manor of Inkberrow in 1397 and 1435 (Chan. Inq. p.m. 21 Ric. II, no. 2; 14 Hen. VI, no. 35).

105

Worc. Epis. Reg. Cobham (1317–27), fol. 34.

106

Ibid. fol. 114 d.

107

Feet of F. Worcs. 8 Edw. III, no. 12.

108

Worc. Epis. Reg. Hemenhale (1337–8), fol. 20 d.

109

Feud. Aids, v, 303.

110

Sede Vacante Reg. (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), 237.

111

Worc. Epis. Reg. Brian (1352–61), xi, fol. 15 d., 21; Barnet, xii, fol. 5 d.

112

Dugdale, Hist. of Warw. 368.

113

Feet of F. Div. Co. East. 9 Hen. IV.

114

Ibid. Trin. 8 Hen. V.

115

In the parish of Norton by Kempsey.

116

Exch. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), file 1183, no. 5; Feet of F. Worcs. East. 16 Eliz.; Div. Co. Eart. 19 Eliz.; East. 4 Jas. I; Mich. 14 Jas. I; East. 19 Jas. I.

117

Inform. from Mr. R. Vaughan Gower. This moiety of the manor was then in the tenure of Thomas Dyson.

118

Feet of F. Worcs. Trin. 23 Chas. I; Notes of F. Worcs. Trin. 24 Chas. I.

119

Feet of F. Div. Co. Mich. 4 Hen. IV.

120

Ibid. Trin. 14 Hen. VI.

121

Visit. of Warw. (Harl. Soc. xii), 337.

122

Cal. Inq. p.m. Hen. VII, i, 54.

123

Visit. of Warw. (Harl. Soc. xii), 203.

124

Feet of F. Worcs. East. 34 Eliz.

125

Ibid. Mich. 29 Hen. VIII.

126

a L. and P. Hen. VIII, xxi (1), g. 302 (64).

127

Feet of F. Worcs. Hil. 35 Hen. VIII.

128

Ibid. Mich. 36 Hen. VIII.

129

Visit. of Worcs. (Harl. Soc. xxvii), 60.

130

Ibid.

131

Feet of F. Worcs. Trin. 10 Jas. I. Eleanor sister of Richard Gower had married Richard Ailworth (Visit. of Worcs. [Harl. Soc. xxvii], 60).

132

Feet of F. Worcs. Hil. 22 Jas. I.

133

a A Thomas Dyson died 1651 (see M.I. in porch of Inkberrow Church).

134

Recov. R. East. 1 Jas. II, rot. 43.

135

Feet of F. Worcs. Hil. 8 Geo. III.

136

Information supplied by Rev. Canon John J. Burton.

137

Birch, op. cit. iii, 343.

138

Habington, op. cit. i, 226; Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 41 b.

139

Habington, op. cit. i, 226; Red Bk. of Bishopric of Worc. fol. 81.

140

Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 41 b.

141

Habington, op. cit. i, 228.

142

Cal. Inq. p.m. Hen. VII, i, 381; Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), xvi, 11.

143

Cal. Bodleian Chart. 593.

144

Lay Subs. R. Worcs. 1280 (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), 34.

145

Feud. Aids, v, 309.

146

Sir T. Phillipps, Index to Worcs. Fines, 1.

147

Lay Subs. R. Worcs. 1280 (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), 34. Various members of this family paid subsidy in 1327 (ibid. 1327 [Worcs. Hist. Soc.], 34).

148

Sir T. Phillipps, op. cit. 6. The further descent of this part of the manor will be found below.

149

Feud. Aids, v, 320.

150

Ibid. 334.

151

Ibid. 333.

152

Cal. Inq. p.m. Hen. VII, i, 381.

153

Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), xvi, 11.

154

Exch. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), file 1203, no. 1.

155

W. and L. Inq. p.m. xv, 109; Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccxli, 126; ccxxxix, 124.

156

Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cccclxxxviii, 97.

157

Prattinton Coll. (Soc. Antiq.).

158

Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cxciii, 89.

159

Ibid. ccclxvii, 100.

160

Feet of F. Worcs. Hil. 2 Jas. I.

161

Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 41b.

162

Chan. Inq. p.m. file 71, no. 53 (9 Edw. II).

163

V.C.H. Worcs. ii, 157.

164

Feud. Aids, v, 307.

165

Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), iii, 262.

166

L. and P. Hen. VIII, xvii, g. 556 (1); xvi, p. 728; Pat. 34 Hen. VIII, pt. i, m. 22.

167

Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), xcii, 112.

168

Ibid. ccc, 183.

169

See Huddington.

170

Dict. Nat. Biog.; Cal. S. P. Dom. 1603–10, p. 253.

171

Shaw, Knights of Engl. ii, 71.

172

Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), dlv, 86.

173

Thomas, Lord Clermont, Works of Sir John Fortescue, ii, 19.

174

Ibid. 21.

175

Cal. Com. for Comp. 2217.

176

Ibid.

177

Cal. S. P. Dom. 1663–4, pp. 49, 75; Pat. 15 Chas. II, pt. ix, no. 3.

178

Thomas, Lord Clermont, op. cit. ii, 22.

179

Ibid.; Recov. R. Hil. 6 Geo. I, rot. 120; East. 23 Geo. II, rot. 256; Feet of F. Worcs. East. 23 Geo. II.

180

Clermont, loc. cit.; Recov. R. Hil. 20 Geo. III, rot. 150; Trin. 27 Geo. III, rot. 157; see above under Cookhill Chapel.

181

Clermont, loc. cit.

182

Recov. R. Trin. 2 Geo. IV, rot. 29; Feet of F. Worcs. Hil. 3 & 4 Geo. IV.

183

Feet of F. Worcs. Mich. 9 Geo. IV.

184

Information from T. C. Hyde & Sons, solicitors, Worcester.

185

Cal. Inq. p.m. Hen. VII, i, 381.

186

Ibid.

187

W. and L. Inq. p.m. xv, 109; Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccxli, 126; ccxxxix, 124.

188

Close, 35 Hen. VIII, pt. vi, no. 10.

189

Dugdale, Hist. of Warw. 749; and see Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccclxvii, 100.

190

Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cxci, 114.

191

Dict. Nat. Biog.

192

See Pat. 30 Eliz. pt. xv, m. 31.

193

Prattinton Coll. (Soc. Antiq.).

194

John de Edgiock paid a subsidy of 20d. at Inkberrow in 1327 (Lay Subs. R. Worcs. 1327 [Worcs. Hist. Soc.], 34), and Habington mentions a Thomas Edgiock of Inkberrow who flourished in 1468 (op. cit. ii, 139). Edward Edgiock was succeeded in lands at Edgiock by his son Thomas early in the 16th century (Early Chan. Proc. bdle. 305, no. 27). A pedigree of the family is given in Visit. of Worcs. 1569 (Harl. Soc. xxvii), 52.

195

M. I. in Inkberrow Church, quoted by Habington, op. cit. i, 314.

196

Visit. of Worcs. 1569 (Harl. Soc. xxvii), 52. It is probably this Francis whose death in 1622 is recorded on a mural tablet in the north aisle of the church of St. Margaret, Westminster.

197

Pat. 7 Jas. I, pt. xxiii, no. 5.

198

Prattinton Coll. (Soc. Antiq.).

199

Monument in Inkberrow Church.

200

Prattinton Coll. (Soc. Antiq.).

201

Recov. R. D. Enr. Mich. 1656, m. 10 d.; see also original deed in Prattinton Coll.

202

Thomas Appletree was dealing with the manor in 1703 (Recov. R. Hil. 2 Anne, rot. 29).

203

Prattinton Coll. (Soc. Antiq.).

204

Feet of F. Div. Co. Trin. 13 & 14 Geo. II.

205

'Hist. of Inkberrow,' Assoc. Archit. Soc. Trans. xxvi, 473.

206

Information supplied by Rev. Canon John J. Burton.

207

'Hist. of Inkberrow,' &c., 474.

208

Cal. Close, 1237–42, p. 351.

209

Chan. Inq. p.m. 49 Edw. III, pt. i, no. 70.

210

Ibid. 16 Edw. IV, no. 66.

211

Habington, op. cit. ii, 144.

212

Rentals and Surv. (Duchy of Lanc.), bdle. 14, no. 3.

213

a Inform. from Rev. Canon J. J. Burton.

214

Feet of F. Worcs. 56 Hen. III, no. 39.

215

Ibid. 12 Edw. I, no. 6.

216

Sir T. Phillipps, Index to Worcs. Fines, 1.

217

Wrottesley, Ped. from Plea R. 241.

218

Ibid.

219

Pat. 2 Hen. VII, pt. i.

220

Phillimore, Account of Middlemore Family, 179.

221

Abbrev. Plac. (Rec. Com.), 192.

222

Chan. Inq. p.m. 29 Edw. I, no. 53; 22 Ric. II, no. 34.

223

Ibid. 34 Edw. III (1st nos.), no. 86.

224

Feet of F. Worcs. East. 13 Edw. I.

225

Chan. Inq. p.m. 29 Edw. I, no. 53.

226

Ibid. 32 Edw. I, no. 63a.

227

Cal. Close, 1302–7, p. 176.

228

Ibid. 1354–60, p. 553.

229

Chan. Inq. p.m. 34 Edw. III (1st nos.), no. 86; 5 Ric. II, no. 43; 22 Ric. II, no. 34; Cal. Pat. 1405–8, p. 101; Mins. Accts. bdles. 1069, no. 6; 1236, no. 5.

230

Chan. Inq. p.m. 1 Edw. II, no. 58.

231

Ibid. 17 Edw. II, no. 75, m. 56; 18 Edw. II, no. 83, m. 21.

232

Ibid. 9 Edw. II, no. 71.

233

Ibid. 49 Edw. III, pt. i, no. 70.

234

Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), iii, 267.

235

Nash, op. cit. ii, 9. The Diocesan records at Worcester contain a complete list of vicars of Inkberrow from 1268 to the present time.

236

Many 17th-century entries of much earlier date will be found among the Bishops' Transcripts.

237

V.C.H. Worcs. i, 289b.

238

The tithes were divided about equally between the prebend and the vicar (Nash, op. cit. ii, 9). The property of the prebend was sold about 1856 (Lond. Gaz. 11 Nov. 1856, p. 3655), and the Dean and Chapter of Hereford were impropriators of the tithes in 1868 (Noake, Guide to Worcs.), 208.

239

Cal. Pat. 1247–58, p. 259; Worc. Epis. Reg. Cobham (1317–27), fol. 13; Nash, op. cit. ii, 9; Reg. G. Giffard (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), 55, 447.

240

Anct. D. (P.R.O.), A 12477.

241

Reg. G. Giffard (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), 4, 152, 277; Cal. Pat. 1338–40, p. 2; Inst. Bks. (P.R.O.); Cal. S. P. Dom. 1635–6, p. 408. In 1625 Henry Lord Bergavenny demised to Edward Bawtre the advowson of Inkberrow for forty years. In 1636 Bawtre assigned the remainder of the lease to Sir John Lambe.

242

Reg. W. Ginsborough (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), 116.

243

'Hist. of Inkberrow,' Assoc. Archit. Soc. Trans. xxvi, 496.

244

Reg. G. Giffard (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), 507, 525, 526; Worc. Epis. Reg. Cobham (1317–27), fol. 34, 114 d.; Montacute (1333–7), fol. 14, 16 d.; Hemenhale (1337–8), fol. 20 d.; Brian (1352–61), xi, fol. 15 d., 21; Sede Vacante Reg. (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), 237.

245

Reg. G. Giffard (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), 507.

246

Worc. Epis. Reg. Barnet, xii, 5 d.

247

a L. and P. Hen. VIII, xxi (1), g. 302 (64).

248

Noake, op. cit. 207.

249

Prattinton Coll. (Soc. Antiq.).

250

Cal. Pat. 1354–8, p. 574; Inq. a.q.d. file 326, no. 12.

251

Noake, op. cit. 208.

252

Ibid.





 

6.     BRITISH HISTORY ONLINE Extracts

http://www.british-history.ac.uk/



CROPTHORNE

Cropponthorne, Croppethorne (viii cent.); Croppanhorne (ix cent.); Croppethorne (xii cent.).

The parish of Cropthorne lies in the south-east of the county and is bounded on the north by the Avon and a stream called Merry Brook, the latter also forming the greater portion of the eastern boundary of the parish and flowing into the Avon on its left bank. (fn. 1)
The area of the parish of Cropthorne, excluding Charlton and Netherton, is 1,538 acres, (fn. 2) of which 777 acres are arable land, 515 acres are permanent grass, and 23 acres are wood. (fn. 3) The soil is light and sandy in some parts, in others it is stiff clay; the subsoil is sand, gravel, clay and blue limestone. The north of the parish lies in the valley of the Avon, but to the south the land rises, reaching a height of 200 ft. at Haselor Hill in the south of Charlton. The chief crops are wheat, beans and barley, but much of the land in the parish is used for market gardening.
Cropthorne village, which lies in the valley of the Avon, is extremely picturesque and contains many interesting examples of half-timber work. The church stands at the eastern end of the village and in the churchyard are the remains of a stone cross. Adjoining it on the north-east are the grounds of Cropthorne Court, an 18th-century house, with later additions, which possesses no features of architectural interest. The manor-house, which is on the west side of the churchyard, is a good brick house of the 18th century. Upon the same side of the road a little further to the west is a small two-storied cottage of half-timber with a thatched roof, which is probably 14th-century work, the framing being of quite an early type. On the opposite side of the road, near the modern schools and parish room, is a good half-timber house, now divided into cottages, which is probably of similar date. Here, too, the roof is thatched. Near this spot, which is about the middle of the village, upon a blind lane leading northwards, is an interesting small two-storied house of the early 17th century. It is of half-timber, L-shaped on plan, and stands upon a basement course of stone. A triple chimney stack of the same material rises from the centre of the ridge roof of the main block. A weather-mould of typical section follows the slope of the roof on either side of the ridge, having at the apex a simple circular finial. The stacks are crowned by a small cornice of the same section as the weather-mould. Above this is one course of stone crowned by later brickwork. The gabled end of the projecting wing has been refaced with brick, probably towards the latter part of the 17th century, when the small stone-mullioned windows of this portion were inserted. A small barn near the house has framing of the same type, and is probably contemporary with it. The main street slopes sharply to the westward, and at the foot of the hill, where it turns to the south to join the Worcester road, is a fine half-timber farm-house. The earlier part of the building appears to have been of an L-shaped plan, and is certainly of a date anterior to the 16th century. Early in the 17th century a second wing was added at the opposite end to the original wing, by which the type of plan has been transformed. The ground story walls of this addition are of stone with mullioned windows. Externally the whole has been covered with rough-cast, including the half-timbered upper story, which has had wood-mullioned windows inserted to match those of the ground story. In a large upper room, now cut up by modern partitions, is a stone fireplace with a straight-sided four-centred head and jambs of stone. Elsewhere the older open fireplaces have been built up and small modern grates take their place. The original stairs remain in this wing.


Half-timber Cottage in Cropthorne Village

Charlton, which comprises the eastern portion of the ancient parish of Cropthorne, was formed into a separate ecclesiastical parish in 1882, (fn. 4) and has an area of 1,599 acres, of which 17 acres are covered by water, 917 acres are arable land, 678¾ acres permanent grass and 5 acres woodland. (fn. 5)
The village or hamlet of Charlton lies about a mile to the east of Cropthorne proper, and is situated on both banks of Merry Brook. The osier-bordered stream which runs down the centre of the street imparts a quaint and unusual air. Some of the cottages are half-timbered. Charlton House is a brick mansion of the latter half of the 17th century, containing no features of extraordinary interest. There is a square stone pigeon house, much restored. At the entrance of the drive are fine stone gate-piers.
Netherton, which includes the southern part of the parish of Cropthorne, was annexed to the parish of Elmley Castle for ecclesiastical purposes in 1864. (fn. 6)
Near Chapel Farm in Netherton, now forming part of the out-buildings and in a lamentable state of ruin, are the remains of a mid-12th-century chapel. The building consisted of a chancel measuring internally about 16 ft. by 13 ft. and a nave about 44 ft. by 15 ft. The walls are of rubble masonry about 2½ ft. thick. At some period early in the 17th century the chapel was converted into a dwelling-house and a floor was inserted which has since disappeared, though the pockets for the joists are clearly to be seen on the inside of the nave walls. At the same time a chimney stack containing one fireplace for each floor was built into the west wall of the nave and a wing was built out on the north side of the nave. The north wall has been cut away for this purpose immediately to the east of the north doorway, and made good again with fragments of 12th-century moulded stones. The stone paving of this wing is still in situ.
Two square-headed windows in the south wall of the chancel, now blocked, appear also to belong to the 17th-century alterations. The east window, which is a single light with a cusped head and ribbed rear arch, is probably a late 13th-century insertion. Between the two square-headed windows in the south wall above referred to is a very early 13th-century lancet, with external rebates for shutters. The accompanying illustration, taken from a photograph of four years ago, shows a similar window in the north wall, but this portion has since fallen. A broken fragment of masonry shows the position of the west wall of the chancel, and there are the remains of a buttress at this point on the south wall. The corresponding portion of the wall on the north side is gone. (fn. 7) The north doorway of the nave, now blocked, is a beautiful specimen of late Norman work. The arch, which springs from keeled jamb shafts with delicately carved capitals, is of two orders externally, the outer enriched with the cheveron and lozenge, each lozenge inclosing a sculptured leaf or flower. More than half the stones of the western limb of the arch have fallen out, and the jamb shaft on this side has disappeared. The inner order is also enriched. The doorway itself had a square head, and the tympanum, carved with a wyvern, is now lying in a stable hard by. The rear arch is enriched with a double cheveron. In the eastern half of the south wall the jambs of two original windows may be traced. The blocked south doorway seems to have been of the same character as that on the north, but only the external jambs of its inner order remain, and these seem to have been reset. To the west of this, apparently reset in the blocking of a 17th-century window, is a plain narrow round-headed light, the head formed of a single stone, which may be a survival from a smaller and earlier chapel.
The west wall is now partly occupied by the stone fireplaces added in the 17th century, the chimney stack projecting externally. At the south-west is an angle buttress, probably of the 15th century. What remains of the roofing of the chancel appears to be of the same date. The wall-plates are moulded. Of the two remaining trusses, the eastern, or wall, truss is of the simple tie-beam and collar construction. The western truss has the collar stiffened by curved braces forming a two-centred arch. The roofing of the western portion of the nave, which is otherwise roofless, is modern. In the wall of a neighbouring stable is a reset small round-headed light of the 12th century.
The road from Pershore to Evesham runs through the parish from west to east, and from it at a short distance from the village of Cropthorne a road branches off southwards to Smoky Farm. Salt Way (fn. 8) runs from north to south through Netherton, a branch from it running west through the village into the Elmley Castle Road, which passes through the southern portion of the parish from west to east.
The following place-names occur in the 14th century:— Rokkeplace and Lynneplace (fn. 9) ; and in the 16th century Twenty Lands and Witche Meadow Furlong in Estfield, (fn. 10) Inch Meadow, Colhill Way, Sharforde Meadow. (fn. 11)
A bronze celt of early type has been found at Cropthorne, (fn. 12) and at Charlton an urn containing charred bones 6 ft. below the surface. Near it was a bronze celt. (fn. 13)


MANOR


In 780 Offa, King of Mercia, is said to have granted 7 manentes at CROPTHORNE to the church of Worcester, (fn. 14) but this charter may be a forgery. (fn. 15) Cropthorne was still a royal estate in 841, when King Beorhtwulf dated from there a genuine charter giving land in Wychwood to Bishop Heahbeorht of Worcester. (fn. 16) The 50 hides at Cropthorne (fn. 17) which then comprised the hundred of Cuthbergehlawe were included in the spurious charter of 964, ascribed to King Edgar, granting the hundred of Oswaldslow to the church of Worcester. (fn. 18) In 1086 the church held Cropthorne with Netherton. (fn. 19)

The manor was confirmed to the prior and convent by Bishop Simon in 1148. (fn. 20) King Stephen is said to have freed 5 hides in Cropthorne from taxes. (fn. 21) The manors of Cropthorne and Netherton seem to have been leased early in the 13th century to William de Wetmora, for on his death in 1212 they returned to the prior. (fn. 22) A grant of free warren here was made to the prior in 1256, (fn. 23) and in 1291 he held 7 carucates of land at Cropthorne and Netherton. (fn. 24) The prior increased his holding in Cropthorne by various purchases during the 14th century, (fn. 25) and in 1355 the grant of free warren was confirmed. (fn. 26)

On the dissolution of the priory in 1539–40 (fn. 27) the manor passed to the Crown and was granted to the dean and chapter in 1542. (fn. 28) This grant was confirmed in 1609. (fn. 29) The dean and chapter continued to hold the manor of Cropthorne until it was sold under the Commonwealth in 1649 to Thomas Kempe. (fn. 30)

The site and demesne lands of the manor were sold in the following year to William Dineley, (fn. 31) and his nephew Edward Dineley of Charlton was in possession in 1658, (fn. 32) and was dealing with half the site of the manor in 1676–7. (fn. 33) At the latter date he was probably a tenant under the dean and chapter, for their estates had been given back to them at the Restoration, and the manor of Cropthorne was confirmed to them in 1692. (fn. 34) The manor remained with the dean and chapter (fn. 35) or their lessees until 1859, when their estates were transferred to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. (fn. 36) In 1861 the Commissioners sold to Francis Holland, lessee of the Cropthorne Court estate, the reversion of Cropthorne Court manor-house and the lord's interest in certain copyhold lands. In 1864 and 1866 Mr. Holland purchased the Commissioners' interest as lords of the manor in other lands, and his grandson Francis Corbett Holland is now lord of Cropthorne. (fn. 37) Up till 1859 a court leet was held yearly for the manor of Cropthorne.

In 1086 there was a mill at Cropthorne which paid 10s. and 20 'stiches' of eels yearly. (fn. 38) In 1240 the Prior of Worcester owned a mill there, which paid 35s. and 30 'stiches' of eels yearly, (fn. 39) and he had two other mills. (fn. 40) In 1261 the prior bought of William de Beauchamp a quarter of a virgate of land and half of two mills at Cropthorne, (fn. 41) and this gift was confirmed by John son of Nicholas de Pebbesworth, who had sold the mills to William de Beauchamp. (fn. 42) The mill of Cropthorne is again mentioned in the time of Queen Elizabeth, (fn. 43) and there is still a water corn-mill to the north of the village.

CHARLTON

CHARLTON (Ceorletune, viii, xii, cent.; Chereleton, xiii cent.; Cherlinton, xiv, xv cent.) was included in King Offa's probably spurious charter of 780 granting Cropthorne to the church of Worcester. (fn. 44) Heming the monk in his chartulary says that the villa called Ceorlatun belonged to the church of Worcester, half, of it being held by the monks, and the other half, though possedded by strangers, owing service to the monastery. He goes on to say that the latter part which the Frenchmen possessed—namely, 7 hides—had been leased to a certain rich man for three lives, and after his death was held by his son, who was succeeded by a certain Godric, surnamed Finc. After his death Bishop Wulfstan received it back again, and because certain of the Normans who invaded the estates of the English strove to oppose him he went to the king and gave him a golden goblet of great worth, and after he had got a writ from the king under his seal he returned and possessed this part of Charlton. Later, however, he tells us, Robert le Despenser, brother of Urse the sheriff, seized it with the assistance of the queen, and so the church lost it, but Robert still professed to be ready and willing to do service to the church for it. (fn. 45) In 1086 Robert le Despenser held these 7 hides at Charlton (fn. 46) under the manor of Cropthorne. Later this manor became annexed to the manor of Fladbury, and was held of that manor during the 12th and 13th centuries. (fn. 47) In 1541 the manor was said to be held of the manor of Cropthorne, (fn. 48) but in 1624 the jurors did not know of whom it was held. (fn. 49)

On the death of Robert le Despenser his lands were divided, and the early 12th-century survey of the hundred of Oswaldslow shows Robert Marmion as owner of these 7 hides at Charlton. (fn. 50) The overlordship remained in the Marmion family (fn. 51) until the death of Sir Philip Marmion about 1292. (fn. 52) The Marmions' interest in the manor then seems to have lapsed.

Under the Marmions the manor was held from very early times by the Botelers of Oversley. Robert Boteler held the manor of Robert Marmion about 1182. (fn. 53) It was probably his son Ralph who in 1140 endowed the abbey of Alcester with half the tithes of his lordship of Charlton. (fn. 54) The mesne lordship of Charlton remained in this family (fn. 55) until about 1380, when William Boteler died, leaving a daughter Elizabeth, who married Robert de Ferrers. (fn. 56) They were succeeded by their daughter Mary, who married Ralph Nevill. (fn. 57) The estate passed from Ralph about 1457–8 to his son John Nevill, (fn. 58) who died in 1482, (fn. 59) leaving as his heir Sir William Gascoigne, son of his daughter Joan (fn. 60) and William Gascoigne. (fn. 61) In 1484–5 Sir William brought an action against Robert Throckmorton and John Hardwyk on a 'plea why they took away William Dineley a minor,' son and heir of William Dineley, who had been seised of the manor of Charlton and had held it as of the manor of Oversley by the service of a knight's fee. (fn. 62) This is the last mention of the Gascoignes' interest in the manor.

The manor of Charlton does not seem to have been held by the Botelers in demesne. As early as the 12th century Robert son of Hubert held the manor of Robert Boteler. (fn. 63) Nothing more is known of the tenants of the manor until 1240, when William de Handsacre held it. (fn. 64) In 1267–8 he was accused of carrying off the goods of Thomas de Arderne from this manor. (fn. 65) William did not appear to answer the plea, and the sheriff was commanded to take all his lands and tenements into the king's hands. (fn. 66) William had evidently fallen under the king's displeasure before this time, for in 1266 he was granted a safe conduct coming to the king's court to stand his trial. (fn. 67) William paid a subsidy of 30s. at Cropthorne in 1280, (fn. 68) and was holding the manor in 1292 and in 1299. (fn. 69) Sir Simon Handsacre, possibly his son, is said to have been lord of Charlton in 1331–2, (fn. 70) and William de Handsacre was in possession in 1346. (fn. 71) Sir Simon, who succeeded William, died before 1383–4, leaving three daughters, Eleanor wife of Richard Dineley, Elizabeth wife of Roger Colmon, and afterwards of Peter de Melburn, and Isabel wife of Lawrence Frodley. (fn. 72) Richard Dineley and Elizabeth were dealing with a third of the manor in 1386–7, (fn. 73) and three years later the co-heirs conveyed the manor to trustees, (fn. 74) evidently for the purpose of settling it on the Dineleys, to whom the whole afterwards passed.


Handsacre. Ermine three chess-rooks sable.


Dineley. Argent a fesse sable with a molet between two roundels sable in the chief.

A pedigree of the family of Dineley is given in the worcestershire visitation of 1569. (fn. 75) According to this pedigree Thomas Dineley, who held Charlton in 1431, (fn. 76) was the son of Richard and Eleanor. Thomas married a member of the family of Throckmorton, (fn. 77) and seems to have settled Charlton upon himself and his wife. (fn. 78) He was succeeded by a son and grandson, both named William. (fn. 79) The latter was a minor in 1484–5, (fn. 80) and in 1498 was in controversy with the Prior of Worcester as to common of pasture in Penmere. (fn. 81) In 1514 he settled the manor on his son John on his marriage with Elizabeth Tate, daughter of Roger St. Nicholas of Thanet. (fn. 82) John died in 1541, when his son Sir Henry succeeded to the manor. (fn. 83) He was Sheriff of Worcestershire in 1553 and 1568. (fn. 84) On 5 July 1575 Henry Dineley settled the manor on his son Francis on his marriage with Elizabeth Bigge, daughter of Thomas Bigge of Lenchwick. (fn. 85) Francis Dineley, who was Sheriff of Worcester in 1597, (fn. 86) died 28 October 1624 seised of the manor of Charlton, his heir being his grandson Edward, son of his elder son Henry. (fn. 87) Edward died in 1646, (fn. 88) and his son and successor Samuel died about 1654, leaving two daughters, Mary, who afterwards married Henry Collins, and Elizabeth wife of Whitlock Bulstrode. (fn. 89) In 1674 Mary Dineley conveyed her moiety of the manor to her uncle Edward Dineley, (fn. 90) who acquired the other moiety in 1676 from Whitlock Bulstrode and Elizabeth. (fn. 91)
Edward Dineley was knighted in 1681, (fn. 92) and served as Deputy Lieutenant for Worcestershire in 1682. (fn. 93) His daughter and heir Helen or Eleanor married Edward Goodere of Burhope in Herefordshire, who was created a baronet in 1707 and died in 1739, at the age of nearly ninety. (fn. 94) He was followed by his eldest surviving son John, who having succeeded to the Charlton estates took the name of Dineley about 1708. (fn. 95) He married Mary daughter and heir of — Lawford of Stapleton in Gloucestershire, (fn. 96) by whom he had a son, who joined with him in disentailing the estate and died soon afterwards. (fn. 97) Samuel Goodere, who was a captain in the Royal Navy and at that time commanded a ship called the Ruby, expected to inherit the manor from his brother Sir.John Dineley, but the latter threatened to disinherit him and leave his property to his nephew John Foote of Truro in Cornwall, the son of his sister Eleanor.
It so alarmed and disgusted the said Samuel that he came to the bloody resolution of murdering him, which he executed on the 17th Jan. 1741. A friend at Bristol who knew their mortal antipathy had invited them both to dinner, in hopes of reconciling them, and they parted in the evening in seeming friendship, but the captain placed some of his crew in the street near College Green with orders to seize his brother, and assisted in hurrying him by violence to his ship, under pretence that he was disordered in his senses, where when they arrived he caused him to be strangled in the cabin by White and Mahony, two ruffians of his crew, himself standing sentinel at the door while the horrid deed was perpertated. (fn. 98)
But the cooper of the ship and his wife happened to be in the next cabin, and by the help of an open crevice saw the whole transaction. (fn. 99)
Samuel Goodere and his accomplices, Mahony and White, were arrested, and, having been tried in Bristol on 26 March and found guilty, were executed on 15 April 1741. (fn. 100) John Foote succeeded his uncle and took the name of Dineley. He was dealing with the manor in 1741 and 1745, (fn. 101) but Dame Mary Dineley-Goodere, Sir John's widow, held the Charlton estate in dower (fn. 102) and married William Rayner, a printer in White Friars, London. He alleged that he became owner of the manor of Charlton by the purchase from John Foote-Dineley of his reversionary interest, and sold it to Joseph Biddle of Evesham, (fn. 103) from whose executors it was purchased in 1774 by Thomas Beesley, Richard Sockett, William Lilly, and Timothy Bevington of Worcester. (fn. 104) They or their descendants were the owners in 1775–6, (fn. 105) and in 1787 Thomas Beesley, Timothy Bevington, Richard Sockett, Thomas Griffith, clerk, and Thomas Brewster conveyed the manor to John Sparling, Robert Rolleston and Thomas Barton. (fn. 106)
About this time one wing of the manor-house was burnt down. In 1825 Robert Dent was the owner. (fn. 107) The manor had been purchased before 1868 by Henry Workman, (fn. 108) who sold it in 1873 to William Carey Faulkner. His second son James Faulkner is now lord of the manor.
The other half of the vill of Charlton which was said by Heming to have been kept by the church of Worcester was probably included at the time of the Domesday Survey in the manor of Cropthorne. It may, however, have been the land at Charlton which, having been lost by the college of Westbury, was restored in 1093 by Bishop Wulfstan when he refounded the college and made it subject to the church of Worcester. (fn. 109) Charlton was, however, confirmed to the prior and convent by Bishop Simon in 1148, (fn. 110) and formed part of the manor of Cropthorne in 1240. (fn. 111) On the dissolution of the priory in 1539–40 (fn. 112) the manor of Charlton was granted to the dean and chapter. (fn. 113) The grant was confirmed in 1608–9, (fn. 114) and in 1641 the dean and chapter granted a lease of the manor to Edward Dineley for the lives of his children, John, Edward, and Joyce. (fn. 115) In 1649 this manor was sold by the Parliamentary commissioners to William Dineley, (fn. 116) the uncle of Edward Dineley of Charlton, but was recovered by the dean and chapter, to whom it was confirmed in 1692. (fn. 117) The manor remained with them until the manorial rights lapsed, the last mention of it being in 1779. (fn. 118) It was then held under a lease from the dean and chapter by Mr. Dineley, and was not easily distinguishable from the other manor of Charlton, since the lands of the two manors were intermixed. (fn. 119)

An estate at Charlton was held by the nuns of Pinley in Warwickshire. There is no record of any grant to them of this land, but in 1291 they held rents of assize at Charlton, (fn. 120) and in 1535 their estate there and at Beoley was valued at 30s. 4d. yearly. (fn. 121) These lands, which fell to the Crown at the Dissolution, were granted to Henry Best in 1589–90. (fn. 122)

NETHERTON

NETHERTON (Neotheretune, viii cent.; Neotheretune, xi cent.) is included with Cropthorne in King Offa's supposed forged grant of 780 to the church of Worcester, (fn. 123) and at the date of the Domesday Survey the church held Netherton. (fn. 124) In the Register of the priory of 1240 it is stated that Netherton 'gelded' with Cropthorne, and that there were 2 carucates in demesne. (fn. 125) In the Taxation of 1291 Netherton is included in Cropthorne. (fn. 126) In 1255–6 the prior obtained a grant of free warren at Netherton, and it was confirmed in 1355. (fn. 127) After the dissolution of the priory in 1539–40 (fn. 128) the manor of Netherton was granted in 1542 to the Dean and Chapter of Worcester, (fn. 129) and this grant was confirmed to them in 1609. (fn. 130)

In 1549–50 the manor was granted by the dean and chapter to George Willoughby at a fee-farm rent of £20 8s. 2d. (fn. 131) This rent was sold by the Parliamentary trustees in 1655 to Richard Salwey, (fn. 132) but was restored to the dean and chapter at the Restoration, and was still held by them in 1779. (fn. 133) After the death of George Willoughby the manor passed to his widow Anne Willoughby. (fn. 134) She married as a third husband Sir Francis Bulstrode, who was concerned in several suits in Chancery as to this estate. (fn. 135) Sir Francis Bulstrode and Anne his wife and Paul Raynsford, who had married Frances second daughter of George Willoughby, (fn. 136) sold the manor to Henry Willoughby in 1569–70. (fn. 137) He sold it to William Savage of Elmley Castle in 1591–2. (fn. 138) The manor then followed the same descent as that of Elmley Castle (fn. 139) until the manorial rights lapsed, the last mention of it being in 1822, when Robert Clavering Savage was the owner. (fn. 140)

CHURCHES


The church of ST. MICHAEL consists of a chancel about 34 ft. by 14½ft., nave 47 ft. by the same width, north and south aisles 9½ ft. and 9 ft. wide respectively, south porch, and a western tower 11 ft. square. These measurements are all internal.
The earliest portion of the present building was begun about the year 1100, and appears to have been a rebuilding of an earlier structure, beginning with the north arcade and aisle, followed soon afterwards by those on the south side. About 1170 the chancel arch was inserted, and a few years later the tower added, the chancel being rebuilt and widened about 1200. The church stood thus, with chancel, nave with narrow aisles, and west tower, till the middle of the 14th century, when the chancel was again rebuilt and the nave aisles widened.
Late in the 15th century the church seems to have been much altered, and it is not improbable, from the character of the bases, that the north arcade was then rebuilt with the old stones before the clearstory was added. The tower also was raised to its present height, with the intention of adding a spire, but the last work was never carried out. The south porch seems to be the work of a later date, probably with older materials, and in the 18th century the north range of clearstory windows was renewed in the 'churchwarden' style of the time. In 1894 the chancel was rebuilt with the old materials, and the church also underwent restorations in 1900 and 1903, and a further one has lately been completed.
The three-light east window has modern tracery, but the jambs belong to the 14th century. On either side are plain brackets in the east wall, and in the north-east corner is a square plastered recess with a shelf.
In the north wall is a small lancet window dating from about the year 1200, and on the south side are three square-headed windows, each of two lights; the heads of the two eastern are modern, while the third is of later date than the chancel. Under the easternmost window is a 13th-century piscina in the form of a round moulded capital.
The chancel arch has 12th-century jambs, of two orders, the inner with an engaged shaft on the west angle. The outer order has been cut away on the west face. The engaged shafts have scalloped capitals, but the arch, of two chamfered orders, is of much later date and is very unevenly built, and above it the wall is set back on the west face.
The north arcade of the nave consists of four bays with circular piers and semicircular arches of two square orders. The western respond, and the second pier from it, have meagre 12th-century moulded capitals, but the others are apparently later copies. The south arcade is also of four bays and has half-round arches of two orders, and circular piers with moulded capitals and bases differing somewhat from those opposite. The tower arch has jambs and a pointed arch of two chamfered orders with a square and chamfered abacus carved with tooth ornament.
In the clearstory on the north side are three large plain windows with square panes and arched heads, of 18th-century design. On the south side the three windows, of late 15th-century date, are each of two lights with blank spandrels within a square internal head and an external elliptical head. The square-headed east window of the north aisle is of three lights, and the two windows in the north wall are of two lights under square heads, differing slightly in design. The 14th-century north doorway has a two-centred chamfered arch, considerably restored.
The east window of the south aisle differs but slightly from that of the north, and the three side windows are each of two ogee-headed lights. The 14th-century south doorway has a two-centred arch of one chamfered order. The remains of an old piscina basin still exist in the south-east corner of the south aisle, with an arch over, of much later date. In the east wall is a square recess with rebated jambs. A large groove in the north wall of the aisle, next to the east wall, seems to suggest that the wall has been reconstructed east of its original position.
The south porch seems to have been much altered in the late 15th century. The outer doorway has jambs and an elliptical arch of two continuous chamfered orders. In the side walls are narrow rectangular lights, the western one being blocked. The diagonal buttresses are modern, and the wall over the archway finishes abruptly with a plain horizontal parapet in front of the gabled roof.
The tower is of three stages, the lower two dating from the 12th century and the upper being a late 15th-century addition. The lowest stage has shallow buttresses in the middle of the three outer walls. They reach only to the first offset and are pierced by small round-headed windows, with wide splays inside. The second stage has a small round-headed 12th-century light in its west wall. The belfry is lit by transomed windows of two lights with vertical tracery, the lights beneath the transoms having trefoiled heads and quatrefoil spandrels. The labels are returned round the tower as a horizontal string at the transom level. The parapet is embattled with continuous coping and grotesque gargoyles. At the angles are small square pinnacles. The walling of the church generally is rubble with dressed quoins, &c., parts of it being rough-cast.
The chancel has a modern open timbered roof, while the nave and aisles have plastered ceilings.
The font is also modern. Some of the traceried bench ends and front and back panelling to the nave seats date from the 15th century.
There are several large tombs in the church. The most prominent, to Edward Dineley, 1646, is placed asked in the first bay of the north arcade, and is of Renaissance design, with kneeling figures under a flat canopy, supported on marble columns of the Corinthian order. On the front face of the base are the kneeling figures of four sons and three daughters in high relief. Above the canopy is a cleft pediment with a shield bearing the Dineley arms impaling those of his wife. The pedestals at the angles also support shields. The tomb is evidently not in its original position, and was probably removed from the chancel.
At the east end of the north aisle is another alter tomb to Francis Dineley, died 1624, with recumbent effigies of a man and woman, the former in armour. On the base are the kneeling figures of nine sons and seven daughters, and cradles for three children, who died in infancy.
In the north wall, to the west of the first windows, is a 14th-century tomb recess with a flattened ogee arch, enriched with ball flowers. The arch springs from square blocks of stone supported on carved corbels, and at the apex is a human head. In the recess is an ancient slab carved with a long round-headed cross, a hand and a chalice, but it is apparently not in the original position. There are many other slabs of 18th-century date and other modern wall monuments.
There are six bells: the first by Abel Rudhall, 1746; the second, 1898, by Bond; the third, 1703; the fourth by Abel Rudhall, 1750; the fifth by Bond, 1898, and the sixth by Rudhall, 1746.
The plate consists of a very small cup of 1571 with a cover paten without a hall mark, but inscribed 1571, and a plated modern set of a cup, two plates, standing paten and a flagon.
The registers are as follows: (i) mixed entries 1557 to 1717 and burials 1752 to 1754; (ii) baptisms and burials 1718 to 1812, marriages 1718 to 1756; (iii) marriages 1754 to 1801; (iv) marriages 1801 to 1812.
The modern church of ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST, Charlton, is a small rectangular building of stone, designed in the style of the 13th century. It was converted from an old barn by Mr. Workman and was opened by licence in 1872. (fn. 141) The ecclesiastical parish of Charlton was formed from Cropthorne in 1882, and the church was consecrated in the following year. (fn. 142) The patronage was vested in Henry Workman for life, and then in the Bishop of Worcester. (fn. 143)

ADVOWSON

In 1086 there was a priest at Cropthorne, who had half a hide with one plough. (fn. 144) The Prior and convent of Worcester were patrons of Cropthorne until the Dissolution. (fn. 145)
In 1350 the prior and convent received a licence from the Crown to appropriate the church of Cropthorne, according to a Bull of Pope Clement. (fn. 146) The vicarage was ordained in 1365. (fn. 147) In 1427–8 the church was valued at £7 6s. 8d., (fn. 148) and it was worth £21 4s. 8d. in 1535. (fn. 149) After the dissolution of the priory in 1539–40, (fn. 150) the advowson of the church of Cropthorne was granted to the Dean and Chapter of Worcester in 1542. (fn. 151) This grant was confirmed in 1609, (fn. 152) and the dean and chapter have presented ever since, (fn. 153) with the exception of once in 1642, when they granted the presentation to Francis Kite and Stephen Richardson for that turn only. (fn. 154)
Chapels at Charlton and Netherton, which belonged to the church of Cropthorne, are mentioned in the 13th century. (fn. 155) This seems to be the only reference to them in the records. Netherton chapel was in ruins in the middle of the 17th century, (fn. 156) and some remains of it can still be seen in a farm-house at Netherton (see above).
There is a mission Baptist chapel at Charlton in connexion with Cowl Street, Evesham.

CHARITIES

 

The Window Lye's Charity.

—It appears from the church table in the parish of All Saints in Evesham that the Window Lye gave a tenement in Cowl Street, the rent to be distributed in bread to the poor of the parish of St. Lawrence and the town of Cropthorne for ever. A sum of about £9 10s. is annually received from Evesham St. Lawrence, which is applied in the distribution of bread and money.

Holland's School.

—In 1735 Mrs. Mary Holland, by her will, bequeathed £50 to be laid out in building a schoolhouse. The testatrix likewise bequeathed £200 as an endowment.
The trust property now consists of the old schoolhouse and garden and 1 r. 20p., producing £10 per annum, and £175 13s. 2d. consols with the official trustees, producing £4 7s. 8d. yearly.
The church land consists of 2 a. of land which has been in the possession of the parish from time immemorial. The rents, amounting to £1 15s. yearly, are carried to the churchwarden' accounts.

Footnotes

 

1

There is another unnamed stream which runs through the parish from south to north and joins the River Avon near the village of Cropthorne.

2

16 acres are covered by water.

3

Statistics from Bd. of Agric. (1905).

4

Lond. Gaz. 22 Aug. 1882, p. 3911.

5

Statistics from Bd. of Agric. (1905).

6

Parl. Papers (1872), xlvi, no. 345, p. 3.

7

Prattinton (Coll. Soc. Antiq.), who visited Cropthorne in 1817, gives a full description of the chapel. At that period the north wall of the chancel was intact, and there was a 'stone bell-turret, capable of holding two bells.' He also states that there was an 'additional building added on the north.' As mentioned above, the floor of this building alone survives at the present day.

8

Not the Roman road so called.

9

Prattinton Coll. (Soc. Antiq.), Deeds of D. and C. of Worcester, no. 252.

10

Chan. Proc. (Ser. 2), bdle. 158, no. 36.

11

Ibid. bdle. 51, no. 37.

12

V.C.H. Worcs. i, 194.

13

Ibid.

14

Heming, Chartul. (ed. Hearne), i, 95; ii, 319; Birch, Cart. Sax. i, 327.

15

Mr. Round supposes that this charter was forged by the monks for production in the dispute with the Abbot of Evesham with regard to Hampton and Bengeworth (V.C.H. Worcs. i, 254–5).

16

a Birch, op. cit. ii, 6, 7.

17

In Offa's grant was included land at Netherton, Elmley, Criddesho, Charlton, Hampton and Bengeworth, together making up 50 or rather 49 hides.

18

Hale, Reg. of Worc. Priory (Camd. Soc.), 22b; Heming, op. cit. ii, 519; Birch, Cart. Sax. iii, 377.

19

V.C.H. Worcs. i, 296b. Robert le Despenser held Elmley Castle and Charlton of this manor (ibid.), and the Abbot of Evesham held Hampton and Bengeworth (ibid. 297a) in the same way.

20

Thomas, Surv. of Worc. Cath. App. no. 18.

21

Heming, op. cit. ii, 526; Nash, Hist. of Worcs. i, 271.

22

Ann. Mon. (Rolls Ser.), iv, 401.

23

a Cal. Pat. 1354–8, p. 266.

24

Pope Nich. Tax. (Rec. Com.), 227b.

25

Adam son of Guy de la Folye granted to the Prior of Worcester a messuage, a carucate of land and 20s. rent in Cropthorne in 1305 (Cal. Pat. 1301–7, p. 361; Chan. Inq. p.m. 33 Edw. I, no. 145; Inq. a.q.d. file 52, no. 21); John de Bransford gave land in 1336 (Cal. Pat. 1334–8, p. 222; Inq. a.q.d. file 228, no. 23); and in 1345 Alexander, vicar of the church of Hallow, Richard de Hindlip, chaplain, John de Totenham, chaplain, and John Trenchefoil, clerk, gave 34s. 9d. rent in Cropthorne (Cal. Pat. 1343–5, p. 449).

26

Cal. Pat. 1354–8, p. 266.

27

V.C.H. Worcs. ii, 111.

28

L. and P. Hen. VIII, xvii, g. 71 (29); Pat. 33 Hen. VIII, pt. v. Ralph Parsons was their tenant for life in 1560 (Chan. Proc. [Ser. 2], bdle. 52, no. 26).

29

Pat. 6 Jas. I, pt. xii, no. 2.

30

Close, 1649, pt. xiv, no. 15.

31

Ibid. 1650, pt. xxxiv, no. 23.

32

Feet of F. Worcs. East. 1658.

33

Ibid. Mich. 28 Chas. II.

34

Pat. 4 Will. and Mary, pt. i, no. 6.

35

Nash, op. cit. i, 271; Priv. Act, 19 Geo. III, cap. 33.

36

Lond. Gaz. 16 Dec. 1859, p. 4757, confirmed by Stat. 31 & 32 Vict. cap. 19.

37

Inform. by the late Mr. J. H. Hooper and the Ecclesiastical Commissioners.

38

V.C.H. Worcs. i, 296b. There were twenty-five eels to a 'stiche.'

39

The parson of Cropthorne received the tithes of the mill and eels.

40

Hale, Reg. of Worc. Priory (Camd. Soc.), 70a. There is a charter in this register by which the prior and convent granted to Hugh de Furches a virgate of land in Cropthorne in exchange for the moiety of the mill in Cropthorne and the land which attached to it, Hugh paying the priory 8s. a year. This charter is undated (ibid. 73b).

41

Ann. Mon. (Rolls Ser.), iv, 447.

42

Prattinton Coll. (Soc. Antiq.), Deeds of D. and C. of Worc. no. 207; Add. MS. 28024, fol. 128a.

43

Chan. Proc. Eliz. Pp. 2, no. 35.

44

Birch, Cart. Sax. i, 327; Heming, op. cit. i, 70; and see ante.

45

Heming, op. cit. i, 268–9.

46

V.C.H. Worcs. i, 296b and n.; J.H. Round, Feud. Engl. 176.

47

Habington, Surv. of Worcs. (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), i, 226; Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 41b; Worcs. Inq. p.m. (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), i, 42.

48

Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), lxiv, 103.

49

Ibid. ccccxxiii, 74.

50

V.C.H. Worcs. i, 325b n.

51

For a pedigree of the Marmions see Round, op. cit. 191.

52

Round, loc. cit.; Worcs. Inq. p.m. (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), i, 42; Habington, op. cit. i, 226. Lady Avice de Charlton, who held the manor early in the 13th century (Testa de Nevill [Rec. Com.], 41b), was probably the widow of Robert Marmion.

53

Habington, op. cit. i, 226; Red Bk. of Bishopric of Worc. (Eccl. Com. Rec. Var. bdle. 121, no. 43698), fol. 81, 253.

54

Dugdale, Hist. of Warw. 854; Dugdale, Mon. iv, 172, 175. In 1240 these tithes were still paid to the abbey (Hale, Reg. of Worc. Priory [Camd. Soc.], 70a), and are last mentioned in 1291, when they were worth £7 6s. 8d. (Pope Nich. Tax. [Rec. Com.], 217b).

55

Worcs. Inq. p.m. (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), i, 42.

56

Dugdale, Hist. of Warw. 854.

57

Ibid.

58

Chan. Inq. p.m. 36 Hen. VI, no. 21.

59

Ibid. 22 Edw. IV, no. 26.

60

Ibid.; De Banco R. Trin. 2 Ric. III, m. 317.

61

De Banco R. Trin. 2 Ric. III, m. 317.

62

Ibid.

63

Red Bk. of Bishopric of Worc. fol. 253.

64

Hale, Reg. of Worc. Priory (Camd. Soc.), 70a.

65

Abbrev. Plac. (Rec. Com.), 170b, 175b.

66

Ibid. 175b.

67

Cal. Pat. 1258–66, p. 533.

68

Lay Subs. R. Worcs. 1280 (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), 71.

69

Worcs. Inq. p.m. (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), i, 42; Habington, op. cit. i, 228.

70

Visit. of Worcs. 1569 (Harl. Soc. xxvii), 50.

71

Feud. Aids, v, 309.

72

De Banco R. 491, m. 204 d.

73

Feet of F. Div. Co. Mich. and East. 10 Ric. II.

74

Ibid. East. 13 Ric. II.

75

op. cit. (Harl. Soc. xxvii), 50.

76

Feud. Aids, v, 332.

77

Visit. of Worcs. 1569 (Harl. Soc. xxvii), 50.

78

De Banco R. Trin. 2 Ric. III, m. 317.

79

Ibid.

80

Ibid.

81

Ibid. Hil. 14 Hen. VII, m. 416.

82

Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), lxiv, 103.

83

Ibid.

84

P.R.O. List of Sheriffs, 158.

85

Feet of F. Div. Co. Mich. 17 & 18 Eliz.; Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccccxxiii, 74.

86

P.R.O. List of Sheriffs, 158.

87

Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccccxxiii, 74.

88

Metcalfe, Visit. of Worcs. 1682, p. 42.

89

Ibid.

90

Ibid.; Feet of F. Worcs. Hil. 25 & 26 Chas. II.

91

Feet of F. Worcs. Mich. 28 Chas. II.

92

Shaw, Knights of Engl. ii, 256.

93

Nash, op. cit. i, 272.

94

G.E.C. Complete Baronetage, v, 5.

95

Ibid.

96

She later set up a fraudulent claim to the Charlton estate (as his widow) on behalf of an alleged surviving son (J. Latimer, Annals of Bristol in the Eighteenth Century, 233–4).

97

G.E.C. Complete Baronetage, v, 5.

98

Nash, op. cit. i, 272–3.

99

The Bristol Fratricide, printed by J. Hart, 1741, p. 11.

100

There is in the library of the British Museum a full report of the trial published by H. Goreham. The History of the Life and Character of Samuel Goodere, the Bristol Fratricide, and The fratricide, or the Murderer's Gibbets, published at the Bristol Mirror office in 1839, also refer to this case.

101

Recov. R. Hil. 15 Geo. II, rot. 193; Mich. 19 Geo. II, rot. 468.

102

Sir John Dineley, the fifth and last baronet, who was insane, described himself as of Charlton (Dict. Nat. Biog.), but had no claim to the estate.

103

a It was contended that no rights passed in this sale, as Samuel Goodere when in prison on the charge of murder accepted surrender of all leases and regranted them on payment of very light fines. After long litigation the court annulled the contention, holding that while in treason the attainder dated from the commission of the offence, in felony it begins with the actual sentence.

104

Nash, op. cit. i, 273. Included in the sale were the mansion-house and over 1,000 acres of land. The soil is said to be 'chiefly of the best of that kind which farmers call Turnep Land' (Prattinton Coll. [Soc. Antiq.]).

105

Priv. Act, 16 Geo. III, cap. 47.

106

Feet of F. Worcs. Hil. 27 Geo. III.

107

Recov. R. Hil. 5 & 6 Geo. IV, rot. 138.

108

Noake, op. cit. 104.

109

Heming, op. cit. 422.

110

Thomas, op. cit. App. no. 18.

111

Reg. of Worc. Priory (Camd. Soc.), 70a, 71a.

112

V.C.H. Worcs. ii, 111.

113

Pat. 33 Hen. VIII, pt. v; L. and P. Hen. VIII, xvii, g. 71 (29).

114

Pat. 6 Jas. I, pt. xii, no. 2.

115

Close, 1650, pt. xxxiv, no. 23.

116

Ibid.

117

Pat. 4 Will. and Mary, pt. i, no. 6.

118

Nash, op. cit. i, 273. The dean and chapter are mentioned as lords of one of the manors of Charlton in the Inclosure Act for Charlton dated 1775–6 (Priv. Act, 16 Geo. III, cap. 47).

119

Nash, op. cit. i, 273.

120

Pope Nich. Tax. (Rec. Com.), 230. The entry is cancelled and against it is written 'hoc est error qub pauper et mendicans.'

121

Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), iii, 90.

122

Pat. 32 Eliz. pt. ix.

123

Heming, op. cit. i, 95; ii, 319; and see ante note.

124

V.C.H. Worcs. i, 296b.

125

Reg. of Worc. Priory (Camd. Soc.), 72b.

126

Pope Nich. Tax. (Rec. Com.), 227b. The place is here spelt 'Setherton,' and each carucate is said to be worth £1 a year (ibid.).

127

Cal. Pat. 1354–8, p.266.

128

V.C.H. Worcs. ii, 111.

129

Pat. 33 Hen. VIII, pt. v.

130

Ibid. 6 Jas. I, pt. xii, no. 2.

131

Ibid. 3 Edw. VI, pt. ix; Close, 1656, pt. xii, no. 2.

132

Close, 1656, pt. xii, no. 2.

133

Nash, op. cit. i, 273.

134

Chan. Proc. (Ser. 2), bdle. 4, no. 37, 57.

135

Ibid. bdles. 148, no. 16; 4, no. 37, 57; 186, no. 94; 5, no. 8.

136

Ibid. bdle. 148, no. 16.

137

Feet of F. Div. Co. Trin. 12 Eliz.

138

Ibid. Worcs. Hil. 34 Eliz. The sale was confirmed by Robert Willoughby in the following year (ibid. East. 35 Eliz.).

139

Chan. Inq. p. m. (Ser. 2), ccclvi, 121; cccclxvii, 186; Feet of F. Div. Co. Mich. 21 Chas. II. For the pedigree of the Savages see Elmley Castle.

140

Recov. R. Hil. 2 & 3 Geo, IV, rot. 123.

141

P.O. Dir. Worcs. 1872.

142

Parl. Papers (1890–1), lxi, no. 386, p. 38; Lond. Gaz. 22 Aug. 1882, p. 3911.

143

Lond. Gaz. 22 Aug. 1882, p. 3911.

144

V.C.H. Worcs. i, 296b.

145

Ann. Mon. (Rolls Ser.), iv, 428, 434, 539; Reg. G. Giffard (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), 507; ibid. W. Ginsborough, 145; Cal. Pat. 1348–50, p. 573.

146

Cal. Pat. 1348–50, p. 573; Cal. Papal Pet. i, 195; Cal. Papal Letters, iii, 334; Heming, op. cit. ii 544; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. viii, 168. Nash gives the licence and the Bull in full (op. cit. i, 276–7).

147

Worc. Epis. Reg. Carpenter (1443–76), i, fol. 193.

148

Lay Subs. R. Worcs. 1427, 1429 (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), 11.

149

Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), iii, 222.

150

V.C.H. Worcs. ii, 111.

151

L. and P. Hen. VIII, xvii, g. 71 (29); Pat. 33 Hen. VIII, pt. v.

152

Pat. 6 Jas. I. pt. xii, no. 2.

153

Inst. Bks. (P.R.O.).

154

Ibid.

155

Hale, Reg. of Worc. Priory (Camd Soc.), 70a.

156

Habington, op. cit. i, 180.

 

 

FLADBURY

'Parishes: Cropthorne', A History of the County of Worcester: volume 3 (1913), pp. 322-329. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=43131. Date accessed: 04 November 2008.

Fledanburg, Fledanbyrig (vii cent.); Fladbyrig (viii cent.); Fledanburh (ix cent.); Fledebirie (xi cent.); Fladdebir (xiii cent.).

The parish of Fladbury lies in the south-east of the county between Evesham and Pershore and was described in the 17th century as 'a paryshe very large, richly seated in the vale of Evesham.' (fn. 1) The area of the parish with its hamlets and chapelries is 6,879 acres, (fn. 2) of which 1,573 acres lie in Fladbury, 1,368 in Hill and Moor, 1,522 in Throckmorton, 381 in Wyre Piddle, 1,151 in Stock and Bradley, and 884 acres in Ab Lench. (fn. 3) In Fladbury, including Hill and Moor, 1,070 acres are arable land, 1,234 acres are permanent grass and 93 acres are woodland. (fn. 4) Throckmorton includes 1,017 acres of arable land and 492 acres of permanent grass; Wyre Piddle, 270 acres of arable and 161 acres of permanent grass; Stock and Bradley, 90 acres of arable land and 945 acres of permanent grass. (fn. 5) The soil is chiefly light clay with a little sand; the subsoil is Lower Lias, producing crops of wheat, beans, barley, hops, market garden produce and fruit. Vines were formerly grown at Fladbury, for in the register of Worcester Priory occurs the statement that the sacrist received two parts of the tithes of the land where vines once grew at Fladbury, Ripple and Westbury. (fn. 6) At the end of the 18th century about 2 acres of land called the Vineyard belonged to the rector of Fladbury. (fn. 7)

The Avon forms the southern boundary of the parish, and from the valley of the river the land rises slightly to the north. The highest point in the parish is Craycombe Hill to the north-east of the village of Fladbury, about 300 ft. above the ordnance datum.

The main road from Worcester to Evesham runs through the parish from west to east. On a branch from this road on the right bank of the River Avon is the village of Fladbury. A bridge over the Avon to the south of the village, erected in commemoration of the 1897 Jubilee, connects it with Cropthorne. In the open space between the Anchor Inn and the church a market is said to have been held in former times on Wednesdays. (fn. 8) The rectory was built by the son of Bishop Lloyd in 1710. (fn. 9) There are several half-timber and brick houses dating mostly from the 17th century; one opposite the church, the front of which has been covered with rough-cast, has a good oak stairway with moulded handrails and turned balusters of about 1700; another near the junction of the roads has an early 18th-century brick front with original window frames and leaded lights in small squares. A half-timber barn on the roadside north of the village has been much repaired and modernized, but probably dates from the 15th century.

The hamlet of Wyre Piddle in the west of the parish contains some good half-timber houses. The Avon bounds it on the south, PiddleBrook, a tributary of that river, forming its western boundary. In the centre of this hamlet is the shaft and base of an old stone cross. It was restored in 1844, and is now surmounted by an iron cross.

Of the hamlet of Hill and Moor the most populous portion is Lower Moor, which lies near the railway to the south of the Worcester road. It contains one or two interesting old house. At Hill, in the north of this hamlet, is Court Farm, which bears the date 1681 on the weather vane.

The chapelry of Throckmorton is to the north of the parish of Fladbury. To the north-east of the church is a moated inclosure, and to the south of Court Farm are the remains of another moat.

The village of Ab or Abbots Lench, formerly a hamlet and chaperly of Fladbury, but since 1865 (fn. 10) ecclesiastically part of Church Lench, is completely isolated from Fladbury, part of the parish of Bishampton lying between them. It is divided from Bishopton by Whitsun Brook, over which there is a bridge called Stakamford Bridge. The village consists of a few houses on a branch road from that leading from Rous Lench to Fladbury.

The now separate parish of Stock and Bradley is also completely cut off from Fladbury, of which it was formerly a part, and lies to the west of the parish of Feckenham. The Salt Way, now the high road from Droitwich to Alcester, runs through it from west to east, and from it a road runs south along the eastern border of the parish to the village of Bradley. A stream forms part of the western boundary of Stock and Bradley, and another brook flows through the parish from east to west, being crossed south of the village of Bradley by Priest Bridge. In 1680 this bridge was first built of stone, and an agreement was made between the inhabitants of Bradley and the lord of Fladbury Manor by which the latter found the materials and the former supplied the labour. The lord of Fladbury was relieved of liability to further contributions in consideration of his payment of a lump sum. (fn. 11) Bradley Green is to the north of the parish, and Stock Green lies to the south on the Inkberrow boundary.

The disafforestation of the forest of Horewell, which formerly covered part of the parish of Fladbury, took place in 1229 (fn. 12) ; the parish is still, however, well wooded.

An Inclosure Act was passed for Fladbury in 1788, and the award is dated 23 May 1789 (fn. 13) ; for Stock and Bradley in 1825, (fn. 14) for Hill and Moor in 1832, (fn. 15) for Throckmorton in 1772, (fn. 16) and for Wyre Piddle in 1836 and 1840, the award being dated 5 August 1841. (fn. 17)

MANORS

There was a monastery at FLADBURY in early times. It was given, together with 44 cassati of land at Fladbury, to Bishop Oftfor in 691–2 by King Ethelred, (fn. 18) for the welfare of his soul and that of his wife Osthryth. (fn. 19) In the early part of the 8th century Bishop Æcgwine, Oftfor's successor, exchanged the monastery and its lands with a noble named Æthelheard for 20 cassati at Stratfordon-Avon. (fn. 20) He explained the apparently unprofitable nature of the exchange by pointing out that he and the king had agreed that both places should revert to the church after the death of the noble. (fn. 21) In the Annals of Evesham, however, we are told that Bishop Æcgwine, who was the founder of Evesham, gave up Fladbury to Æthelheard in order to secure Stratford, both vills being claimed by Æthelheard as heir of Queen Osthryth. (fn. 22) The monks of Evesham further stated that Fladbury had been given by Ethelred to Æcgwine and the abbey of Evesham in 703, and attributed their inability to recover it to the superior strength of the Bishop of Worcester. (fn. 23) About 780 Bishop Tilhere consented and subscribed to a deed by which Aldred, subregulus of the Hwiccas and a descendant of Æthelheard, granted the monastery of Fladbury to his kinswoman Æthelburh for her life, with reversion to the church of Worcester. (fn. 24) At about this time Bishop Tilhere made a great feast for King Offa and his chieftains at Fladbury, where the king granted to the church the royal vill of Cropthorne with land amounting to 50 mansae and a very choice Bible with two clasps of pure gold. (fn. 25) After Æthelburh's death the monastery reverted to the church of Worcester and was confirmed in the early part of the 9th century to Bishop Deneberht by Coenwulf, King of Mercia, in an undated charter, (fn. 26) by which he also granted to the bishop the reversion after his death of the land of thirty tributaries at Fladbury. (fn. 27) The see of Worcester continued to hold the manor until the date of the Domesday Survey, when it paid geld for 40 hides. (fn. 28) In the 12th century the bishop still held these 40 hides at Fladbury. (fn. 29) Richard I freed 13½ acres from essartum, (fn. 30) and King John confirmed this grant. (fn. 31) On 15 March 1214 he gave leave to the bishop to plough up 29½ acres of his wood. (fn. 32) In 1254 the bishop received a grant of free warren at Fladbury. (fn. 33) The manor was confirmed to the church by Pope Gregory in 1275, (fn. 34) and in 1291 was worth £29 6s. a year. (fn. 35) It remained in the possession of successive Bishops of Worcester, (fn. 36) and was in 1535 worth £53 1s. 2d. yearly. (fn. 37) In 1632 the bishop granted a lease of it to William Sandys for his life and that of his brother Thomas, and of William's wife Cicely daughter of Sir John Steed. (fn. 38) During the Civil War the manor was seized by Parliament, and a survey was taken in 1648. (fn. 39) In the same year the manor was sold to Robert Henley and Edward Smith for £1,082 9s. 6d. (fn. 40) After the Restoration the Bishop of Worcester recovered the manor, which he then seems to have leased to the Henleys and afterwards to the Hales. (fn. 41) The lease was purchased by Nicholas Lechmere in 1681, (fn. 42) and four years later he sold to Thomas Earl of Plymouth, the lease then running for the lives of Robert Henley of the Grange (co. Hants), of George brother of Sir John Hales deceased, and of William Peck. (fn. 43) In 1699 the lease was held by Other Windsor Earl of Plymouth, grandson and successor of Thomas. (fn. 44) His daughters sold the remainder of the lease to George Perrott, one of the barons of the Exchequer, who died 28 January 1780. (fn. 45)


Old House at Lower Moor, Fladbury

The manor remained with the successive Bishops of Worcester until it was taken over by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners under the Act of 1860, (fn. 46) and they are still lords of the manor, (fn. 47) but the lease remained in the Perrott family until 1861, when it passed by exchange to the Commissioners. (fn. 48)

There was a mill at Fladbury in 1086 which was worth 10s. and 20 stiches (fn. 49) of eels a year. (fn. 50) Bishop William of Blois purchased a mill there from Adam de Evesham in the early part of the 13th century. (fn. 51) In 1302 there were two mills at Fladbury farmed at £3 19s. 6d., and the fishery in the Avon brought in a rent of 19s. 6d. (fn. 52) Two water corn-mills were included in the sale to Robert Henley and Edward Smith. (fn. 53) There is now a corn-mill in Fladbury, to the south of the village on the Avon, and Wyre Mill is a corn-mill on the Avon in the south of Wyre Piddle.

AB LENCH or ABBOT'S LENCH

(Abeleng, xi cent.; Habbelenche, xiii cent.; Hob Lench, xvi and xvii cent.; Abs Lench, xviii cent.; Abbot's Lench, (fn. 54) xviii and xix cent.) seems to have belonged to the church of Worcester from an early date, and was probably comprised in the 5 mansae at Lench which Oswald gave to Gardulf for three lives in 983. (fn. 55) It appears in the Domesday Survey as the property of the bishop, of whom it had been held by Godric. It is said that he did 'service for it to the bishop (on such terms) as he could obtain.' (fn. 56) At the actual time of the Survey Urse D'Abitot, the Sheriff of Worcestershire, held it of the bishop as of his manor of Fladbury. (fn. 57) It appears to have afterwards passed to Urse's descendants, the Beauchamps, and may possibly have been included in the 22 hides which Walter de Beauchamp held of the bishop in Fladbury early in the 12th century. (fn. 58)

The overlordship of Ab Lench descended in the Beauchamp family until the 16th century, (fn. 59) but the superior lordship of the Bishops of Worcester seems to have lapsed in the 13th century. (fn. 60)

The manor of Ab Lench was held towards the end of the 12th century under William de Beauchamp by Stephen de Beauchamp. (fn. 61) It must shortly afterwards have passed to William de Belne, who was said in a survey of Fladbury taken at about that time to be holding these 5 hides, which gelded at only 1 hide and had formerly been pasture for kine. (fn. 62)

It was afterwards held by Roger de Lench, who, according to the Testa de Nevill, held one knight's fee and 2 hides of William de Beauchamp, who held of the Bishop of Worcester. (fn. 63) The entry probably refers to Ab Lench and Rous Lench, both of which the Lay Subsidy Roll of 1346 conclusively proves to have been held by Roger de Lench. (fn. 64)

Possibly it was this Roger who with Stephen de Lench successfully resisted the encroachment of the Abbot of Halesowen on the common pasture of Ab Lench in 1230. (fn. 65) Ankaretta de Beauchamp paid a subsidy of 20s. at Ab Lench in 1280. (fn. 66)

In 1299–1300 Ab Lench had passed into the hands of Simon le Bruyn, (fn. 67) to whom the Belnes' land at Belbroughton also passed. He was still in possession of it in 1315, according to the inquisition taken on the death of Guy de Beauchamp Earl of Warwick, which states that he held half a knight's fee there. (fn. 68) John le Bruyn paid a subsidy at Ab Lench in 1327, (fn. 69) and in 1346 he or a descendant of the same name paid 20s. for half a knight's fee in Ab Lench which Roger de Lench had formerly held. (fn. 70)

Henry Bruyn of Brians Bell held land in Ab Lench in 1405–6, (fn. 71) and it passed by the marriage of his 'cousin' and heir Joan to Sir Nicholas Burdett, (fn. 72) Great Butler of Normandy, who was slain in 1440. (fn. 73) His son Thomas Burdett (fn. 74) was a servant or follower of George Duke of Clarence; on 20 April 1474 he was attainted of high treason (fn. 75) and executed in the early part of 1477. (fn. 76) One of the charges brought against the Duke of Clarence on his attainder in the same year was that he sent his servants 'into diverse parties of this Royaulme to assemble the King's subjects to Feste theym and chere theym and by theise policies and reasonyng enduce them to beleve that the said Burdett was wrongfull excuted and so to putte it in noyse and herts of the People.' (fn. 77) Burdett's lands were forfeited, but the attainder seems to have been afterwards reversed, as on 17 June 1478 the custody of his son and heir Nicholas, a minor, and of all his possessions was granted to Sir Simon Mountfort. (fn. 78) Nicholas died without issue and was succeeded by his brother John Burdett, (fn. 79) who in 1483–4 released to his half-brother Richard Burdett and others all his right in the manor of Ab Lench. (fn. 80)


Burdett. Azure two bars or with three martlets gules upon each bar.

On 1 October 1487 the manor was settled upon this Richard Burdett and Joyce his wife and his heirs. (fn. 81) Richard died in 1492, leaving his son Thomas, aged fourteen years and more, as his heir. Joyce survived her husband, (fn. 82) and held the manor until her death under the terms of the deed referred to.

Thomas Burdett, who was in possession of the manor in 1534, (fn. 83) died without issue, and it passed to his sister Anne, (fn. 84) who became the wife of Edward Conway. (fn. 85) She predeceased her husband, who held the manor by courtesy until his death in 1546. John Conway, their son and heir, was stated to be then thirty-five years of age. (fn. 86) He was knighted in 1560, (fn. 87) and sold the manor in 1565 to John Rous (fn. 88) of Rous Lench, with which manor Ab Lench has since descended, (fn. 89) Dr. William Kyle Westwood Chafy, D.D., of Rous Lench Court, being the present lord of the manor.

In 1227 Warin son of William de Upton granted jointly with his wife Hawisia 40 acres of land in AB LENCH to the Abbot and convent of Halesowen, with common of pasture, (fn. 90) and his grant was confirmed by William Marshal Earl of Pembroke for the souls of himself and Eleanor his wife on condition that a rent of 4s. should be paid yearly at his manor of Inkberrow. (fn. 91) He afterwards relinquished his claim to this rent in favour of the abbey. (fn. 92)

The Abbot and convent of Halesowen were in possession of property in Ab Lench in 1228–9, when they were fined 20s. (fn. 93) The abbot is stated to have afterwards erected houses for the storage of grain on the common pasture of Ab Lench, and an action was brought against him by Roger and Stephen de Lench, perhaps on behalf of the inhabitants; they recovered seisin of the pasture, and the houses were ordered to be removed, but on 18 September 1230, on the petition of the abbot, leave was granted for the houses to remain standing until 2 February in the next year. (fn. 94) On 20 September 1233 the abbot paid 2s. for assarts made at Lench, (fn. 95) from which it would appear that his land included a part of the woodland mentioned in Domesday. In 1272–3 the abbot conveyed to Ralph de Hengham a messuage and land in Church Lench and Ab Lench. (fn. 96) Though land at Ab Lench is not mentioned among the possessions of the abbey in 1291 (fn. 97) or in 1535, it is possible that they retained some estate there, which passed in the same way as their manor of Church Lench to the Scudamores, for John Scudamore held in 1596 a manor called Hob Lench, (fn. 98) which passed with the manor of Church Lench until 1627, when it is mentioned for the last time. (fn. 99)

In a catalogue of the charters of the monastery of Worcester there is mentioned one by Wulfstan called the Archbishop, who was Bishop of Worcester from 1062 to 1095, relating to three mansae at

THROCKMORTON

 (fn. 100) (Throcmortune, xi cent.; Trokemardtune, xii cent.; Trockmerton, Trochmerton, xiii cent.; Throkmarton, xiv cent.), but the nature of this charter is not known. Throckmorton is not mentioned in the Domesday Survey, being then probably included in Fladbury, of which it was part until the 15th century. (fn. 101) After 1415 the manor was held of the Bishops of Worcester at a fee-farm rent of £12. (fn. 102)

Throckmorton gives its name to the family of Throckmorton, who were tenants of the Bishop of Worcester at an early date, Reoland Throckmorton appearing as a juror for the hundred of Oswaldslow in the middle of the 12th century. (fn. 103) Raulyn, who held 2½ hides in Throckmorton about 1182, may have been a member of this family, possibly identical with Reoland. (fn. 104) Adam de Throckmorton apparently owned land in Worcestershire in 1174–5, (fn. 105) and John and Joscelin de Throckmorton appear in 1175–6 and 1176–7, (fn. 106) but it is not known that they held land in Throckmorton. Henry son of John de Throckmorton at the beginning of the 13th century obtained from Mauger Bishop of Worcester (1199–1212) half a hide of land in Fladbury, (fn. 107) and he is probably the Henry son of John who is mentioned in the Testa de Nevill as holding a virgate of land in Throckmorton. (fn. 108)


Throckmorton. Gules a cheveron argent with three gimel bars sable thereon.

Adam son of Robert, who also held at that time a virgate of land in Throckmorton, (fn. 109) was possibly the Adam de Throckmorton who was dealing with a third of a fee in Upton and Throckmorton in 1232–3. (fn. 110) According to a pedigree of the family given by Nash, Adam died before 1248, and was succeeded by his son Robert, who was alive in 1252. (fn. 111) Robert appears to have been succeeded before 1266 by a son Simon. (fn. 112) Robert de Throckmorton, who obtained a dispensation from the Bishop of Worcester in 1275, (fn. 113) was son of Simon. (fn. 114) He was living in 1315–16, (fn. 115) and is perhaps identical with the Robert de Throckmorton who in 1333–4 settled four messuages and land in Throckmorton upon his son John and Maud his wife, with remainder to his other children, Nicholas, Sybil, Alice and Joan. (fn. 116) The manor of Throckmorton seems, however, to have passed to Robert's son Giles, for a messuage and 2 carucates of land in Throckmorton were settled in 1341–2 upon Giles and his wife Agnes, and upon their sons Robert, John, Thomas and Richard in tail-male. (fn. 117)

Thomas Throckmorton, who, according to the pedigree of the family given in the Visitation of Warwickshire, (fn. 118) was a son of John Throckmorton, was of the retinue of Thomas Beauchamp Earl of Warwick in 1396, was escheator for the county of Worcester in 1402, and Constable of Elmley Castle in 1404–5. (fn. 119) He seems to have made a lease of the manor in 1410–11, (fn. 120) and was succeeded by his son Sir John Throckmorton, (fn. 121) who was also of the retinue of the Earl of Warwick. (fn. 122) In 1415 the Bishop of Worcester obtained licence to grant fourteen messuages and 2 carucates of land in Throckmorton to Sir John de Throckmorton, to be held of the bishop at a feefarm rent. (fn. 123) This was probably the estate which the bishop had held in demesne in the 12th century. (fn. 124) Habington evidently refers to this transaction when he says that John Carpenter, who succeeded as Bishop of Worcester in 1444, so much disliked the alienation of Throckmorton that he threatened to excommunicate the Prior and monks of Worcester on account of it, whereupon they sued to the Archbishop of Canterbury to send for Thomas son of John Throckmorton (fn. 125) and command him to give satisfaction to the Bishop of Worcester. But 'thys lounge contention beeinge in the end utterly extinguished, thys good Bishopp entred into such a leauge of fryndshyp with Thomas Throckmorton as in Testimony of his charitye he enterteyned him to be Stuarde of all hys Castelles, Mannors etc. with a fee of 10 li. per annum.' (fn. 126) In 1440 Sir John was styled chamberlain of the Exchequer and under-treasurer of England. He died in 1445, and was buried in the church of Fladbury, where there is an inscription to his memory. (fn. 127) Sir John Throckmorton was succeeded by a son Thomas, (fn. 128) who in 1467 obtained a general pardon for all offences committed by him before 23 June. (fn. 129) He died in 1472, (fn. 130) and his son Sir Robert was in possession of the manor in 1500. (fn. 131) Sir Robert died in 1518, and was succeeded by his son George, (fn. 132) who settled the manor of Throckmorton on his son Robert on his marriage with Elizabeth Hungerford. (fn. 133) Robert succeeded his father in 1552, (fn. 134) and died in 1581, leaving a son Thomas. (fn. 135) Thomas Throckmorton was involved in difficulties owing to his religious opinions, his estate being frequently sequestrated and his person imprisoned. (fn. 136) He died in 1615, and was succeeded by his grandson Sir Robert Throckmorton, (fn. 137) who was created a baronet in 1642, (fn. 138) and suffered severely at the hands of the Parliamentary forces during the Civil War. (fn. 139) He died 16 January 1650, and was followed by his son Sir Francis Throckmorton, (fn. 140) who died 7 November 1680. (fn. 141) His eldest surviving son Sir Robert, (fn. 142) who was one of the 'Catholic non-jurors,' died 8 March 1720–1, (fn. 143) and was succeeded by his only surviving son Sir Robert, (fn. 144) on whose death on 8 December 1791 the manor probably passed to his grandson and successor to the title Sir John Courtenay Throckmorton. (fn. 145) He died without issue in 1819, and his brother and successor Sir George also died issueless in 1826. (fn. 146) The manor of Throckmorton then seems to have passed to his nephew Robert George Throckmorton, who was dealing with it in that year. (fn. 147) He succeeded to the baronetcy on the death of his uncle Sir Charles in 1840, (fn. 148) and in 1862 the manor passed from him to his eldest surviving son Sir Nicholas William George Throckmorton, ninth baronet, who is now lord of the manor of Throckmorton. (fn. 149)

At the date of the Domesday Survey

HILL

 (Hulla, xiii cent.; Hulle near Fladbury, xiv cent.) and MOOR was part of the 5 hides formerly belonging to Keneward held by Robert le Despenser of the Bishop of Worcester's manor of Fladbury. (fn. 150) Hill and Moor has apparently always been part of the manor of Fladbury. (fn. 151)

At the beginning of the 13th century an agreement was made between Henry son of John Throckmorton and Mauger Bishop of Worcester by which half a hide of land at Hill passed into the possession of Henry, who was to hold it of the bishop. (fn. 152) Henry afterwards granted a virgate of this land to William Heye for life, and in 1237–8 Richard and Adam Roland were in controversy as to the ownership of this estate, which Richard claimed as grandson of Henry Throckmorton. The suit was terminated in favour of Richard. (fn. 153) He died in 1254, (fn. 154) and his widow agreed with Richard Cristot in 1254–5 that a third of a tenement in Throckmorton and Hill which Emma held for life should revert to him on her death. (fn. 155) In the previous year Richard had agreed with the Bishop of Worcester that he should hold a carucate of land in Hill and elsewhere by suit at the bishop's court of Worcester, the bishop giving a warranty against the claims of Emma wife of Richard Roland for dower if she survived Richard. (fn. 156) The whole or part of the Rolands' estate at Hill afterwards passed to Simon Chamberlain, who had it in frank marriage by gift of Henry Roland. (fn. 157) The Chamberlains also held land in Hill and Fladbury under the Poers of Wichenford, (fn. 158) and it was probably this estate which Richard Poer held in Hill of the bishop's manor of Wick early in the 13th century. (fn. 159) Simon le Chamberlain was holding a virgate of land in Fladbury in 1221–2, (fn. 160) and Nicholas le Chamberlain held a so-called manor at Fladbury in 1291–2. (fn. 161) In 1299 Sir Simon le Chamberlain, brother and successor of Nicholas, (fn. 162) held 3 virgates of land in Fladbury and 1 in Hill of Sir John Poer, besides the halfhide which came to his family through the Rolands. (fn. 163) Sir Simon le Chamberlain still held an estate at Fladbury in 1301–2, (fn. 164) but the Chamberlains afterwards exchanged this land for that of John de Haseley in Wichenford. (fn. 165) Possibly this name should be Basely, for that family was already in possession of land at Fladbury. In 1278–9 Henry Basely was successful in proving his right to an estate there which he had inherited from his father Roger against Maud la Turre, (fn. 166) and in 1280 he paid a subsidy of half a mark at Fladbury. (fn. 167) This seems to have been the same estate which afterwards passed to the Sodingtons. (fn. 168) According to Habington, Richard de Sodington was at one time the owner. (fn. 169) In 1327 Isabel de Sodington paid a subsidy of 3s. 4d. in Fladbury, (fn. 170) and about 1337–8 William de Sodington and his wife Elizabeth bought an estate at Fladbury of the Bishop of Worcester. (fn. 171) Elizabeth died in 1371 holding a cottage called Baselond in Fladbury of the king for the service of a seventh part of a knight's fee, her heir being her daughter Isabel wife of Robert Aleyn. (fn. 172) Before this time, however, part of the estate held by the service of a tenth of a knight's fee had passed to Alexander de Besford. (fn. 173)

A parcel of land in Hill was forfeited in 1396 by Thomas Earl of Warwick. (fn. 174) The earl had granted it for life to his bastard brother John de Athereston, and the king granted the reversion in 1397 to Sir John Russell. (fn. 175)

An estate at Hill consisting of 2 hides was given by Bishop Samson (1096–1112) to Frederick or Freri de Bishopsdon. (fn. 176) William de Bishopsdon held the estate early in the 13th century, (fn. 177) and it followed the same descent as the manor of Waresley in Hartlebury (q.v.), passing with it to the Catesbys. (fn. 178) The estate at Hill and Moor was sold in 1501 by George Catesby to Robert Throckmorton. (fn. 179) The Throckmortons were dealing with land in Moor in 1558, (fn. 180) and the estate seems to have remained with them until about the middle of the 19th century, for Sir Charles Throckmorton was said to be lord of the so-called manor of Hill and Moor in 1832. (fn. 181) The manor-house is a 17th-century half-timber building with good panelled rooms. Cromwell is said to have slept here in 1651. It was acquired by Benjamin Johnson, town clerk of Worcester, before 1832. He died in 1835 and left it by his will to Thomas Henry Bund, whose grandson Mr. John Willis-Bund now holds it.

WYRE PIDDLE

 (Pidele, xi and xiii cent.; Wyre Pydele, xiv cent.; Wirepedill, Werpedell, xv cent.; Werepedyll, Wyre Pydle, xvi cent.; Wire Puddell, Warpdale, xvii cent.). At the date of the Domesday Survey Robert le Despenser held 5 hides at Wyre Piddle and Hill and Moor of the Bishop of Worcester's manor of Fladbury. (fn. 182) The overlordship of the bishop was still recognized at the end of the 13th century, but it afterwards seems to have lapsed. (fn. 183)

The manor followed the same descent as Elmley Castle until 1487–8, when it passed into the hands of Henry VII. (fn. 184) It remained in the Crown (fn. 185) until 1550, when it was granted by Edward VI to Ralph Sadleir and Lawrence Wenington. (fn. 186) They seem to have conveyed it to Bartholomew Hales, who sold it to John and Thomas Folliott in 1571. (fn. 187) John Folliott died on 7 March 1578 seised of the manor of Wyre Piddle, (fn. 188) which then passed with the manor of Stone in Halfshire Hundred (q.v.) in the Folliott family, and subsequently to the Courteens and Rushouts. (fn. 189) On the death of Sir James Rushout in 1711 this manor, instead of passing with Stone to his sister Elizabeth St. John, passed with the baronetcy to his uncle Sir John Rushout, and from that time followed the same descent (fn. 190) as Northwick Park in Blockley (q.v.). Lady Northwick, widow of George third Lord Northwick, held the manor until her death in 1912, when it passed by will to her grandson Mr. George Spencer Churchill.


Folliott. Argent a lion purpure with a forked rail and a golden crown.


Courteen. Or a talbot passant sable.

The rent of £5 reserved from the manor of Wyre Piddle in the grant of 1550 was vested in trustees for sale in 1070–1. (fn. 191) It was sold by them in 1672 to John Jones of Whitehall, (fn. 192) and in 1807 it belonged to Frances Hearne Bettesworth. (fn. 193)

BRADLEY (Bradanleah, Bradanlege, viii cent.; Bradelege, xi cent.; Bradeleghe, xiii cent.), afterwards STOCK and BRADLEY. In the pontificate of Wilfrid (717–43) Ethelbald, King of Mercia, gave 6 cassates of land in Bradley to Cyneburh. (fn. 194) As this grant is included among the charters of the monastery of Worcester, (fn. 195) and Ethelbald is said to have given Bradley to the church, (fn. 196) it may be supposed that after Cyneburh's death these 6 cassates at Bradley passed to the see of Worcester.

At the famous Council of Celchyth in 789 Heathored, Bishop of Worcester, proceeded against Wulfheard, son of Cussa, who had endeavoured to deprive the church of land at Bradley which had been bequeathed to it by Hemele and Duda. The bishop proved his right to the lands, but agreed that Wulfheard should hold them for life, and that at his death they should be restored to the church where the bodies of Hemele and Duda were buried. (fn. 197)

In 962 Bishop Oswald granted to his servant Eadmaer the wood from Bradley necessary for the preparation of salt in four vats at Droitwich which belonged to certain land in Bentley which the bishop had granted to Eadmaer. (fn. 198) At the date of the Domesday Survey Aelfric the Archdeacon held a hide at Bradley of the bishop's manor of Fladbury. (fn. 199) The manor seems to have remained with the see of Worcester (fn. 200) until the reign of Edward VI, when by some means it passed to the Crown. Edward VI granted it in 1553 to John Earl of Bedford and Edmund Downing. (fn. 201) On 1 February 1554 Edmund sold it to Roger and Robert Taverner of London. (fn. 202)

The date at which the manor returned to the possession of the Bishops of Worcester is not known. It was perhaps before 1628, when an agreement was made by which the bishop and Sir William Sandys conveyed to the king 110 acres of the waste of Bradley in Feckenham Forest on condition that they should hold the remainder on certain terms. (fn. 203) In 1825 the Bishop of Worcester claimed the hamlet of Stock and Bradley as a member of his manor of Fladbury. (fn. 204) The Ecclesiastical Commissioners, who took over the estates of the see of Worcester in 1860, (fn. 205) are now the principal landowners in Stock and Bradley.

In the time of Henry II, Randolph son of Roger (of Rous Lench) held a hide of land at Bradley. (fn. 206) Roger son of Ralph de Lench gave the tithes of Bradley which belonged to the chapel of Chadwick to the hospital of St. Wulfstan, Worcester, his grant being confirmed in 1232 by the king. (fn. 207)

In the time of Bishop Baldwin (1180–90) Alured Levet claimed to hold of his nephew (nepos), the son of Ralph de Levet, a hide of land at Fladbury. (fn. 208) It was probably this estate which was held at the time of the Testa de Nevill by William of Bradley as a hide at Bradley. (fn. 209) An estate at Bradley belonged about the middle of the 13th century to the Walton or Wauton family. Master Simon de Walton purchased half a carucate of land in Bradley of Richard le Archer in 1244–5, (fn. 210) and in 1248–9 he acquired land there from John Copty, Stephen Alewy, Hugh de Seler, (fn. 211) Ralph de Eccleshal (fn. 212) and Ralph Marsh. (fn. 213)

In 1253 Master Simon obtained from Henry III a grant that his garden with the grove therein which he had caused to be inclosed in the circuit of his house at Bradley in the forest of Feckenham should remain inclosed, bounded by a hedge without a deer leap like a park, with the 'beasts of the wood' in the park if he liked. (fn. 214) Simon de Wauton appears to have been succeeded by John, who was dealing with land at Bradley in 1274–5, (fn. 215) and paid a subsidy of 8s. in 1280 at Bradley. (fn. 216) John de Wauton, who in 1294 obtained licence from Simon Bishop of Norwich to do homage to the chief lords for land in Bradley and elsewhere, (fn. 217) was perhaps son of John above mentioned. John Knight held a hide of land in Bradley in 1299, (fn. 218) and Robert Knight paid a subsidy of 1s. there in 1327. (fn. 219) In 1346 William Knight of Bradley was in possession of the land at Bradley which William de Bradley had held, (fn. 220) but it is not certain that this was the same estate as that held by the Wautons, and its further descent has not been traced.

In 1086 the priest at Fladbury held half a hide of land. (fn. 221) In 1772 the rector of Fladbury received an allotment in consideration of 70 acres which he held in Throckmorton as part of the RECTORY MANOR. (fn. 222) In 1788, when Fladbury was inclosed, he obtained a further allotment in consideration of his right of common in Fladbury belonging to the rectory manor. (fn. 223) Nash in his History of Worcestershire mentions that it was a custom of the rectory manor for the rector to grant for three lives and the widow to have her free bench. (fn. 224) The manorial rights have now apparently lapsed.

CHURCHES

The church of ST. JOHN BAPTIST consists of a chancel 38½ ft. by 19½ ft., a modern north vestry and south organ chamber, nave 57 ft. by 20 ft., north aisle 9 ft. and south aisle 8½ ft. in width, south porch and a western tower 12½ ft. wide and 13½ ft. deep; all the measurements are internal.

A church stood here in the 12th century, but of this building only the tower remains, the three lower stages dating from that period; it was probably attached to an aisleless nave and chancel. About the year 1340 the whole of the pre-existing structure (except the tower) was swept away to make room for the new work. The present nave with both its aisles, and the chancel with a vestry to the north-east of it (which has now disappeared), were then erected, the clearstory being added immediately afterwards. The south porch was built with the south aisle, but it was refaced some time in the 17th century, and since that period has undergone restoration. A board in the ringing-chamber records that the steeple (fn. 225) was taken down and the parapet to the tower built in 1752, and that galleries were added in 1783 and 1824. Much restoration work has been carried out in modern times, chiefly in 1865 and 1871. The east and south walls of the chancel, the vestry and the organ chamber are all of recent date, as are also several of the windows and doorways and other parts specifically mentioned below. The present four-light east window replaced a seven-light one, probably itself of no great age; the gable wall over is pierced by a small quatrefoil opening. In the south wall is a modern double piscina in 14th-century style and a sedile formed by the window-ledge; the two windows in this wall, both modern, have each two lights with cusped piercings over in a pointed arch. There is also a small priest's doorway with a pointed head. On the north side is a 14th-century window of two lights with a cusped opening over in a pointed head. The doorway into the vestry appears to be of 14th-century workmanship, but has probably been reset, and has two continuous moulded orders. To the east of the vestry, outside, in the north wall of the chancel is an original 14th-century piscina, the basin of which has been removed. The chancel arch and the arch opening into the organ chamber are both modern.


Fladbury Church Tower from the North-west

The 14th-century nave arcades consist of four bays, the first three of each being of equal span and the fourth pair narrower. The arches are of two pointed chamfered orders, and the columns are octagonal with moulded bases and bell capitals; there are no respond shafts, the inner order springing from moulded corbels except at the north-west, where it dies on to the wall of the tower stair turret. The two eastern corbels are modern. The original doorway into the tower stair turret opens towards the east into the nave, but a modern one has been inserted in the west aisle wall outside. The tower arch has three continuous chamfered orders, and over it is a wide opening into the ringing chamber with a pointed segmental arch, which is evidently modern, as above it a similar arch is visible, now filled in. The clearstory has four windows on either side, of two lights each, with square heads; the westernmost pair are modern, the others original.

The three-light east and west windows of the north aisle are modern, as is the westernmost of the four two-light north windows, the other three being of late 14th-century date.

In the south wall of the south aisle next the arch opening into the modern organ chamber is a small locker with rebated edges, and west of it are the remains of a piscina with a concave back and pointed head. The two south windows of the aisle are both in part old, each with two lights in a square head. The south doorway has been completely modernized, and to the east of it is a small square blocked doorway, which evidently once opened to a stair leading to a room over the porch. The jambs only of the west window are old, and above it externally is a string-course, all modern except the piece at the south-west corner, carved with the head and shoulders of an angel. Above the string-course are remains of a blocked opening, probably connected with an 18th-century gallery. The south porch, although much repaired, is of the same date as the aisle and has a ribbed vault, springing from corner shafts with moulded bases and capitals. In the east wall is a window of two small lancets and in the west a quatrefoil window, both partly renewed. The outer archway appears to be an 18th-century rebuilding, and this again has been repaired in modern times. Over the doorway is a circular traceried piercing with a square moulded label. The front wall of the porch is finished with a curved pediment, capped by a pedestal sundial.

The tower is of four stages, the lowest being strengthened by shallow clasping and intermediate buttresses, the latter pierced by small round-headed lights, surrounded internally by large shallow recesses with pointed arches. The next two stages are both pierced by narrow rectangular lights, and on the west face of the third stage is a clock. Here the outlines of the former belfry windows can still be traced; these were evidently filled in when the tower was heightened. The top stage or bell-chamber is lit by a two-light window in each wall with a plain spandrel in a pointed arch. The parapet is embattled with a continuous coping, the lower part being panelled and the merlons pierced with trefoiled openings. At the angles are square panelled pinnacles with smaller ones in the centre of each face. The walling of the church is mainly of rubble, but the tower is ashlar faced and the clearstories, above the windows, are built of red brick.

The buttresses of the north aisle wall are original, but most of the others are modern. The roofs are also modern, the chancel and nave having low-pitched gables; the roof of the latter is ceiled. The aisle roofs are flat, lead covered, and plastered internally. All the roofs have eaves with stone cornices.

The altar table, marble reredos, stone pulpit and font are all of recent date.

Under the tower is a large altar tomb of grey marble to John Throckmorton, who died in 1445, Eleanor his wife, and Thomas his son. It was moved from its former position in the chancel at the last restoration of the church. The sides of the tomb are panelled and the moulded plinth contains a band of quatrefoils. In the slab are the brass figures of a man in armour and a lady with five shields, one of which is missing; the other four have the arms of Throckmorton impaling Azure a fesse or with three pheons thereon. In the chancel floor is a slab with the half figure of a coped priest in brass and an inscription below to Thomas Mordon, Bachelor of Law and Treasurer of St. Paul's, London, a former rector of this church, who died in 1458. The arms in the shields over are a cheveron between two molets in the chief and a lion in the foot.
A second brass has a Latin inscription to William Plewine, M.A., rector, who died in 1504, whose figure is represented in mass vestments; and a brass inscription commemorates Olive wife successively of Edward Harris and John Talbot, who died in 1647.
At the west end of the nave is a brass to Edward Peyton, in armour, the figures of the wife and children with three shields being missing. Another undated Latin inscription is to Godytha (Bosom) wife of Robert Olney (her daughter Margaret married Thomas Throckmorton) surrounded by three reversed shields. The other monuments include one, in the vestry, to Bishop William Lloyd, 1707, and another in the south aisle to John Darby, 1609.
In the north-west window of the chancel are six shields of 14th-century glass, of the arms of Beauchamp, Mountford, Moigne, Mortimer, Montfort, and Despenser. They were removed from the east window to make way for the present stained-glass window, and are said to have come from the abbey of Evesham at the Dissolution. They are mentioned in Symond's Diary in 1644. (fn. 226)
There were a number of encaustic tiles about the church; most of them have been collected and placed in the north doorway, now blocked.
In the churchyard is a fine row of yew trees with a pathway between it and the old brick boundary wall.
There is a ring of six bells, all cast by Mears in 1807, and in addition a small sanctus bell hung in the south window with a black letter inscription, 'Sancta Katerina Ora pro me Edwardo Gregion.'

The old communion plate was in 1801 removed to the chapels of Throckmorton and Wyre Piddle. (fn. 227)


Throckmorton Church from the South-west

The registers are as follows: (i) baptisms and marriages from 1560 to 1630, burials 1560 to 1629; (ii) baptisms and burials from 1630 to 1713, marriages 1630 to 1712, with gaps from 1640 to 1660 in this book; (iii) baptisms and burials from 1713 to 1803, marriages 1713 to 1753; (iv) marriages from 1754 to 1812; (v) baptisms and burials from 1804 to 1812.

The church of THROCKMORTON consists of a chancel 12½ ft. by 16 ft., a central tower 11½ ft. by 13½ ft., a nave about 45 ft. by 17½ ft., and a small south aisle 4½ ft. in width. These measurements are all internal.

The chancel is of the 13th century, but the tracery of the windows is all modern, the eastern being of three lights, with one of two lights in each side wall. The trefoiled piscina at the east end of the south wall has a square head with pierced spandrels and a half-octagonal bowl. The eastern arch of the contemporary central tower which is included within the chancel is of two chamfered orders, the outer order dying upon the walls and the inner springing from plain corbels. The western arch is similar, with the exception that the inner order also dies upon the face of the responds, and a little above its springing it is interrupted on both sides by large plain corbels which must have originally supported the rood-beam. In the south wall of the tower is a window of two trefoiled lights with modern tracery. The projecting chamfered course on the north and south walls evidently supported a floor below the level of the crowns of the arches.

In the north wall of the nave is a window of similar form to the east window of the chancel. The north doorway is of the 14th century and is of two chamfered orders. The south arcade of the nave is of five bays with two-centred arches of two plain chamfered orders and dates from the 13th century. The centre bay is considerably narrower than the rest. Above the columns where the labels, had they existed, would have intersected, are face-corbels. These have been recently placed in this position for their better preservation. They were formerly lying loose in the building, and had probably been detached from the fabric at some repair or restoration. The columns are quatrefoil on plan with moulded capitals and water-holding bases. The three-light west window dates from early in the 14th century.

Both aisle windows are modern. The south doorway is reset 14th-century work and has a chamfered two-centred head and jambs. The embattled tower is three stages high, with good gargoyles at the angles. The belfry is lighted by two-light windows, and the stage below by two small square-headed lights in the south wall.

Externally the chancel is built of coursed rubble with an intermixture of brick and tile. The walls of both chancel and nave have been heightened in brick. The nave and tower are both covered with rough-cast, and the south aisle is modern.

The cylindrical font with its thick tapering stem is perhaps of 14th-century date.

The tower contains four bells: the first is uninscribed, the second has fallen from its frame and is broken at the crown, the third is dated 1622 with the churchwardens' names, the fourth is cracked and inscribed,

'Be it known to all that shall us see
That Henrie Farmer made we 4 of 3.'

The plate consists of an Elizabethan cup with cover paten without hall mark, a small paten of plain beaten silver, also without hall mark, and an almsdish of brass.

The registers before 1812 are as follows: (i) baptisms from 1546 to 1717, marriages 1545 to 1717, and burials 1661 to 1717; (ii) baptisms from 1717 to 1812, burials 1721 to 1750, and marriages from 1718 to 1754.

The church at WYRE consists of a chancel 14½ ft. by 15½ ft., nave 41½ ft. by 18 ft., and a north porch.

The walls appear to follow the plan of a 12th-century building, but the whole structure has been rebuilt in modern times. The three-light east window is in 14th-century style with modern tracery and original jambs. In the north wall is a modern two-light window. The first window on the south side is of three lights in the style of the 14th century and the second is modern. In the same wall is set half of a 13th-century capital, used as a credence table, and a typical 12th-century pillar piscina, with square bowl. The chancel arch is round-headed, of one plain order, with a chamfered label, and springs from square chamfered impost mouldings. On each side of it is a square squint.

All the nave windows are modern restorations, there being three in the north wall and four in the south. The western pair are modern lancets; the remaining windows are each of two lights, the eastern pair having quatrefoil tracery. The north door is the only entrance to the nave, and is covered by a modern porch. The 15th-century west window is of two lights and contains some fine pieces of contemporary stained glass. The font is circular, with a moulded rim and cheveron ornament below. The stem and base are also circular, and beneath the bowl are fluted scallops. In a recess in the north wall are preserved some fragments of early work, with the boss of a shield and a light spearhead, discovered in the churchyard. There is also one of a pair of 14th-century candlesticks in the churchwarden's house. The chancel floor is largely paved with mediaeval tiles, the better preserved being within the altar rails.

The church has a bellcote above the chancel, with spaces for two bells. The work is contemporary with the chancel, but has been restored. It contains one 18th-century bell by Rudhall.

The plate includes a reconstructed cup, the old stem Elizabethan, the cup itself comparatively modern, a plain plate hall-marked 1673 and a large flagon of 1651.

The registers before 1812 are as follows: in one book, baptisms 1670 to 1709, burials 1680 to 1713, marriages 1684 to 1709. (fn. 228)

The church of ST. JOHN BAPTIST, Bradley, consists of a chancel, nave, north porch and north-east tower. The church was erected in 1864–5 on the site of a former building, which is stated by Nash to have been of timber with a wooden tower. (fn. 229) The materials are Inkberrow stone, and the design is in the style of the early 14th century. The east window of the chancel is of three lights with tracery over, and the nave is lighted from the west by a large rose-window. The tower is surmounted by a broach spire of stone. The north porch contains portions of two mediaeval tomb slabs. The earliest of these has a double cross with a wheel head, and probably dates from about 1300. The later and more elaborate slab has a cross approximating to the Maltese shape, and upon its stem a shield charged with three crosslets upon a bend. In the church is a monument from the former building to Joseph James, who died in 1776.

There is one bell of 1865, replacing three cast in 1771.

The plate consists of a chalice and cover of Reformation pattern, the cover (usable as a patern) bearing the date 1571, a paten dated 1865, and a modern metal flagon, never used.

The registers before 1812 are as follows: (i) mixed entries 1562 to 1644; (ii) 1645 to 1718; (iii) 1719 to 1812.

ST. THOMAS'S Church at Lower Moor was opened on 21 December 1869. It was built on a site given by Robert Wagstaff, and service is held there every Sunday afternoon by the rector and curates of Fladbury. Parish rooms at Fladbury, Moor and Wyre Piddle are used for meetings.

ADVOWSONS

There was possibly a church at Fladbury in 1086, as there was then a priest there. (fn. 230) The advowson has always belonged to the see of Worcester. (fn. 231) In 1291 the church was valued at £26 13s. 4d. (fn. 232) In 1317 the Crown presented owing to the vacancy of the see of Worcester, (fn. 233) and in 1535 the presentation was granted to Thomas Cromwell and others on the petition of Thomas Bagard, LL.D., vicar-general of Worcester. (fn. 234) In 1535 the rectory of Fladbury, with the chapels attached to it, (fn. 235) was worth £81 0s. 8d. yearly. (fn. 236) In 1543 Christopher Hales, the rector, received a licence to travel abroad for seven years, and take with him one servant and two horses. (fn. 237)

On 14 May 1448 (fn. 238) Eleanor wife of John Throckmorton and her son Thomas obtained licence to found in the parish church of Fladbury a chantry of one chaplain to celebrate divine service daily at the altar of St. Mary. The chantry was to be called 'Throkmerton Chaunterie,' and Eleanor and Thomas were to endow it with rents to the value of £10 a year. (fn. 239) The advowson belonged to the lords of the manor of Throckmorton. (fn. 240) In 1535 the chantry was valued at £9 3s. 4d. (fn. 241) William Lane, the chantry priest, obtained licence in 1547 to grant all the lands belonging to the chantry to George Throckmorton. (fn. 242) Two years later the chantry was dissolved, and the chantry-house seems to have been granted to Stephen Hales, for he and his wife Joan conveyed a messuage called the Chantry House in 1553 to John Ayland, (fn. 243) and in 1588 the chantry of Fladbury was granted by the queen, at the request of Edward Dyer, to Edward Wymarke. (fn. 244) In 1601 it was granted to Robert Stanford or Stamford. (fn. 245)

There was an obit in the church in connexion with this chantry supported by a sum of 5s. from the endowment of the chantry. (fn. 246) There was also a rent of 4d. from an acre of land in Fladbury given for the maintenance of a lamp in the church. (fn. 247)

A chapel, to which the rectors of Fladbury presented, was in existence at Ab Lench as early as 1269, when the first presentation of which we have any record took place. (fn. 248) Presentations were made to this vicarage until 1419. (fn. 249) The remains of the chapel were visible in 1812, (fn. 250) and are still remembered by some of the inhabitants. Carlisle, writing in 1808, mentioned a demolished chapel. (fn. 251) Ab Lench was annexed to Church Lench for ecclesiastical purposes in 1865. (fn. 252)

The chapels of Throckmorton, Bradley and Wyre Piddle were mentioned in the Valor of 1535. (fn. 253) The chapels of Throckmorton and Wyre Piddle are still annexed to Fladbury. Bradley was separated from Fladbury in July 1862, (fn. 254) and the living was declared a rectory in 1866. (fn. 255) It is in the gift of the Bishop of Worcester.

CHARITIES

The amalgamated charities are administered by the rector and churchwardens, comprising

1. The charity known as Holt's charity, consisting of £49 13s. 6d. consols, representing donations mentioned on the church table of £5 each by Miss Martin, Nicholas Perks and Mrs. Hester Jones, improved by offertories to £50.

2. The charity of Richard Bourne Charlett, will 1821, also mentioned on the church table, trust fund, £100 consols.

3. The charity of Mrs.Joyce Evans, will proved at Worcester 15 July 1848, trust fund, £44 14s. consols.

4. The charity of Robert Wagstaff, will proved at Worcester 26 July 1880, trust fund, £500 consols.

The several sums of stock are held by the official trustees, the annual dividends of which, amounting to £17 7s., were in 1908–9 applied in gifts of 4s. to 8s. among twenty-eight widows, 10s. each to two poor residents and other money gifts.

In 1825 the Rev. Martin Stafford Smith by deed gave a sum of £1,125 1s. consols with the official trustees, the annual dividends, amounting to £28 2s. 4d., to be distributed in coals, bread and meat, and religious books to the poorest inhabitants of Fladbury, Hill and Moor, Wyre Piddle and Throckmorton on or about 23 December. Contributions to the income are made by residents, the distributions being made chiefly in coal by the rector and churchwardens, and Bibles, Prayer books and hymn books by the rector.

In 1865 the Rev. Frederick Gauntlett by deed gave £100 consols (with the official trustees), the annual dividend of £2 10s. to be applied towards the support of the parochial schools.

The Church Lands—referred to on the church table as the gift in 1403 of Thomas Wilcox and Grysels his wife, and devise by will of John Hopkins, 1710—now consist of 11 acres let in allotments, acquired by exchange on the inclosure in 1787 for other lands called the Cherry Orchard and Rick Ground; also 2 acres in the hamlet of Hill and Moor. The net rental of about £18 yearly is carried to the churchwardens' accounts.

Hamlet of Hill and Moor.

—In 1681 William White of London, vintner—as appeared from the church table—gave £5 for the use of the poor, subsequently augmented to £17.

In 1841 William George, by will proved in the P.C.C., left £50 for the poor. These gifts are now represented by £72 8s. 8d. consols.

In 1885 Miss Mary Wagstaff, by will proved at Worcester, left £200, which was invested in £198 10s. 2d. consols.

In 1888 Miss Ann Wagstaff, by a codicil to her will proved at Worcester, left £200, invested in £206 9s. consols.

The several sums of stock are held by the official trustees, the annual dividends of which, amounting to £11 18s., are applied proportionately in pursuance of the trusts of the respective charities. The distribution is made in bread and money in the month of January in each year, a preference being given to widows. In 1909 sixteen needy families benefited under Miss Ann Wagstaff's charity.

This hamlet also participates in the benefit of the charity of the Rev. Martin Stafford Smith. (See under parish of Fladbury.)

Chapelry of Stock and Bradley.

— The Poor's Land—referred to on the church table as the gift in 1621 of William Jones and in 1653 of Henry Collier—now consists of 2½ acres, known as the Parish Close, and two plots of garden land, containing together 1 acre, or thereabouts, of the annual rental value of £8 10s., which is applied in the distribution of bread, beef and coal.

The Church Lands.

—The chapelry has been in possession from time immemorial of about 5½ acres of land, now let at £19 a year, which is carried to the chapel-wardens' account.

Hamlet of Wyre Piddle.

—The Chapel Lands consist of a garden plantation containing 1 a. 2 r. 8 p. let at £8 a year, which is applied towards the repair of the chapel, the sum of 10s. being paid to the rector as tithe.

This hamlet also participates in the benefits of the charity of the Rev. Martin Stafford Smith. (See under the parish of Fladbury.)

Footnotes

1

Habington, Surv. of Worcs. (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), i, 225.

2

Of which 49 are covered by water. This includes Ab Lench now in Church Lench.

3

Census of Engl. and Wales Worcs. 1901, pp. 22, 23.

4

Statistics from Bd. of Agric. (1905).

5

Ibid.

6

Hale, Reg. of Worc. Priory (Camd. Soc.), 110b.

7

Nash, Hist. of Worcs. i, 446.

8

Noake, Guide to Worcs. 164.

9

Inscr. on the monument of Bishop Lloyd in the vestry.

10

Parl. Papers (1872), xlvi, 27.

11

Prattinton Coll. (Soc. Antiq.).

12

Cal. Chart. R. 1226–57, p. 102.

13

Priv. Act, 28 Geo. III, cap. 16; Blue Bk. Incl. Awards, 190.

14

Priv. Act, 6 Geo. IV, cap. 1. The award is dated 11 July 1829 (Blue Bk. Incl. Awards, 191).

15

Priv. Act, 2 & 3 Will. IV, cap. 13. The award is dated 12 Dec. 1833 (Blue Bk. Incl. Awards, 190).

16

Priv. Act, 12 Geo. III, cap. 37. The award is dated 31 Oct. 1772 (Blue Bk. Incl. Awards, 191).

17

Blue Bk. Incl. Awards, 192. The Inclosure Acts for Wyre Piddle have not been found among the printed Acts of Parliament.

18

Heming, Chartul. (ed. Hearne), 21; Birch, Cart. Sax. i, 110.

19

In a forged Evesham charter the land is said to have belonged to Ethelred in right of his wife (Birch, op. cit. i, 193).

20

Ibid. 111; Heming, op. cit. 590.

21

Dugdale, Mon. Angl. i, 585; Heming, op. cit. 591; Birch, op. cit. i, 111, 191.

22

Chron. of Evesham (Rolls Ser.), iv, 73.

23

Ibid. 18, 71, 73, 95.

24

Birch, op. cit. i, 331; Heming, op. cit. 591, 585. This deed is certainly genuine.

25

Birch, op. cit. i, 328. This charter is, however, a forgery. See above under Cropthorne.

26

Arch. Journ. xix, 247.

27

Birch, op. cit. i, 507; Heming, op. cit. 25.

28

V.C.H. Worcs. i, 289b. The bishop had all the proceeds of hunting and honey as well as the timber used for the salt-pans at Droitwich (ibid.).

29

Ibid. 324a.

30

Cart. Antiq. RR 15.

31

Ibid. I 31.

32

Thomas, Surv. of Cath. Ch. of Worc. 123; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. viii, 194.

33

Cal. Pat. 1247–58, p. 345. This grant was confirmed in the following year (Cal. Chart. R. 1226–57, p. 443). The warren was probably made on Craycombe Hill, where it remained until the commons of Fladbury were inclosed in 1788 (Priv. Act, 28 Geo. III, cap. 16).

34

Thomas, op. cit. 138.

35

Pope Nich. Tax. (Rec. Com.), 225b.

36

Feud. Aids, v, 306, 318.

37

Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), iii, 218a.

38

Close, 24 Chas. I, pt. xiv, no. 5. In 1639–40 William Sandys and his wife Cicely conveyed the manor to Henry Sandys, who had married William's sister Jane (Feet of F. Worcs. Trin. 15 Chas. I; Visit. of Worcs. 1569 [Harl. Soc. xxvii], 124). This William Sandys spent £20,000 in making the Avon navigable for vessels of 50 tons from Tewkesbury to Stratford, a distance of 24 miles (Cal. S. P. Dom. 1635–6, p. 280; Noake, Guide to Worcs. 164; Nash, Hist. of Worcs. i, 446–7).

39

Nash, op. cit. i, 447. There were then twenty-four copyhold tenants in the manor (ibid.).

40

Close, 24 Chas. I, pt. xiv, no. 5.

41

In 1671–2 Sir John Hales and his wife Anne and Richard Hopkins and his wife Mary were dealing with six parts of the manor of Fladbury (Feet of F. Worcs. Mich. 23 Chas. II).

42

Shirley, Hanley and the House of Lechmere, 47.

43

Recov. R. D. Enr. East. 1 Jas. II, m. 3. The bishop reserved from the lease the advowson of the church and the rights to 'chase, hawke and hunt' upon the premises.

44

Nash, op. cit. i, 447a. In 1700 the manor was valued at £450 a year (Diary of Francis Evans [Worcs. Hist. Soc.], 25). In 1749 the manor of Fladbury was conveyed by Valens Comyn and his wife Mary, widow of Francis Colston, to Hugh Watson (Feet of F. Worcs. Hil. 23 Geo. II; Close, 23 Geo. II, pt. iii, no. 23).

45

Dict. Nat. Biog.

46

Stat. 23 & 24 Vict. cap. 124.

47

Inform. supplied by Ecclesiastical Commissioners.

48

Ibid.; Priv. Act, 28 Geo. III, cap. 16; 6 Geo. IV, cap. 1; 2 & 3 Will. IV, cap. 13.

49

There were 25 eels to the stich.

50

V.C.H. Worcs. i, 289b.

51

Thomas, op. cit. A 129. In 1291 the mill of Fladbury was worth £2 (Pope Nich. Tax. [Rec. Com.], 225b).

52

Mins. Accts. bdle. 1143, no. 18.

53

Close, 24 Chas. I, pt. xiv, no. 5.

54

The name Abbot's Lench is a corruption unknown until about 1796. Dr. William Kyle Westwood Chafy, who now owns this hamlet, is desirous of restoring the ancient name Ab Lench. The county council tried to get this done, but the Ordnance Survey officials refused.

55

Heming, op. cit. 187; Kemble, Cod. Dipl. no. 637.

56

V.C.H. Worcs. i, 289b.

57

Ibid.

58

Ibid. 324a.

59

Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 41; Cal. Inq. p.m. 1–9 Edw. II, 403; Exch. K. R. Misc. Bks. xxii, fol. 1; Cal. Inq. p.m. Hen. VII, i, 345; Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), lxxv, 98.

60

Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 41.

61

Red Bk. of Bishopric of Worc. (Eccl. Com. Rec. Var. bdle. 121, no. 43698), fol. 252. Church scot at Ab Lench was given by Stephen de Beauchamp to the nuns of Cookhill (Nash, op. cit. ii, 17).

62

Red Bk. of Bishopric of Worc. fol. 81.

63

Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 41.

64

Lay Subs. R. 1346 (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), 19; Feud. Aids, v, 307.

65

Cal. Close, 1227–31, p. 373.

66

Lay Subs. R. Worcs. c. 1280 (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), 35.

67

Habington, Surv. of Worcs. (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), i, 326.

68

Chan. Inq. p.m. 9 Edw. II, no. 71; Cal. Inq. p.m. 1–9 Edw. II, 403.

69

Lay Subs. R. 1327 (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), 6.

70

Ibid. 1346 (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), 19; Feud. Aids, v, 307.

71

Habington, op. cit. i, 326.

72

Feud. Aids, v, 319, 333.

73

Habington, loc. cit.; Dugdale, Hist. of Warw. 847; Visit. of Warw. (Harl. Soc. xii), 101.

74

Visit. of Warw. (Harl. Soc. xii), 101.

75

Pat. 17 Edw. IV, pt. i, m. 8 d.

76

Chan. Inq. p.m. 17 Edw. IV, no. 66.

77

Parl. R. vi, 193.

78

Pat. 18 Edw. IV, pt. i, m. 9.

79

Visit. of Warw. (Harl. Soc. xii), 101.

80

Dugdale, Hist. of Warw. 847; De Banco R. Chart. Enr. East. 1 Ric. III, m. 2.

81

Cal. Inq. p.m. Hen. VII, i, 345.

82

Ibid.

83

Recov. R. Hil. 26 Hen. VIII, rot. 144.

84

Dugdale, Hist. of Warw. 847.

85

Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), lxxv, 98; Early Chan. Proc. bdle. 291, no. 69.

86

Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), lxxv, 98.

87

Metcalfe, Bk. of Knights, 117.

88

Feet of F. Worcs. East. 7 Eliz. A second conveyance took place in 1585 (ibid. Mich. 26 & 27 Eliz.).

89

Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cccxxvi, 48; Recov. R. Trin. 4 Geo. II, rot. 14; 2 Geo. IV, rot. 148; Feet of F. Worcs. Mich. 11 Chas. I; Div. Co. Hil. 1650; East. 5 Anne.

90

Will. Salt Arch. Soc. Coll. iv, 227.

91

Jeayes, Lyttelton Chart. no. 7.

92

Ibid. no. 8.

93

Nash, op. cit. ii, App. xx, quoting Pipe R. 13 Hen. III.

94

Cal. Close, 1227–31, p. 373.

95

Nash, op. cit. ii, App. xx, quoting Fine R. 17 Hen. III, m. 2.

96

Feet of F. Worcs. 1 Edw. I, no. 1.

97

Pope Nich. Tax. (Rec. Com.), 230.

98

Feet of F. Div. Co. Trin. 39 Eliz.

99

Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cccciv, 114; Feet of F. Worcs. Trin. 3 Chas. I.

100

Heming, op. cit. ii, 580.

101

Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 41b; Mins. Accts. bdle. 1143, no. 18; Cal. Pat. 1413–16, p. 340; Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), xiv, 6; Exch. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), file 1179, no. 1.

102

See below.

103

V.C.H. Worcs. i, 291. According to Sir William Dugdale a John Throckmorton was lord of the manor of Throckmorton in 1130, but there seems to be no authority for this assertion (Betham, Baronetage of Engl. i, 486).

104

Habington, Surv. of Worcs. (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), i, 226; Red Bk. of Bishopric of Worc. fol. 81. The bishop, who at this time held a manor at Throckmorton in demesne, had other tenants at Throckmorton; Norman held half a hide of land and Osmund the Chamberlain half a hide (ibid.). In a later survey the heir of Osmund the Chamberlain was holding at Throckmorton a hide and a half of land which Osmund son of Gervaise held of him. Bishop John (c. 1151) confirmed this tenement to Osmund for the service which Malgetus did for it (ibid. 255). Osmund son of Gervaise still held a virgate at Throckmorton at the beginning of the 13th century (Testa de Nevill [Rec. Com.], 41b).

105

Pipe R. 21 Hen. II (Pipe R. Soc.), 130.

106

Ibid. 22 Hen. II, 36; 23 Hen. II, 65.

107

Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. viii, 194.

108

Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 41b. William son of Joscelin held a virgate in Throckmorton at this time (ibid.).

109

Ibid.

110

Feet of F. Worcs. 17 Hen. III, no. 14.

111

Nash, op. cit. i, 452.

112

Excerpta e Rot. Fin. (Rec. Com.), ii, 447.

113

Reg. G. Giffard (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), 81.

114

Habington, op. cit. i, 227. In 1299 Robert was holding 3 virgates in Throckmorton which had belonged to William de Westhill, and he also held 2½ hides for which he had to defend the manor of Fladbury from suit at the county court (Red Bk. of Bishopric of Worc. fol. 69). John de Pikersham held in 1299 a hide of land in Throckmorton which afterwards passed to the Throckmortons (Habington, op. cit. i, 227, 228; Red Bk. of Bishopric of Worc. fol. 69).

115

Cal. Inq. p.m. 10–20 Edw. II, 409.

116

Feet of F. Worcs. Hil. 7 Edw. III, no. 9.

117

Ibid. Trin. 15 Edw. III, no. 5. In 1346 John Huband was said to be holding a fifth of a knight's fee at Throckmorton corresponding to the 4 virgates of the Testa de Nevill (Feud. Aids, v, 309). Members of this family paid subsidy at Throckmorton in 1280 and 1327 (Lay Subs. R. Worcs. 1280 [Worcs. Hist. Soc.], 36; ibid. 1327, p. 5), and in 1332–3 John Huband granted a messuage and a carucate of land in Throckmorton to Thomas de Morton and Denise his wife for life at a rent of a rose, with reversion to John (Feet of F. Worcs. Mich. 6 Edw. III, no. 41).

118

op. cit. (Harl. Soc. xii), 87.

119

Betham, Baronetage of Engl. i, 487.

120

Feet of F. Worcs. 12 Hen. IV, no. 26.

121

Cal. Pat. 1446–52, pp. 168, 169.

122

Dict. Nat. Biog.

123

Cal. Pat. 1413–16, p. 340. This fee-farm rent was doubtless the £12 received from the manor by the Bishop of Worcester in 1535 (Valor Eccl. [Rec. Com.], iii, 218). It was still paid to the bishop in 1685 (Recov. R. D. Enr. East. 1 Jas. II, m. 3).

124

a See note 4 above.

125

b John Throckmorton had died in 1445 (see M. I. in church).

126

Habington, op. cit. i, 425.

127

Dict. Nat. Biog.

128

Cal. Pat. 1446–52, pp. 168, 169.

129

Ibid. 1467–77, p. 20.

130

Chan. Inq. p.m. 12 Edw. IV, no. 33.

131

Ibid. (Ser. 2), xiv, 6.

132

Exch. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), file 1179, no. 1.

133

Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), xcviii, 75.

134

Ibid.

135

Ibid. cxciii, 89.

136

Burke, Peerage (ed. 1906).

137

Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccclxvii, 100.

138

G.E.C. Complete Baronetage, ii, 197. In 1637–8 Robert Throckmorton obtained a grant of two-thirds of the manor of Throckmorton, in the king's hands on account of the recusancy of Robert, for forty-one years if the manor remained in the king's hands so long (Pat. 13 Chas. I, pt. xxiii, no. 7).

139

G.E.C. op. cit. ii, 198.

140

Ibid.; Feet of F. Div. Co. Hil. 1654; Hil. 21 & 22 Chas. II.

141

G.E.C. loc. cit.

142

Feet of F. Div. Co. Hil. 36 & 37 Chas. II.

143

G.E.C. loc. cit.

144

Feet of F. Worcs. Hil. 6 Geo. I; Recov. R. Mich. 10 Geo. I, rot. 239; East. 16 Geo. II, rot. 254.

145

G.E.C. loc. cit.

146

Ibid.

147

Recov. R. Mich. 7 Geo. IV, rot. 264, 183. The baronetcy passed to Charles brother of Sir George (G.E.C. op. cit. ii, 199).

148

G.E.C. loc. cit.

149

Ibid.

150

V.C.H. Worcs. i, 290b.

151

Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 41b; Habington, op. cit. i, 227; Priv. Act, 2 & 3 Will. IV, cap. 13.

152

Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. viii, 194.

153

Maitland, Bracton's Note-Bk. iii, 235–6; Abbrev. Plac. (Rec. Com.), 105.

154

Feet of F. Worcs. 38 Hen. III, no. 16; 39 Hen. III, no. 28.

155

Ibid. 39 Hen. III, no. 28.

156

Ibid. 38 Hen. III, no. 16.

157

Habington, op. cit. i, 228; Red Bk. of Bishopric of Worc. fol. 69.

158

Habington, loc. cit.

159

Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 41b. This land had been given as 2 hides and a virgate in Fladbury by Bishop Samson (1096–1112) to Illi de Turre and passed with Norton in Bredon from Turre to Poer (Red Bk. of Bishopric of Worc. fol. 243). It was held about 1182 by Walter de Turre (ibid. fol. 81).

160

Feet of F. Worcs. East. 6 Hen. III.

161

Add. MS. 28024, fol. 172, 172 d.

162

Ibid. 172 d.

163

Habington, loc. cit.; Red Bk. of Bishopric of Worc. fol. 69.

164

Add. MS. 28024, fol. 171.

165

Red Bk. of Bishopric of Worc. fol. 69.

166

Assize R. 1029, m. 1 d.

167

Lay Subs. R. Worcs. 1280 (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), 36. Other members of the Basely family paid subsidies at Fladbury at this date (ibid. 36, 37).

168

Habington, loc. cit.

169

Ibid.

170

Lay Subs. R. Worcs. 1327 (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), 4.

171

Abbrev. Rot. Orig. (Rec. Com.), ii, 114, 134; Cal. Pat. 1338–40, p. 260.

172

Chan. Inq. p.m. 49 Edw. III, pt. ii (1st nos.), no. 34a.

173

Feud. Aids, v, 308. Richard Poer had once held this estate. John de Besford paid a subsidy of 1s. 6d. at Hill in 1327 (Lay Subs. R. Worcs. 1327 [Worcs. Hist. Soc.], 4).

174

Cal. Pat. 1396–9, pp. 314, 359.

175

Ibid.

176

Red Bk. of Bishopric of Worc. fol. 243; see also fol. 81.

177

Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 41b.

178

Anct. D. (P.R.O.), A 7245, 5908, 5883; Close, 49 Edw. III, m. 20 d.; Feud. Aids, v, 308, 320, 333; Habington, op. cit. i, 227.

179

Anct. D. (P.R.O.), A 6470.

180

Com. Pleas D. Enr. East. 4 & 5 Phil. and Mary, m. 15.

181

Priv. Act, 2 & 3 Will. IV, cap. 13. At this time the lord of Fladbury and the lord of the manor of the rectory of Fladbury both claimed rights in Hill and Moor, as their respective manors extended into that hamlet.

182

V.C.H. Worcs. i, 290b. One Keneward had held it in the same manner (ibid.). Pidelet Radulfi mentioned in the 12th-century survey of Pershore Hundred has been wrongly identified as Wyre Piddle in a former volume (ibid. 328a).

183

Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 41b; Habington, op. cit. i, 228; Red Bk. of Bishopric of Worc. fol. 69.

184

Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 41b; Feud. Aids, v, 306, 318, 332; Cal. Pat. 1396–9, pp. 314, 359; Feet of F. Div. Co. Mich. 6 Edw. IV; Chan. Inq. p.m. 18 Edw. IV, no. 47; Close, 3 Hen. VII, m. 11. Early in the 13th century the manor, with Moor, was held of William de Beauchamp for the service of a knight's fee by William Fitz Warin (Testa de Nevill [Rec. Com.], 41b), and in 1230 William son of this William leased certain meadow land above Piddle called 'La brode dole' for eighteen years to the sacristan of Pershore (Anct. D. [P.R.O.], D 282). In 1240 William leased the 'manor' of Piddle for twenty-three years (Cur. Reg. R. 122, m. 10 d.), but this may have been the manor of Wick Piddle held by the Fitz Warins (see St. Andrew, Pershore, V.C.H. Worcs. iv).

185

Duchy of Lanc. Mins. Accts. bdles. 10465, 10467, 10468; L. and P. Hen. VIII, i, 3613; ii (2), 3483.

186

Pat. 4 Edw. VI, pt. iv, m. 26. A rent of £5 was reserved to the Crown.

187

Feet of F. Worcs. Mich. 13 & 14 Eliz.; Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), clxxxiii, 96.

188

Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), clxxxiii, 96.

189

Ibid. ccclxxviii, 137; cccclxxix, 96; Feet of F. Worcs. Mich. 22 Jas. I; Div. Co. East. 12 Chas. I; Worcs. Trin. 6 Will. and Mary; Pat. 22 Chas. II, pt. ii (1st roll).

190

Recov. R. Trin. 4 Geo. I, rot. 116; Hil. 1 Geo. III, rot. 298.

191

Pat. 22 Chas. II, pt. ii (1st roll).

192

Close, 24 Chas. II, pt. xxix, no. 10.

193

Recov. R. Mich. 48 Geo. III, rot. 417.

194

Birch (Cart. Sax. i, 221) dates this charter 723, 729, 735 or 740.

195

Heming, op. cit. 15.

196

Dugdale, Mon. Angl. i, 607.

197

Birch, op. cit. i, 356; Heming, op. cit. 16, 17, 18. This charter was confirmed by Bishop Deneberht at the Council of Clovesho in 803 (Heming, op. cit. 19; Dugdale, Mon. Angl. i, 587). In the Worcester chartulary there is a note of a charter dated 789 by Ceolwulf (afterwards King of Mercia) relating to land at Bradley (Heming, op. cit. 579), but it was probably only a confirmation of this agreement (see Dugdale, loc. cit.).

198

Heming, op. cit. 144; Birch, op. cit. iii, 318.

199

V.C.H. Worcs. i, 290b. Archbishop Ealdred had leased it to his reeve in the time of Edward the Confessor (ibid.).

200

Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 41b; Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), iii, 217.

201

Pat. 7 Edw. VI, pt. xiii, m. 7.

202

Cal. S. P. Dom. 1547–80, p. 58.

203

Ibid. 1628–9, p. 248.

204

Priv. Act, 6 Geo. IV, cap. 1.

205

Stat. 23 & 24 Vict. cap. 124.

206

Habington, op. cit. i, 316; Red Bk. of Bishopric of Worc. fol. 81.

207

Cal. Chart. R. 1226–57, p. 172.

208

Red Bk. of Bishopric of Worc. fol. 257.

209

Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 41b.

210

Feet of F. Worcs. 29 Hen. III, no. 10.

211

Ibid. 33 Hen. III, no. 21.

212

Ibid. no. 44.

213

Ibid. no. 29.

214

Chart. Ant. QQ 7; Cal. Pat. 1247–58, p. 180.

215

Feet of F. Worcs. 3 Edw. I, no. 17.

216

Lay Subs. R. Worcs. 1280 (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), 38.

217

Reg. G. Giffard (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), 443; see also p. 445.

218

Red Bk. of Bishopric of Worc. fol. 69; Habington, op. cit. i, 228.

219

Lay Subs. R. Worcs. 1327 (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), 42.

220

Feud. Aids, v, 309.

221

V.C.H. Worcs. i, 289b.

222

Priv. Act, 12 Geo. III, cap. 37.

223

Ibid. 28 Geo. III, cap. 16.

224

op. cit. i, 449a.

225

Which was of wood.

226

a op. cit. (Camden Soc.), 25.

227

Prattinton Coll. (Soc. Antiq.), Church Notes.

228

Some earlier 17th-century entries will be found in the Bishops' Transcripts.

229

op. cit. i, 453; Prattinton Coll. (Soc. Antiq.).

230

V.C.H. Worcs. i, 289b.

231

Worc. Epis. Reg. Bransford (1339–49), ii, fol. 12; Inst. Bks. (P.R.O.).

232

Pope Nich. Tax. (Rec. Com.), 218.

233

Cal. Pat. 1313–17, p. 657.

234

L. and P. Hen. VIII, viii, g. 962 (24).

235

See below.

236

Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), iii, 268.

237

L. and P. Hen. VIII, xviii (1), g. 623 (69).

238

The actual foundation does not appear to have taken place until 1460 (Chant. Cert. 25, no. 16).

239

Cal. Pat. 1446–52, pp. 168, 169.

240

Worc. Epis. Reg. Morton (1486–97), fol. 41; Silvester de Gigliis (1498–1521), fol. 29 d.

241

Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), iii, 266.

242

Pat. 1 Edw. VI, pt. iii, no. 57.

243

Feet of F. Worcs. Mich. 1 Mary.

244

Pat. 30 Eliz. pt. vii, m. 1.

245

Ibid. 43 Eliz. pt. vi, m. 26.

246

Chant. Cert. 25, no. 16.

247

Ibid. 60, no. 40.

248

Reg. G. Giffard (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), 7.

249

Ibid. 446; Sede Vac. Reg. (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), 184, 232; Worc. Epis. Reg. Reginald Brian (1352–61), fol. 27; Nash, Hist. of Worcs. ii, 83.

250

Prattinton Coll. (Soc. Antiq.).

251

Carlisle, Topog. Dict. under Hob Lench. Lewis, writing in 1849, says, 'Here was a chapel which fell into decay about two centuries ago. Divine service is performed in a cottage by the rector of Fladbury' (ibid.).

252

Parl. P. 1872, xlvi, 27.

253

Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), iii, 267.

254

Parl. P. 1872, xlvi, 21.

255

Lond. Gaz. 3 Apr. 1866, p. 2210.



ALCESTER

'Parishes: Alcester', A History of the County of Warwick: Volume 3: Barlichway hundred (1945), pp. 8-22. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=56974. Date accessed: 04 November 2008.


Acreage: 1,782.

Population: 1911, 2,168; 1921, 2,259; 1931, 2,195.

Alcester is a long, narrow parish extending to the south-western boundary of the county, which is here formed by the Ridgeway. The town lies in the southeast corner, near the junction of the Alne and the Arrow. The hamlet of Kings Coughton is about ¼ mile to the north, beyond the junction of the Birmingham and Droitwich roads, and there are one or two scattered farms.


ALCESTER Sketch Plan of town
showing positions of ancient buildings 1938

ALCESTER Sketch Plan of town showing positions of ancient buildings 1938

The main road from Stratford to Worcester enters the parish at Oversley bridge and runs through the town from east to west. The greater part of the town lies to the north of this road. High Street branches off from it at right angles and leads up to the church. The broad lower part of High Street was known as the Bull Ring, (fn. 1) and the late Georgian houses on the east side clearly represent an encroachment on an original open space. (fn. 2) High Street continues, as Church Street, round the eastern side of the churchyard and so into Henley Street, which leads northwards out of the town over Gunnings Bridge. Henley Street was from earliest times the site of the market, which is said to have been held between the house formerly belonging to Richard le Rous and Gunnyld bridge in a charter of c. 1274. (fn. 3) High Street and Henley Street are also connected on the west of the church by Butter Street, a short, narrow passage not used for wheeled traffic, with the houses on the east side abutting on to the churchyard. This is the sole remnant of a range of buildings which once encircled the churchyard and was known as the Shop Row. (fn. 4) Parallel with High Street on the east side is Malt Mill Lane, running from Church Street into Gas House Lane, which joins the Stratford road. On the east side of Henley Street is Meeting House Lane, so called from the Baptist Chapel built c. 1735–6. Its earlier name was Tibbetts Lane, and two centuries ago it appears to have circled round the back of Church Street and joined it at the top of Malt Mill Lane. (fn. 5) Leading off from High Street are several passages or, in the local phrase, 'cheweries'. One of these, Bull's Head Yard, on the west side near the top, is the old Colebrooke Lane. (fn. 6) To return to the Stratford road; Bleachfield Street branches off southward from it opposite High Street and leads into what is now a field-path to Oversley Mill. The Bleachfield seems always to have been the poorer quarter of the town. A little farther west another turning, Birch Abbey, leads directly to the Mill past the old Grammar School. (fn. 7) Between the two the Stratford road, here called Swan Street, forks to the right up Priory Road to Birmingham and to the left to Evesham and Worcester, with Seggs Lane (fn. 8) continuing in a straight line between the two branches. Seggs Lane crosses the railway line and then becomes Allimore Lane, leading to the Gorralls and Cold Comfort Farm. (fn. 9) Two fields on the right of Priory Road, behind the cemetery, are named Abbey Meadow and Priory Close and mark the site of the ancient Abbey of Alcester. Nothing now remains above ground, but excavations begun in 1938 partially revealed the plan of the abbey.

The site of Alcester has been occupied since very early times. Neolithic remains were discovered in Meeting House Lane in 1927 (fn. 10) and evidence of Roman occupation has been accumulating since the 17th century, (fn. 11) though no systematic excavation of the whole area has yet been attempted. The most notable of recent finds is a 1st-century vase, 16 in. high, which was discovered in 1925 at Blacklands, a meadow by the Arrow, south-west of the town. (fn. 12) Roman tesserae have been found on different sites, such as Blacklands, Meeting House Lane, and Folly Field (just over the boundary in Arrow parish), and coins carry the history of the settlement down to the time of Honorius. (fn. 13) Such long-continued occupation may be partly explained by the meeting-place of roads here: that from Stratford coming in on the east, (fn. 14) and the Ryckneild Street, running from the Fosse near Bourton-on-theWater to 'Letocetum' near Lichfield, crossing the Arrow near Oversley Mill (fn. 15) and entering the town approximately along the line of Bleachfield Street. (fn. 16)

By the early 19th century there were five turnpiked roads in the parish—to Stratford, (fn. 17) Bromsgrove, Wootton Wawen, Droitwich, and Evesham. Alcester acquired a certain importance in coaching days from its situation on one of the main routes from London to Shrewsbury and Holyhead. Most of the coaches called at the Swan, which was obviously rebuilt during this period. (fn. 18) Coaches were running as late as 1850, (fn. 19) but a station was opened on the Evesham-Redditch Railway in 1866, and the present G.W.R. line from Bearley was opened ten years later.

Two bridges, known as Gunnings Bridge and Oversley Bridge, cross the Arrow at the entrances into the town from Henley-in-Arden and from Stratford, respectively. Each is on the site of an earlier structure. 'Gunnyld bridge' being mentioned in 1274. (fn. 20) In the early 16th century the supervision of these bridges seems to have devolved upon the priest of St. Mary's Chantry. By an agreement of 1543 between Sir Fulke Greville, lord of the manor, and Roger Metcalfe the priest, the latter was to receive, in compensation for certain rights in dispute between them, an annual rent of 20s. towards the maintenance of the bridges, which was to be augmented, if necessary, by means of 'a testimoniall signed and sealed by the said Sr Fo. Greville & other to gather the devoucõn of people for the same'; and if these two sources proved inadequate, Sir Fulke was to bear the extra charge himself. (fn. 21) In 1612 the Hundred jury presented Gunnings Bridge at Quarter Sessions as being 'in great decaye to the anoyance of the said Towne being a greate markett Towne', but stated that it was not known who was liable to repair it. Sir Fulke Greville (grandson of the Sir Fulke above mentioned) thereupon offered to build at his own expense 'a good Stone Bridge lyklie to enduier to Posterytie' and his offer was accepted by Quarter Sessions in 1613. (fn. 22) A further presentment in 1667, however, led to a prolonged dispute between Lord Brooke and the justices as to liability for repair. (fn. 23) The map of 1752 shows only a very narrow bridge here, and the present one, of three arches in red brick with stone dressings and modern parapets, may well have been built after the road to Wootton Wawen was turnpiked in 1814. Oversley Bridge had become acknowledged as a county bridge by 1659 and considerable repairs, at a cost of £165, were carried out then and in the following year. (fn. 24) The present bridge, of three main and three smaller arches, has a stone bearing the date 1600 built into the south parapet. Part of the walling and the main arches on this side, which are of lower lias stone, may well be of that date, and there are remains of two cutwaters. These are shown, together with four on the north side, on the map of 1752. But the bridge has been widened on the north to about twice its original width. The parapets are modern.

The Town Hall, a two-storied building of 17th-century date, stands to the north of the church. The lower story consists of a stone colonnade, filled in in 1873, and was built about 1618, in which year Sir Fulke Greville, lord of the manor, gave £300 to build a Market House for the town. (fn. 25) It was originally intended to build the whole in stone, but this was found to be too costly (fn. 26) and it was decided to make the upper story of timber. This was not completed, however, until 1641. The architect for the lower part was Simon White of Chipping Campden, who agreed to make eighteen pillars for the colonnades in his quarries there. The inhabitants were to supply the rest of the stone from the quarries at Great Alne—and this lower lias appears in the spandrels of the arches. In 1919 the Town Hall was bought from the lord of the manor by the town as a war memorial.

The colonnades have Doric shafts, with a marked entasis and semicircular arches with key-stones. The sides have six bays, the ends two bays, but the southwestern bay is a solid one containing the modern staircase and former lock-up, with a doorway in the west wall. All the arches have been walled up, with doorways and windows in the blockings. The top of the masonry has a moulded string-course.

The upper story, which is gabled at the north and south ends, has the original timber work covered with modern plaster and false framing; the windows are modern. It has a long hall of five bays divided by the four main trusses of the roof. These have moulded wall posts and stop-moulded tie-beams supported by curved braces. The tie-beams have had their middle portions cut away so that they now form hammer-beams and carry queen-posts and curved braces under the collarbeams; most of the queen-posts are re-used timbers. The tie-beams have varied ornament on their sides and on one is carved the date 1641. The ceiling was formerly plastered at the collar-beams but was uncovered in 1938.

The oldest house appears to be 'The Old Malthouse' at the corner of Church Street and Malt Mill Lane, which dates probably from about 1500. It has close-set timber-framing and tiled roofs. It is of L-shaped plan with elevations to north and east, with jettied upper stories, now underbuilt on the north front. This front has two gable-heads, a little apart; the eastern, forming the end of the east range, is original and has a heavy tie beam, &c. The barge-board is moulded and decorated with sunk trefoiled arches, each middle foil containing a blank shield. The other gable, although of close studding, was probably a later 16th-century addition to provide for an attic chamber; it has a diapered bargeboard of that period. Bay windows have been added to the lower story. Through the middle of the front is a passage way to the back courtyard. It is entered by an archway in the brickwork, but retains within it, at the original plane of the ground story, an oak arched and square-headed doorway.

The long east side, towards Malt Mill Lane, used as a storehouse, is divided into ten approximately 7½-ft. bays, indicated by the projecting ends of the main beams and the main posts to the ground story. The north-east angle has a diagonal beam, but the post below it and the next two posts have been replaced by brickwork. The other eight posts have small pilasters cut out of the solid on the face of each and curved brackets under the beams. The fourth and fifth bays have close studding, the others rectangular framing with altered windows.

The upper story has a moulded bressummer resting on the ends of the projecting beams and joists. No significance is given to the bays in the upper story, all the studs being alike. It has four original windows, of which the second and the southernmost, unglazed, have each three diamond-shaped mullions. The framing towards the courtyard has rectangular panels and no overhang. The chimney-stacks are modern.

The front block is divided into two tenements, each with a shop. The eastern has chamfered beams and wide flat joists to the lower story. The front room above has an early-17th-century plastered ceiling with enriched ribs and floral ornament. The eastern part of the western tenement was the original two-storied hall-block. The lower room (now a shop), off which the through passage has been cut, has an original ceiling with moulded beams and joists, and the roof to the room above has cambered tie-beams supported by curved braces, and side-purlins and collar-beams supported by posts from the ties. The western part was remodelled in the 17th century and the wing extended to the rear: this extension contains a wide fire-place, but all the other fire-places are modern insertions.

Adjoining the south end of the east range is a house, probably slightly later, also of close studding on stone foundations and with a jettied upper story and taller roof. The bressummer to the overhang is boarded. It is of three 7½-ft. bays with main posts and brackets; the southernmost post has a pilaster with a moulded capital to carry the bracket.

Nos. 18 and 19 Church Street, farther west, were a mid-16th-century house, of about 48-ft. frontage, now in two tenements. The upper story of the north front, which has two gable-heads, was jettied but is now underbuilt with 18th-century brick. The framing is of fairly close-set studding with plastered infilling. Both gables have barge-boards with diaper carving, like that to 'Malt House', and pendant-posts at the apices. The window in the east gable, to the second floor, has moulded oak mullions. The roof is tiled, and above the middle part is a late-16th-century brick chimney-shaft of star-shaped plan. The central passage through the building shows wide flat ceiling joists. At the back of No. 19 is a 17th-century gabled wing of rectangular framing with a jettied upper story, partly underbuilt.

No. 5 Church Street was formerly the Angel, once the principal inn in the town. It is mentioned in 1628, (fn. 27) but the present house has a late Georgian front on a red brick building of about a century earlier. Only the broad carriage way at the side remains to indicate its original function.

The house now Nos. 20 and 21, of about 28-ft. frontage, is an early-17th-century building of squarepanelled framing and two gable-heads of geometrical panels. The lower story has had an 18th-century bay built out in front containing two doorways and wide windows.

The house adjoining, No. 2 High Street, is similar in front, with square framing and two gables with geometrical panels, but a plaster panel below the junction of the two gables bears the date 1625, and the gables have barge-boards carved with scroll patterns. The ground story has been underbuilt.

The remainder of the buildings in the High Street have 18th- to 20th-century fronts, but a number are of 16th- or 17th-century origin, the evidence being found in the interiors or in the back parts of the premises. The buildings are numbered from north to south, with the even numbers on the east and odd numbers on the west side.

On the east side Nos. 26, 30, 32 (formerly the Talbot Inn), 36 and 38, 40, and 42 ('Stone House', so called from its front of coursed ashlar), all have remains of 17th-century construction.

No. 12 is a low two-storied house of timber-framing; the upper story is plastered, but above the shop front some of the framing is visible, and there are 17th-century beams in the ceiling of the shop, and in the through passage south of it. The extension to the back is of square timber-framing.

The Corn Exchange, occupying the site of No. 22, was built in 1857 and is said to have displaced several ancient thatched cottages. There was a 'chewery' north of it now abolished.

The Bear Inn is a low building covered with roughcast cement and having four gabled dormers to the upper story. At the back is a timber-framed wing with a gabled roof, and there are old ceiling beams inside. On the front is a porch in the open sides of which are incorporated some 17th-century turned balusters.

No. 34 was formerly the Three Tuns Inn. The front, formerly jettied, has a plastered upper story; the back wall is of 17th-century timber-framing. A central chimney-stack has three shafts above the roof with V-shaped pilasters, and inside are wide fire-places back to back, and ancient ceiling-beams. A late-17th-century extension behind has stop-chamfered beams and joists.

The Royal Oak Inn, the last house on this side, is probably an ancient building entirely renovated except for a chimney-stack of late-17th- or 18th-century bricks.

Of the older houses on the west side most of the visible evidence is in the north half of the street. Nearly all have modern shop fronts.

House, Nos. 3 and 5, has a plastered or rough-cast front but shows 17th-century framing in the gabled north side and in the extension behind the south half (No. 5). There are old ceiling-beams inside.

No. 7 has a plastered front with a jettied upper story, but has been heightened to three stories and much modernized. The south side-passage has a late-16thcentury entrance with a moulded oak frame and the remains of one of the brackets of the overhang. The passage has a side wall of close-studding and old ceilingbeams, but none is visible in the shop. The back wall is gabled and faced with plaster: above its roof is a late16th-century square chimney-stack with four shafts of brick with V-shaped pilasters.

No. 9, now a shop, was formerly the Bull's Head Inn. It has a brick front, but was timber-framed with a jettied upper story. The south side, to Bull's Head Yard, has old ceiling-beams and framed walls. The long back extension is of late-16th-century timberframing, much altered in the lower story, on stone foundations. Some of the small upper windows remain, with moulded mullions. The rear-most part, now a storehouse, divided by story-posts and beams into three 6-ft. bays, has an enriched plastered ceiling to the lower story with mouldings and scroll ornament to the main beams. Each bay has three moulded square panels containing a central Tudor rose surrounded by four single roses and four shields enclosing flower patterns. The first floor is cemented. The roof has collar-beams and side-purlins and had a second story lighted by gabled dormer windows.

House, Nos. 11 and 13, is brick-fronted and of three stories: the back part of it is of timber-framing and has a chimney-stack of c. 1600 with three square shafts in line, with V-shaped pilasters. The extension behind this is also of 17th-century timber-framing and has a brick gabled west wall.

House, Nos. 17 and 19, is of brick, but each half has at the back a 17th-century timber-framed extension.

No. 29 is modern brick-fronted, but the shop has chamfered ceiling-beams. The back part is of the 16th century and has a gabled west end with a jettied upper story of close studding, and moulded ceiling-beams inside; a wide fire-place has been reduced. A further extension behind the north part (printing works) is of 17th-century framing and has a chimney-stack with two square shafts set diagonally.

No. 31 was probably an inn and has on its north side a heightened wide passage way for coaches. This shows old timber-framing in its side-walls, and blocked doorways, the southern with a four-centred head. The ceiling is of very wide flat joists. There is also framing in the back wall, but the front is of 18th-century brick.

The houses to the south are of late-18th-century or later brick, except No. 55 (Midland Bank) which is of earlier 18th-century brickwork with a plastered coved eaves-cornice to the tiled roof.

A house which has side elevations to Swan Street and Gas House Lane and its west front to the short road between the two is built on the lines of a medieval building, with a middle block and gabled cross-wings, but dates probably from the early 17th century. The wings had jettied upper stories on the west front; these have been underbuilt, and the wall continued in the same plane across the front of the main block, which is thus recessed above. The whole front is plastered and the doorways, windows, and barge-boards are modern. The side elevations are timber-framed in the upper stories and of brick in the lower. The south side has some leaded lights. The building is now divided into eight or more tenements.

Two cottages farther east in Gas House Lane, one on either side of the road, also have 17th-century framing.

A house of two stories, on the north side of Swan Street close to the Birmingham road, now divided into three or four tenements, shows some 17th-century timber-framing in the west half. Another, opposite, is also probably of the early 17th century. It has a timberframed north front, many of the timbers renewed, with a middle block of two stories, and end wings with jettied upper stories. The east wing is gabled and has been underbuilt; the west wing is jettied on modern beams and brackets, but it has been heightened and the gable turned the other way.

No. 2 Malt Mill Lane, opposite the 'Old Malt House', has a modern front block, but the back wing, which has a date 1610 on an internal beam, is of timberframing and plaster with a jettied upper story on its north side. It has bow windows to the lower story and three-sided oriel windows to the upper on shaped brackets. The south side, also of framing, has no overhang. Inside are stop-chamfered beams and one room is lined with late-17th-century panelling. The roof is tiled.

The next house to the south, Nos. 4 and 6, is a 16thcentury building with a jettied upper story towards the street, partly of close-set studding, and with an oriel window. The north part of the overhang has been underbuilt with brick. Inside are heavy wide ceiling joists. A back wing, of timber-framing, has chamfered beams.

The next house, No. 8, is a taller timber-framed building of the late 17th century and has a plastered coved cornice at the eaves.

Other houses in the lane are of the 18th century or later and of brick.

Butter Street has 18th-century and later buildings on its west side. The Rectory, a three-storied brick house at the south end, was built in 1796. (fn. 28) On the east side, bordering the churchyard, are three houses, the middle one of which shows some 17th-century framing.

Henley Street is more unspoilt than the High Street; about half the buildings retain their 17th-century or earlier fronts and about half the remainder are of the 18th century.

Churchill House, at the junction with Butter Street, has a red brick front block of 1688. It is of two stories and attics. The upper story has an iron-railed balcony on to which opens a doorway of stone with an architrave, entablature, and broken curved pediment. The main cornice is of wood enriched with carvings and modillions. In the roof are flat-topped dormers. Inside, the room south of the middle entrance passage is lined with early-17th-century panelling and has an overmantel with round-headed carved panels. The room above it has a fine plastered ceiling dated 1688 and with the initials L / TE (fn. 29) : the ornament is bold and the heavy cornice has scrolls and flowers; the room is lined with bolection-moulded panelling. The main staircase behind this block has square newels and twisted balusters.

The back part of the house is of earlier 17th-century timber-framing and has a gable-head: inside are chamfered ceiling-beams.

A lower extension is also of framing with wattle-anddaub infilling.

A little farther north is a building of c. 1600, of two stories, the upper jettied and of framing in square panels. Only a few old timbers remain in the lower story; dividing it into three unequal bays are the main posts, with pilasters worked on them and carrying enriched scrolled brackets under the overhang. The bressummer is moulded.

The Red Horse Inn, formerly the Greyhound's Head, (fn. 30) has a gabled back wing of square framing and curved braces of about the same period. Northwards are four or five other 17th-century houses: one shows timber-framing, others have been plastered or otherwise refronted.

On the east side are four 17th-century houses. No. 44 at the south corner of Meeting House Lane is probably of mid-to-late 17th century with square framing and a gabled north end. Nos. 40 and 42 is an early-17thcentury house with a jettied upper story on its long side towards the street and on the gabled south end; the bressummers are moulded and posts with carved scroll brackets divide it into three bays. Farther north is a refronted plastered house with a 17th-century brick chimney, and next north of that is an early-17thcentury house of square framing with two gables, formerly jettied, now underbuilt with brick.

In Meeting House Lane, on the north side, is an early-17th-century house, 'Oak House', of square framing with a jettied upper story in its long south front on the ends of projecting joists and four moulded brackets. The east and west ends are half-gabled. A back wing has a projecting chimney-stack of the same period.

Bleachfield Street is a street of small houses divided into tenements. Four houses are of square framing of the second half of the 17th century. Nos. 7, 9, and 11 on the west side and Nos. 12, 14, and 16 on the east are of two stories and attics with gabled dormers. Nos. 21, 23, and 25 and Nos. 59, 61, and 63 are lower buildings of one story and attic with gabled dormers. All have tiled roofs.

A long brick building, Nos. 73, 75, 77, and 79, at the south end of the west side, of one story and attic with gabled dormers, is probably of the late 17th century. It has a square plinth, a string-course at the first-floor level, and the steep-pitched tiled roof has north and south gable-ends with brick copings. There are two chimney-stacks of 17th-century bricks.

School Road, leading from Henley Street to the Birmingham road, has one 17th-century timber-framed cottage (No. 2) with a reconditioned front, and old gable-ends.

In Evesham Street, on the north side, No. 21 shows old framing in the west gable-head and in the back extension, and No. 21 has front and back walls of old framing and a large projecting chimney-stack. Behind the last is another small cottage of similar framing.

In Seggs Lane is a mid- to late-17th-century cottage of two tenements and of one story and attic, wholly of square timber-framing.

Beauchamp's Court, about ¾ mile north-west of the church, on the Birmingham road, marks the site of the ancient manor-house of Alcester. In 1340 Giles de Beauchamp obtained a licence to crenellate his manorhouse here and to surround it with a wall of stone and lime. (fn. 31) It was apparently rebuilt or enlarged in the reign of Henry VIII, for Leland notes (1545) that Fulke Greville 'now buildithe at Beauchamp's Hawle, and takythe stones from Alcestre priorie'. (fn. 32) It ceased to be the principal seat of the Grevilles after the 1st Lord Brooke had acquired and restored Warwick Castle in the reign of James I. The last member of the family to occupy it was probably William Greville who died in 1653. (fn. 33) It was empty in 1665 and by 1667 had been partly pulled down and the remainder let as a farm-house. (fn. 34) Some farm buildings of 17th-century timber-framing still survive, but the present house is comparatively modern and is said to have been rebuilt with materials from the manor-house at Pophills in Salford Priors parish (q.v.) which was demolished in 1848. (fn. 35) It lies outside the moat.

Moat Farm, ¼ mile farther north, is of L-shaped plan. The two-storied main block, running east and west, is of the late 17th century. The wing extending to the north is of one story and attic and of the late 16th century. It retains some of its original timbers in the west side and north gable-end and has two gabled dormers. Inside are wide flat ceiling joists and heavy beams, and a fire-place 8½ ft. wide with corner seats: above it is a chimney-stack of thin bricks.

Kings Coughton Farm farther north has a late-18thcentury main block facing the road, with a red brick west front and slate roof. Behind it is the original lower 17th-century house of timber-framing, of L-shaped plan with gables to the south and east; the roof is tiled.

Alcester Heath Farm, about ½ mile west of Kings Coughton, is an old farmstead with a timber-framed barn attached to the house, which is also timber-framed but much altered.

Alcester Lodge opposite is a late-16th-century timber house encased in 18th-century brickwork and enlarged: it has chamfered beams and a 9-ft. wide fire-place of stone, above which is a chimney-stack of thin bricks with stone quoins and four square shafts, of brick, set diagonally. The farm buildings are of timber-framing, partly with close-set studding.

Alcester Warren, about 1½ miles farther north-west, is a three-storied house of red brick, of the late 17th century; it has tall mullioned and transomed oak window frames. The farm buildings, including a granary and two three-bay barns, are of early-17thcentury timber-framing with tiled roofs.

 

Borough

Alcester may be 'the celebrated place called Alne' where an ecclesiastical council was held, c. 709, to consecrate the foundation of Evesham Abbey by Ecgwin, Bishop of Worcester. (fn. 36) According to the Evesham Chronicle (c. 1125) Ecgwin preached to the wealthy, hardhearted people of Alcester, but the many smiths in the place drowned his words with the sound of their hammers and anvils. He therefore invoked Divine retribution upon them in the form of an earthquake, which swallowed up both town and smiths; the site of the town was given to Evesham Abbey and though many had since tried to follow the trade of a smith there, none had succeeded. (fn. 37) Rous (d. 1491) records a similar legend relating to St. Chad, which was still current in Leland's time. (fn. 38) Chad came to preach at Alcester but was driven forth by the inhabitants; deciding that he had to deal with beasts and not men, he therefore laid a curse upon them, as a result of which the monastery there was removed to another place.

Alcester owed tallage of 3 marks in 1199. (fn. 39) A tenure in burgage, at an annual rent of 2½d. is mentioned in a grant of land to the abbey in 1207, (fn. 40) and in 1251–2 the town is described as having been a free borough from the time of Henry I. (fn. 41) Like many other small places in Warwickshire, it sent members to the Parliament of 1275, (fn. 42) and in the following year occurs the first mention of a borough court. (fn. 43) There were twelve burgesses, each paying a rent of 8d., in the Botreaux moiety of the manor in 1304. (fn. 44) The charter granted to Sir John de Beauchamp, lord of the whole manor, in 1446 included the right to hear pleas of piepoudre and other pleas of debt and trespass and conferred upon the tenants freedom from toll, stallage, pontage, pavage, pondage, murage, quayage, and cheminage throughout the king's dominions. These privileges, together with the market and fairs, of which the history is traced below, were confirmed by Philip and Mary and by Elizabeth. But by 1612 the original charter of 1446 had been lost and the inhabitants petitioned Sir Fulke Greville to obtain a renewal of it. (fn. 45) A new charter was therefore granted in 1617. (fn. 46) In addition to the usual manorial officers—of whom the High and Low Bailiffs are still annually elected—there were also, in the 17th and 18th centuries, two Proctors, who appear to have been chosen by the parish vestry. (fn. 47) Their functions, so far as they can be deduced from their few surviving accounts, seem originally to have corresponded to those of the Chamberlains in a corporate borough. They administered a revenue of some £19 a year derived from town houses and lands—including the Moors. Out of this they provided, among other things, for legal charges, the repair of the Grammar School, and the occasional entertainment of eminent persons passing through the town. But by the later 17th century the office is becoming merged in that of churchwarden: one person often serves in both capacities and their accounts are not infrequently combined. The last reference to the Proctors occurs in 1709. (fn. 48)

The town possesses a bailiff's mace of the late 17th century. It is about 2 ft. in length, with a hemispherical knob at one end, and at the other a flat circle, 2¼ in. in diameter, engraved with the Stuart royal arms.

 

Economic And Social History

There appears to have been a market at Alcester at a very early date, for Walter de Beauchamp, c. 1274, granted to his free burgesses and tenants here the right to hold their weekly market on a Tuesday, as in ancient time, and in addition a Thursday market as well. (fn. 49) This second market, however, is not again referred to. In 1359 John de Beauchamp complained that Sir William le Botiller of Wem, the younger, Robert de Knightele, and others had prevented him from holding his market at Alcester by driving away twenty of his cows, carrying away other goods, and assaulting his men. (fn. 50) In 1292 Walter de Beauchamp obtained from Edward I a grant of an annual fair to be held in Alcester on the eve, day and morrow of St. Giles and for five days following. (fn. 51) The date was changed to St. Faith in 1302, (fn. 52) and again, to the vigil and feast of St. Barnabas and the six following days, in 1320. (fn. 53) The charter to Sir John Beauchamp in 1446 confirmed the market and the annual fair, which was then held on the Sunday after St. Faith, and added another fair on the eve, feast and morrow of St. Dunstan. (fn. 54) All these privileges were confirmed and a third fair—to be held on the eve, feast and morrow of St. Giles and for five days following—was granted by the charter of 1617. (fn. 55) In 1792 the three fairs were held on the Tuesdays before 25 March, 15 May, and 17 Oct. (fn. 56) Both fairs and market were still being continued in 1831, (fn. 57) and though the market is described in 1830 as small, (fn. 58) they probably survived for some years afterwards, since the Corn Exchange was built in 1857. But by 1888 they had all fallen into abeyance, (fn. 59) no doubt as the result of the agricultural depression of the '70's. The October fair now survives as Alcester Mop.

In 1304 the market tolls were worth 10s. (fn. 60) In the early 16th century they were being paid to the priest of St. Mary's Chantry, but in 1543 the lord of the manor re-established his right to them. (fn. 61) In 1652 they were valued at £13. 13s. 4d. (fn. 62) In 1765 the Earl of Warwick surrendered the tolls of fairs and market for the benefit of the town. (fn. 63)

The goods permitted to be sold in the market under Walter de Beauchamp's charter comprised animals, flesh, wheat, rye, barley, oats, beans, pease, woollen and linen drapery, bread, iron goods, tallow, grease, fish, leather goods, baskets, hides, wool, linen, geese, hens, cheese, bacon, eggs, salt, and spices. The name of Bleachfield Street bears witness to a linen industry which can be traced back to the early 13th century. (fn. 64) A John le Lyndraper, and a Juliana la Dyare, occur in 1332, (fn. 65) and in 1440 there is mention of William Botreaux, lyndraper, (fn. 66) presumably a member of the family which then held half the manor. Weaving long flourished here and the Rev. Samuel Clarke, rector 1633–45, speaks of the town as consisting of knitters. (fn. 67) Of those contributors to the 1663 Hearth Tax whose occupations can be traced, about a quarter belong to some branch of the cloth trade. In 1691 we find the parish officers buying looms, (fn. 68) no doubt to 'set the poor on work', a policy which in general was becoming rare at that date. The 1663 list also includes two salters and three glovers—both of them industries we might expect to find here from the proximity, respectively, of Droitwich and Worcester. The mention, in 1767, of an inn called the Glove and Cross (fn. 69) is further evidence of the gloving trade in Alcester, which survived well into the last century. But the prosperity of the town must always have depended very largely on its position in the centre of a corn-growing district. In 1597 the Warwickshire Justices complained to the Privy Council of the 'extreame want and scarsety of graine' among the poor at Stratford and Alcester, which they attributed to the farmers of the neighbouring counties, who had used to supply those markets, having taken their produce elsewhere. (fn. 70) Alcester is noted by a traveller in 1746 as 'a very good market for corn'. (fn. 71) A natural product of the corn trade was malting, which, after the manufacture of needles, became perhaps the most important industry in Alcester in later times. Within living memory there were seven malting kilns working here, (fn. 72) but they are now all closed down. The earliest dated evidence of needle-making in Alcester occurs in 1678. (fn. 73) By the early 19th century the industry was said to employ between 500 and 600 persons. (fn. 74) Out of the 189 charity children of Alcester apprenticed 1802–27, 61 were bound to needle-makers, 38 of them to 14 different firms—apparently of very varying sizes—within the town. (fn. 75) The fact that only 3 of these 14 appear among the 9 needle-makers recorded here so soon afterwards as 1830 (fn. 76) reflects the conditions of swift, competitive expansion with its accompanying instability which for a time must almost have transformed the traditional economic life of the town. There is some evidence that in the late 17th and early 18th centuries nail-making and gun-making were also carried on here—though probably on quite a small scale—and attracted a certain number of migrants from the Black Country. (fn. 77) To-day the only industries in Alcester are a needle mill and a spring factory, the latter a branch of Messrs. Terry and Sons of Redditch.

Alcester must have suffered severely in the Black Death, for an inquisition on Elizabeth wife of Reynold de Botreaux in 1350 shows tenements to the value of 100s. in rent in the hands of the lord owing to the deaths of the tenants. (fn. 78) From the 15th to the 17th century there is recurring evidence of Welsh immigration, which was no doubt due to the position of the town on or near several important roads leading from the Principality. In 1413 two Welsh residents of Alcester, Geoffrey Taillour and Mathew Carpenter, were exempted from the Royal Proclamation of that year ordering all Welsh and Irish in England to return home. (fn. 79) In the parish register for the reigns of Elizabeth and James I a number of families bear obviously Welsh names, (fn. 80) some of which appear to have become anglicized by the second or third generation. There are a few such entries as late as the Civil War. The 17th century witnessed a considerable growth of prosperity in Alcester, the copyhold rents of the manor increasing by approximately four times in value between 1610 and 1684. (fn. 81) The other side of this picture, however, is shown in the threat of Lord Conway's tenants here in 1623 that they would leave unless their rents were abated. (fn. 82) The population, c. 1670, seems to have been about 1,200–1,300. (fn. 83) It rose slowly throughout the 18th century, (fn. 84) and in 1801 stood at 1,625. During the next thirty years, however, it increased by about 50 per cent., and the rising proportion of persons per house shows especially the influence of the wave of semi-industrialization during this period. A description in 1830 states that 'the town generally speaking, has become very much increased in size and appearance, there being many new buildings recently erected'. (fn. 85) But during the '30's the population began to decline and has on the whole continued to do so down to the present time. (fn. 86) As with many small country towns of its type, the coming of the railway must have deprived it of much of its former importance.

 

Common Fields And Inclosures

 

The single common field of the manor, known as Alcester Field, lay east and south of the town, between the Arrow and the Birmingham road. There were in addition two tracts of common and waste. One of these, the Moors, lay immediately behind the High Street and the Birmingham road, being bounded on the north by what is now School Road. This is now divided into gardens and paddocks. North of the town, and extending to the western limits of the parish, was Alcester Heath. Kings Coughton had at one time its separate common fields—the Upper and Lower Field—but by 1771, when the Inclosure Act (fn. 87) was passed, these had been divided by hedges, though they were still reputed Lammas land. About the middle of the 16th century Sir Fulke Greville had converted a large part of the heath into a park (fn. 88) —the situation of which is indicated by Alcester Park Farm. Still earlier, in 1525, Sir George Throckmorton had taken 18 acres of land belonging to Alcester into his park at Coughton. (fn. 89) There must have been much more early inclosure, for the Award of 1771 covered only 616 acres—about a third of the parish. Of this the heath comprised 229 and Alcester Field 233 acres. There were in 1771 282 'ancient messuages' in the town to which common rights were attached, held by 74 different proprietors—110 of them by the lord of the manor. But between the Act and the Award a good deal of consolidation took place, with the result that the number of proprietors was reduced to 31. Altogether 38 persons received allotments in the Award. The chief beneficiaries were the lord of the manor (226 acres, including 159 in the Heath) and the rector, who received 94 acres in lieu of tithe. The two next largest holdings, totalling 101 acres, in Kings Coughton, seem to have been formed mainly by the acquisition of common rights above referred to. Altogether it seems unlikely that more than 8 or 10 of the proprietors had held land in the open field, apart from rights of common. The cost of inclosure was £910 14s. 9d., an average of £1 9s. 7d. per acre.

 

Manors


The manor of Alcester is not described in Domesday, but later evidence clearly shows it to have been of the ancient demesne of the Crown. (fn. 90) It was given by Henry I to Robert Corbet, lord of a large fee in Shropshire, for his services. (fn. 91) One of Robert Corbet's two daughters and co-heirs was the mother of Reynold, Earl of Cornwall, by Henry I, and a charter of Reynold, dating between 1163 and 1175, (fn. 92) confirms to William the son of Alice Corbet, his aunt, lands in Cornwall originally given as a marriage portion to Alice and her husband William de Botreaux (Boterell'). Reynold probably held the whole manor of Alcester for several years until his death in 1175. (fn. 93) It then escheated to the Crown, and so remained until 1190. (fn. 94) Half of Alcester, together with Broom, was held sometime between 1190 and 1197 by Henry de la Penne, and this portion of the manor was again in escheat from 1197 to 1201. (fn. 95) Shortly after this the two parts into which the manor must have been divided after 1175 were held separately by the descendants of the two daughters of Robert Corbet. The mother of Reynold had married Herbert FitzHerbert, son of a chamberlain of Henry I, and Alice her sister had married William de Botreaux. (fn. 96) Herbert died in 1155, and his son Herbert in 1204, (fn. 97) when Peter son of Herbert got by royal grant half the manor of Alcester which his father had held. He was pardoned the 20 marks which he was to have paid to the king, and Hamo Falconer, who had evidently succeeded Henry de la Penne here as he had at Broom (q.v.) in Bidford, was compensated elsewhere for the loss of this estate. (fn. 98) Peter was deprived of Alcester by King John in 1216, probably for disloyalty during the civil strife, and his fee there was given to William de Campvill to hold as long as the king should please, but in 1217 Peter recovered his moiety of Alcester, having made his peace with Henry III. (fn. 99)


FitzHerbert. Gules three lions or.

The de Botreaux moiety of the manor of Alcester was held by William son of William and Alice de Botreaux in about 1212. (fn. 100) His elder son William died in 1243, when his Warwickshire estates went to his brother Reynold, (fn. 101) who held this moiety of Alcester in 1251. (fn. 102) Reynold joined the Barons against Henry III, and at the inquiry held into the lands of the rebels in 1265 he was said to have land in Alcester worth £5. (fn. 103) Seven years before his death in 1274 he enfeoffed his son and heir William with his moiety of Alcester. (fn. 104) This William died in 1302, and his son, also William, (fn. 105) in 1321 transferred the manor to Reynold de Botreaux, (fn. 106) presumably his brother. (fn. 107) Reynold and Isabel his wife in 1330 settled it on themselves in tail male. (fn. 108) When their son Walter de Botreaux became lord of Alcester in 1349, as he was still in his minority, the wardship was granted to Ralph Sabecot. (fn. 109) Walter became 21 on 12 March 1353, and, in proof of his age, it was shown that William Grym, rector of Alcester, had entered Walter's name at birth in a missal of St. Nicholas Church, at Alcester, where he was born. (fn. 110) In 1364 Walter paid £16 for a royal licence to grant for life to John, son of Giles de Beauchamp, and John le Rous of Ragley rents from arable and meadow lands, from a shop and tenements in Alcester, worth annually £8 19s. 3d., with remainder of the lands to them on the death of any of the tenants. (fn. 111) This grant was probably of the site and demesnes of the de Botreaux moiety, for when Christiana, widow of John Rous, died in 1416, she was said to be seised of half the manor of Alcester, held in chief by military service and worth 10 marks annually. (fn. 112) Because of the minority of her grandsons and successive heirs, William and John Rous, the estate was in the King's hand from 1416 to 1428, when John was declared to be the heir. (fn. 113) In 1523 Thomas Rous died seised of the reversion of half the site of Alcester manor, held of the heirs of Lord Beauchamp. (fn. 114) The lordship meanwhile evidently remained with the Botreaux, as Thomas Botreaux, in 1444, had licence to grant to Sir John Beauchamp of Powick and his heirs, a moiety of the manor of Alcester, to be held in chief. (fn. 115)


Botreaux. Argent a griffon gules.

In 1211–12 Peter FitzHerbert and William de Botreaux, as tenants in chief, held their fees in Warwickshire, presumably the whole manor of Alcester, as three parts of a knight's fee. (fn. 116) In 1251 each of the two portions of the manor was held of the king by serjeanty, and was worth £14 in annual value. (fn. 117) In 1274 Reynold de Botreaux was said to have held his part of the manor of Alcester by service of finding in the king's army a moiety of a serjeant for forty days. (fn. 118) The total value of this moiety of the manor in 1304 was £7 13s. 7d. (fn. 119) In 1361 a knight's fee in Alcester, representing the overlordship of both moieties, was included in a settlement made by Thomas Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, (fn. 120) and from this time the manor of Alcester was held as of Elmley Castle. (fn. 121)

The moiety of the manor of Alcester which Peter FitzHerbert held between 1204 and 1221 passed to Herbert, son and heir of Peter, to whom Emma, the widow of Hamo de Brome (or Hamo Falconer), in 1240 remitted all claims to a third of his moiety as dower of the freehold of her husband in Alcester, for 15 marks. (fn. 122) The manor was perhaps leased by Herbert before his death in 1248 to Robert de Chaundos, who in 1249 claimed a tenement in Alcester against Herbert's brother Reynold FitzPeter, (fn. 123) and was holding the manor in 1252. (fn. 124) It seems to have been enfeoffed to Walter, son of William de Beauchamp of Elmley, before 1263, when Reynold, then lord of the manor, brought a plea for the moiety of Alcester against Walter in the king's court. Walter failed to appear and the manor was taken into the king's hand. (fn. 125) In 1266 Walter sought the recovery of the manor from the Crown, and in 1272 bought the half manor for £100, to hold of Reynold and his heirs by doing the foreign service of ½ knight's fee for all service. (fn. 126) From this time the Beauchamp family held this half manor of Alcester and Walter de Beauchamp describes himself as lord of Alcester, c. 1274. (fn. 127) Walter was permitted by the king in 1291 to bring 60 acres of his wood in Alcester within the forest of Feckenham into cultivation, and in 1300 the king granted him free warren in his demesne lands of Alcester. (fn. 128) His eldest son Walter, joint lord of Alcester with William de Botreaux in 1316, (fn. 129) died in 1328. His brother, Giles, who was said in 1329 to hold it as ½ knight's fee of Reynold FitzPeter, (fn. 130) was granted in 1340 the right to fortify and embattle his manorhouse at Alcester. (fn. 131) The acquisition of the other portion of the manor of Alcester by Sir John Beauchamp of Powick in 1444 from Thomas Botreaux made him lord of the whole manor. In 1446 Sir John was confirmed in his possession of the manor and town of Alcester by royal charter, and also in a long list of liberties, which he and his ancestors had always had there. (fn. 132)


Beauchamp of Powick. Gules a fesse between six martlets or.

In the following year Sir John Beauchamp was raised to the peerage as Lord Beauchamp of Powick. He died in 1475 (fn. 133) and was succeeded by his son Richard. Richard, who was married to Elizabeth Stafford in 1449 in the oratory of his father's manor-house at Alcester, (fn. 134) died in 1503, leaving three daughters and having settled the manor on Robert, Lord Willoughby de Broke, the husband of Elizabeth, the eldest. When Lord Willoughby died in 1521 his three granddaughters, Elizabeth, Anne, and Blanche, were his heirs, for his son Edward had predeceased him. (fn. 135) They were all minors and the wardship of Elizabeth, the eldest, was granted to Sir Edward Greville of Milcote, who married her to his second son, Fulke. (fn. 136) In 1526 Fulke and Elizabeth (who was still a minor) obtained livery of a third part of the manor of Alcester and other lands of Robert, Lord Willoughby, (fn. 137) and in 1536 they acquired the whole, Elizabeth's sister Anne having died a minor in the wardship of the Crown. (fn. 138) Theirs is the alabaster tomb in the church. Sir Fulke died in 1559 and his widow in 1565 holding the manor of Alcester of William Savage as of the manor of Elmley Castle. She left as her heir her son Fulke, then aged 20. (fn. 139) Fulke died in 1606 and was succeeded by his son, the 3rd Sir Fulke Greville (fn. 140) (1554–1628), the poet and friend of Sir Philip Sidney and the most famous of his line. In the year before his father's death he had obtained from the Crown a grant of Warwick Castle, which thereafter became the chief seat of the family. In 1621 he was created Baron Brooke of Beauchamp's Court. His death without issue caused a break in the direct line and he was succeeded in his title and estates by his cousin Robert Greville, whom he had appointed as his heir. (fn. 141) In the family of Greville, Lords Brooke (created Earls Brooke in 1746 and in 1759 Earls of Warwick), the manor of Alcester continued to descend until 1813, when George, 2nd Earl of Warwick, sold it to the Marquess of Hertford. (fn. 142) The 8th Marquess of Hertford is the present lord of the manor.


Willoughby. Or fretty azure.


Greville. Sable a cross engrailed or charged with five roundels sable all within a border engrailed or.


Seymour, Marquess of Hertford. Quarterly: I and 4, Or a pile gules between six fleurs de lis azure with three leopards or upon the pile; 2 and 3, Gules a pair of wings or.

An estate sometimes described, in the mid-16th century, as the manor of Alcester is probably to be identified with the possessions of the priory in the town. These were granted after the Dissolution to Thomas Cromwell and escheated to the Crown upon his attainder. (fn. 143) Henry VIII leased them to Fulke Greville in 1541, (fn. 144) but in 1544 made a grant of them—under the description of the manor of Alcester, the site of the priory, and various lands and tenements belonging to it—to William Sewster and his son John. (fn. 145) In the same year John Sewster acknowledged the receipt from Lady Elizabeth Greville of £237 18s. 10½d. in part payment of a fine for the purchase of 'the scite and manor of Alcester' then in the tenure of Elizabeth and her husband on a lease for their lives from the king. (fn. 146) The transaction was completed in the following year, the total fine being £437 18s. 10½d. (fn. 147)

In 1545 the 'Rentes of the pryore late disolvyde' amounted to £6 5s. 6d. out of a total for the manor of £17 7s. 10d. (fn. 148) They seem still to be separately accounted for, as 'the Kinges Landes', in 1610. (fn. 149) Their value had then fallen to £4 14s. 2d., no doubt because part of them was already reckoned in with the chief manor. In time these priory estates would naturally lose their separate identity and it appears from the rental of 1684 that the process of absorption was by then complete. (fn. 150)

BEAUCHAMP'S COURT is described as a manor soon after the Dissolution, when it is said to have been held successively by Lord Beauchamp and Lord Brooke. (fn. 151) It is so described also in several documents, as late as 1741. (fn. 152) An annual portion of 20s. out of Beauchamp's Court was payable to Evesham Abbey in 1535 (fn. 153) and was still being paid, to the Commonwealth, in 1650. (fn. 154) The manor of Beauchamp's Court, if such it was, may have comprised the hamlet of Kings Coughton.

Mill


In 1241 William de Botreaux and Peter FitzHerbert each granted to the monks of Alcester their half of the mill which the monks had constructed outside their court and of the meadows called Halimede and Mulneholme belonging to it. (fn. 155) The medieval mill therefore must have been close to the site of the present one, which is on the Arrow, near where the Abbey stood. One Bartholomew was paying 5d. chief rent for the mill in 1545. (fn. 156) A horse mill is mentioned in 1560. (fn. 157) In 1805 the Priory Mill was conveyed by the Earl of Warwick to the Marquess of Hertford (fn. 158) and it seems about this time to have been used for needle-making as well as for grinding corn. (fn. 159) It is now known as Ragley Mill.

The manorial fishery was in the Alne and is described in 1800 as extending from the place where the river entered the manor to Oversley Bridge. (fn. 160)

 

Church

The parish church of ST. NICHOLAS consists of a chancel, north and south chapels, nave, north and south aisles, and a west tower.

The west tower is of the 14th century with a 15thcentury doorway in it. The north and south aisles, i.e. the whole interior of the body of the church, were rebuilt 1729–33 by Edward and Thomas Woodward of Chipping Campden, at a total cost of £1,020, (fn. 161) but some parts of the north and south walls of the aisles of the medieval church seem to have survived this drastic reconstruction. The east end was rebuilt in 1870, replacing an 18th-century chancel which was little more than an altar recess. (fn. 162)

The chancel (28½ ft. by 18½ ft.) has a modern east window of five lights and tracery, and in each side-wall is a single trefoiled lancet. West of them are arcades to the chapels, of 13th-century style, each with a wide bay between two narrow bays. In the south wall are two sedilia and a piscina recess without a basin, all of modern stonework. Both the north chapel, or organ chamber, and the south chapel have an east doorway and a side window of three lights and tracery. In the north wall of the former is reset an ancient piscina basin of quatrefoil circular form in a modern recess. The modern chancel arch has shafted responds and the west arches to the chapels plain responds.

The nave (c. 68 ft. by 18 ft.) has on either side a colonnade of five bays with Doric columns on high square stone bases; they carry horizontal plastered architraves or lintels from which rises the coved ceiling of the nave: the aisles have flat plastered ceilings. Both aisles have five side windows tallying with the colonnades; they are each of three cinquefoiled lights and modern tracery of early-14th-century character in fourcentred heads: the moulded jambs of the windows appear to be medieval—perhaps dating from about 1500. The walls are cemented externally, but the moulded plinth may also be of c. 1500. Buttresses divide the walls into five bays, those at the angles being set diagonally: on them are restored pinnacles. In the west wall are round-headed doorways of the c. 1730 period, entrances to former galleries. The battlemented parapets are modern.

The west tower (13¼ ft. square) is of the 14th century in the lower half, which is built of coursed ashlar, and perhaps rebuilt or refaced later in the upper half, which is of rubble with an intermixture of squared stones in courses. There are pairs of square buttresses at the west angles, and at the south-east a semi-octagonal projecting stair-turret. Moulded string-courses occur at the springing level of the west window, at the base of the bell-chamber, and at the parapet, which is probably of the 18th century: it is embattled and has pinnacles above the angles and in the middle of each side.

The archway from the nave is a plain one of three chamfered orders, continuous in jambs and two-centred head. The west doorway is a 15th- or early-16thcentury insertion with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head, and with plain shields in the spandrels: it has been much repaired with cement. The 14th-century west window is of three trefoiled lights—the middle with an ogee head—and leaf-tracery in a two-centred main head, with an external hood-mould rising from the moulded string-course: the internal splays are of squared rubble and the pointed rear-arch is chamfered. In the south wall is an ogee-headed doorway to the stair-turret: there is also an outer doorway to the turret, probably a modern piercing: the turret is lighted by plain loops. The next story is lighted by lancet windows: higher up, but below the bellchamber, is a modern clock-dial set splay-wise across the south-west angle so as to be seen from the main street of the town. The bell-chamber has in each wall a window of the 14th century, of two trefoiled ogeeheaded lights and a quatrefoil in a two-centred head.

The font and other furniture are modern. A screen at the east end of the north aisle—to the organ chamber—contains the mutilated remains of a screen of c. 1500, mostly applied to modern woodwork: they include a number of elaborately traceried heads of bays, foiled circles with rosette centres, twelve paterae with roses or foliage, six lengths of running foliage ornament (two vine-leaf), a length of a cornice with vine foliage, &c. A chest with a rounded lid is probably of the late 16th century: it is bound by iron straps and has three staples, one for a lock and two for padlocks.

Fixed on the south wall of the tower is a benefaction board fitted with painted doors in the form of a triptych. The list of charities from 1562 to 1904 is inscribed on parchment or paper and enframed under glass in a shallow cupboard. This has an enriched top rail and cornice and a moulded bottom rail carried on brackets: below it is another rail carved with half-sunflowers and foliage. The interesting feature of this fitting is the doors, which are each of two panels covered with paintings. On the internal faces are four pictorial subjects representing acts of charity, with the participants dressed in the costume of c. 1600. In the dexter upper panel are five bearded men, two donors and three tradesmen, a barber with scissors and comb, a carpenter with saw and square, and a butcher with cleaver and axe. A panel above the figures is inscribed in black letter: 'Blessed is he that considereth the poore and needy. Psalme 41: 1.' The lower panel has three donors and two beggars. The donors—all men—hold clothing, food, and washing utensils: one beggar is blind and holds an alms-tray and white staff: the other is a cripple with a wooden leg. The inscription reads: 'He that hath pittie upon the poore lendeth unto the Lord. Pro: 19: 17.' The sinister upper panel represents a school with two gowned teachers, and six boys and girls at their lessons: one holds a horn-book with the alphabet: there is a large fire-place with a sway and pot. The text reads: 'To do good and to communicate forget not. Heb: 13:16.' The lower panel is a prison scene, the prison being a battlemented structure of stone with two prisoners appearing at the windows. The donors are a man and woman accompanied by their maid who wears cap and apron and carries a tray of food. The man holds a flask and cup, and the woman a basket (of eggs?). The text reads: 'The mercifull doeth good to his owne soule. Pro: 11: 17.' The external faces are painted with black-letter inscriptions. The upper dexter panel reads: 'Behold within this table are the names with the memorable acts of those who have most liberally extended their bountye to help tradesmen and releeve poore and aged people dwelling within the Towne and Parish of Alcester.'

The others are texts, and the retouched date 1683, which was evidently 1603.

At the west end of the north aisle is a well-preserved altar-tomb (fn. 163) with the alabaster effigies of Sir Fulke Greville, 10 Nov. 1559, and Lady Elizabeth (Willoughby) his wife, 156–. (fn. 164) The knight wears the full plate armour of his younger years, sword and dagger: his hands are in prayer and his feet rest on a lion: about his shoulders is a chain with a pendent cross. He wears three rings on the fingers of each hand. His head rests on his helmet, which bears a crest of a greyhound's head. His armour is painted black with gilded enrichments. The lady, on his left, wears a close-fitting cap and veil, a small ruff and a necklace. The tight bodice is held by knotted cords, and has slashed and puffed sleeves, also pendent false sleeves with cheveron ornament: an overskirt is folded back revealing the pleated underskirt. From her waist is a pendent chain with a flat round sachet. Over all she wears a mantle loosely tied across her breast by pendent cords with tasselled ends. Her head rests on a cushion. Her hands are in prayer and she wears three rings on each. At her feet is a tiny dog biting the end of her overskirt. The effigy has remains of colouring, the mantle being red; the other garments were probably black. The top slab has moulded edges in which is the carved inscription. At the angles of the sides of the tomb are round shafts with spiral ornament, and similar intermediate shafts divide the longer sides into three bays. Each middle bay bears a shield of arms in a garter, the dexter Greville, the sinister Willoughby. In the other bays are represented the children as weepers: the dexter bays have three and four sons respectively, the eldest in armour, the others in gowns, except the sixth who is shown in grave-clothes. On the sinister side are eight daughters, the sixth being in grave-clothes. At the head end of the tomb is a quartered shield of Greville in a garter with nude men as supporters. At the foot end, under the wording: 'Arma Richardi dni. de bello campo, baronis de Powick & dni. de Alincester' are (1) a shield with the quartered Greville arms, (2) a lozenge with the twenty Willoughby quarterings, and between them (3) a small shield of Beauchamp quartering Ufflete. The quarterings of Greville and Willoughby are repeated on small shields below the top string.

Above the tomb, fixed to the respond of the colonnade, is a funeral helmet with a comb and beaver, and a painted framed wooden panel charged with the Greville arms.

There are eight other funeral monuments of the 18th and 19th centuries, the oldest being Timothy Howes, 1709. One to John Brandis 1724 is signed by Edward Woodward of Campden, another to Sir Hamilton Seymour, G.C.B., with his seated effigy is signed 'Gleichen, 1882'. In the south chapel is a reclining effigy of Francis Ingram Seymour Conway, Marquess and Earl of Hertford, died 1822, by Sir Francis Chantrey.

In the nave is a brass candelabrum with two tiers of arms inscribed 'Ye gift of ye Rt Revd Father in God Dr John Hough Ld Bp. of Worcester, 1733'.

There are six bells of 1735 by Abel Rudhall.

The church plate is modern, dating from 1884.

The registers begin in 1560.

Advowson


The church of Alcester is not included among the grants to the abbey in Ralph's original foundation charter, which is at Coughton Court. Nor is it mentioned in the confirmation of this charter by Robert, Earl of Leicester, (fn. 165) and by King Stephen early in 1140. (fn. 166) The only evidence that the abbey ever possessed it is contained in an undated confirmation charter of the reign of Henry II. (fn. 167) It must in any case have been lost soon afterwards, as were many other of the possessions of that house during its early history, for Henry II is said to have granted it to the Priory of Cookhill. (fn. 168) In 1227 the advowson was in dispute between the Prioress of Cookhill and Peter FitzHerbert and William de Botreaux, lords of the two moieties of the manor. (fn. 169) In 1247 the church was said to belong to Cookhill, (fn. 170) and the priory continued to present down to the Dissolution. (fn. 171) The advowson then passed to the Crown and was granted, with the site of Alcester Abbey, to William Sewster and his son John in 1544. (fn. 172) Though not mentioned, it may have been included in Sewster's conveyance of this property to Fulke and Elizabeth Greville in the following year. Fulke Greville the second presented in 1578 (fn. 173) and the advowson thenceforward follows the descent of the manor, though three successive presentations, in 1619, 1620, and 1623, were made by the Crown. (fn. 174)

In 1247 (fn. 175) and 1291 (fn. 176) the church was valued at £8. In the latter year the nuns of Cookhill were said to enjoy a portion in it of £113s. 4d. The same valuation is given in 1341, the glebe being then worth £3, (fn. 177) and again in 1428. (fn. 178) In 1535 it is rated at £14 2s. 10½d., including £1 6s. 8d. for the glebe; a pension of 10s. 5d. was then payable to the Prioress and Convent of Henwood. (fn. 179) In 1646 the Committee of Plundered Ministers ordered the living to be augmented out of the sequestrated profits of the rectory of Brailes, belonging to William Bishop, a Papist. (fn. 180)

The present dedication, in honour of St. Nicholas, appears in 1227 (fn. 181) and 1333. (fn. 182) But in 1428 the church was said to be dedicated in honour of St. Faith. (fn. 183) According to Dugdale the change was made on the occasion of a rebuilding. (fn. 184) It is not known when the original dedication was restored.

There were two chantries in the church, dedicated respectively in honour of St. Mary and of All Saints. The former was probably founded by John Boteller, who presented to it one Robert, his chaplain at Oversley, in 1286. (fn. 185) The priest was required to sing mass daily at 6 o'clock in the morning in the parish church of Alcester and to pray for the souls of the founders. In 1547 the endowment of the chantry was valued at £6 11s. 6d., out of which rents to divers persons were payable to the amount of 16s. 5½d. No land had been sold and there were no goods, plate, or ornaments. (fn. 186) The property comprised 13 houses and cottages, 9 tenements, an inn and a shop and lands in Alcester, a croft in Oversley and Lady Meadow, and land in the common fields in Kinwarton. (fn. 187)

The advowson of this chantry descended with the manor of Oversley (q.v.) until the end of the 15th century, when it came into the hands of the Beauchamps, Lord Beauchamp (presumably Richard) presenting in 1490. (fn. 188) The original chantry was in the parish church, but about this time it is said to have been rebuilt, at the request and expense of the rector and principal inhabitants, on land granted to them by Lord Beauchamp. The town seems thus to have acquired the advowson, which was held by the rector and eight others, presumably townsmen, in 1513. (fn. 189) One reason for rebuilding the chantry may have been to provide a school, since it is stated that Richard Norman, who became priest in 1490, 'kept a scole there according to the Foundacyon'. (fn. 190) This school survived the dissolution of the chantry, for in 1562 Queen Elizabeth granted to the Lady Elizabeth Greville a sixty years' lease of some of the former property of the chantry including 'A house . . . which was formerly the preist's house . . . and is now occupied as a school house' and the grant contained 'A covenant not to convert the preistes Chamber to noe other use then a schole.' (fn. 191) Walter Newport's bequest of 1591, which has been regarded as the foundation of Alcester Grammar School, may therefore have been made to maintain a school which had already been in existence for more than a century. (fn. 192)

The chantry of All Saints was founded by John son of Giles de Beauchamp, who obtained licence of alienation in mortmain to the extent of £5 to assign to a chaplain to celebrate daily in the parish church of Alcester; in part satisfaction whereof in 1362 he granted to Henry le Walkere, chaplain, 11 messuages, a shop, 11 acres of land and 4 of meadow, worth £2 11s. 8d., to hold as of the annual value of £3. (fn. 193) John Merton and Robert Canell, chaplains, granted to Henry Eorle, chaplain of this chantry, 4 messuages and 4 acres of land in 1411. (fn. 194) The advowson of this chantry descended with the manor of Alcester. (fn. 195) The endowment in 1547 amounted to £5 7s. 4d., including reprises, paid to the king, of 9s. 3d. (fn. 196) No land had been sold and there were neither goods nor ornaments. (fn. 197) The property comprised a house and a shop, 13 tenements and land in the common fields in Alcester, and 9 acres of land in Kinwarton. (fn. 198) At this time there were said to be over 460 houseling people in Alcester and the chantry priests were wont to help daily in the administration of the sacraments, since 'without the helpe of them the person there is not able to serve the seyd cure'. (fn. 199) In 1553 a pension of £5 was being paid to the former priest of St. Mary's Chantry and of £4 18s. to the former priest of All Saints. (fn. 200) Grants of part of the former possessions of the chantries were made to John Hulson and Bartholomew Brokesby, citizens and scriveners of London, in 1549, (fn. 201) and to Edward Aglionby of Balsall and Henry Higford of Solihull in 1553. (fn. 202) By 1562 other portions of the property of both chantries had come into the hands of Lady Elizabeth Greville. (fn. 203) Several houses, shops, and cottages formerly belonging to both chantries were granted by the Crown to Francis Phillips and others in 1611. (fn. 204)

In 1333 Pernell widow of Robert Squier of Alcester gave 3 messuages and land and rent to maintain a priest celebrating daily in the church of St. Nicholas for the souls of Edward III, herself, and her husband and their families; (fn. 205) but no more is known of this chantry.

Nonconformity


The beginnings of Nonconformity in Alcester may be attributed to the Rev. Samuel Clarke, rector 1633–45. When he first came here, so he tells us, the town was the rendezvous of the 'many great Papists' of the neighbourhood and the inhabitants were so 'much given to Swearing, Drunkenness, and prophanation of the Sabbath, opening their Shops; and selling Wares (especially Meat) publickly' as to earn it the name of 'Drunken Alcester'. Clarke energetically set himself to reform this laxity and was the only one, even of the Puritan clergy of the neighbourhood, who refused to read to his congregation the Book of Sports of 1633. His ministry was attended with such success—aided by the Divine vengeance which followed upon disregard of his precepts—that, in his own words, the town became 'Exemplary and eminent for Religion all over the Country'. (fn. 206) The steward of the manor, Matthew Bridges, was a major in the Cromwellian army and one of the most active justices on the Warwickshire bench during the Interregnum. In 1657 he was commissioned by Quarter Sessions to remove 'the Rood loft and all superstitious paint' from the church. (fn. 207)

There were three Dissenting congregations in Alcester in the 17th century—the Presbyterians, Baptists, and Quakers. They must however have been largely drawn from the surrounding district, since the Compton Census of 1676 records only 16 Nonconformists in a total of 299. (fn. 208) The Presbyterian church was probably founded by Clarke's successor, Samuel Tickner, who continued to live and preach here after his ejection from the rectory in 1662 and died in 1685. (fn. 209) But the first recorded minister was Joseph Porter, (fn. 210) whose house was licensed for worship in 1689 (fn. 211) and who died in 1721. He established an academy in his house for the instruction of young men for the ministry. (fn. 212) The chapel in Bull's Head Yard, now derelict, bore on a rainwater head the date 1723; but there is said to have been a chapel on the site already in use in 1693. During the 18th century the congregation adopted Unitarian tenets. Except for an interval of eleven years, 1882–93, the chapel was in use until 1901, when it was dismantled. The fittings, which included a fine late-17thcentury three-decker pulpit, brought from the church after the restoration of 1870, and other good woodwork of the period, were sold by auction and the income was handed over to the Trustees of the Presbyterian chapel at Evesham. (fn. 213)

The Midland Baptist Association met at Alcester in 1657. The first minister here was John Willis, who attended the Assembly in London in 1689 and died about 1705. In 1712 the church had 98 members, of whom rather less than half came from outside Alcester—11 of them from Henley-in-Arden. The first meeting-house was licensed in 1736. The present chapel, which occupies the same site, dates from 1869. Separate churches were formed from this congregation at Henley-in-Arden in 1803 and at Astwood Bank in 1813. (fn. 214)

The Friends' Meeting at Alcester was founded in 1660 by Richard Hubberthorne and in 1677 the Viscountess Conway became a member of it. In the latter year a meeting-house was secured on lease. It was rebuilt in 1699 (fn. 215) and may perhaps have been the house of Richard Laggett for which a licence for Quaker worship was issued in 1701. (fn. 216) In its early days the congregation was subject to much persecution (fn. 217) and seems never to have been a very flourishing one. In 1835 the meeting-house was converted into a private dwelling and let. (fn. 218) It stands in one of the courts on the east side of High Street.

The first reception of Methodism in Alcester was even less favourable than that which the inhabitants were traditionally said to have accorded to the preaching of St. Egwin, more than a thousand years before. In 1812 a Methodist minister, Michael Cosin, who came to preach here, was attacked and beaten by a mob, and about the same time a Mr. Heaton who came from Redditch with the object of establishing a church, was similarly treated and dragged along the gutter. A Methodist congregation was in existence however by c. 1840 (fn. 219) and the present chapel in Priory Road was built in 1872.

The Roman Catholic Church in Priory Road was built in 1888.

Charities


John Bridges in 1659 gave a close containing about 1½ acres called Maggotts, together with the four alms-houses (called Priory Almshouses) adjoining in Priory Lane, for the use of four widows for ever. The close is now let on a lease expiring in 1997 at a rent of £6 15s.

George Ingram in 1680 gave the four almshouses in the Bleachfield (called Bleachfield Almshouses), and a close adjoining, for the use of poor unmarried men or women aged 50 years or upwards. Part of the close was sold under the authority of the Charity Commissioners in 1927 and the proceeds invested in 3½ per cent. Conversion Stock, producing £5 8s. 10d. annually. The remainder of the close, consisting of garden land, is let at the total rent of £6 per annum.

Brooke Bridges' Charity. By indenture dated 29 Nov. 1780 it was recited that Brooke Bridges by codicils to his will dated 30 Sept. 1700 gave sums of £400 and £600 to purchase lands, and that out of the profits thereof 40s. per annum should be paid to the persons inhabiting the almshouses of Alcester given by his father and his uncle, George Ingram, and the residue should be applied to the repair of the almshouses and to poor persons. The estate purchased at Alne Hills, Great Alne, containing some 127 acres. is let at a yearly rate of £108 (approx.).

Thomas Lucas in 1706 gave a house in Feckenham (co. Worcester), the profits to be equally distributed among the four poor people inhabiting the four almshouses in Bleachfield. The endowment is now represented by a rentcharge of 15s. per annum out of land in Feckenham.

The above-mentioned charities are administered by trustees, three of whom are appointed by the parish council of Alcester, and the annual income, amounting to £140 (approx.), is applied in payments to the almspeople and in maintaining the eight almshouses.

Molly Hodgetts by will proved 23 Jan. 1833 gave the sum of £100, the interest, now £2 10s., to be paid to the four tenants of the four almshouses in Priory Lane.

John Watts by will proved 5 June 1847 gave £100 to the Trustees of the Bleachfield Almshouses, the income to be distributed to the almspeople. The endowment is now represented by £78 4s. 11d. Consols held by the Official Trustees of Charitable Funds and the income amounts to £1 19s. 4d.

William Smallwood (Almshouse) Trust. By an indenture dated 23 Jan. 1895 it was recited that William Smallwood gave £2,000 to build almshouses for the poor of Alcester, and £2,000 for endowing the same. Six almshouses were built at a cost of £1,340 18s., the residue of the bequest being invested. The almshouses are held upon trust for the accommodation of poor persons resident in the parish, with a preference for tradesmen and their widows in reduced circumstances. Stipends are paid to the almspeople at the discretion of the trustees, who have power to provide water, gas, fuel, medical attendance, and funeral expenses. The endowment now consists of the almshouses and stock held by the Official Trustees of Charitable Funds producing an annual income of £117 6s. 6d. and the charity is administered by seven trustees appointed by an Order of the Charity Commissioners.

Penelope Morgan in 1720 gave £10, the interest to be given to the church poor of Alcester.

William Oakes by will dated 19 Mar. 1766 and Elizabeth Oakes by will dated 29 Sept. 1769 each gave £100 to purchase land, the profits to be expended in bread for the poor. In 1872 £200 was applied in paying off a mortgage on Moor Fields, interest at 4 per cent. being paid.

Samuel Dobbins in 1766 bequeathed £20, the interest to be paid to the poor. The endowment produces 18s. 10d. annually.

William Gibbs in 1759 by will gave 40s. per annum charged on a house in Evesham Street called the White Lion for distribution to the poor. The rentcharge is received regularly.

Lovel Hodgett in 1816 gave £200, the interest to be distributed in bread to the poor. The endowment produces £5 2s. 8d. annually.

Angel House Charity. The origin of this charity is unknown; it consists of a rentcharge of 10s. issuing out of Angel House.

The six above-mentioned charities are administered by the Rector of Alcester and two trustees appointed by the parish council, and the income amounting to £16 11s. 6d. a year is distributed to the poor in groceries.

Lady Elizabeth Greville in 1562 gave twelve black gowns to twelve poor widows for ever. In the returns under Gilbert's Act in 1786 this gift is said to have been a rentcharge of £5 10s. given by will and to have been paid by the Earl of Warwick. The endowment is now represented by a charge of £6 issuing out of land in Alcester now forming part of the estate of the Marquess of Hertford and is expended in accordance with the terms of the bequest.

Robert Wilcox by will dated 24 Dec. 1627 gave his house and close at King's Coughton for the maintenance of three sermons, the residue to be given to the poor of the parish. The property was sold in 1922 and the proceeds invested in 3½ per cent. War Stock held by the Official Trustees of Charitable Funds. The interest amounting to £6 1s. 10d. annually is applied by the High and Low Bailiffs in accordance with the trusts.

Thomas Wilson by will proved 19 Feb. 1863 gave £100 to the churchwardens, the interest to be applied in bread and meat for twenty-five poor and aged widows. The endowment is now represented by £146 16s. 6d., 3 per cent. Local Loans producing £4 8s. yearly, which is applied as directed by the will, by two trustees appointed by the parish council in place of the churchwardens.

Francis Mosley Spilsbury by will proved 2 Jan. 1879 gave £100, the interest to be paid in equal shares to twelve poor persons living in Alcester, with a preference to those of the Roman Catholic religion. The charity is administered by the rector and one trustee appointed by the parish council, and the income amounts to £2 10s. 8d.

Richard Fisher by will proved 28 July 1884 gave £200, the income to be distributed to the poor in bread, beef, and coal. Owing to an insufficiency of assets the original bequest was reduced and the endowment is now represented by £46 3s. 2d. Consols held by the Official Trustees of Charitable Funds. The interest is applied under an order of the Charity Commissioners dated 16 Nov. 1905. The Rector is now sole trustee.

Gould's Gift. John Granger Gould by will proved 29 Oct. 1904 bequeathed £1,000 to the vicar and churchwardens of St. Nicholas' Church, Alcester, the interest, now £41 1s., to be distributed to twelve poor persons over 60 years of age resident in the parish and church persons.

Hawes Close. By deed dated 8 Aug. 1655 it was recited that the close called Hawes Close adjoining Priory Lane and one ridge of land were in 1665 purchased by the town stock of John Bridges, the yearly profits to be applied to the discharge of public duties of the church and town. The land was sold in 1920 and the proceeds invested in 3½ per cent. Conversion Stock producing an annual income of £38 1s. By an Order made under section 75 (2) of the Local Government Act 1894 it was directed that half of the income should constitute the endowment of the Church Charity and the remainder the endowment of the Town Charity. The charities are administered as directed, the Church Charity by the rector and churchwardens and the Town Charity by the rector and two trustees appointed by the parish council.

Moor Fields Charity. The origin of this charity, the endowment of which consisted of two closes called the Moors, which were taken out of the common moor by Sir Fulke Greville, lord of the manor, is unknown. By an indenture dated 16 Nov. 1733 the trustees were empowered to raise moneys and to apply the same together with the rents and profits of the lands for the use of the church, churchyard, and mounds if there should be any occasion, but if not to apply the rents for the use of the parish in general. The land is now let at a yearly rent of £24 (approx.), which is applied in paying interest at 4 per cent. on a sum borrowed to repay a mortgage, the residue being paid to the Parochial Church Council for application in accordance with the trusts. The trustees are the rector, churchwardens, and High Bailiffs.

Church Street Property. The origin of this charity is unknown. A lease dated 21 Mar. 1787 recites that the Bailiffs and churchwardens were entitled to the freehold of five houses in Church Street as trustees for the inhabitants and that such endowments had from time immemorial been administered for such purposes as the major part of the inhabitants in vestry assembled had from time to time thought proper to direct. The houses are let at a yearly rent of £60 (approx.) and the income is spent in grants for public purposes.

Footnotes

 

1

Ragley MSS., deed of 1784. The Bull Ring is also mentioned 1685 (Churchwardens' Accounts in Parish Chest).

2

The houses are shown on an estate map of 1752, formerly at Ragley (photostat, B.R.L. 379051).

3

S.-on-A., Compton Verney MSS. 6992.

4

A 'Piece of ground in Alcester in ye Shoprowe there on the Southe side of the Churchyard' is referred to in 1602 (B.M. Egerton Ch. 1747). The Shop Row, both north and south of the churchyard, is mentioned in the Inclosure Awd. 1771. It had disappeared, however, by c. 1815, when the drawings in the Aylesford Collection (B.R.L.) were made.

5

Cf. Beighton, 1725. This evidence appears to be confirmed by the boundaries of property given in a deed of 1661 (Warwick MSS. 2107).

6

Cf. Ragley MSS. (deed of 1634); Inclosure Awd. 1771. The Cole Brooke was probably the stream of which evidence was discovered during sewage repairs in 1870 and which has sometimes been thought to have been the original course of the Arrow. It ran down behind the High Street on the west side and, turning eastward, flowed under the Midland Bank and the High Street into the Arrow near the east end of the present Recreation Ground (ex inf. Mr. A. J. Gwinnett).

7

a This late-17th-century building was in use until 1912, when the school was taken over by the County and the present School buildings on the Birmingham Road were erected (ex inf. Mr. T. Lear Caton, headmaster).

8

Seggs Lane is referred to in 1368 (P.N. Warw. 194). It is probably a personal name; Richard Segge occurs in a rental of 1545 (B.R.L. 272798), and the family is frequently mentioned in the 16th- and early-17th-century Registers.

9

Probably the Gorehales lane mentioned in 1439 (Warwick MSS. 149).

10

Ex inf. the late Mr. B. W. Davis.

11

V.C.H. Warw. i, 236–7.

12

Ex inf. Mr. B. W. Davis.

13

Ibid.

14

Between Alcock's Arbour and Oversley bridge the road makes a wide detour northwards from its original course.

15

For its course to this point see under Wixford, p. 189.

16

Ex inf. Mr. B. W. Davis.

17

The Stratford-Alcester-Bromsgrove Turnpike Trust was set up by an Act of 1753, renewed in 1781 and 1801: vol. of Returns of Turnpike Trusts, Shire Hall, Warwick.

18

The Swan is first mentioned in 1586: Book of John Fisher (ed. Kemp), 174. It was granted by Ralph Willis of Alcester to Fulke Madley of Alcester, vintner, in 1597: Ragley MSS.

19

White, Direct. of Warw. 750.

20

a S.-on-A., Compton Verney MSS. 6992.

21

b Shire Hall, Warwick, D 19/3.

22

Ibid. D 19/4, 5.

23

a Warw. Co. Rec. v, 64, 86, 100, 117.

24

b Ibid. iv, 77, 84, 115.

25

List of benefactions recorded on the triptych in the church. A draft of the contract and a covering letter from a Mr. Halett to Sir Fulke Greville are preserved at Warwick Castle (Warwick MSS. 1326).

26

It is difficult to reconcile this statement in the letter with the fact that Simon White was only to receive £52 for his work on the lower story.

27

B.R.L. 272809.

28

Bps. Reg. Wore. 1787-1826, fol. 50.

29

The initials are probably those of Thomas Lucas and Elizabeth his wife, whose marriage is recorded in the registers in 1665. Thomas Lucas was several times Bailiff of Alcester and died in 1706.

30

Cf. Ragley MSS. (deed of 1766). The name first occurs c. 1670 (Davis, Token Coinage of Warw. 90).

31

Cal. Chart. R. 1327–41, p. 466.

32

Leland, Itin. (ed. Toulmin Smith), ii, 51.

33

Parish Registers. He was brother of the 2nd Lord Brooke and was of Beauchamp's Court Lodge in 1642 and 1646 (Ragley MSS.).

34

Hearth Tax Returns. The house is assessed in 1665 at 16, in 1667 at 7, and 1670–3 at 8 hearths. In 1667–70 it is occupied by Charles Johnson.

35

Ex inf. Mr. E. W. Jephcott.

36

Haddan and Stubbs, Councils, iii, 281, 283. It is called a celebrated place in Cotton MS. Nero, E 1, fo. 27.

37

Chron. de Evesham (Rolls Ser.), 24–7.

38

Leland, Itin. (ed. Toulmin Smith), ii, 51, 159–60.

39

Pipe R. Soc. (New ser.), x, 252.

40

Transcripts by J. H. Bloom of deeds relating to Alcester Abbey, in Warwick MSS., no. lvii (in B.R.L.).

41

Bk. of Fees, 1275.

42

McKizack, Parlm. Representation of English Boroughs during the Middle Ages, 5.

43

Hund. R. (Rec. Com.), ii, 226.

44

Alcester Abbey Transcripts, B.R.L., no. lxxvi a. For other references to burgage tenements see Feet of F. (Dugd. Soc. xi), no. 867; Cal. Inq. p.m. vi, no. 250.

45

Catalogue of Warwick MSS., nos. 1530–1.

46

Pat. R. 15 Jac. I, pt. 2, no. 16. There is a copy of the charter, which recites the previous confirmations, in the parish chest at Winchcombe (no. 5 in list).

47

The parish chest contains eleven annual accounts of Proctors or Proctors and Churchwardens, dating 1658–85.

48

Document in parish chest.

49

S.-on-A., Compton Verney MSS. 6992.

50

Cal. Pat. 1358–61, p. 223.

51

Cal. Chart. R. 1257–1300, p. 430.

52

Ibid. 1300–26, p. 27.

53

Ibid., p. 426.

54

Ibid. 1427–1517, pp. 88–90.

55

Pat. R. 15 Jac. I, pt. 2, no. 16.

56

Report of Royal Comm. on Markets and Tolls, 1888–91, App. p. 211.

57

Lewis, Topog. Dict. i, 16–17.

58

Smith, Hist. of Warw., 287.

59

Report of Royal Comm. on Markets and Tolls, 1888–91, App. p. 211.

60

J. H. Bloom, Transcripts of deeds relating to Alcester Abbey (B.R.L.), no. lxxvi a.

61

a Shire Hall, Warwick, D 19/3.

62

Parlm. Surveys, Warw., no. 1.

63

Inscription in Town Hall.

64

Cf. P.N. Warw. 194.

65

Lay Subsid. R. (Dugd. Soc. vi), 6. In 1351 John le Deyare granted to John de Drome and others the whole of his tenement in Mill Street (Coughton MSS.).

66

Warwick MSS. 160.

67

Geographical Description of all the Countries in the Known World, 167.

68

Document in parish chest.

69

Ragley MSS.

70

Acts of the Privy Council, 1597–8, pp. 315–16. The distress at Alcester was probably due also to plague. The burial entries in the Registers for 1597 number 75—between 2 and 3 times the annual average for the period.

71

Simpson, The Agreeable Historian, 1016.

72

Ex inf. Mr. George Haynes.

73

Settlement certificate of Richard Badson, needle-maker from Studley, in parish chest: ex inf. Dr. R. A. Pelham. For a general account of the industry in Warwickshire see V.C.H. Warw. ii, 234–7.

74

Warwickshire: a concise Topographical Description, c. 1811–20, p. 14; Lewis, Topog. Dict., 1831, i, pp. 16–17. Smith, Hist. of Warw., 1830, p. 287, puts the number at 'nearly a thousand'. All these estimates are probably too high, however, since the 1831 Census Returns give 350 for the whole county, mostly at Alcester, Shedley, Ipsley, and Sambourne (quoted V.C.H. Warw. ii, 235).

75

Register of Apprentices in parish chest.

76

West, Direct, of Warw. 491–4.

77

Settlement Certificates, 1688–1718, in parish chest: ex inf. Dr. R. A. Pelham.

78

Cal. Inq. p.m. ix, no. 100.

79

Cal. Pat. 1413–16, p. 125. In 1432 an Irish chaplain, Robert Fyngall of Alcester, received a similar dispensation: ibid. 1429–36, p. 266.

80

Ap Rice, ap Prise, ap Gryffen ap Lewis, Gwillim.

81

Cf. Warwick MSS. 1344 and 1918. Exact computation is impossible since the later rental must include some of the 'Kinges Landes' which are separately listed in 1610.

82

Cal. S.P. Dom., 1619–23, p. 557.

83

Hearth Tax Returns.

84

Thomas's figures, which are usually fairly reliable, imply a total population of rather more than 1,500 in 1730: Dugd. 771.

85

Smith, Hist. of Warw. 287.

86

Cf. table in V.C.H. Warw. i, 184.

87

10 Geo. III. c. 66. Copy of Award, dated 1 Feb. 1771, in parish chest.

88

Dugd. 766.

89

Leadam, Domesday of Enclosures, ii, 662.

90

Bk. of Fees, 1275; Cal. Close, 1234–7, p. 208.

91

Bk. of Fees, 1275.

92

Dugd. 762; Cartae Antiquae (Pipe R. Soc.), no. 38.

93

R. W. Eyton, Antiquities of Shropshire, vii, 151, 181–2. In the Pipe Rolls for 1178 to 1189 Alcester is described as formerly belonging to Earl Reynold.

94

Pipe R. Soc., vols. xxv-xxxviii; Pipe Roll for 1 Richard I (ed. J. Hunter, 1844).

95

Pipe R. Soc., vols. for 8, 9, 10 Rich. I, 1, 2, John. Dugdale suggests that Henry was deprived of Alcester for taking part against the king with his enemies in Normandy: Dugd. 762.

96

Dugd. 762. Cartae Antiquae (Pipe R. Soc.), no. 38. Eyton identifies William de Botreaux as sheriff of Devon: Eyton, op. cit. vii, 156.

97

Ibid. 148.

98

Pipe R. 6 John, m. 17 d; Rot. Litt. Claus. (Rec. Com.), i, 3, 39; Rot. de Oblatis, 200.

99

Rot. Litt. Claus. i, 280, 314. Peter was pardoned in 1221 six marks for scutage, as he and his men had served in the king's army in 1214: ibid. i, 456.

100

Red Bk. Exch. ii, 469.

101

Exc. e Rot. Fin. i, 400.

102

Bk. of Fees, 1275.

103

Cal. Inq. Misc. i, no. 927.

104

Cal. Inq. p.m. ii, no. 47.

105

See pedigree, Eyton, op. cit. 159.

106

Cal. Pat. 1317–21, p. 584.

107

Dugdale, Baronage, i, 629.

108

Cal. Pat. 1327–30, p. 529; Feet of F. (Dugd. Soc. xv), no. 1693.

109

Cal. Fine R. 1347–56, pp. 176–7.

110

Cal. Inq. p.m. x, no. 119.

111

Cal. Pat. 1361–4, p. 482.

112

Chan. Inq. p.m., 4 Hen. V, no. 41.

113

Ibid. 3 Hen. VI, no. 13.

114

Ibid. (Ser. 2) xli, 7.

115

Cal. Pat. 1441–6, p. 273.

116

Red Bk. Exch. ii, 550. Cf. Feud. Aids, v, 191.

117

Bk. of Fees, 1275.

118

Cal. Inq. p.m. ii, no. 47. From a return made in 1304 the serjeant thus maintained for twenty days seems to have been a mounted archer: J. H. Bloom, Transcript of Deeds, Alcester Abbey (B.R.L.), no. lxxvi a.

119

Ibid.

120

Cal. Inq. p.m. xii, p. 309; Cal. Pat. 1361–4, pp. 48, 105. Herbert FitzJohn, grandson of Reynold FitzHerbert, made over his rights in the lordship to Guy, Earl of Warwick, on 5 May 1315 (Dugd. 768), but when Guy died, on 10 Aug. 1315, the fee is not named among those which he held.

121

e.g. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), xli, 3; ibid. cxliii, 2.

122

Feet of F. (Dugd. Soc. xi), 595.

123

Cal. Close, 1247–51, p. 229.

124

Bk. of Fees, 1275.

125

Curia Regis R. 173, m. 14 d. Walter was the brother of William, Earl of Warwick.

126

Cal. Close, 1264–8, p. 353; Curia Regis R. 180, m. 16; Feet of F. (Dugd. Soc. xi), 901.

127

S.-on-A., Compton Verney MSS. 6992.

128

Cal. Close, 1288–96, p. 173; Cal. Chart. R. 1257–1300, p. 489. Walter de Beauchamp was then steward of the king's household. In 1359 John, son of Giles de Beauchamp, is described as lord of the town of Alcester: Cal. Pat. 1358–61, p. 223.

129

Feud. Aids, v. 178.

130

Cal. Inq. p.m. vii, 176. This must be an error for 'the representatives of Reynold FitzPeter (d. 1286)', as there was no Reynold at this time, and the family had parted with the lordship to the Earl of Warwick in 1315: see above.

131

Cal. Chart. R. 1327–41, p. 466.

132

Ibid. 1427–1517, pp. 88, 89, 90.

133

Dugd. 766.

134

Worc. Epis. Reg., Carpenter, fol. 47.

135

Chanc. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), xli, 3; Exchq. Inq. p.m. 1129/7.

136

Dugd. 766.

137

L. and P. Hen. VIII, iv, g. 2132 (11).

138

S.-on-A., Compton Verney MSS. 1411 (copy of Letters Patent).

139

Chanc. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), 143 (2).

140

Dugd. 766.

141

Dugd. 767.

142

Ragley MSS.

143

Dugd. 767.

144

L. and P. Hen. VIII, xvi, g. 779 (9).

145

Ibid. xix (2), g. 690 (58); Pat. R. 36 Hen. VIII, pts. 4 and 24.

146

B.M., Egerton Ch. 1746. The receipt is dated 22 Oct. 1544, but the grant to Sewster in L. and P. was not made until Nov. 28 following.

147

Transcripts by J. H. Bloom of deeds in Warwick MSS. relating to Alcester Abbey, no. cxxxvii a (B.R.L.).

148

B.R.L. 272798.

149

Warwick MSS. 1344.

150

Ibid. 1918.

151

Ibid. 1526.

152

Cf. L. and P. Hen. VIII, xix (2), 690 (58); Feet of F. Div. Co. Mich. 11 Jac. I; Warwick MSS. 2558; Recov. R. Mich. 14 Car. II, ro. 116; ibid. 14 Geo. II, ro. 236.

153

Val. Eccles. (Rec. Com.), iii, 251.

154

Warwick MSS. 2558.

155

Cal. Chart. R. 1226–57, p. 256.

156

B.R.L. 272798.

157

Feet of F. Mich. 2 and 3 Eliz.

158

Ragley MSS.

159

Ibid.

160

Ibid.

161

Note in Parish Register, by Rev. Francis Palmer, rector, 1825. A copy of the contract is in the parish chest.

162

Churches of Warw. ii, 105.

163

Figured inaccurately in Dugd. (p. 770) and described and illustrated in Birm. Arch. Soc. Trans. xlviii, 158–61.

164

The date of her death was filled in in paint, now faded. The Registers give the date of burial of Sir Fulke Greville as 10 Nov. 1560, and of his wife as 15 Nov. 1562. But Henry Machyn in his Diary (Camden Soc. 1847, p. 219) records Sir Fulke's funeral on 11 Dec. 1559; and his widow did not die until 20 Nov. 1565: Chanc. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), 143 (2).

165

Dugd. Monasticon, iv, 176, no. 2.

166

Ibid., no. 5.

167

Ibid. 177, no. 6; assigned to 1155: Eyton, Itin. of Henry II, 7.

168

Bk. of Fees, ii, 1394.

169

Cal. Pat. 1225–32, p. 167.

170

Bk. of Fees, ii, 1394.

171

Dugd. 768–9.

172

L. and P. Hen. VIII, xix (2), g. 690 (58).

173

Dugd. 769.

174

P.R.O. Inst. Bks.

175

Bk. of Fees, ii. 1394.

176

Tax. Eccles. (Rec. Com.), 218.

177

Nonae R. (Rec. Com.), 445.

178

Feud. Aids, v. 188.

179

Val. Eccles. (Rec. Com.), iii, 91.

180

Add. MS. 35098, fol. 3 d.

181

Cal. Pat. 1225–32, p. 167.

182

Ibid. 1330–4, p. 472.

183

Feud. Aids, v. 188.

184

Dugd. 768.

185

Reg. Giffard (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), 300. The following chaplains occurin addition to those given by Dugdale (769–70): 1354, William son of Nicholas le Chaundeler, v.p.m. Richard le Leigh (Transcripts by J. H. Bloom of Deeds in Warwick MSS. relating to Alcester Abbey. B.R.L. no. xcvii): 1378, William Spryke, v.p.m. William son of Nicholas le Chaundeler (ibid., no. cvii): John Whitehead, late 15th century, called by Mayyowe 'the first prist that sange in the seid chauntrye after it was buylded' (Shire Hall, Warwick, D. 19/2): 1535, Roger Medcalff, mentioned Val. Eccl. (Rec. Com. iii, 93). He was the last chaplain and was 71 years old in 1547 (Chantry Certifs. 59, no. 42).

186

Chantry Certifs. P.R.O. 53, no. 23. See also ibid. 57, no. 42 and 31, no. 37, where slightly different valuations are given, and Val. Eccles. (Rec. Com.), iii, 93.

187

Warwick MSS. 217.

188

Dugd. 770.

189

a Shire Hall, Warwick, D. 19/2: examination of John Mayyowe, 1544; Dugd. 770: 3 of these 8 are among the 5 principal inhabitants mentioned by Mayyowe.

190

Shire Hall, Warwick, D. 19/2. Norman, however, was not, as is there stated, 'put into the said Chantrie' by the townspeople, but by Lord Beauchamp. (Dugd. 770.)

191

Shire Hall, Warwick, D. 19/3: (late-16th-century copy of 'An Indenture written in a fayre old Hand').

192

a The earliest recorded master is William Traunter, who occurs in the parish registers in 1614 and 1616. William Mede, 'schoolmaster at Alcester', signed 'The Warwickshire Ministers' Testimony' of 1648. The Rev. John Kaye occurs as headmaster of the Grammar School in 1771 (Inclosure Award), and the Rev. Matthew Booker in 1792 (Universal Brit. Direct.). Under the long headmastership of Richard Harbridge in the late 19th century classical instruction was given and the school is said to have contained at one time 30 boarders (ex inf. Mr. E. W. Jephcott).

193

Cal. Pat. 1361–4, p. 197; Inq. ad q. d. 342, no. 7.

194

a Cal. Pat. 1408–13, p. 284.

195

Dugd. 770–1.

196

Chantry Certifs. P.R.O. 53, no. 23. See also ibid. 31, no. 38, 57, no. 43, and Val. Eccles. (Rec. Com.), iii. 93, where slightly different values are given.

197

Chantry Certifs. 31, no. 38.

198

Warwick MSS.

199

Chantry Certifs. 31, no. 38.

200

Dugd. 771.

201

Cal. Pat. 1548–9, p. 230.

202

Ibid. 1553, p. 238.

203

Warwick MSS. 1309.

204

Pat. R. 9 Jac. I, pt. 3.

205

Cal. Pat. 1330–4, p. 472.

206

Samuel Clarke, Lives of Sundry Eminent Persons, 4–5.

207

Warw. Co. Rec. iv, 6.

208

At the Salt Library, Stafford. The basis of the figures is, however, uncertain. They may refer to families.

209

Matthews, Calamy Revised, 486; Hearth Tax Returns, 1667–74; Par. Reg.

210

G. E. Evans, Midland Churches, 10.

211

Q.S. Minutes, 1682–96, fol. 173.

212

G. E. Evans, Midland Churches, 10.

213

Ex inf. Mr. A. J. Gwinnett.

214

Baptist Church Book.

215

Ex inf. Mr. A. J. Gwinnett.

216

Q.S. Minutes, 1696–1709, fol. 96.

217

Cf. White, Friends in Warw., 33–4, and entry in Constable's Account, 1676 [in parish chest], 'pd ffor a warrant to disturbe the Quakers 6d'.

218

Ex inf. Mr. A. J. Gwinnett.

219

Ibid.

 



ARROW

 

'Parishes: Arrow', A History of the County of Warwick: Volume 3: Barlichway hundred (1945), pp. 26-31. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=56976. Date accessed: 04 November 2008.

Acreage: 2,634.

Population: 1911, 317; 1921, 339; 1931, 293.

The parish of Arrow is bounded on the east by the River Arrow as far north as Oversley Mill, and then by the Spittle Brook, running south-east from Coldcomfort Wood, where the boundary turns west to reach the Redditch-Evesham road, which forms the western boundary. On the south the limit of the parish is the line of the road from Wixford to Weethley Gate. From the river, where the elevation is only about 120 ft., the ground rises rapidly to the west and north, reaching 300 ft. in the south-west corner and 415 ft. in the north-west corner of the parish.
The village lies on the road from Wixford to Alcester, with the church, the rectory, and a farm between the road and the river. Another road branches westward from the village to Worcester. Between this road and Weethley Gate lies Ragley Park (500 acres in extent) with the Hall, a large lake, apparently constructed in 1630, (fn. 1) and extensive woods on the edges of the park. The manor at the time of the Domesday Survey had woodland 1 league by 2 furlongs in extent, (fn. 2) and there is reference to the assarting and inclosure of land in Arrow in 1230. (fn. 3) The parish is still well wooded; north of the Worcester road are Three Oak Hill Wood and Old Park Wood, the latter perhaps representing the woodland in Arrow which Robert Burdet was licensed to impark in 1333. (fn. 4)
Arrow Rectory is partly of 16th-century origin but has been much altered and enlarged. It faces south and has an approximately symmetrical front: the west cross-wing shows some close-set studding in the lower story of the west elevation, the upper being plastered, and there are traces of other framing inside. A stonebuilt chimney-stack has a modern shaft. A coved ceiling in the upper story has grape-vine ornament in the cornice, probably of the 17th century, but other parts are of the 18th century and later.
On the main road to Alcester are several ancient buildings. One, opposite the roadway to the church, is a 17th-century house, with a jettied east gable-end towards the road, and on the north side is an original projecting chimney-stack of thin bricks with two diagonal shafts, each with small square pilasters on the four faces.
Another, farther north, at the corner of the Worcester road, is a long building of one story and attics, all of square framing of the 17th century, and another a few yards farther north is similar: both are divided into tenements. Nearer to Alcester on the same side is a house of similar framing but with a north lower and narrower extension that has close-set studding in the upper story and in the north gable-head, probably of the late 16th century.
Two small thatched cottages on the west edge of the parish near Weethley Church have remains of 17thcentury framing.
Ragley Hall (fn. 5) is a large building about 175 ft. by 120 ft., facing east and west. The walls are of squared rough ashlar with rusticated angle-dressings. It consists of a basement and two upper main stories, with attics or roof-space above. Some of the fabric of the original house of 1598 may be incorporated in the building, but as it stands to-day the mansion dates from about 1680 (fn. 6) when it was built or rebuilt from designs by Dr. R. Hook, Curator of the Royal Society. The work was incomplete when the Earl of Conway died in 1683, and it was continued by the trustees of his heir. A view of the house in 1697–9, engraved by Kip, shows it much as it is now, except for the later alterations to the middle bay and the roofs; it then had a forecourt and side wings, which were pulled down about 1780. In 1813 the architect Wyatt was called in. He built the portico with the colonnade to the middle bay of the east front and probably it was he who heightened the great hall by taking in the story above it and furnishing it with the vaulting. The whole of the roofs have also been altered either by him or subsequently: they are covered with slates. Many repairs were effected in 1891, the date that appears on many of the rainwater-pipe heads.
The east front of five bays has moulded stringcourses marking the floor-levels and a cornice with enriched brackets and open-balustraded parapets. The late-17th-century windows of the upper stories have eared architraves, pulvinated friezes, and moulded cornices. The middle bay projects slightly and has a portico of c. 1813 with four Ionic columns carrying a pediment. The first-floor windows behind it are round-headed, evidently also part of the alterations; the second floor has square-headed windows. The windows of the ground floor or basement have rusticated architraves and flat arches, and the walling is generally in better condition than the upper. The first floor of the middle bay containing the entrance to the great hall is approached by a double flight of steps. The west front is similar, but without Wyatt's portico: all the windows are of the 1680 design, tall and narrow. The only addition is an attic story over the middle bay, which has three bull's-eye windows and is treated with swag and festoon ornament. The north and south elevations are of three bays, the middle deeply recessed. The projecting bays have original windows as in the fronts, but in the recessed bays they are round-headed and probably later alterations.
The plan is of the utmost symmetry. It is based on a great cross about 45 yards east to west (containing the great hall and smaller hall west of it) and about 55 yards north to south. In the angles of this are smaller chambers forming the second and fourth bays of the main fronts, and beyond these are wings, about 13 yards square, projecting at the angles of the mansion. The main staircases occupy the west halves of the north and south arms of the basic cross plan. The great hall is divided into five bays by three by Corinthian pilasters below an entablature with a frieze enriched by ribbonbound oak leaves, and a moulded cornice which marks the original second-floor level. Above this is the later semi-vaulting of the heightening, with rococo ornament.
Generally the interior decoration, chimney-pieces, and main staircases appear to be not earlier than the second half of the 18th century, but the small chamber south of the hall on the east front—the Library—has bookcases of Charles II period, and there are one or two secondary staircases of the same date. In some alterations in the north half of the house some brickwork has been exposed in the room east of the north main staircase. These bricks are larger than the usual bricks of 1680, in red and black, and every fourth or fifth course is of stone: there are also remains of round arches on the east and west walls that appear to belong to earlier construction than the 1680 walling. It is possible that this is part of the Elizabethan house. Several beams now covered up but revealed during recent repairs are also claimed to be of the earlier period. The basement below the hall is built with a series of piers and vaults, but these do not appear to be earlier than 1680.
The original stables and coach-houses and the lodgings of the outside staff stand north-east of the mansion, and were built symmetrically about courtyards. The stables, now altered to dwellings, were on the east and west sides of a large square quadrangle. On the south side are three residences with doorways that have rusticated jambs and entablatures. The wall is divided into five bays by pilasters and in front of it is a covered way with a colonnade of fifteen bays with Doric shafts and an enriched entablature. On the north side is a round-headed archway leading to the north courtyard. This is of semicircular plan and contained the coachhouses: the round arches to these are now mostly walled up, but a few are used for motor-cars. The gateway between the courtyards and that at the north of the arc are of similar treatment, the round archways being flanked by round-headed niches and having pediments over them. Above the intermediate gateway is a clock and above the north gateway an octagonal attic. The arc springs from short wings that are treated with the same motif as the gateways, but the round arches are blanks or recesses and contain doorways like those of the southern range. One coach-house on the east side of the arc has been cut through to form another gateway. In the centre of the quadrangle is another Doric shaft as a post with a ball and iron ornament on top of it. The walls towards the courts are of stone; externally they are of plain brickwork. The roofs are covered with slates.
On the river, ¼ mile south of the village, is Arrow Mill, presumably on the site of the mill mentioned in Domesday (fn. 7) and in 1210. (fn. 8) About the same distance north of the village is Oversley Mill; there was a mill here in 1086, (fn. 9) and 'mills' in about 1155, (fn. 10) two watermills and a fishery being attached to the manor in 1287. (fn. 11) A court roll of 1585 mentions £5 12s. 4d. rent 'of the milners of Oversleie Milles'. The mill was used as a needle mill by the firm of Holyoake of Redditch from 1825 to 1844, when they transferred to the Hoo Mill at Haselor. (fn. 12) Somewhat higher up the river is Oversley Bridge, connecting Oversley Green and Alcester.
The hamlet, or civil parish, of Oversley (Acreage: 1486. Population: 1911, 306; 1921, 276; 1931, 293) was part of Arrow until 1909, when it was joined, for ecclesiastical purposes, to the parish of Alcester. It lies on the opposite bank of the Arrow and extends north of Alcester to the boundaries of Coughton and Kinwarton.
At Oversley Green is a 17th-century farm-house; the gabled east cross-wing is of square timber-framing with a central chimney-stack and tiled roof; the western cross-wing has rough-cast and brick walls but has an original brick chimney-stack on its west side, with two square shafts with V-shaped pilasters. The middle block is modernized.
A little farther to the south-west is a group of four timber-framed cottages of the same period. The easternmost and latest of them has a tiled roof and gabled dormer window. The others are thatched and have low flat-topped dormers.

Manors


In 710, according to the chronicles of the abbey of Evesham, Ceolred, King of Mercia, gave land in ARROW to the abbey. (fn. 13) It was subsequently wrested from them but regained by Abbot Agelwy II (fn. 14) (1070–7), only to be lost again to Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, (fn. 15) who at the time of the Domesday Survey held 7½ hides in Arrow, which he sublet to Stephen. At this time the manor contained a mill worth 6s. 8d., 30 acres of meadow, and some woodland. (fn. 16) Odo subsequently granted his lands in Arrow to Robert Marmion, (fn. 17) from whom they descended to Geoffrey Marmion, whose daughter Auberée married William de Camville, of Clifton, Staffordshire. (fn. 18) He held them in 1195, when he sued Ralph Boteler and two others for stealing goods from his land in Arrow while he was on the king's service in Wales. (fn. 19) In 1220 Auberée was holding half a knight's fee here of Robert Marmion (fn. 20) for life, with reversion to her son William de Camville. (fn. 21) He was in possession in 1229, when he was fined for cutting down woodland at Arrow which was then in the king's forest. (fn. 22) In 1231–2 he had to defend his right to the manor against Maurice le Boteler, (fn. 23) and two years later against Richard de Camville, the son of his brother Geoffrey, (fn. 24) whose descendants held the mesne lordship of this fee. He was holding half a knight's fee in Arrow of the fee of Robert Marmion in 1235–6, (fn. 25) and in 1275 jurors reported that William de Camville, who was now dead, had withdrawn his tenants of Arrow from suit at the hundred and county courts and had paid an annual fee of ½ mark to the sheriff for this privilege. (fn. 26) At this time Arrow was in the possession of his brother (fn. 27) Thomas de Camville, who paid to Geoffrey de Camville, of Clifton, Staffs., grandson of the earlier Geoffrey, scutage for half a knight's fee, homage, and relief. (fn. 28) He was succeeded by his son, Sir Gerard de Camville, who held Arrow in 1288, when it was seized by the king for his default against the Bishop of Worcester. (fn. 29) Sir Gerard died in 1303 and lies buried in Arrow Church. He left as heir a daughter Elizabeth, (fn. 30) but the manor appears to have come into the possession of a Henry de Camville, who was patron of Arrow Church in 1309 and 1311; (fn. 31) he had possibly married Elizabeth and taken her name, as in 1312 he complained against Robert Burdet for abducting his wife Elizabeth from Arrow. (fn. 32) Elizabeth later married Robert Burdet, (fn. 33) who was summoned before the King's Council in 1326 to answer concerning the wood pertaining to his manor of Arrow. (fn. 34) The next year he obtained a grant of free-warren in Arrow, (fn. 35) and in 1333 a licence to impark his woods. (fn. 36) Robert was succeeded by his son Gerard, who died in 1349 holding the manor of Sir Richard Stafford, the representative of the elder branch of the Camville family at Clifton. His son and heir, Sir John Burdet, was at this time 21 years old. (fn. 37) He held the manor in 1379, (fn. 38) but by 1390 had been succeeded by Sir Thomas Burdet, (fn. 39) who died before 1428, (fn. 40) being followed by his son Sir Nicholas. This latter was dead by 1448, (fn. 41) and Thomas Burdet, his son, was executed for treason in 1477, when the manor passed to his wife Margaret, with reversion to his second son John. (fn. 42) In 1485 Arrow was conveyed to John's half-brother Richard and his wife Joyce, who upon his death married Sir Hugh Conway and held one-third of the manor in dower, while the remainder was held by her daughter and heir Anne, who married Sir Hugh's younger brother Edward. (fn. 43)


Camville. Azure three lions passant argent.


Burdet. Azure two bars or with three martlets gules on each bar.


Conway. Sable a bend cotised argent with a rose between two rings gules on the bend.

Edward Conway died in Aug. 1546 seised of the manor of Arrow, his son John being his heir. (fn. 44) Sir John Conway was succeeded by his son Sir John, who died in Oct. 1603, leaving the manor to his son Edward, who obtained a grant of freewarren there in 1619. (fn. 45) He was created successively Baron Conway of Ragley and Viscount Killultagh and Conway, and died in Jan. 1631, being succeeded by his son Edward. (fn. 46) On the death of his son Edward, who had been created Earl of Conway in 1679, the estates passed to his second cousin Popham Seymour-Conway. He died in 1699, being succeeded by his brother Francis, who was created Baron Conway of Ragley in 1703. He died in 1732 while his son Francis was still a minor. Francis was created Viscount Beauchamp and Earl of Hertford in 1750 and Earl of Yarmouth and Marquess of Hertford in 1793. His descendant, the Marquess of Hertford, is the present lord of the manor.

The manor of RAGLEY seems to have been a distinctive part of the parish of Arrow from a very early date, for the Evesham chronicler claimed that Ceolred, King of Mercia, had given land in Ragley to the abbey in 710. (fn. 47)

Towards the close of the 11th century the monks certainly had land there, (fn. 48) part of which was held by Wybert Trunchet in Henry II's time. With the consent of the abbey he granted it to Roger son of William, from whom it descended to Ralph son of Nicholas of Kingley, who held the estate in 1325. (fn. 49)

In 1370 John Rous of Ragley exchanged with the abbey lands in Ombersley, Worcs., for land and rent in Ragley and Kingley. (fn. 50) In Dec. 1381 he received a pardon for crenellating a house above the gate of his manor of Ragley without licence, and was given leave to crenellate the remainder of the manor. (fn. 51) John Rous died before the close of 1396, followed shortly after by his eldest son John. (fn. 52) The elder John had held the manor jointly with his wife Christiane, on whose death in 1416 it descended to their grandson William, a minor of 7 years. At this time the overlordship of the manor belonged to Sir Thomas Burdet of Arrow. (fn. 53) William died in 1420 while still under age, being succeeded by his brother John, then 15 years old. (fn. 54) John Rous died in 1476 holding the manor jointly with his wife Margaret, who outlived him. (fn. 55) His son Thomas died in 1499 and lies buried in Quinton Church with his wife Maud. (fn. 56) On the death of their son Thomas Rous in 1523, Ragley passed to their daughter Margaret, wife of John Brome of Halton. (fn. 57) In Oct. 1591 her grandson George Brome sold this manor with that of Pophills to Sir John Conway for £3,000. (fn. 58) Ragley became the principal seat of the Conway family in the 17th century and follows the same descent as the manor of Arrow.


Rous, of Ragley. Sable two bars engrailed argent.

During the abbacy of Abbot Adam (1160–91) the monastery of Evesham acquired the reversion of an estate in KINGLEY which Wybert Trunchet had held and granted to Roger son of William. (fn. 59) Roger's descendants held the estate until the early 14th century, when Nicholas of Kingley disposed of it to Malcolm Musard, who released all his rights to the abbey in 1316. (fn. 60) The abbey held also 150 acres in Kingley which in 1221 they let to Stephen of Ragley. (fn. 61) In 1290 the Abbot of Evesham successfully claimed view of frankpledge in his manor of Kingley and exemption of his tenants from suit at the county and hundred courts. (fn. 62) The land in Kingley obtained in 1370 by John Rous with Ragley (see above) by exchange with the abbey (fn. 63) descended to his grandson William, (fn. 64) whose brother and heir John (fn. 65) may have alienated it to Sir Nicholas Burdet, the holder of Arrow, for it does not appear in the inquisition taken after John's death in 1476, (fn. 66) and in 1485 Thomas Burdet's widow Margaret, then the wife of Thomas Woodhull, and his son John, settled the estate with that of Arrow on John's brother Richard and his wife Joyce. (fn. 67) On the marriage of their daughter Anne, the manor passed to the Conway family and follows the same descent as Arrow.

At the Domesday Survey the Count of Meulan, later created Earl of Leicester, held 3 hides of land in OVERSLEY, (fn. 68) and until the close of the Middle Ages the manor remained part of the honour of Leicester. In 1086 Fulk held the estate, but it later passed to one of the second Earl of Leicester's officials, Ralph le Boteler, who probably built a castle there, making it his principal seat. (fn. 69) In the middle of the 12th century the earl and Ralph jointly founded the monastery of Alcester, and granted to it lands in Oversley. (fn. 70)

The abbey of Bordesley also acquired lands in Oversley about the same time by the gift of Walter of Stanes. (fn. 71) Ralph le Boteler's descendant William died shortly before 11 Dec. 1283 holding the manor of Oversley of the Earl of Leicester, and lands there also of the Abbot of Bordesley. (fn. 72) One-third of the manor was assigned to his wife Angareta in dower; his son and heir John died in 1287, (fn. 73) and his brother Gawain shortly after him. Their younger brother William held the manor in 1293, being then a minor in ward to Walter de Langton. At this time Alice the widow of Gawain, Angareta, now married to Robert de Neville, and Eleanor, sometime the wife of John le Boteler and now of John de la Mare, all held land in the manor in dower. (fn. 74) William le Boteler died in 1334, being succeeded by his son William, (fn. 75) who died in 1361; (fn. 76) and on the death of his son William in 1369 (fn. 77) without male heirs the manor passed to his daughter Elizabeth, wife of Sir Robert Ferrers. (fn. 78) She died in 1411, leaving two daughters, Elizabeth wife of John, Lord Greystock, and Mary wife of Sir Ralph Nevill, younger son of the Earl of Warwick. (fn. 79) In the division of her lands, Oversley was assigned to Mary. (fn. 80)


Boteler. Gules a fesse checky argent and sable between six crosses for my argent.

On her death in 1458 Mary was succeeded by her son John Nevill. (fn. 81) He died in 1482 and Oversley passed to his grandson Sir William Gascoigne of Gawthorpe, Yorks. (fn. 82) On the marriage of his second son Henry with Elizabeth daughter of Sir Henry Boynton, the manor was settled on him and became the subject of a series of law-suits in Chancery in the early years of the 16th century. (fn. 83) In 1537 Sir William Gascoigne and his son Sir Henry sold the manor to Sir Thomas Cromwell. (fn. 84) After Cromwell's attainder Henry VIII granted Oversley, in exchange for lands in Bedfordshire, to Sir George Throckmorton of Coughton, who had been anxious to acquire it for several years. (fn. 85) From this time the manor follows the same descent as Coughton (q.v.).

Oversley was a valuable and extensive manor, comprising in 1566 the present parishes of Exhall and Wixford, part of Grafton and part, at least, of King's Broom; (fn. 86) presentments from all four townships were made at the manor court of Oversley in 1385, and from the 16th century onwards the constables, tithingmen, and supervisors of the fields of Wixford, Exhall, and Broom were elected there. The manor was divided from Bidford on the south by a holding known as the 'Twenty Hide Meere', which was claimed in 1595 as part of Bidford lordship, but which was no doubt the 'balliva viginti hidarum' granted by the lord of Oversley to William de Brome at a rent of 8s. yearly in 1321. (fn. 87) The northern boundary of the manor, in 1566, with Coughton and Kinwarton, seems to have been that of the present parish. The manor was valued, c. 1320, at £53 0s. 11¼d. It then comprised 872 acres, of which 387 were in the park and another 375 consisted of demesne scattered in the east, west and north fields. In 1541 the rents of Oversley alone amounted to £51 17s. 4d., and those of Exhall, Wixford, Grafton and Broom to £9 18s. 6½d. By 1603 the value of the manor had risen to £237 19s. 0½d., including £100 for the park. Lands held by indenture accounted for £80 19s. 4d. and the customary rents of Oversley Green, Exhall, Broom and Wixford for £22 6s. 3d. (fn. 88)
The park referred to c. 1320 is mentioned in 1283, when William le Boteler died holding a park and two gardens in Oversley of the abbot of Bordesley as of the manor of Bidford Grange, paying 5s. yearly for housebote. (fn. 89) By James I's time it is referred to as Oversley Park or the New Park, (fn. 90) though there is no evidence that its boundaries had been extended or a second park made; a great part of its extent is now covered by Oversley Wood. The sale of timber became a very important source of profit to the lord of the manor in Elizabethan times, amounting in 1581, for instance, to £146 4s. 0d., compared with a rental of £173 19s. 8d., and this may explain why, in 1603 and 1608, Thomas Kempson was holding the park at the high rent of £100. (fn. 91)

Church

 

The parish church of ST. JAMES consists of a chancel with a north chapel and vestry, nave, north aisle, and west tower.
The building dates from the 12th century, but the only evidence of this period is the south doorway, which may have been reset at a later period. The nave has windows of the end of the 13th century, and the chancel appears to have been rebuilt from early-to mid-14th century. The west tower is said to have been added or rebuilt in 1767. The north aisle was added in 1865 and the rest of the building restored.
The chancel (32 ft. by 15½ ft.) has an east window of three trefoiled lights and vertical tracery in a twocentred head: the jambs may be of the 14th century, the other stonework is modern: the two-centred reararch is chamfered. In the south wall are two windows and in the north wall one, each of two cinquefoiled lights and mid-14th-century leaf tracery (partly restored) in a two-centred head with a moulded external label and chamfered pointed rear-arches. Between the south windows is a priest's doorway with moulded jambs, two-centred head, and label. In the west half of the north wall is a modern arcade of two bays to the north chapel. The chancel arch is modern. The north wall is of squared rubble; the gabled east wall and the south wall are rough-cast. The walls have an old moulded plinth, and at the east angles are diagonal buttresses of ashlar. The roof is tiled and has modern timbers.
In the south wall is a 14th-century piscina with ogee head and semi-octagonal sill with a shallow basin. The chancel floor has been raised four steps and the altar pace two steps more, so that the piscina-sill is now only 9½ in. above floor-level.
The modern north chapel has two north windows, the eastern of which resembles those of the chancel and has been reset here.
The nave (49 ft. by 20 ft.) has a modern north arcade of three bays. In the south wall are three windows: the easternmost is of c. 1300 and has three plain pointed lights and intersecting tracery in a two-centred head with an external hood-mould. This has carved headstops, the western a woman's with a veil head-dress, the eastern probably a man's with a gorget or high collar. The window is recessed down to the floor inside and has in it a tiny piscina, only 6¾ in. wide and 5½ in. deep: this has an ogee head with trefoiled soffit cusps and a moulded projecting sill and basin. The second window is of three trefoiled lights and tracery of early14th-century character but all of modern stonework. The third is similar to the first, but all modern. The south doorway, between the second and third windows, has 12th-century square jambs with shafts or edge-rolls worked in the solid: they have moulded bases and plain cushion capitals with modern chamfered abaci. The head is half round and of two orders, the inner is square and the outer has a roll-mould. A modern inscription has been cut in the face of the inner order. The round rear-arch is plastered. The doorway is of a hard yellow stone, the windows of a soft grey limestone. The walling east of the doorway is of a rubble of rough irregular stones, except near the east end, where there is a vertical band of grey stone ashlar which may be another relic of the 12th-century walling. West of the doorway the wall is rough-cast. At each end of the wall is a square buttress; the eastern, perhaps of the 16th century, is of red stone; the western, later, is of grey stone.
The tower is of three stages and has an embattled parapet with angle pinnacles. The walls are rough-cast. The modern archway from the nave has a segmentalpointed head. In the west wall is a Tudor doorway and over it a bull's-eye window. The bell-chamber has two-light pointed windows.
The modern north aisle has three north windows. Reset below the easternmost of the three is a pair of tomb recesses with moulded jambs and three-centred arches: the recesses are 1 ft. 10 in. deep. In the spandrel between their arches is a tiny recess 8 in. wide with a pointed arch 7 in. high: it is 1 ft. 3 in. deep and may have been made to serve as a reliquary. In the eastern recess is set a tapering coffin-lid on which is carved a cross with a wheel-head, slender stem, and stepped base. The edges are chamfered: on that of the dexter edge is the inscription:
CI: GIT: GERARD: DE: CANVILL (fn. 92)
On the north wall of the chancel are two small shield-shaped brass plates. One reads:
Here is ye right Honoble Edward Lo: VicesCount Conway & Killultagh Lo: Presidnt of his Mats most honoble privee Councell, Lo: Lieutenant of ye County of Southampton & Captaine & Governor of the Ile of Wight who discharged wth much honor & fidelitie great offices of trust, att home principal Secretary of State abroad Ambassador extraordinary unto Germanie. His strength was exercis'd in honble Atcheevement of warr in ye time of Queene Elizab: His age imployed in Councells of State under King James & King Charles and having receaved ye desert of virtue honor to himselfe & his familie Departed out of this life ye 3 of January in ye yeare of his redemptiō by Christ 1630.
The other is to Henege, infant son of Edward, Viscount Conway, who died in 1660.
On the south side of the chancel is a monument with an alabaster effigy of Sir George Francis Seymour, G.C.B., G.C.H., born 1787, died 1870; and a brass placed in position in 1872 commemorates other members of the Seymour Conway family interred below the chancel, from Frances (Popham), Viscountess Conway, 1671, to Francis Charles Seymour Conway, third Marquess of Hertford, K.G., 1842.
On the south wall is an ancient black and gilt funeral helmet with the Conway crest of a blackamoor's head; also a sword.
Glass: In the south-west window of the chancel two of the foils have 15th-century yellow and white round flowers of five petals. In the north window are two others of four petals.
The furniture is modern except for one 17thcentury bench which has shaped standards.
In the tower is one bell by Henry Bagley, 1657.
The plate includes a cup with cover-paten of 1670, a large bread-plate of 1727, and a flagon, undated, apparently originally a coffee-pot. (fn. 93)
The register of baptisms begins in 1592, of marriages in 1591, and of burials in 1588; the earlier volumes of registers are now deposited at the Shire Hall, Warwick.

Advowson


According to one of the charters of the monastery of Alcester ratified by Henry II, Ralph le Botiller granted to the monastery, with the consent of the Earl of Leicester, the advowsons of the churches of Arrow and Oversley (fn. 94) and of the chapel of his castle of Oversley. (fn. 95) If the monastery ever held the advowson of Arrow Church they did not retain it, for in 1309 Henry de Camville made the presentation. (fn. 96) The advowson seems to have passed with the manor to the Burdet family, for in 1390 Sir Thomas Burdet had it settled on his wife Isabel and himself in tail. (fn. 97) Thomas Burdet held it when he was attainted in 1477, and it passed with the manor to the Conway family and remains with the present Marquess of Hertford. It is a rectory with the chapelry of Weethley attached.

Charity


In 1811 William Langton left £100 to be distributed among the poor of the hamlet of Oversley, at the discretion of his executors. This was invested and the interest was given away annually. (fn. 98)

Footnotes

 

1

Cal. S.P. Dom. 1629–31, pp. 240, 331.

2

V.C.H. Warw. i, 303.

3

Feet of F. (Dugd. Soc. xi), 435.

4

Cal. Pat. 1330–4, p. 406.

5

A description of the house and its contents, by Avery Tipping, appeared in Country Life for 22 and 29 Mar. 1924.

6

In Nov. 1677 Lord Conway wrote to his cousin, Sir Edward Harley, from Ragley: 'Heere you will finde me playing the foole in laying out mony upon building, having cheefely undertaken it because I finde my grandfather designed to build heere. . . . I have almost finisht one side of the outbuilding and halfe the garden wall.... I have also the modell of the house designed': Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv (2), 357.

7

V.C.H. Warw. i, 303.

8

Feet of F. (Dugd. Soc. xi), 196.

9

V.C.H. Warw. i, 317.

10

Cal. Chart. R. iv, 483.

11

Cal. Inq. p.m. ii, 641.

12

a Short Hist. of the Firm of Holyoake, reprinted from Redditch Indicator, 8 Oct. 1892. Arrow Mill was also used for needlemaking in the early 19th century: Guise, Needles, 21. Ex inf. Mr. S. H. Hardy.

13

Chron. Eves. (Rolls Ser.), 72.

14

Ibid. 95.

15

Ibid. 97.

16

V.C.H. Warw. i, 303.

17

Harl. MS. 3763, fol. 58.

18

Magni Rot. Scac. Norm. ii, p. xcix; Feet of F. (Dugd. Soc. xi), no. 196.

19

Rot. Curiae Regis, 1194–9, ed. Palgrave, p. 51.

20

Curia Regis R. viii, 145.

21

Feet of F. (Dugd. Soc. xi), no. 218. Cf. Wm. Salt Soc. iv, 10.

22

Close R. 1227–31, p. 187; Pipe Roll Soc. N.S. iv, 212.

23

Feet of F. (Dugd. Soc. xi), no. 476.

24

G.E.C. Complete Peerage (2nd ed.), iii, p. 3; Close R. 1231–4, pp. 308, 322.

25

Book of Fees, 510.

26

Rot. Hundr. (Rec. Com.), ii, 226.

27

Wm. Salt Soc. vi, 200.

28

Feet of F. (Dugd. Soc. xi), no. 924.

29

Cal. Close, 1279–88, p. 543.

30

Cal. Inq. p.m. v, p. 404.

31

Reg. Walter Reynolds, Bp. Worc. (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), 148, 153.

32

Cal. Pat. 1307–13, p. 535.

33

Dugd. 849.

34

Cal. Close, 1323–7, p. 557.

35

Cal. Chart. R. iv, 62.

36

Cal. Pat. 1330–4, p. 406.

37

Cal. Inq. p.m. xii, 296.

38

Cal. Fine R. ix, 144.

39

Anct. Deeds (P.R.O.), C. 2428.

40

Feud. Aids, v, 192.

41

Cal. Pat. 1446–52, p. 207.

42

Dugd. 849; Chan. Inq. p.m. 17 Edw. IV, no. 66.

43

Cal. Inq. p.m. Hen. VII, ii, no. 778.

44

Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), lxxxv, 74.

45

Pat. 17, Jas. I, pt. 6, no. 15.

46

Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cccclxvi, 107.

47

Chron. Eves. (Rolls Ser.), 72; Birch, Cart. Sax. 127.

48

Dugd. Mon. Angl. ii, 17.

49

Chron. Eves. (Rolls Ser.), 101; Cal. Pat. 1324–7, p. 157.

50

Cal. Pat. 1367–70, p. 337. John le Roos of Ragley is mentioned in 1332: ibid. 1330–4, p. 328.

51

Ibid. 1381–5, p. 64.

52

Cal. Fine R. xi, 200.

53

Chan. Inq. p.m. 4 Hen. V, no. 41.

54

Ibid. 3 Hen. VI, no. 13.

55

Ibid. 16 Edw. IV, no. 51.

56

Stephenson, List of Monumental Brasses in the British Isles, 155.

57

Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), xli, 7.

58

Feet of F. Mich. 33–4 Eliz.; Cal. S.P. Dom. 1591–4, p. 280.

59

Chron. Eves. (Rolls Ser.), p. 101.

60

Harl. MS. 3763, fol. 124; Cal. Inq. Misc. ii, no. 1274.

61

Feet of F. Warw. (Dugd. Soc.), no. 261.

62

Plac. de Quo War. (Rec. Com.), p. 779.

63

Chron. Eves. (Rolls Ser.), 300; Cal. Pat. 1367–70, p. 337.

64

Chan. Inq. p.m. 4 Hen. V, no. 41.

65

Ibid. 3 Hen. VI, no. 13.

66

Ibid. 16 Edw. IV, no. 51.

67

Ibid. (Ser. 2), lxxxv, 74.

68

V.C.H. Warw. i, 317.

69

Dugd. Mon. Angl. iv, 177. Cf. Dugd. 845. A steep knoll overlooking the Arrow is still known locally as 'Boteler's Castle'. Recent excavations (see B'ham. Arch. Trans. lx, 146) have shown that Ralph's castle can have been no more than a timber structure. On lower ground to the east mounds and slight traces of stonework may mark the site of the manor-house which succeeded it.

70

Add. Chart. 21494.

71

Anct. Deeds (P.R.O.), B. 11262, 11263.

72

Cal. Inq. p.m. ii, no. 529.

73

Ibid. no. 641.

74

Cal. Pat. 1292–1301, p. 46.

75

Cal. Inq. p.m. vii, no. 593.

76

Ibid. xi, no. 37.

77

Chan. Inq. p.m. 43 Edw. III, pt. i, 17.

78

Feet of F. Trin. 44 Edw. III.

79

Chan. Inq. p.m. 12 Hen. IV, no. 21.

80

Cal. Close, 1419–22, p. 140.

81

Chan. Inq. p.m. 36 Hen. VI, no. 21.

82

Ibid. 22 Edw. IV, no. 26.

83

Early Chan. Proc. 515, no. 20; 607, no. 47; 635, no. 3.

84

Feet of F. Div. Co., Trin. 29 Hen. VIII; L. and P. Hen. VIII, xiv, ii, 782 (p. 330.)

85

Ibid. xvi, g. 878 (80); ibid. iv, ii, 5024 (2).

86

Ct. R. Some of the boundaries can be roughly identified with the aid of the late-16th-century terrier of the lands of Maurice Walsingham (ibid.).

87

Ct. R. The receipt of William's rent for the 'ballia' is recorded in 1324.

88

Ibid.

89

Cal. Inq. p.m. ii, no. 529. In 1324 this payment was assigned to the abbot out of the rent of the tenement of Walter Bryd in King's Broom (Ct. R.). The rental of c. 1320 gives 3 woods in the manor—Calwohull, Budeleye and Heghweyegrove—amounting only to 42 acres and worth about 2¾d. an acre. Of these, Budeleye was in Wixford (q.v.).

90

Rentals of 1602–3 and 1607–8.

91

Ct. R.

92

He died in 1303: see above.

93

Lea, Church Plate, 21.

94

No other reference to a church at Oversley is known; only the chapel of the castle is named in the original foundation charter, at Coughton Court.

95

Dugdale, Mon. Angl. iv, 175, 177.

96

Reg. Walter Reynolds (Worcs. Hist. Soc.), p. 148.

97

Anct. Deeds (P.R.O.), C. 2428.

98

White, Dir. of Warwicks. (1850).




 

BIDFORD

From: 'Parishes: Bidford', A History of the County of Warwick: Volume 3: Barlichway hundred (1945), pp. 49-57. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=56980. Date accessed: 04 November 2008.


Acreage: 3,348.


Population: 1911, 1,634; 1921, 1,698; 1931, 1,842.


Bidford is a large parish stretching on either side of the Avon and including the hamlets of Broom on the north and Barton and Marlcliff on the south of the river. The ground is mostly low-lying, though the contours rise to 200 ft. on the east, between the Stratford road and Bidford Grange. The Roman Ryknield Street runs north and south through the parish and an important Saxon cemetery was discovered here in 1922. (fn. 1) The Roman road originally crossed the Avon by a ford just to the east of the church, and its northward course is still marked by a lane under the churchyard wall which crosses the High Street and continues as the main road to Alcester. The southern portion was deflected westwards to its present line probably in the 15th century, when the bridge was built about 200 yards below the ford. This diversion may account for the plan of the village itself, which consists of a single street (the Stratford-Evesham main road) running along the north bank of the river, the bridge being about half-way down. At its eastern end, near the church, the street widens into a small square, which was probably the site of the Market Cross, described by Sir Simon Archer in 1639 as 'all downe and ruinated'. (fn. 2) It is significant that all the buildings, about 16 in number, of 17th-century or earlier construction, are within 200 yards of the church.

BIDFORD ON AVON
Plan of village based on the Ordnance Survey and 'Archaeologia' vol. 73, p. 90.

 

BIDFORD ON AVON Plan of village based on the Ordnance Survey and 'Archaeologia' vol. 73, p. 90.

 

The largest of these, the former Falcon Inn, stands at the corner of High Street and a road bordering the north side of the churchyard. It is for the most part of mid- to late-16th-century date, built of local lias stone in alternating narrow and wide courses. The plan is L-shaped, formed by two blocks, with a seam in the masonry between them: that facing the High Street is probably rather the earlier and consists of two stories and attics with a lath-and-plaster gable at the south end; the other, to the west of it, has three stories and attics with two gables overlooking the churchyard and a gabled south-east end. The windows are mullioned and, in the first floor of the taller part, transomed as well. All have moulded drip-stones, those over the firstfloor windows forming a continuous string-course step ping up for the higher transomed windows. One window in the south-west front has been altered to a modern doorway and window. At the junction of the two blocks is a massive rectangular chimney-stack of stone with the stumps of six diagonal shafts of thin bricks. Another chimney against the south-east gable end has two similar shafts rebuilt. The back (northwest) wall of the higher block is plastered above a lower lean-to addition and has a gabled staircase wing. The lower block has some moulded ceiling beams of about mid-16th-century date and stop-chamfered joists; the taller block has plainer chamfered beams. The wide fire-places have been reduced for modern grates. The painted sign belonging to the Inn is preserved in the New Place Museum at Stratford. In the 19th century the building was divided up, part being used for the Bidford Institute and Working Men's Reading Room established in 1861. (fn. 3) It is now divided into about seven separate tenements.

Adjoining the north-east end is a lower building, probably of earlier date, of close-set timber-framing on stone foundations, with a jettied upper story, and a lattice-framed gable towards the High Street. The north-east side has rectangular framing and a curved brace to the front part. Inside are stop-chamfered beams; and the framing of the back gabled wall suggests that the building extended farther to the rear.

Set back on the north side of the Market Place is a building of early to mid-16th-century origin, now partly occupied as a bank. It has a middle block refaced with stone, with cross wings, of which the gabled ends are plastered, but the east side of the east wing is of close studding to both stories. The west side is of brick. Above the middle is a chimney-stack with three diagonal shafts of thin brick. East of it is a late17th-century house of stone with brick chimneys, and south-west of it, facing east, is an altered building retaining a stone chimney at one end with two diagonal shafts of 17th-century bricks.

Farther east are five buildings, two west of the Alcester road and three east of it, on the north side of the street, of 17th-century timber-framing, and on the south side is another with a central chimney of stone and brick. In the continuation of the Alcester road, south of the High Street, are two houses of late-17thcentury framing with tiled roofs. The easternmost has a thatched outbuilding, and the other an original central chimney-stack.

Two houses in the High Street, on either side of the turning to the bridge, have remains of 17th-century framing, and one, opposite the turning, has a roughcast south front, but shows framing in its east gabled end.

Bidford bridge dates from the early 15th century. In 1449 it was found to be very much decayed and John Carpenter, Bishop of Worcester, offered a year's Indulgence to all who should contribute to its repair. (fn. 4) It consists of eight arches of about 13½-ft. span, with piers of about 8¼ ft. The cutwaters remain on the east side but have been removed on the west, and the whole shows signs of frequent repair. The northernmost, second, sixth, and seventh arches are original and are segmental-pointed or four-centred, formed by two rings of square voussoirs; the medieval masonry above them is of rubble work and fairly large squared stones in courses. Leland in 1545 found that the bridge had been repaired with stone from the recently demolished priory at Alcester. (fn. 5) The masonry above the low round arch of the fifth bay has the alternating wide and narrow courses common in this district in the 16th century. There may originally have been nine or ten arches, for it was alleged in 1639 'that there is a necessity that there shall be two or three arches newly erected at the south end of the said bridge where it plainly appeareth arches have formerly been, but are now utterly demolished and decayed, without which the main bridge will be of little or no use at all at the time of any flood'. (fn. 6) Considerable repairs were carried out in 1641 at a cost of £180, (fn. 7) and perhaps the southernmost arch dates from this time. This, which is similar to the third, is segmental-pointed, like the 15th-century arches, but with long thin rough voussoirs. In June 1644 Charles I broke down the bridge to cover his rear in his march from Worcester back to Oxford. (fn. 8) This damage was not repaired until 1650. (fn. 9) It was probably the fourth arch that was destroyed; this is round-headed and much higher than all the others, possibly to admit the passage of boats plying between Stratford and Gloucester. (fn. 10) The fifth arch, also round-headed, may have been repaired at the same time. The cutwaters between arches one, two, and three, and between six and seven are of coursed squared stones; those in the middle have been repaired with thin rubble work, brick, &c., and the southernmost is wholly of brick. Between the old north arches on the west side are indications of the cutwaters and between the old southern arches they are cut back to form shallow buttresses. Over the pier between bays five and six a little of the original canted parapet is retained on the west side, but apart from this the parapets are modern.

A few yards below the bridge are the remains of a paddle weir.

 

Broom

The hamlet of Broom lies in the north-west corner of the parish between the River Avon, which forms its western boundary, and the road from Bidford to Alcester. It is approached from Bidford by a road branching north from the Evesham road at the end of the village. A modern bridge carrying the road to Dunnington crosses the Arrow at Broom Mills. This replaces a ford, but until the beginning of last century there was a second and more important crossing about half a mile to the south, near Broom Court. (fn. 11)

Broom formerly consisted of two hamlets known as King's Broom and Burnell's Broom. Burnell's Broom, the southern portion, was said to have been depopulated by Sir Rice Griffin in Elizabeth's time. (fn. 12) The former manor-house, Broom Court, was built by Sir Simon Clarke about 1618. (fn. 13) It is said to have been burnt out, and though the shell of the present house is probably original the details are no earlier than mid18th century. Behind the original rectangular block a modern enlargement in brick connects up with a detached stone building of the date of the house. The front, which faces south, is of plain ashlar, and of two stories and attics; it has a middle porch, the entrance doorway flanked by round shafts with Tuscan capitals and bases on plain pedestals. The windows are modern bays, but three upper mullioned windows are probably original; above each is a shield with the Clarke arms. In the roof are three gabled dormers. The sidewalls are of alternate large and small courses of squared lias rubble. They probably each had two gables afterwards altered for two 18th-century chimney-shafts. The plan has a middle entrance and stair hall and on each side were formerly two rooms, each with angle fire-places; the middle partitions have been removed and the two fire-places altered into one; the beams are encased. The 18th-century staircase has turned balusters. The upper rooms have ancient chamfered beams, and a little panelling and several doors of the 17th century. A small modern window next to the entrance contains 17th-century glass achievements of arms of Woodchurch and Clarke with their names: Roger Woodchurch and Isabel Wakehert, Sir Simon Woodchurche, knight, and Susan Clarke, Humfry Clarke and Margaret Maynye, and William Clarke and Elizabeth Winterborne. A coped garden wall east of the house is original; a short return wall with an embattled parapet may have been the side of a summer-house; in a merlon is a shield with the Clarke quarterings and badge of Ulster. Two other shields are reset in the end of the same wall. Farther east and north of the house are the remains of a moat inclosing a large area; it is now mostly dry and reduced in part to little more than a ditch.

Broom village lies along three parallel lanes running westwards from the Bidford road, the two most northerly ones being connected by a short cross-road. There are here about twenty small buildings with timberframing, about half of which have thatched roofs. Some of them may be approximately dated from the complaint made early in James I's reign against Thomas Throckmorton that he had lately erected certain tenements there whose occupants were unlawfully pasturing their beasts on the common. (fn. 14) The largest of them is the Broom Inn at the south-west corner of the crossroad. It is of rectangular framing on stone foundations with heavy timbers and brick infilling. Long struts from the sills help to support the story-posts of the angles. The plan consists of a main block facing east with two parallel wings projecting behind, all with gable ends to the tiled roofs. The Holly Bush Inn to the west of this is partly timber-framed and thatched. There are besides three farm-houses and groups of six and five cottages along the northern, middle, and southern lanes respectively.

Broom Hall stands on the west side of the Bidford road. This is a late-16th-century house; the east front is of close-set studding to both stories and is of four 13½-ft. bays with a range of four plastered gable-heads to the second floor, and it is probable that the two endbays originally had bay windows. The north and south ends have close studs to the lowest stor yand square framing to the upper story and gable-heads. The foundations are of stone: the roofs are tiled. The house, which has been very completely modernized inside, is owned by the Warwickshire County Council and let as a private hotel.

King's Broom in the 16th and 17th centuries was reckoned within the constabulary of Grafton, an anomaly that gave rise to a prolonged dispute at Quarter Sessions. At Easter 1641 the constable's rates were ordered to be paid in Bidford; (fn. 15) this was reversed at Epiphany 1642, proof being made that Broom had been 'time out of mind' in the constabulary of Grafton and that its constables' rates had been paid there for sixty years past. (fn. 16) At Trinity 1647 this ruling was confirmed, (fn. 17) but in 1669 the controversy was finally settled in favour of Bidford. (fn. 18)

Barton


Barton lies opposite Bidford on the south side of the river and on the Welford-Cleeve Prior road about ¼ mile from the point where it crosses the Rycknield Street. It has only about sixteen buildings, of which at least nine are pre-18th-century. The largest is the Manor House on the south side of the road. The north front, nearly 60 ft. long, is of two stories and attics, in lias stone. The eastern part, which projects slightly, has a gable-head rebuilt in brick. The western has an original coped gable flush with the middle main block and bearing a panel inscribed John Payton, Anno Domini 1663. The windows have stone mullions and moulded labels. In the middle part are two doorways, of which the western has an ancient nail-studded door and ornamental strap-hinges. A red-brick addition of early-18th-century date on the west side has tall windows with oak frames, mullions, and transoms.

Farther east on the same side is a timber-framed building, about 48 ft. long, of late-16th-century date. The rough-cast north front has the jettied upper story and gable-head of an east cross-wing. Above the wing is a fine square chimney-stack of brick with two square pilasters on each face. The west end of the main block shows the original framing with shaped story-posts and curved braces, and is gabled.

Next east is a smaller L-shaped building showing a little early-17th-century framing, a gabled wing of late-17th-century stonework with mullioned windows and moulded dripstones and later brick repairs and alterations.

Opposite these is a small but comparatively tall cottage of 17th-century framing with a thatched roof, a small square stone pigeon-house with gabled tiled roof and lantern, and farther east a small farm-house of 17th-century square framing, gabled east and west ends, and a tiled roof. There are modern additions behind and an old granary of framing.

The road takes a double right-angled deflection here, and on the west side of it is the Cottage of Content Inn, brick-fronted, but showing some 17th-century framing on the south side, and the village shop, a late-16thcentury cottage of heavier square framing with curved braces, a thatched roof, and a heavy projecting chimneystack of stone against the west gable: next south of it is a tiny thatched cottage of framing.

Marlcliff, ¾ mile west of Barton, on the same road, consists of an irregular group of buildings spreading down a blind lane towards the river. There are two stone farm-houses, probably late-17th-century, with later brick additions and tiled roofs, and about eight cottages, also pre-1700, three of which are timberframed and the others built of stone.

Bidford was ancient demesne. The inhabitants paid an aid of £5 in 1176–7 (fn. 19) and were tallaged at 4 marks and again at 2 marks in 1199 (fn. 20) and at 2 marks in the following year. (fn. 21) From Elizabethan times at least the town appears to have enjoyed something of the status of a borough. In 1567, the manor having been certified in the Exchequer as ancient demesne, the inhabitants received a confirmation of the customary privileges of freedom from toll throughout the kingdom and exemption from jury service and from contributing to the expenses of knights of the shire. (fn. 22) Parish documents of the 17th century show that the town was then governed by two bailiffs, (fn. 23) one of whom in 1686 signs a burial certificate as 'His Maiesties Bailiffe of the Burrow of Bidford'. There is, however, no trace of burgage tenure or of a borough court, and though the appointment of bailiffs was still being continued in 1788, (fn. 24) it is not known when the office lapsed. A relic of the bailiff's authority survives in the mace now preserved in the church. This is of gilt brass, 7 in. long, with a narrow moulded stem and three ornamental lugs at the base, which terminates in a flat button engraved with the initials I. T. On the flat part of the hemispherical head (2 in. in diameter) was engraved the Tudor royal arms, of which only the lion and dragon supporters now remain, and on the sides are Tudor badges and the initials E. R. (fn. 25) It may perhaps have been made soon after the charter of 1567.

In 1220 Llewelyn, Prince of North Wales, obtained a grant of a weekly market at Bidford to be held on a Tuesday. The day was soon afterwards altered to Friday (fn. 26) and the grant was confirmed to Bishop Burnell in 1281 (fn. 27) . The market seems to have been discontinued between 1788 and 1808. (fn. 28) Two annual fairs, in April and September, were granted by Queen Elizabeth to Leonard Danett, then lord of the manor, in 1564. (fn. 29) These were held until 1872, when monthly sales, now also abandoned, were substituted for them. (fn. 30) There is an old-established brick and tile industry here, a large flour-mill at Broom, and a gasworks established in 1869.

Bidford was inclosed by an Act of 1766, (fn. 31) Broom (with Wixford and Exhall) by an Act of 1767, (fn. 32) and Barton and Marlcliff by an Act of 1776. (fn. 33) There was some inclosure at King's Broom early in the 17th century when the inhabitants, in the document already cited, complained that Thomas Throckmorton, by making a headland near the Marriage Brook, (fn. 34) had made it difficult for them to cart away the corn from their lands at harvest time and by inclosing King's Brook from Candlemas to harvest had stopped up the 'p'cessyon waye' and taken away the common.

There are two stations in the parish—Broom junction and Bidford—both, since 1921, belonging to the L.M.S. Railway. The former was opened in 1866 by the Evesham and Redditch Railway Co., which was taken over by the Midland Railway in 1882. The latter is situated on the line from Broom Junction to the station formerly belonging to the East and West Junction Co. at Stratford, which was planned by the Evesham, Redditch, and Stratford-upon-Avon Junction Co. in 1873 and opened in 1879. (fn. 35)

Manors


The manor of BIDFORD was ancient demesne and is assessed in Domesday at 5 hides. (fn. 36) The Survey also makes mention of 2½ virgates here which before the Conquest Ernulf and Ernegrin had held freely and which in 1086 were held by Robert d'Olgi of Odo, Bishop of Bayeux. (fn. 37) This latter entry must refer to that manor of Bidford which the Evesham Chronicler includes among the acquisitions of Abbot Ethelwig that Odo had seized. (fn. 38) But there is no further record of its separate existence.

The manor remained in the hands of the Crown throughout the 12th century and in 1154 was accounted for by the Sheriff of Worcestershire, together with Hales [Halesowen] and Tardebigg, at £10. (fn. 39) It was granted by John as part of the dowry of his illegitimate daughter Joan, who in 1206 married Llewelyn, Prince of North Wales. But, owing perhaps to the frequent border warfare of the next few years, Llewelyn did not obtain livery of it until 1218, when it was valued at £3 16s. (fn. 40) Llewelyn in his turn gave it as dower on the marriage of his daughter Helen to John the Scot, Earl of Huntingdon and Chester; but Henry III seized it during the Welsh Wars of 1228–31. After the truce of 1231 it was restored to John the Scot. (fn. 41) He died without issue in 1237 and this estate descended to the heirs of Helen by her second marriage, with Robert, son of Saier de Quincy, Earl of Winchester. Their daughter Joan married Humphrey de Bohun of Brecon (son of Humphrey, Earl of Hereford) who in 1265 was holding land in Bidford and Broom worth £11 12s. (fn. 42) Hawise the sister and heir of Joan brought both manors soon afterwards to her husband Baldwin Wake, (fn. 43) and in 1280 Baldwin and Hawise sold them, together with the manors of Barton, Marlcliff, and Suckley in Worcestershire, for £1,000 to that acquisitive prelate Robert Burnell, Bishop of Bath and Wells, to hold of them by the service of a knight's fee. (fn. 44) The bishop obtained a grant of free warren in his demesne lands here in 1281, (fn. 45) and in 1285 made an unsuccessful claim to view of frankpledge. (fn. 46) He died in 1292, having settled all his property on Philip Burnell his nephew, whose son Edward died without issue in 1315, when the male line of the baronial family that the bishop had aspired to found came to an end. Edward Burnell held Bidford of the king as ancient demesne and not by any service, (fn. 47) and Aline his widow continued to hold it in dower until her death in 1363. (fn. 48) Meanwhile the reversion passed to his sister Maud and her husband John de Haudlo, who levied various fines to ensure their title. (fn. 49) In 1325 they settled the manor on their heirs male, with reversion to Maud's children by her first husband John Lovell of Tichmarsh, Northants. (fn. 50) John de Haudlo died in 1346 and his son and heir Nicholas, who took the name of Burnell, inherited his aunt Aline's interest and died in 1383. (fn. 51) On the death of Hugh, the last of the Burnell-Haudlo line, in 1420 the manor reverted by the entail of 1325 to William, Lord Lovell. From him it passed to his son William, who became Lord Morley in right of his wife, and his grandson Henry. (fn. 52) The latter died in 1489, (fn. 53) and as his nearest male kinsman, his cousin Francis, had already been attainted for his part in the rising of Lambert Simnel, the manor escheated to the Crown. In 1515 Henry VIII granted it in tail male to Gerard Danett, one of the squires of his bodyguard, and Mary his wife. (fn. 54) Gerard died in 1520 (fn. 55) and Mary in 1559. (fn. 56) Their grandson Leonard Danett thereupon succeeded and obtained confirmation of his rights in the manor in 1565. (fn. 57)

 

 

Burnell. Argent a lion sable with a crown or in a border azure.

 

 

Skipwith. Argent three bars gules and a grey-hound sable with a collar or running in chief.

In 1568 Leonard Danett sold the manor to Lewis Greville of Milcote, (fn. 58) who sold it again in 1570 to Elizabeth widow of Sir Edward Griffin, in trust for her son Rice Griffin of Bickmarsh. (fn. 59) Having wasted his estate and fallen into debt, Griffin sold the manors of Bidford and Broom, with Broom Mills, for £4,600 to Thomas Nurse of Lincoln's Inn about 1614. Nurse declared that after the sale he had discovered that the property was heavily encumbered, which perhaps explains why in 1616 he sold it again to Ferdinand Dowdeswell for only £3,404. (fn. 60) Dowdeswell leased it to Sir Simon Clarke and Sir William Sidley, and by 1618 Sir Simon Clarke had possession of both manors.

In 1654 Sir John Clarke sold the manor, with Salford (q.v.), to Fulwar Skipwith, in whose family it descended until 1840. In that year it was bought by Edmund Wells Oldaker, who sold it in 1852 to William Brown of Belbroughton, Worcs. The latter sold it in 1873 to James William Carlile of Temple Grafton Court. (fn. 61) The manor then followed the descent of Grafton (q.v.) until 1921, when the estate was broken up.

The manor of BIDFORD GRANGE was so called from the grange here which belonged to the Abbots of Bordesley. The Empress Maud in her foundation charter to that monastery granted the whole demesne (totum dominicatum) of Bidford. (fn. 62) This holding is assessed in the Pipe Rolls between 1154 and 1230 at £14 12s. (fn. 63) It was increased by various later gifts (fn. 64) and in 1276 included two pastures known as Calvescroft and Shepescroft which had formerly been part of the common fields. (fn. 65) In 1276 the abbot claimed assize of bread and ale in this manor (fn. 66) and in 1285, in addition, sac and soc and view of frankpledge, (fn. 67) to which he successfully maintained his right against both the King and Bishop Burnell; for the jurors declared that the abbot of about a century earlier had built certain houses on his land and placed his free tenants in them, so that the services in question had ever since been attached to these holdings. The view of frankpledge was still being taken in 1566. (fn. 68) In 1535 the abbot's manor or grange of Bidford was valued at £27 2s. 8d. (fn. 69)

At the Dissolution John Bayley, the last Abbot of Bordesley, desired that Bidford Grange might be allowed to him as a place of retirement. (fn. 70) The request was not granted, however, and the property escheated to the Crown. Certain lands here formerly belonging to the abbey were granted in 1544 to Thomas Broke, merchant, of London, (fn. 71) from whom they descended to his heir Joan Arrowsmith (fn. 72) and to John Arrowsmith, who granted them to Cuthbert Thomson, citizen and brewer, of London, in 1549. (fn. 73) But the manor was granted in 1545, with other Bordesley estates, to Thomas Badger, who was then occupying the Grange, Thomas Fowler of Stretton-on-the-Fosse, and Robert Dyson of Inkberrow. (fn. 74) The property was apparently divided and Badger received the Bidford portion. He died in 1572 and his eldest son Thomas (fn. 75) was succeeded in 1595 by his son William Badger, (fn. 76) who in 1610 conveyed the manor to William Brode of Bidford, the husband of his daughter Frances. (fn. 77) On William Brode's death in 1653 his son Francis conveyed it to Francis Bridges of Beauchamp's Court, Alcester. (fn. 78) The manor passed from Bridges to Thomas Cookes of Sambourne in 1665; (fn. 79) from the latter's second son Robert to Henry Tolly of Ombersley in 1690; and from Tolly to John Ayshcombe in 1701. (fn. 80) Ayshcombe in 1742 sold it to Sir Francis Skipwith, (fn. 81) since when it has followed the descent of the chief manor.

Cookhill Priory also had a small holding in Bidford which in 1276 consisted of half an acre of land, granted by Alice Duraunt about thirty years before. (fn. 82) In 1539 it was valued only at 3s. 4d. a year (fn. 83) and in 1542 was granted with other lands of the priory to Nicholas Fortescue. (fn. 84)

 

Broom


BROOM is included in Ceolred of Mercia's spurious grant to Evesham Abbey of 710 (fn. 85) and also in the list of manors acquired by Abbot Ethelwig (1055–77) and seized by Odo Bishop of Bayeux. (fn. 86) T.R.E., according to Domesday, 5 men held it freely. In 1086 it was assessed at 4½ hides, held by Stephen of Bishop Odo. (fn. 87)

Stephen, the under-tenant in Domesday, also held Milcote and Dorsington in chief and it is significant that c. 1140 Ralph Boteler gave the tithes of his demesne in these three places to Alcester Abbey, (fn. 88) and that in 1167 the sheriff renders account of £15 as the rents of Dorsington, Broom, and Milcote in the possession of Geoffrey Martel, (fn. 89) who pays £5 annually for the farm of Broom between 1170 and 1174, in which year the estate was given to William de Cricklade, (fn. 90) who held it till 1187; (fn. 91) but between 1196 and 1201 half the manors of Broom and Alcester (q.v.) were in escheat to the Crown, as the former possession of Henry de la Penne. (fn. 92) This may mark the division of the manor into what afterwards came to be known as King's Broom and Burnell's Broom. (fn. 93)

In 1232 half the manor was held by Hamo de Brome by serjeanty for the service of 1/8 of a knight's fee, and half by Olenta widow of Walter de Rodes, who paid 40s. to the king. (fn. 94) Olenta had been allowed in 1221 to retain these lands, given by King John to her husband as master of the king's yacht; (fn. 95) she still held them twenty years later. (fn. 96) On her death they reverted to the Crown and subsequently constituted the manor of Bellcourt (q.v.).

Hamo de Brome, who was dead by the end of 1240, when his widow Emma claimed dower in a moiety of the manor of Alcester, (fn. 97) probably held by a falconer's serjeanty, (fn. 98) as Robert the Faukener who in 1242 was holding 1/10 of a knight's fee here of the king in chief (fn. 99) may be identified with Hamo's son Robert de Brome or Robert 'Hamond' who died seised of 1/10 fee, held of the king in King's Broom in 1274. (fn. 100) His son Robert was squire to Mr. William Pikerel, whom he enfeoffed of the whole estate in 1275. Pikerel, who died in 1297, (fn. 101) conveyed it to his nephew Walter Pikerel, who enfeoffed Peter de Leycester, clerk. The latter died holding the 1/10 fee, now described as a manor, in 1304. (fn. 102) From him it passed to his niece, Juliana de Leycester, wife of Walter de Berthorpe. (fn. 103) Walter was still in possession in 1328. (fn. 104) In 1577 Thomas Throckmorton produced a deed by which Ralph Pauncefote, Lord of Bradley, gave to John de Popihull of Alcester the manor of Little Broom. (fn. 105) As the Pikerel property included land in Exhall (q.v.), where Geoffrey Pauncefote was mesne lord c. 1240, it seems probable that the estates were united and at some time in the 14th century became part of the manor of Oversley. (fn. 106)

BELL COURT, (fn. 107) referred to as a manor in 1623, originated in a grant made in 1238 to Geoffrey le Chaumberlayn of the 7 virgates which Walter de Rodes had held in Broom (see above), to be held by render of a pair of shears at Christmas. (fn. 108) In 1250 Geoffrey Chamberlain died holding in Broom 3½ virgates in demesne and 3½ in villenage, all of the king in free socage. (fn. 109) This passed to Simon his son, and Henry Chamberlain enfeoffed Richard de Stanford and Idonea his wife of it in 1306, when it is described as in King's Broom. (fn. 110) Richard died in 1320 holding a toft and 4½ virgates of the king in free socage and a messuage and 60 acres of land by rent of 6d. yearly of Philippa lady of Belne (otherwise unrecorded), as of her manor of Broom. (fn. 111) The family of Belne (fn. 112) probably gave its name to Bellcourt. Richard was succeeded by his son John, then aged 23. He died in 1359 holding a messuage, a carucate, and 20s. in rents of the king in chief. (fn. 113) His son John died without issue in 1362, holding the property and no other lands in the county. (fn. 114) His estate was divided between his two sisters, Joan wife of Thomas de Morehall and Maud wife of Roger de Harewell. Thomas de Morehall, a commissioner of the subsidy in Warwickshire in 1380, (fn. 115) apparently died without issue, so that the estate became reunited in the possession of the Harewells. In 1444 Roger's younger son Thomas Harewell died seised of a life interest in what were described as the manors of Bidford and Broom, consisting of 6 carucates of land, &c., held of the king as half a knight's fee. He had received the property from certain trustees, (fn. 116) probably acting for the heirs of Thomas's elder brother John Harewell of Wootton Wawen (q.v.), who died in 1428. In 1500 William Harewell, John's grandson by his son Roger and Agnes daughter of Sir William Clopton, died seised of some 30 acres in Bidford, 'Bellyncourt', and Bick marsh, altogether worth 17s. 4d., and 60 acres of land in Broom worth 22s. (fn. 117) He had devised it to his younger son William in tail male, but this line seems soon to have died out and the property to have passed to the Lingens, who were his cousins on the female side through the marriage of Sir John Lingen and Isabel, a granddaughter of Sir William Clopton. In 1554 lands in Bidford and Haselor (q.v.) to the value of £60 were in the hands of the Crown by reason of the minority of Jane daughter of John Lingen. (fn. 118) Jane, who married William Shelley, died in 1610 and was succeeded by Edward Lingen her cousin. (fn. 119) The property is then described as the manor of Bidford, but in 1623, when Edward was declared a lunatic, it appears as the manor of Bell Court. (fn. 120) On Edward's death in 1636 it passed to his son Henry, (fn. 121) a prominent Royalist, who was knighted by Charles I in 1645 and taken prisoner at the fall of Goodrich Castle in 1646. (fn. 122) In 1649 his sequestrated tenements in Bidford, valued at £9, were leased to John Throckmorton for one year, (fn. 123) but the order was soon afterwards discharged. (fn. 124) He died in 1662, much impoverished by his loyalty. The subsequent history of Bell Court, which he may perhaps have been obliged to sell, cannot be traced.

 

 

Lingen. Barry or and azure a bend gules with three roses argent thereon.

 

Barton


BARTON descended with the chief manor of Bidford until about 1564, when it was in the possession of William Beswyke. (fn. 125) But in 1578 Richard Copley died seised of the manor of Barton, held in chief as 1/20 of a knight's fee, 'a full third part' of the profits being derived from rents in the town of Bidford. These he bequeathed to John Copley son of his brother and heir Thomas, and the lands to his widow Mary for her life, with remainder to John. (fn. 126) Thomas received the manor six months later, (fn. 127) and in 1589 Thomas and John Copley granted it to John Harward and Rose his wife. (fn. 128) In 1641 John Harward, Margaret his wife, and Edward Harward granted it to Thomas Bushell. (fn. 129) By 1654 the manor was sold by Sir John Clarke to Fulwar Skipwith with the main manor of Bidford, (fn. 130) with which it descended. In 1655 the farm of Barton, then in the hands of Alice, Duchess Dudley, was said to be 'parcel of the manor of Bidford Grange'. (fn. 131)

Bordesley Abbey held property in Barton acquired during the 13th century by grants from Reynold and Ralph Menir and Thomas son of William de Barton, including land opposite Bidford Church and Bidford Mill, land abutting on 'le Grenehewed Lond', and land in Kingesbuttes and Wefhameshull in the fields of Barton. (fn. 132)

The manor of MARLCLIFF, then called Clyve, was sold in 1280, with Bidford, Broom, and Barton, by Baldwin Wake and Hawise to Bishop Burnell. At some time before 1355 Walter Lenche acquired from Aline Burnell 2 messuages, a virgate of land, meadow, and rent in Marlcliff, which he held in chief and passed to his son John, (fn. 133) who died in 1362 holding this property of the king, and also a virgate of land there of the heirs of Baldwin Wake; (fn. 134) John's heir was his brother Walter. In 1500 William Harewell died seised of the manor, valued at £5 6s. 8d. (fn. 135) In 1654 it was among the manors sold by Sir John Clarke to Fulwar Skipwith, and subsequently it descended with the main manor; (fn. 136) but in 1655 Alice, Duchess Dudley, daughter of Sir Thomas Leigh, settled her 'reputed manor' of Marlcliff for charitable purposes: (fn. 137) presumably she held the lands but not the manorial rights.

 

Church


The parish church of ST. LAWRENCE consists of a chancel with a north vestry and organ-chamber, nave, north and south aisles, north porch, quire vestry in place of a south porch, and a west tower.

The chancel, west end of the nave, and west tower date from about 1250. The nave was long and narrow and may (in part) have been on the lines of an earlier nave, but no 12th-century details remain. In 1835 it was widened for about two-thirds of its length and aisles of the same length were added, with arcades of three bays. The chancel was restored in 1886–9 and the roofs in 1922.

The chancel (c. 38 ft. by 19½ ft.) has a modern east window of three trefoiled lancets and tracery. In the north wall are two trefoiled lancets of the 13th century with rebated jambs and with much wider recesses inside, having segmental-pointed rear-arches. Next west is a priest's doorway of the same date with a trefoiled head and pointed rear-arch, and west of this a modern archway to the organ-chamber. In the south wall are three similar lancet-windows. The chancel-arch is pointed and of two moulded orders with undercut roll-moulds, and has a western hood-mould, all of the 13th century: the jambs have short modern shafts.

The chancel walls are mostly of a rubble of thin stones inside and out with some external courses, in the lower part of the south wall, of larger squared stones: one stone, clearly re-used, has an edge-roll worked on it. At the angles are square buttresses, with moulded plinths that extend across the east wall. Below the modern east window is a patching of rough ashlar, the blocking of a former lower east window. The roof has a modern panelled ceiling with moulded ribs, and is covered with tiles. In the south wall under the easternmost window is a restored 13th-century piscina with a perished foiled basin and roll-moulded jambs to the recess.

The nave (78 ft. by 24½ ft. wide at the east end and 17¼ ft. wide at the west end) has modern north and south arcades of three bays with cylindrical columns and semicircular arches, all plastered. The arcades occupy about two-thirds of the length of the nave with north and south aisles of the same length.

In the western third part of the nave are north and south doorways with plain round heads: the southern, of modern rough stonework, opens now into a vestry; the north doorway is plastered. Above the doorways are windows of three modern round-headed lights. West of the doorways the nave walls thicken 13 or 14 ins. inside, being probably parts of the 13th-century walls: at a height of about 15 ft. the faces set back again to the thinner walls continued from over the doorways. In the thick south wall is a modern window of two lights and tracery. The roof is a modern one of low pitch, covered with slates.

Each aisle (13½ ft. wide) has four side-windows, each of three round-headed lights under a square head, and in the east wall of the south aisle is a more modern window of two lights and tracery. The roofs are of lean-to type.

The west tower (8½ ft. square) is of two stages, built of rubble with some angle-dressings, and has a battering plinth. On the north side is a square stair-turret with a low buttress against it, and in the corresponding position on the south side near the east end is another taller and deeper buttress. The upper stage of the tower is much narrower and probably later than the lower: at the bottom of it are three courses of weathering. The parapet is embattled and has a wave-moulded string-course with defaced paterae at intervals, some of which were carved and others were spouts. The archway from the nave has square jambs flush with the towerwalls, and a pointed head of two square orders. Above it (to the south of the tower archway) is the weathercourse of the former steep-pitched gabled roof of the nave: the west window has jambs and a round head of two chamfered orders, and a three-centred, formerly round, rear-arch: the inner order of the jambs and head is modern, the outer partly restored: above it is a relieving arch. There is said to have been a doorway below the window. The second story (clock chamber) has a south window of two small round-headed lights of the 13th century, with a shouldered rear-arch. The bell chamber is lighted by a window on each wall of a single trefoiled light under a square head, probably of the 14th century.

The north porch is cemented and is apparently all modern: it has a round-headed entrance.

The font is modern. A chest in the nave is of c. 1600; it is 6 ft. 1 in. by 2 ft. 1 in. wide by 2 ft. 6 in. high and has three strap hinges with flowered ends and other ornamental ironwork for three staples and locks. Two chairs in the chancel are made up of 17th-century material.

In the chancel is a monument to Dorothy (Parker) first wife of Sir Fulwar Skipwith, Baronet, 3 February, 1655, with her bust in a round recess.

The clock in the tower has a skeleton frame with spurs above the standards. It is inscribed halford fecit and is probably of the late 17th century.

The communion plate, presented by Alice, Duchess Dudley, in 1665, consists of a 10-in. cup and coverpaten, stand-paten and cover, and a large flagon, all silver-gilt, and with repoussé ornament: the hall mark is of 1663.

There are six bells of 1791 by John Rudhall of Gloucester.

The registers date from 1664. (fn. 138)

There is a chapel-of-ease at Broom built in 1878 and a Wesleyan chapel built in 1803.

Advowson

 

No priest is mentioned in Bidford in the Domesday Survey and if there was a church here then, it was probably a chapelry of Salford. It appears as such in Henry I's time when Bernard, the first Prior of Kenilworth (1122–30), successfully claimed it for his house as involved in the grant of Salford Church made in the foundation charter; (fn. 139) this was confirmed by Simon (1125–50) (fn. 140) and Baldwin (1180–4), (fn. 141) Bishops of Worcester, and the Canons of Kenilworth presented until the Dissolution, (fn. 142) although the advowson was included in the grant of the manor to Gerard Danett in 1515. (fn. 143) After the Dissolution it passed with the manor. In 1602 Rice Griffin sold the advowson and rectory to Sir John Sedley, (fn. 144) whose younger son Sir William held them at his death in 1619. (fn. 145) Sir Simon Clarke presented in 1625, (fn. 146) but Sir John Sedley son and heir of Sir William owned the advowson in 1628 (fn. 147) and in 1630 he conveyed it to Sir Edward Spencer and Richard Brauthwaite. (fn. 148) In 1654 it came into the possession of Fulwar Skipwith (fn. 149) and remained in that family until 1852, when it was bought by the Rev. Thomas Boultbee, the then incumbent. (fn. 150) But on his resignation his successor, the Rev. Alfred Evans, was presented by Miss Alice Lees of Prescot, Lancs. (fn. 151) Mr. Evans afterwards acquired the patronage and presented his own successor in 1905. (fn. 152) By 1934 it had come into the hands of Mrs. Bicheno of Munnik, North Transvaal, who conveyed it in that year to the Bishop of Coventry, (fn. 153) the present patron. The living was held in plurality with Salford from 1758 to 1877. (fn. 154)

The grant of the church involved the canons of Kenilworth in numerous disputes. Two parts of the tithe in demesne had been granted to the College of St. Mary Warwick by Roger, Earl of Warwick, its founder; (fn. 155) and the monks of Bordesley, in virtue of their foundation charter, claimed the whole tithe on certain lands and a third of the tithe within their manor of Bidford Grange. The latter controversy was settled by an agreement, made in 1206, by which the monks were to pay £1 17s. yearly in lieu of tithe on their present holding, and the full tithe on any lands in Bidford subsequently acquired. (fn. 156) Bordesley had previously compounded with Warwick with an annual payment of 15s. (fn. 157) In 1291 the church was valued at £11 6s. 8d., of which Kenilworth received £5 and Warwick £1. (fn. 158) It was not until 1316 that the rights of Kenilworth were finally confirmed by Walter Maydenstone, Bishop of Worcester, and the Priory of Worcester then secured a pension of £1 out of the rectory. (fn. 159) The church was valued at £11 6s. 8d. in 1341 (fn. 160) and the vicarage was worth £7 10s. 7d. in 1535. (fn. 161) In 1521 the Abbot and Convent of Kenilworth granted a 46 years' lease of all the tithes, obventions, and glebe belonging to the rectory at £16 6s. 8d. to Eustace Kyghtley of Broom. (fn. 162) The tithes of Bidford Grange, valued in 1539 at £3, (fn. 163) were then let to Thomas Badger (fn. 164) and were granted to him with the manor after the Dissolution (fn. 165) and passed to his son Thomas in 1572. (fn. 166) The Kyghtleys after the Dissolution likewise retained possession of the rectory, which Bartholomew Kyghtley and his son Philip transferred to Sir Rice Griffin in 1593. (fn. 167) It passed with the advowson to the Sedleys, but in 1646 Challenor Chute is described as impropriator. (fn. 168) Elizabeth Chute sold it to Sir Fulwar Skipwith in 1708 (fn. 169) and it has since been joined with the advowson.

Ralph Boteler gave the titles of his demesne in Broom to Alcester Abbey in c. 1140 (fn. 170) and the grant was confirmed in 1340. (fn. 171)

There was also a chapel of St. Leonard at Barton, to the fabric of which the chaplain Thomas son of William de Berton (temp. Edw. I) gave ½ acre in one field at Astwelle and ½ acre in another field. (fn. 172) In the 13th century also both the parson and the chaplain of Bidford appear as witnesses to a grant. (fn. 173) By 1547 it was in ruins and was valued, together with the dwelling (camera) of the chaplain, at 12d. yearly: (fn. 174) and in 1549 it was granted, with the site and a selion of land in the common fields belonging to it, to Thomas Dabridgecourt and Thomas Fisher. (fn. 175)

Mills


There were four mills worth 43s. 4d. in Bidford in 1086. (fn. 176) It is difficult to disentangle their history, but one or perhaps two of them were at Broom. A water-mill is mentioned as part of the chief manor in 1315, (fn. 177) in 1363, when it is said to be in bad condition, (fn. 178) and in 1383. (fn. 179) Two watermills and two windmills are included in 1570 in the sale of the manors of Bidford and Broom by Lewis Greville to Rice Griffin, (fn. 180) who conveyed the 'water mill commonlie called Brome Mill' to Thomas Throckmorton in 1594. (fn. 181) Griffin had apparently recovered it by 1611, when he granted a twelve-years' lease of 'Broom Mills' to Thomas Peirs of Alcester. A few years later Griffin sold the estate to Thomas Nurse, to whom Peirs agreed to surrender the remainder of his lease in return for a jewel, which, according to Nurse, was worth £20, being set with about 40 rubies. But Peirs declared that it was by no means so valuable and that, discovering the fraud, he had sought to return it, but that Nurse had kept the door of his chambers in Lincoln's Inn shut against him and would not receive it. (fn. 182) Three mills are mentioned in Bidford and Broom manors in 1635 (fn. 183) and again in 1664, when one of them is stated to be a fulling mill. (fn. 184)

The Abbots of Bordesley had two mills granted to them by the Empress Maud. (fn. 185) Only one, worth £5 13s. 4d., is mentioned in the Valor Ecclesiasticus, (fn. 186) but a contemporary rental gives the two, valued at £8 13s. 4d. and leased to John Penne for 53 years from 1535. (fn. 187) In 1545 Penne occupies three mills, called Grange Mills, as the tenant of Thomas Badger, (fn. 188) who left them to his younger sons Richard and Edward. (fn. 189) They were conveyed with the manor in 1610, when one of them was said to be in use as a fulling mill. (fn. 190) 'Grainge Mille' was broken down in the Great Avon flood of 1588, which was a yeard and a halfe in the howse, and cam in soe suddenly that John Penne's wife then millard was soe amazed that shee sate still tell shee was almost drowned and was welnigh besides herselfe and soe farr amise that shee did not know her owne child when yt was broughte unto her'. (fn. 191) There was a paper mill at Bidford Grange during the last century, but all the mills here have now disappeared.

Fisheries in the Avon and Arrow are included with Bidford and Broom manors in numerous deeds from 1315 onwards. The Arrow fishery is defined in 1594 as extending from Broom Mills to Moor Hall. (fn. 192)

Charities


Alice, Duchess Dudley, in 1655 settled her estates in Marlcliff and Barton on trustees to be administered after her death, which occurred in 1668, for the benefit of the poor in various parishes, including Bidford. (fn. 193) Under the provisions of a scheme of the Charity Commissioners dated 13 June 1879 the share of the charity applicable to this parish consists of 2/17 of the net income, to be applied for the benefit of the poor, and a moiety of 3/17 of the net income to be paid to the vicar. The sum of £75 6s. 6d. per annum, representing the poor's share, is paid to the churchwardens and distributed in food, clothing, or fuel, and the vicar of Bidford receives yearly a sum of £56 10s.

John Wilcox by will in 1814 directed the interest on £500 to be paid to such persons resident in Bidford as the minister and churchwardens should think fit. The income, amounting to £13 8s. 8d., is so applied.

Henry Clare by will dated 14 June 1897 gave the residue of his estate, the income from the investment thereof to be applied for the benefit of the poor of Broom and Bidford. A scheme of the said Commissioners dated 16 June 1908 appoints a body of three trustees to administer the charity and contains provisions for the application of the income among the poor. The endowment produces £2 19s. 8d. yearly.

Footnotes


1Archaeologia, lxxiii, 89–116, xxiv, 271–88; B'ham. Arch. Soc. Trans. xlix, 16–26.

2Saunders Warw. Coll., vol. 2, fol. 24.

3Kelly, Directory of Warw. 1864 and 1872.

4Dugd. 724.

5Itin. (ed. Toulmin Smith), ii. 47.

6Warw. County Records, ii. 30.

7Ibid. 83 and 108.

8Cal. S. P. Dom. 1644, p. 247.

9Warw. County Records, ii. 239–40, iii, 6. The order was made at Trinity sessions 1649, but the estimate was afterwards ordered to be revised.

10The Avon was made navigable as far as Stratford in 1637. The Water Bailiffs of Bidford are mentioned in 1662 (Chward. Accts. in Alcester parish chest).

11Cf. Kitchin, 1746–59, Smith 1804.

12Dugd. 729.

13The house was occupied by his widow Lady Dorothy Clarke until 1669, after which it appears in the name of Sir Francis Skipwith: Hearth Tax Returns, 1662–74.

14Coughton MSS. The document can be dated between 1603 and 1614.

15Warw. County Records, ii, 90.

16Ibid. 109.

17Ibid. 170–1.

18Ibid. v, 116.

19Pipe R. Soc. xxvi, p. 34.

20Ibid. N.S. x, p. 252.

21Ibid. N.S. xii, p. 181.

22The original has been lost, but there is a copy dated 1788 in the church safe.

23Overseers Accts. 1669 (Shire Hall, Warwick): Certificates of burials in woollen 1683–6 (in church chest).

24Copy of 1567 charter made by Jonathan Hart, bailiff, 1788.

25See Proc. Soc. Ant. 2nd Ser. xiii, 129–30, where it is erroneously described as a constable's mace.

26Dugd. 723.

27Cal. Chart. R. 1257–1300, p. 260. The grant is repeated in 1291 (ibid. 404), when the market is said to have been formerly held on Saturday.

28Carlisle, Topog. Dict. England, 1808, vol. i. It is recorded on Sudlow's map of Warwickshire published in 1788.

29Dugd. 724; Pat. R. 7 Eliz. pt. 7.

30Kelly, Directory of Warw. 1876.

316 Geo. III, c. 10. The extent inclosed was 720 acres. The five common fields of Bidford extended northwards from the river to Small Brook.

327 Geo. III, c. 35. The Act applied also to Exhall and Wixford. High and Low Marriage Fields (340 acres), between the Arrow and the Avon, represented the common fields of Burnell's Broom. Those of King's Broom lay east and west of the Alcester road.

3316 Geo. III, c. 48. The common fields (1194 acres) lay south of the river. Copies of the three awards, without maps, are at the Shire Hall, Warwick.

34Probably the stream now known as Small Brook, which runs under the eastern slope of Marriage Hill between Bidford and Salford. It was called Walkersham Brook in 1767 (Exhall Incl. Award) and was formerly wider, as the 'Old Ford' and 'Brome Steppes' (i.e. stepping stones) occur c. 1560: Oversley Ct. R., S.-on-A.

35Ex inf. L.M.S. Railway Co.

36V.C.H. Warw. i, 301.

37Ibid. 304.

38Chron. de Evesham (Rolls Ser.), 97. A hide in Bidford is included in Ceolred's spurious grant to Evesham of 710: ibid. 72; Birch, Cart. Sax. i, 127.

39Red Bk. Exch. 656.

40Rot. Litt. Claus. (Rec. Com.), 226, 270; Pipe R. 2 Hen. III, m. 5d.

41Cal. Close, 1231–4, p. 39.

42Cal. Inq. Misc. i, 927.

43Plac. de Quo Warr. (Rec. Com.), 778.

44Feet of F. (Dugd. Soc. xi), no. 957.

45Cal. Chart. R. ii, 249.

46Plac. de Quo Warr. (Rec. Com.), 778.

47Cal. Inq. p.m. v, no. 611.

48Chan. Inq. p.m. 37 Edw. III (1st nos.), 14.

49Feet of F. 1284–1350 (Dugd. Soc. xv), nos. 1597 and 1691; cf. also Cal. Pat. 1313–17, pp. 554 and 612; ibid. 1317–21, p. 601; and ibid. 1338–40, p. 302.

50Dugd. 724; Feet of F. (Dugd. Soc. xv), 1597.

51Cal. Close, 1360–4, p. 472; Chan. Inq. p.m. 6 Ric. II, no. 20.

52Dugd. 728.

53Cal. Inq. p.m. Hen. VII, i, no. 503.

54L. and P. Hen. VIII, ii(1), 266.

55Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), xxxv, 28.

56Dugd. 724.

57Pat. R. 7 Eliz. pt. 7.

58Recov. R. Mich. 10 & 11 Eliz. ro. 345.

59Feet of F. Mich. 12 & 13 Eliz.

60Chan. Proc. (Ser. 2), bdle. 320, no. 4, bdle. 322, no. 12, and bdle 306, no. 1.

61MS. notes, Rev. J. H. Harvey Bloom.

62Dugd. Mon. Angl. v, 409.

63Pipe R. Soc., sub annis.

64Cf. P.R.O. Anct. Deeds, B. 586, B. 3537.

65Hund. R. (Rec. Com.), ii, 226.

66Ibid.

67Plac. de Quo Warr. (Rec. Com.), 778.

68Throckmorton Ct. R. Coll. S.-on-A.

69Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), iii, 271: see also Land. Rev. Misc. Bks. 183, 200–1.

70L. and P. Hen. VIII, xiii(1), 1073.

71Ibid. xix(2), 166, 17.

72Cal. Pat. Edw. VI, i, 143.

73Ibid. ii, 64–5.

74L. and P. Hen. VIII, xx(1), g. 1081 (49).

75Dugd. 725.

76Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccxlv, 70.

77Feet of F. Trin. 8 Jas I.

78Dugd. 725.

79Feet of F. East. 17 Chas. II. Cookes was one of the family of Cookes of Bentley, Worcs. (monument in church).

80Dugd. 725.

81MS. Notes Rev. J. H. Harvey Bloom.

82Hund. R. (Rec. Com.), ii, 226.

83Misc. Bks. Land Rev. 183, fol 289.

84L. and P. Hen. VIII, xvii, g. 556(1).

85Birch, Cart. Sax. i, 127; Chron. de Evesham (Rolls Ser.), 72.

86Ibid. 97.

87V.C.H. Warw. i, 304.

88Foundation charter, among the Coughton MSS.

89Pipe R. Soc. xi, 163.

90Ibid. sub annis.

91Ibid. xxxvii, 119.

92Ibid. sub annis.

93A manor of Broom was conveyed with Bidford by Baldwin Wake to Bishop Burnell: Feet of F. (Dugd. Soc. xi), no. 957.

94Bk. of Fees, 1356.

95Exc. e Rot. Fin. (Rec. Com.), i, 76; Assize R. 950, m. 1 d.

96The Great Roll of the Pipe (ed. Cannon), 178.

97Feet of F. (Dugd. Soc. xi), no. 595. Roger Brusebar by a charter enrolled in 1221 remitted to Ralph de Brome all his rights (unspecified) in 8 virgates in Brome of the fee of Alcester: Assize R. 948, m. 12d.

98Hamaund le Faukener witnesses a 13th-century deed in Bidford (Anct. Deeds B. 586).

99Bk. of Fees, p. 955.

100a Cal. Inq. p.m. ii, 120. Cf. ibid. ii, no. 332.

101Ibid. iii, no. 440.

102Ibid. iv, 216.

103De Banco R. 161, m. 129d.

104De Banco R. (P.R.O. lists), p. 691.

105a Bidford Ct. R. S.-on-A. A Ralph Pauncefote was keeper of the Bishop of Worcester's woods in Stoke and Bradley in 1275: Nash, Worcs. i, 566.

106b King's Broom (where Ralph Boteler of Oversley gave tithes to Alcester Abbey in 1140; see below, p. 57) figures in the court rolls of Oversley from 1324, and was a member of that manor from the end of the 16th century.

107Bell Court stands on the north bank of the Avon a little to the west of Bidford bridge. The present house is modern.

108a Cal. Close, 1259–61, p. 290.

109Cal. Inq. p.m. i, no. 855.

110Cal. Pat. 1301–7, p. 484.

111Cal. Inq. p.m. vi, no. 250.

112V.C.H. Worcs. iii, 16. In 1285 John de Brome and Alice demised tenements in Broom and elsewhere to Roger de Belne: Feet of F. (Dugd. Soc. xv), 1015. Simon de Belne witnesses a Bidford deed of 1300: P.R.O. Anct. Deeds, B. 3537. See also Temple Grafton, p. 99, and Exhall, p. 90.

113Cal. Inq. p.m. x, no. 545. It was still held by render of a pair of shears: Cal. Fine R. vii, 95.

114Cal. Inq. p.m. xi, no. 532.

115Cal. Fine R. ix, 230.

116Chan. Inq. p.m. 22 Hen. VI, 27; Cal. Pat. 1441–6, p. 241.

117Cal. Inq. p.m. Hen. VII, no. 431.

118Cal. Pat. 1554–5, p. 88.

119Ct. of Wards Inq. p.m. xlv, 173.

120Ibid. lxix, 199.

121Ibid. lxxxviii, 70.

122Dict. Nat. Biog. xxxiii, 324.

123Add. MS. 35098, fol. 127d.

124Ibid. fol. 139.

125Feet of F. East. 6 Eliz. 29; Recov. R. East. 6 Eliz. ro. 835. William Beswyke was holding a Court Baron for the manor of Bidford (sc. Barton?) in 1559: Throckmorton Ct. R. S.-on-A.

126Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), clxxxvii, 99.

127Fine. R. 21 Eliz. 2, ro. 17.

128Pat. R. 31 Eliz. pt. 15; Feet of F. Mich. 31 and 32 Eliz.

129Feet of F. Trin. 17 Chas. I.

130Ibid. Mich. 1654.

131Rep. of Com. on Char. (1828), 18, p. 406.

132P.R.O. Anct. Deeds, B. 829, B. 835, B. 837–8.

133Cal. Pat. 1354–8, p. 252; Inq. a.q.d. (P.R.O. lists), p. 485.

134Cal. Inq. p.m. xi, no. 353.

135Cal. Inq. p.m. Hen. VII, ii, 431.

136Feet of F. Mich. 1654; Recov. R. Trin. 10 Geo. III, ro. 32.

137Rep. of Com. on Char. (1828), 18, p. 406.

138a The first six volumes, down to 1802, with a volume of Overseers' Accounts 1665–82, are now at the Shire Hall, Warwick.

139Harl. MS. 3650. fol. 72d.

140Ibid. fol. 44.

141Ibid. fol. 45.

142Dugd. 726.

143Pat. R. 6 Hen. VIII, pt. 2.

144MS. notes Rev. J. H. Harvey Bloom; Close R. 4 Jas I.

145Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccclxxvi, 101.

146Dugd. 726.

147Feet of F. Div. Co. Hil. 4 Chas I; Recov. R. Hil. 4 Chas. I, ro. 50.

148Feet of F. 6 Chas. I.

149Recov. R. Mich. 1654, ro. 280.

150MS. notes, Rev. J. H. Harvey Bloom.

151Reg. Philpott, fol. 54.

152Ex inf. Dioc. Reg. Worcester.

153Ex inf. Dioc. Reg. Coventry.

154Reg. Madox-Philpott, sub annis.

155Misc. Bks. Exch. K.R. 22, fol. 12.

156Harl. MS. 3650, fol. 78; Madox, Form. Angl. no. xlvi.

157Misc. Bks. Exch. K.R. xxii, fol. 38; Madox, op. cit., no. xliii.

158Tax. Eccl. (Rec. Com.), 218. But this pension does not appear in the 1461 rental of Warwick College (B.R.L. 168238), and later rentals, 1508 and 1544, show only the 15s., from Bordesley: Rent. and Surv. (P.R.O.), 695: Misc. Bks. Aug. Off. 420, fol. 139.

159Dugd. 725: Cal. Pat. 1313–17, p. 302; Inq. a.q.d. cvi, 17; Reg. Worc. Priory (Camden Soc. 1865), p. 3.

160Non. Inq. (Rec. Com.), 445.

161Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), iii, 92.

162Ibid. 64; Misc. Bks. Land Rev. 181, fol. 60.

163Ibid.

164Ibid. 183, fol. 201.

165L. and P. Hen. VIII, vol. xx(1), 1081(49).

166Fine R. 15 Eliz. ro. 76. There was a 'Grange Isle' in the church in 1730; Dugd. 727.

167Feet of F. East. 35 Eliz. The fine claims to include the advowson.

168Warw. County Records, ii, 153.

169MS. notes, Rev. J. H. Harvey Bloom.

170Dugdale, Mon. Angl. iv, 175: original charter in Coughton MSS.

171Cal. Chart. R. 1327–41, p. 483. The Botelers held lands in Bidford, worth 10s., by grant from the Crown: Pipe R. 1155 onwards.

172a Hamper's notes to Dugdale's Antiquities, in B.M.

173P.R.O. Anct. Deeds, B. 829.

174Chantry Cert. 67, fol. 278.

175Cal. Pat. 1549, pp. 343–4.

176V.C.H. Warw. i, 301.

177Chan. Inq. p.m. 9 Edw. II, 67.

178Ibid. 37 Edw. III (1st nos.), 14.
179Ibid. 6 Ric. II, no. 20.
180Feet of F. Mich. 12 & 13 Eliz.
181Coughton MSS.
182Chan. Proc. (Ser. 2), bdle. 322, no. 12.
183Recov. R. Mich. II, Chas. I, ro. 99.
184Ibid. East. 16 Chas. II, ro. 94.
185Dugdale, Mon. Angl. v, 409.
186Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), iii, 271.
187Misc. Bks. Land Rev. 183, fol. 201.
188L. and P. Hen. VIII, xx(1), g. 1081 (49). The third mill may be that which formerly belonged to the Abbot of Bordesley's manor in Binton (see p. 64).
189Dugd. 725.
190Feet of F. 8 James I.
191Dugd. Soc. x, 40; from Welford-onAvon parish register.
192Coughton MSS.
193Rep. of Commissioners (1828), 18, pp. 405–13.
From: 'Parishes: Bidford', A History of the County of Warwick: Volume 3: Barlichway hundred (1945), pp. 49-57. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=56980. Date accessed: 04 November 2008.

'Parishes: Exhall', A History of the County of Warwick: Volume 6: Knightlow hundred (1951), pp. 86-91. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=57102 Date accessed: 22 June 2009.



Exhall



Acreage: 2,047.

Population: 1911, 1,646; 1921, 2,281; 1931, 4,426.

As a civil parish Exhall has been extinguished; certain detached portions were amalgamated with Foleshill in 1885; by the Coventry Extension Act of 1931 part was included in the City and County Borough of Coventry, and in 1932 it was transferred to the parish of Bedworth. (fn. 1) Like other parishes in the neighbourhood it seems to have had no main village, but a number of hamlets, such as Newland, Ash Green, Exhall Hall Green, and Neale's Green. In recent years the development of coal-mining and brick-works has led to much building of small houses, especially along the Bedworth Road and at Ash Green and Goodyers End. The coal-mines in this parish have been worked from at least the beginning of the 17th century. (fn. 2)
The bounds of the parish as set out in 1411 (fn. 3) seem to have remained unchanged until the 19th century. They begin on the west in the neighbourhood of Grove Lane (which marks the site of Corleygrove, adjoining the park of Newland): from the corner of Newland by the ditch of the hospital of St. John called Corlehay to Corlebroke (now Breach Brook), so to the sluice of the mill of Smerecote (in Bedworth), by the hedge and ditch called Rowdech to Cattescroftelane (now Goodyers End Lane), to Little Heath, to the gate of the rectory of Bedworth, to the Downebroke. Then follow several lost landmarks, but 'the ditch between the Hay and Sydenhalewode' is evidently Little Sydnall Lane, and there is a reference to the boundary crossing the highroad from Coventry to Nuneaton. This road runs through the eastern portion of the parish, the extremity of which still farther east is crossed by the railway and the Coventry Canal; Longford and Exhall Station is just outside, but Hawkesbury Lane Station is just within the parish.
Newland Hall Farm, west of Ash Green, was formerly the manor-house of the Coventry Priory estate. Just to the south and east of the house a depression, now mostly drained of water, probably marks the site of fish ponds; there is no evidence of its having been part of a moat. The depression is crossed by a causeway some 50 yds. long where large stumps of recently felled trees suggest an avenue; and its grass banks are broken by ancient sandstone retaining walls of varying height. (fn. 4)
The house consists of a main block facing south and one running northwards from the north-eastern angle. The former is three-storied, with tall gables, and the latter two-storied, carrying a hipped roof. Both roofs are of tile and the eaves run at nearly the same level; their walls are of red and grey sandstone up to eaveslevel, except the whole of the west gable end, a portion of the main north wall, and the upper part of the east gable, which are of 18th-century brickwork. The stonework appears to be uniformly of the 15th century. The wing has a small extension to the north, one story in height, with a gabled roof stopping against its north wall: this is timber-framed and of the late 16th century. The roofing tiles are modern and the chimney-stacks appear to have been rebuilt in the 18th century. There are two entrances; one is on the west side of the wing; the other, in the southern half of the main eastern gable-end, has square jambs and a square lintelled head. The door is of heavy studded oak set within an oak frame and threshold, and is probably of the 16th century; it is held by two wrought-iron strap-hinges. This doorway and the adjacent window in the end of the main block have label-moulds; the two windows of the north wing have never had labelmoulds: all three windows have lost their mullions. Those in the wing have a single chamfered order, and that alongside the doorway has two such orders. At first-floor level, at even intervals across the width of the main block, are four stone corbel heads, early-17th-century in character and probably incorporated from another building in the 18th-century renovation. Lighting the two floors above are two 18th-century casements set in brickwork, and over each ground-floor window in the north wing is another casement. Only the main block stands upon a plinth.
In the south wall there are four windows—with three at ground-floor level; that to the east is four-light, the others two-light, and all have mullions and labelmoulds. The westernmost window is blocked with brickwork and occurs so close to the west corner that the 15th-century walls evidently continued beyond the present 18th-century gable-end. A heavy oak wallplate, 7 in. deep, is exposed at the eaves, and three anchorages can be seen, consisting of ancient wroughtiron dogs and straps, where roof trusses occur. (fn. 5) The chamfered plinth continues along the south wall but returns downward near the western corner, and a plain stone plinth, one course higher than the other, runs along the foot of the west gable brick wall, in which the windows are of the 18th century.
The west side of the north wing is of massive ancient stonework, except for 18 in. where it joins the main block; this is of brick, with a straight joint between the stone and the brickwork. Close to this angle is the entrance referred to above; the heavy oak frame and the door, of which the outer face is of very heavy oak boards spiked onto vertical and horizontal oak bars, appear to be of the 15th century.
The timber-framed gable of the north extension is filled with brick nogging and the walls below are of brick and stone bonded together. The whole of the interior was replanned in the 18th century and the plain staircases are probably of this date, but the original 15th-century roof trusses have been left in position and are well preserved. The main tie-beams occur at second-floor level and upper collarbeams at the level of the second-floor ceiling, which conceals the upper framework. The exposed beams are chamfered, and ancient wrought-iron straps strengthen the joints.
The eastern entrance door gives access to a kitchen, with a large ingle-nook and heavy oak beams supporting the wall over this opening and carrying the floor joists; these are treated with stopped chamfers. The room in the north wing has 16th-century doors, lightly framed in oak with linen-fold panels.
On the first floor the only room of interest is that arranged in the east gable, spanning its full width. Its walls are panelled in moulded oak, the panels being small and plain, of the early 17th century. The east and south walls have panelled dadoes only, but the north wall is panelled to its full height and has a contemporary fire-place and surround, the overmantel being treated with three main Doric fluted pilasters, having finely moulded caps and bases; between them are smaller pilasters which may once have supported enriched semicircular-headed panels.
Black Horse Road crosses the Coventry-Bedworth main road and then runs south-west, passing the Moat House, which is modern and surrounded by woodland, on the west side. Farther along, on the same side, is Manor House Farm. It is mainly of 18th-century brick and tile construction, but the rear facade (west side) belongs to the 17th century. It is divided into two bays by means of three fluted Doric pilasters, which stand on pedestals each supporting a triglyph, but the cornice over has been removed. These features are of brown sandstone, and except for a stone plinth and stringcourse the remainder is of brick with sash windows of a later date. The whole appears to constitute a central entrance bay and a south wing, slightly recessed, the balancing wing to the north having been demolished. The original centre door architrave remains, with two flanking Doric columns supporting blocks of entablature and a segmented pediment.
A quarter of a mile to the north of Moat House a by-road runs west past a field on the north side which contains a conspicuously large ash tree raised on a slight mound and protected by iron railings. A track across the same field leads to High Ash Farm, the north wing of which is timber-framed and of the 16th century. Just to the east of the farm are the remains of a circular brick windmill of 18th-century type.
Farther west the road slopes down to join another from the parish church, at Exhall Hall, now divided into three tenements. The plan of the house is Lshaped, with a large projecting gable-end on the south end of the west side, about 25 ft. wide. It is two stories in height, with attics in the tiled roof. From the west a short track crosses a moat surrounding the house by a bridge with modern stone parapets and an arch of 18th-century brickwork. Here the moat is 25 ft. wide and runs parallel with the house, 10 ft. clear of the gable-end. The latter has been stuccoed and the openings are modern, but the timber-framed construction is evident on account of the gable projecting 2 ft. 6 in. Two heavy oak corner-posts are exposed with their feet at first-floor level, rising about 13 ft. to the eaves; octagonal shafting is worked on their face up to twothirds of their height, where a moulded oak capital carries chamfered brackets which support the ends of an overhanging beam. This, though decayed, still carries moulded top and bottom edges, the former cambered. The soffit is coved in plaster, and this curves down to meet two more exposed beams embedded along the top of the lower wall-surface; they are each about 5 ft. in length and there is a gap in the centre, and each is treated with embattled cresting.
The main block is raised upon a plain stone plinth and the wall above is of 18th-century brickwork, with two dormer windows in the roof. The moat is rectangular and passes fairly close (fn. 6) by the south side, where the eaves-line runs back from the base of the timberframed gable. This façade is entirely modernized, but there are three more vertical oak posts (all plain) exposed above first-floor level, the length being divided into three bays. The east and north sides have been modernized.
The interior of the house at the time of its conversion into tenements contained moulded oak beams and open fireplaces, (fn. 7) but these features are no longer visible. Some ancient panelling then found lining the rafters over the timber-framed roof has been removed to The Grove. Some of these panels show slight traces of human figures of medieval character and may have formed part of a church screen. Others are 16th-century linen-fold panels, of which the longest bears also a shield charged with a merchant's mark and the initials 1 n, probably for Julian Nethermyll, merchant of Coventry, who bought the manor in 1535 (see below), or perhaps his son John. There are many yew trees on the banks of the moat to the north and east. To the south-west lies the farmyard, one side of which is occupied by a long 16th-century timber-framed barn.
The road running south through Ash Green passes on to Neal's Green, where tracks lead west to Exhall House and east to Exhall Grange; the former is an 18th-century residence and the latter is chiefly of the same century and mainly of brick, but part of its length is plastered over and is probably constructed in 16th-century timber.

Manors

EXHALL

is not individually mentioned in Domesday; it probably formed part of the lands of the Countess Godiva, being included in the 9 hides of Ansty and Foleshill, (fn. 8) as, like most of her estates, Exhall passed to the Earls of Chester, and in the reign of Stephen Ranulf, Earl of Chester, granted a portion of wood and waste in Exhall and Keresley estimated at 280 acres to Coventry priory. (fn. 9) On the death in 1232 of the grandson of the above, another Ranulf, his estates were divided amongst his four sisters, (fn. 10) Exhall coming to Mabel, wife of William, Earl of Arundel, whose son Hugh d'Aubigny held half a knight's fee in chief in Exhall in 1235–6. (fn. 11) In 1243 this half fee, then held by Maurice le Butiller, was assigned to Isabel, Hugh's widow, in dower. (fn. 12) She survived till 1282, and in 1275 Exhall is again recorded as part of the honor of Chester, being at that date among the knights' fees held of the manor of Coventry of the honor by Robert de Monhaut (Monte Alto) sometime steward of Chester. (fn. 13) In 1303 another Robert de Monhaut was in trouble for breaking into the several closes of the Prior of Coventry at Exhall and Newland with a multitude of armed men, carrying away deer and assaulting his servants. (fn. 14) Robert de Morlee, his kinsman and heir, made an indenture with Isabelle, queen of Edward II, which was confirmed in 1335 after he had come into his estates, (fn. 15) whereby he exchanged, for the manor of Framsden (Suffolk), various rents and services including those due from James Daudeleye in Exhall. (fn. 16) The holding of the latter, including a portion in Foleshill, was reckoned as half a knight's fee in 1275. (fn. 17) The earldom of Chester had been annexed to the Crown in 1265 and became the appanage of the heir apparent. The manor thus was held of the Crown in 1416, (fn. 18) there being at that time no heir apparent, but in 1542 it was stated to be held of Prince Edward as of his manor of Cheylesmore, parcel of the Duchy of Cornwall. (fn. 19) In 1549 Edward VI granted Cheylesmore to the Earl of Warwick, (fn. 20) who immediately leased it to the corporation of Coventry. They were confirmed in possession in 1568, (fn. 21) and were thus the chief lords of Exhall the last time an overlord is mentioned (1575). (fn. 22)
The tenants of Exhall manor from 1243 (fn. 23) were the Butler or Boteler family of Warrington (Lancs.), their holding in Exhall being reckoned as half a knight's fee then and in 1275. (fn. 24) William le Boteler was granted free warren in his demesne lands in Exhall and elsewhere in 1285. (fn. 25) In the same year he was involved with William Charnels of Bedworth in a dispute over common pasture in their respective manors, and quitclaimed all right of pasture in Bedworth in return for a similar undertaking by Charnels regarding Exhall, together with a grant of 2 acres in Exhall given to Charnels by Roger de Craft. (fn. 26) In 1314 the manor was leased by William le Boteler and Sybil his wife to Ralph de la Chaumbre, (fn. 27) and in 1340 was settled on Richard, William's grandson, (fn. 28) and his wife Joan, in tail, with contingent remainders to John his brother (and eventual heir) in tail, and the right heirs of William their father. (fn. 29) The Botelers continued in possession for nearly 200 years more, (fn. 30) the manor being finally disposed of in 1535 by Sir Thomas Butler and Baldwin Porter to Julian Nethermyll, draper and alderman of Coventry, Christopher Wareyn, and Richard Humphrey. (fn. 31) Julian died seised of Exhall manor, with lands in Exhall, Foleshill, and Keresley, in 1539, when his son John was 24. (fn. 32) The latter also became an alderman of Coventry (fn. 33) and was succeeded by his son, another John, who, in 1605, leased the manor to Richard Chamberlayne and Henry Crofts. (fn. 34) A third John Nethermyll, great-grandson of Julian, sold it to Sir John Garrard, alderman of London, (fn. 35) some time before 1621, when the son of the latter, on whom he had settled the manor, (fn. 36) leased it to Joseph Galliard and Thomas Meek. (fn. 37) The younger John Garrard, who became a baronet in 1622, (fn. 38) settled the manor on his wife and eldest son, and died in 1637. (fn. 39) Soon after this the Garrards, whose main seat was in Wheathampstead (Herts.), must have parted with Exhall, which in 1650 was conveyed by George Dyer, junior, and Edith his wife to William Dyer. (fn. 40) Later it passed to Sir Arthur Cayley, (fn. 41) who was patron of the living between 1662 and 1686. (fn. 42) He is styled 'of Newland in the County of the City of Coventry', (fn. 43) so that at this period the former monastic lands in Exhall, which had had an independent manorial existence under the name of Newland since the 14th century, may have become reunited to Exhall proper. Cayley's daughter and heiress Mary married Sir Samuel Marow, bart. of Berkswell, who was lord for a short time before his death in or before 1699. (fn. 44) He or his widow sold the manor 'about thirty years ago' (i.e. circa 1700) to William Cheslin, whose son George was lord in 1730. (fn. 45) In 1755 there was a conveyance of Exhall manor between Thomas and Martha Rollinson and John Williamson, (fn. 46) and in 1769 Charles Vere of London was lord. (fn. 47) He and Martha Vere conveyed it in 1789 to Henry Boulton and others. (fn. 48) Latterly the manor has been in the hands of the Startin family, George Startin being lord in 1850 (fn. 49) and Mr. H. W. Startin in 1936 and later. (fn. 50)


Butler. Azure a bend between six covered cups or.


Nethermill. Argent a cheveron between three crescents azure.


The lands of Coventry cathedral priory in Exhall, consisting originally of the 280 acres of waste, lying between the Breach Brook and the road from Coventry to Astley, granted by Ranulf, Earl of Chester, in the 12th century, in lieu of the right to take wood daily in his woodlands, which he had previously granted them, (fn. 51) were considerably enlarged at various times. Licences to alienate Exhall property in mortmain to this monastery were granted in 1349 (fn. 52) and 1369. (fn. 53) In 1332 the prior had received licence to impark 246 acres of waste and wood in the manor of NEWLAND, (fn. 54) and in 1535 the total value of the Coventry monastic estates in Exhall was £8 9s. 9d. (fn. 55) After the Dissolution they were granted out in the first instance in small lots. Richard Andrewys and Leonard Chamberleyne of Woodstock (Oxon.) were granted a wood called Calverley, in the tenancy of Henry Waver, in 1542, (fn. 56) and William Pulteney of Exhall received a 21-year lease of lands in 1544. (fn. 57) In 1542 Michael Cameswell obtained a confirmation of the lease of chambers, &c., in Newland mansion granted to him by Thomas Cameswell the last prior in 1538. (fn. 58) The freehold of this house was granted in 1544 to John Wade and Thomas Gregorye. (fn. 59) In 1553 the manor of Exhall lately held by Coventry priory and all possessions of that priory in Exhall except the rectory and advowson were granted to Thomas Browne and William Breton of London, (fn. 60) who in the same year received licence to alienate them to Michael Cameswell, Elizabeth his wife, and their heirs. (fn. 61) Cameswell, with Peter Temple of Burton Dassett, was confirmed in possession in 1557, (fn. 62) when the annual value was £13. Two years later Cameswell had licence to alienate his manors of Newland and Exhall, with all the lands appertaining, to Stephen Hales. (fn. 63) His grandson, another Stephen, who died in 1624, (fn. 64) was involved with Humphrey Fenn, one of his tenants, in lawsuits over property. (fn. 65) His son Charles was vouchee in a recovery of the manor in 1627, (fn. 66) and Charles's son Stephen was lord in Dugdale's time (1640). (fn. 67) In the latter half of the 17th century this manor or manors (Newland and Exhall being mentioned separately from 1559 onwards) became reunited with the non-monastic manor of Exhall (q.v.) in the hands of Sir Arthur Cayley, who had married the widow of Charles Hales; (fn. 68) but in 1695 Francis Fisher, younger son of Thomas Fisher who was the second husband of Mary (daughter and heir of Sir Arthur Cayley), widow of Sir Samuel Marow, was concerned in a recovery of Newland manor without mention of that of Exhall; (fn. 69) and John Knightley or Wightwick, who had married the elder daughter of Sir Samuel, similarly in 1709. (fn. 70) In 1730 Elizabeth, Sir Samuel's second daughter, was lady of the manor of Newland, (fn. 71) Exhall being by this time in other hands. The manor of Exhall of which John Wightwick was lord in 1789 (fn. 72) was probably this one, Exhall proper having been conveyed by other parties in the same year. Newland was considered as a separate manor as late as 1850, when Benjamin Parker was lord. (fn. 73)
The Carthusians of Coventry held land in Exhall. In 1544 their property, including a grove called Robyns Grove in the tenancy of Julian Nethermyll (lord of Exhall manor), was granted to John Burges and Edward Wotton, doctors in medicine, of London. (fn. 74) In 1546 it was regranted to Edward Watson of Rockingham and Henry Herdson, skinner, of London. (fn. 75)


Church



The church of ST. GILES is situated in the centre of the parish where the road from Bedworth Heath forks to Ash Green on the west and Neals Green to the south, and is skirted on the south-west side by Breach Brook. It consists of a square-ended chancel with vestry attached on the north side, nave, north and south aisles, and western tower; there is a small south porch. The nave contains three bays, and two timber roof trusses divide the chancel into three bays.
The nave and chancel appear to originate from the 13th century, (fn. 76) although the nave has been rebuilt in modern times, when extensive restorations were carried out to the chancel also. The tower appears to have been added in the 14th century, and subsequent additions have been recorded on a tablet under the window of the west wall of the north aisle which states that the north aisle was added in 1609 'as the burial place of the Hales family', the south aisle in 1842, and the vestry, with an extension of the north aisle, in 1885.
The chancel is mainly of the 14th century (early?), and the exterior face of the north wall is covered by the vestry, except for a narrow unpierced bay to the east, which is bounded by a buttress on the west side against which the vestry gable is built. All the plain wallsurfaces are plastered, leaving only the red sandstone of the buttresses, surrounds to the openings, parapets, &c. The eastern gable has two diagonal buttresses at the angles, each with two offsets, above which project carved heads supporting the kneelers, which are each weathered and faced with trefoiled gablets having moulded ridges; a modern cross stands upon the apex stone. The east window is original and consists of a two-centred lancet-shaped head with a hood-mould terminating in heads inclined inwards. It is divided into three lights and the tracery, concentric with the head, has no cusping. The jambs are of two chamfered orders, which return along the sill. The south wall has one intermediate buttress of two offsets. Immediately to the west of the buttress is a small doorway of a single chamfered order and with a two-centred head and hood-mould with head-stops. It contains an 18th-century door with contemporary wrought-iron latch. West of it is a small window with a lancet-shaped head and chamfered jambs, 3 ft. high and 11 in. wide. To the east of the buttress is one window of two chamfered orders containing a single light; the two-centred head with the hood-mould has been recently renewed. All the original work appears contemporary with the east gable except for the small lancet, which must have remained in a portion of early-13th-century walling.
The arcades to north and south of the nave are similar; each is modern and consists of three bays, the piers being octagonal with moulded caps supporting four-centred arches of two chamfered orders, the centre spans being slightly wider than the others. The responds are in the form of half-piers, except that against the south wall of the tower, which has been reduced to accommodate a moulded corbel 12 in. below the abacus for the support of a gallery constructed late in the last century and since removed. The chancel arch also is modern; it is two-centred and of two moulded orders, with a hood-mould stopped on carved heads. The tower arch is of the 14th century and spans the whole of the interior width of the tower, the jambs being square with chamfered angles towards the nave, the two centres of the arch are below the level of the springing, and there are two chamfered orders.
The two distinct periods when the north aisle was built and then extended are evident from the exterior. The tiled roof, with centre ridge, terminates in a west gable of red sandstone with sloping parapet walls and containing a three-light window similar in type to the lower west window of the tower, but the whole is modern with the exception of an inset shield of grey sandstone, protected by a modern drip-mould. It presumably dates from 1609, as it bears the arms of Hales—three arrows, with a molet for difference.
There is a diagonal buttress on the north-west angle, and the north wall is pierced by two windows, forming two bays, the bay to the west being narrower than that to the east. The division is marked by a buttress with two weathered offsets; it is similar to the angle buttress and they are modern, together with the whole of the bay between them. Both windows have three trefoiled lights, with four-centred heads, but that to the east is of 17th-century workmanship with its arched head more depressed, the trefoiled heads contain narrower top lobes, the fillet to the tracery is set out with great freedom of line and not geometrically, and the hoodmould is cut off abruptly at each extremity.
Although both bays are of red sandstone and carry a similar ovolo moulding to support the open eaves, that to the east consists of more irregular masonry. Furthermore the eastern bay carries between the eaves and the apex of the window hood a stone inscribed 'an[n]o do[mi]ni 1609'. In the corresponding position in the western bay is a stone inscribed 'a.d. 1885'.
There is a similar diagonal buttress on the north-east angle of the aisle, and further to the east the line of the aisle is continued by a modern vestry of lesser proportions. This is entered from the aisle by a modern doorway, of which the head is formed by that of the original 17th-century window. Another modern doorway gives access to the chancel. The vestry is of red sandstone; it has a doorway with a two-centred head on the north side. The north-east angle is marked by a diagonal buttress and a stone chimney-stack from a heating chamber beneath. Below the two-light east window is a large stone inscribed 'Erected a.d. 1885, W. Scott, Vicar ...', &c. The vestry roof, of tile, is lower than that of the aisle, consequently the gable of the latter rises above it, and displays the Hales shield, as at the west.
The south aisle is modern and is built of rough grey sandstone with a chamfered plinth, buttresses, corbeltable, and surrounds of openings, in red sandstone. It consists of three bays divided by shallow buttresses, set diagonally on the angles. It is roofed with tiles like the nave, with open eaves and plain parapet walls at the gables. The centre bay is occupied by a small modern porch of similar treatment with small single-light windows in each side wall. A two-light window occupies each of the flanking bays, and there is a three-light window in each of the gable walls to west and east. All the windows have two-centred heads and trefoiled lights.
All the floors of the interior are entirely modern.
The tower is constructed in two stages with diagonal buttresses, each having four weathered offsets. The plinth consists of two weathered and moulded offsets (much defaced). The whole is about 55 ft. in height and is built of a cream and grey coloured sandstone which has weathered black in patches. The lower stage contains one glazed opening which is on the western face; it has two chamfered mullions recessed between hollowed jambs. The head is four-centred, and each of the three lights is trefoiled; (fn. 77) the hood-mould has simple return-ends. The staircase to the belfry is contained within the south-west angle, and up to the top of the lower stage it is lit by two open chamfered slit lights which pierce the western face. Three other chamfered rectangular lights open to the chamber beneath the belfry, one on each face.
A weathered string-course divides the two stages and stops against the buttresses at their third offset. Between this string on the west face and the head of the window below a carved square block of stone is bonded. It contains a shield, bearing what seems to be a monogram, set within a quatrefoil.
The eastern buttresses of the tower thicken out at their bases to form wide chamfered piers, (fn. 78) around which the plinth is returned.
There are four belfry windows—one to each face; they each have two lights and a two-centred head approximating to a semicircle, the lights are trefoiled, and the jamb and head consist of two chamfered orders. The hood-mould has a chamfered underside which returns at the ends to form its own chamfered weathering. The upper offsets to the buttresses line through with the springing level of the belfry windows, and slight diagonal projections build up from them, intersect with the upper string-course, and support small plain pinnacles at the angles, now much decayed. The tower roof is modern and of slate. Rising from the apex is a gilded wrought iron weather vane.
The doorway to the tower stair in the south wall has a two-centred stone head set on chamfered jambs. There is an outer and an inner door, the latter being ancient.
The interior walls of the tower consist of the bare stonework; other walls are mainly plastered. On the wall of the north aisle there are four moulded corbels at a height of 7 ft.; two similar ones are set high at the springing level of the windows; the former evidently supported the gallery referred to above, and the latter may have supported an exposed roof truss, now removed. Two arched recesses, one in the west wall of each aisle, situated against the line of the nave arcades, mark the positions of staircases to the galleries. Similar corbels are ranged along the wall of the south aisle for the support of a gallery.
All the glazing is modern, and many of the windows, including those in the chancel, have stained glass. The east window of the south aisle is filled with plain glass, probably because it is partially obscured by the small modern organ; ranged alongside this is an oak panel forming the First World War memorial.
All the roof construction is modern. The nave is spanned by two roof trusses of the king-post type, but the spaces between the members are divided by chamfered vertical rails. Modern moulded corbels carry each truss by means of a wall-post and bracket. There is an octagonal plaster ceiling springing from a thin plaster moulding above the arcades. Both aisles have octagonal plastered ceilings, that above the north aisle has neither exposed trusses nor cornices, but the tie-beams of four trusses are exposed in the south aisle. There are two exposed roof trusses over the chancel, both supported on brackets; they are of the arched-brace type; between them the rafters are exposed, sloping down to an oak moulded cornice. The vestry has a plain octagonal plastered ceiling.

A modern font is placed beneath the tower arch. The oak choir stalls and altar rail, and the gilded oak reredos are all part of the complete modern restoration of the chancel. In the centre of the vestry floor stands an ancient heavy oak table. The top has apparently been made up, but it is fixed to a 16th-century frame. The top horizontal bearers are finely moulded along the base of the vertical face, there are bottom rails similarly moulded, and the four legs are 4 in. square and turned between bearer and bottom rail into baluster shapes without carved enrichment.

A monument of some importance is erected against the centre of the north wall, overlooking the north aisle. It consists of upper and lower panels of black marble, surrounded by a frame in marble of varied lighter colours. It commemorates John Phillips, died 1716, and Mary his wife, died 1762. It is framed by two Corinthian pilasters borne on moulded corbels. Above the moulded cornice there is a plain upper panel surmounted by a broken curved pediment, which leads up to a coat of arms set independently in the wall. The shield bears a lion rampant and above it is a helmet—all of marble.
There is a smaller wall monument reset within the recess at the west end of the south aisle, to James Pickard, died 1757, and Ann his wife, daughter of John Phillips, died 1762.
On the south wall of the tower is a brass tablet which states that 'The three bells and belfrey were restored and rededicated to the Glory of God St. Thomas' Day A.D. 1900'. There are now six bells, all of which were recast round about 1920.
The registers begin in 1540.

Advowson


Exhall was originally a chapelry of St. Michael, Coventry, being granted therewith to the cathedral priory, (fn. 79) and appropriated thereto by Bishop Molend in 1260. (fn. 80) The curate serving the chapel was removable at the will of the prior, and received £5 of the small tithes as his stipend in 1535. (fn. 81) The church does not seem to have become parochial till after the Restoration; from 1662 to 1747 the advowson was held by the Cayley family or their descendants the Marows. (fn. 82) Annabella MacCullock presented in 1771, and in 1804 and 1805 John Wightwick Knightley, (fn. 83) a descendant of the Marows. His daughter Jane married Lord Guernsey, later Earl of Aylesford, with which family the advowson remained until about 1925, when it was acquired by the Bishop of Coventry, the present patron.

Charities

George Bruton by will dated 13 May 1926 bequeathed £50 together with the proceeds of sale of his household furniture and other articles to the vicar and churchwardens of Exhall, the interest to be applied for the benefit of the poor of Exhall and in aid of the general church expenses of the parish. The annual income of the charity amounts to £2 9s.

Dinah Duck by will dated 1 January 1932 bequeathed to the churchwardens of Exhall £100, the income to be used for the upkeep of the churchyard. The testatrix also bequeathed the residue of her estate, the income to be expended upon the upkeep of the fabric of the church. The income of the charities amount to £3 11s. 2d. and £89 11s. 4d. respectively.

Emily Neale by will dated 16 July 1934 bequeathed to the vicar and churchwardens of Exhall £100, the income to augment the funds for the annual outing of the choir boys of the church. The income of the charity amounts to £3 7s. 2d.

Miss H. A. Sanders, by will dated 7 January 1936 bequeathed £100, the income, now £3 6s. 10d., to be applied towards the upkeep of the fabric of the church.

William Wilkinson Smart by will dated 2 November 1937 bequeathed £200, the income, now £6 13s. 2d., to be applied in keeping the graveyard of the parish church in good order.

Charlotte Mary Freeman by will dated 25 May 1914 bequeathed £100, the income to be expended upon the maintenance of the churchyard. The testatrix also bequeathed one third part of the residue of her estate, the income to be applied in the maintenance of the fabric of the church or the permanent fittings thereof. The annual income of the charities amount to £2 18s. 4d. and £7 18s. 10d. respectively.

Job Potter by will dated 10 October 1686 charged certain property in Berkswell with the annual payment of the sum of 10s. to the churchwardens of Exhall to be distributed by them amongst poor parishioners on St. Thomas's day. The rentcharge was redeemed in 1947 in consideration of a sum of Consols, producing an annual income of 10s.

William Bentley's Charity for Poor. By a scheme of the Charity Commissioners dated 19 April 1882 made in the matter of 'William Bentley's Educational and Bread Charities', founded by the will of William Bentley dated 13 July 1808, and 'The Poor's Charity' it was provided that the sum of £3 2s. 6d., part of the net yearly income of the charities, shall be annually expended by the trustees in the purchase of bread or other food which shall be annually distributed amongst deserving and necessitous persons resident in this parish. By an Order of the said Commissioners dated 13 May 1904 it was determined that the whole of the endowment of the charities is held for, or ought to be applied to, educational purposes, with the exception of the said yearly sum of £3 2s. 6d. The Order further provided that the educational endowment and the noneducational endowment respectively shall henceforth constitute a separate Foundation and a separate Charity called respectively the Exhall Educational Foundation and William Bentley's Charity for Poor.


Footnotes



1

Kelly, Directory of Warws. (1936).

2

e.g. Cal. S. P. Dom. 1619–23, p. 459; Feet of F. Div. Cos. Trin. 20 Jas. I. Cf. V.C.H. Warw. ii, 222,

3

Exch. K. R. Misc. Bks. 21, fol. 18.

4

The occupier mentioned a bridge of some sort having been here until fairly recently.

5

The spacing suggests two more trusses towards the west; making five in all.

6

About 20 ft. clear; the moat is about 40 ft. wide here.

7

Information from the owner, Mr. H. W. Startin, of The Grove, Exhall.

8

V.C.H. Warw. i, 309–10; Dugd. 124.

9

Cal. Chart. R. v, 104.

10

G. E. C. Compl. Peerage (2nd ed.), iii, 168–9.

11

Book of Fees, 510, 515.

12

Cal. Close, 1242–7, p. 116.

13

Cal. Inq. p.m. ii, 128 (p. 83). Robert was the son of Cecily, one of Hugh d'Aubigny's sisters and coheiresses.

14

Cal. Pat. 1301–7, pp. 188–9.

15

Cal. Inq. p.m. vii, 471 (p. 336).

16

Cal. Pat. 1334–8, p. 130.

17

Cal. Inq. p.m. ii, 128 (p. 84).

18

Chan. Inq. p.m. 3 Hen. V, no. 25.

19

Ibid. (Ser. 2), lxv, 16.

20

Cal. Pat. 1549–51, p. 2.

21

Pat. 10 Eliz. pt. 7.

22

Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), clxx, 14.

23

Cal. Close, 1242–7, p. 116.

24

Cal. Inq. p.m. ii, 128 (p. 83).

25

Cal. Chart. R. ii, 326.

26

Feet of F. (Dugd. Soc. xv), 1032.

27

Ibid. 1412.

28

Baines, Hist. Lancs. iii, 660.

29

Feet of F. (Dugd. Soc. xv), 1874.

30

Chan. Inq. p.m. 3 Hen. V, no. 25; 20 Hen. VI, no. 29.

31

Feet of F. Div. Cos. East. 27 Hen. VIII.

32

Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), lxv, 16.

33

Ibid. clxx, 14.

34

Feet of F. Div. Cos. East. 3 Jas. I.

35

Dugd. 124.

36

Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccccxxvii, 142.

37

Feet of F. Div. Cos. Trin. 19 Jas. I.

38

G. E. C. Compl. Baronetage, i, 188.

39

Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cccclxxxiv, 149.

40

Feet of F. Warw. Hil. 1650.

41

Dugd. 124.

42

Inst. Bks. (P.R.O.)

43

e.g. Visit. Warw. 1682–3 (Harl. Soc. lxii), 231.

44

G. E. C. Compl. Baronetage, iv, 110.

45

Dugd. 124.

46

Feet of F. Cov. Trin. 28–9 Geo. II.

47

Gamekeepers' Deputations, Shire Hall, Warwick.

48

Feet of F. Cov. Trin. 29 Geo. III.

49

White, Directory Warws. (1850), 580.

50

Kelly, Directory Warws. (1936).

51

Exch. K.R. Misc. Bks. 21, fol. 12, 76v.: Cal. Chart. R. v, 104. The land was in fact considerably more than 280 acres as it was measured by the woodland perch of 25 ft.

52

Cal. Pat. 1348–50, p. 326.

53

Ibid. 1367–70, p. 255.

54

Ibid. 1330–4, p. 361. The actual park in the early 15th century contained 80 acres: Exch. K.R. Misc. Bks. 21, fol. 12. William Butler, c. 1300, held from the priory waste at Appeltrehorne in return for which he renounced rights of common on other lands, except that 10 acres in front of his manor should be common for his tenants and those of the priory: ibid. fol. 17v.

55

Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), iii, 49.

56

L. & P. Hen. VIII, xvii, 443 (39, para. 16).

57

Ibid. (1), p. 679.

58

Ibid. xviii (1), p. 550.

59

Ibid. xix (2), 800 (13).

60

Cal. Pat. 1553, p. 158.

61

Ibid. pp. 272–3.

62

Ibid. 1557–8, pp. 216–17.

63

Ibid. 1558–60, p. 131.

64

Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccccxxxii, 137.

65

Chan. Proc. Ser. 1, Jas. I, H. 9, 45.

66

Recov. R. Hil. 2 Chas. I, ro. 22.

67

Dugd. 125.

68

Harl. Soc. viii, 72.

69

Recov. R. Mich. 7 Wm. III, ro. 226.

70

Ibid. East. 8 Anne, ro. 31.

71

Dugd. 125.

72

Gamekeepers' Deputations.

73

White, Directory Warws. 580.

74

L. & P. Hen. VIII, xix (2), 800 (11).

75

Ibid. xxi (1), 1383 (89).

76

There was a church here before 1260: see below.

77

The tracery appears to have been renewed.

78

Evidently for the purpose of providing sufficient abutment to the tower arch.

79

Cal. Chart. R. v, 102, 103.

80

Reg. Molend. m. 4.

81

Dugd. 124, quoting MSS. of Sir S. Archer.

82

Inst. Bks. (P.R.O.).

83

Ibid.




Temple Grafton


'Parishes: Temple Grafton', A History of the County of Warwick: Volume 3: Barlichway hundred (1945), pp. 94-100. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=56989. Date accessed: 04 November 2008.

 

Acreage: 2,050 (2,034 land, 16 water).

 

Population: 1911, 377; 1921, 314; 1931, 370.

 

The parish of Temple Grafton lies on the ridge north of the Avon, which forms its southern and southeastern boundary. It includes the hamlets of Ardens Grafton, of which the northern side of the street is in Exhall parish, and Hillborough. In the 17th century the hamlet of King's Broom, now in Bidford, also formed part of the civil parish. (fn. 1) The land rises to an altitude of over 300 ft. in the northern part of the parish and slopes down to about 180 ft. by the river-bank at Hillborough, 2 miles to the south. The village, with the church, stands on the edge of the hill, commanding views across the valley to Bredon Hill and the Cotswolds.

Next east of the churchyard is a small farm-house of the 17th-century, of timber-framing with a thatched roof; and farther east are three small thatched cottages, one of stone, the others timber-framed, all of the same century. Opposite the church is a farmstead with a modern house and a 17th-century barn of timber with red brick infilling and a tiled roof.

Temple Grafton Court is a modern building dating from 1876. It replaces the ancient manor-house, destroyed in 1804, which was of two stories, the lower of stone and the upper of timber, plastered; the gabled central porch had pargetting with figures of Adam and Eve. (fn. 2) A National School was erected in 1838 (the original building is now a church hall) and there is a village hall opened in 1934 and a Baptist Chapel built in 1841.

The hamlet of Ardens Grafton, about ½ mile farther west, has a street of houses mostly of local stone with tiled roofs, but one house, 'Manor Cottage', setting back from the road, on the south side, has timber-framed walls and a thatched roof. Two other buildings retain fragments of ancient framing.

Hillborough, even in 1730, consisted only of two farm-houses. (fn. 3)

Hillborough Manor is of a modified L-shaped plan, the shorter wing projecting to the south at the west end. portions of the close studding of the original south and west walls. In the latter, next to the southern doorway, was a hatch with an ogee head, now blocked. The fireplace was originally 10 ft. wide, but it has been altered for a modern smaller grate and a doorway cut through the back of the remainder, to the south. The Elizabethan staircase, south of the kitchen, has some silhouette balusters and heavy oak treads and risers. The parlour, occupying the north-west angle of the house, has had its floor raised to provide more height for the cellar below it; it is lined with early-17th-century panelling. The only features of note in the upper story are two In the angle of the two main wings is a staircase block, gabled on the east. All the external walls are of stone except the middle part of the north front, where the upper story is of close-set studding. This wall and the rooms behind it—kitchen, &c.—are of the early 16th century; the west wing and the stair-hall were built late in the 16th century, and the north range was extended to the east, or altered, in the 18th century or later. The walls are of square lias stone, those of the west wing being in alternate narrow and wide courses. The roofs are tiled. The principal front is the west. The main wall has two projecting chimney-stacks of stone with brick shafts. The southern has two shafts faced with curiously irregular V-shaped pilasters; the northern has two old square shafts set diagonally, besides later shafts, and immediately north of it is a shallow wing or bay, projecting westwards 6¼ ft. The gable-head is of modern brick. The lowest story has a four-light window with an old oak frame and mullions. There are some old wood-framed windows in the main wall.


HILLBOROUGH TEMPLE GRAFTON Sketch plan

 

HILLBOROUGH TEMPLE GRAFTON Sketch plan

 

On the north front the tall western part, of the late 16th century, is of stone. There are three old windows, half below ground-level, to the basement: these have wood frames, and the gable-head has an original fivelight window with moulded oak frame and mullions. The range east of this is of only two stories; part of it retains the close-set framing to the upper story; the lower story is of stone and has a modern window, to the kitchen, and a wide doorway. East of this part the whole wall has been rebuilt. There are no ancient features on the south side of this range, or east side of the west wing, but the south gable-head of the wing has an ancient window of stone with chamfered mullions and a moulded dripstone.

The kitchen has a ceiling with moulded cross-beams and joists of the early 16th century, and it preserves doorways, to the room over the parlour and chamber next south of it; these are oak framed and have original ogee arches.

South-east of the house are timber-framed farm buildings, and beyond them is an ancient circular pigeon-house built of stone in rubble with many larger courses of squared stones. It is about 24 ft. in diameter externally and the walls are about a yard thick inclusive of the stone nests inside. It has a conical roof, tiled, and a lantern at the apex.

About ¼ mile to the south-west of Hillborough is 'West Hillborough', an early-17th-century building of stone, largely rebuilt in modern red brick. The plan is of a modified L-shape, the wing extending to the north at the east end. The gabled end of the wing has original stone windows with moulded mullions to the ground and first floors and moulded oak bargeboards to the gable-head. The north side of the main block also had mullioned windows, now blocked, and a porch wing, which has since been widened in brickwork: the original doorway to the porch, now blocked, is in its east side and has a four-centred arch in a square head. The present entrance in the north front is modern, but the inner doorway has an ancient moulded oak frame and a battened door hung with ornamental strap hinges. The east end-wall of the main block is of rubble, but the north and west walls are of modern red brick. It has a central chimney-stack of stone, containing a 7-ft. fire-place, with three square shafts set diagonally, of thin bricks, above the tiled roof.

The L.M.S. railway from Stratford to Broom Junction and the main Stratford-Bidford-Evesham road cross the parish from east to west. At Cranhill a road branches northwards to Haselor, with another branch westwards to Wixford, and is crossed in Temple Grafton village by a road from Red Hill on the Alcester Stratford road, through Ardens Grafton to Exhall. This latter, continued from Ardens Grafton southwestwards as what is now only a lane through Summer Hill to Bidford, was once the principal road through the village and is marked and mile-posted on 18thcentury maps of Warwickshire as an alternative main road from Stratford to Bidford. (fn. 5) The manor of Hillborough had salt rights at Droitwich attached to it, (fn. 6) and the field path along the river from Bidford to Hillborough may be the survival of a Salt Way. (fn. 7)

The soil is light clay and sand, with a subsoil of lower lias limestone. There was formerly extensive quarrying here, and stone and slates from Grafton were used at Stratford early in the 15th century. (fn. 8) When the Birmingham-Stratford Canal was first projected in 1792 it was proposed to construct a branch ending at two quarries belonging to Viscount Beauchamp on the border of Binton parish. (fn. 9) Of the 29 householders given in Kelly's Directory for 1854 no less than 10 were quarriers and stone masons. In the later 19th century, however, the industry began to decline and has now quite disappeared.

In 1517 the Inclosure Commissioners reported that Sir William Gascoigne (lord of the manor of Oversley) and Henry Smyth of Coventry had each consolidated the land of two farms into one, leaving one of the farmhouses to decay. About 150 acres were thus ingrossed and some 15 persons evicted. (fn. 10) A survey (fn. 11) in 1540 of the Hospitaller and Westminster Abbey estates, then leased to John Swift, shows that much of the land was in the hands of freeholders. The common waste in Ardens Grafton was 60 acres and in Temple Grafton 21 acres, besides 27 acres of Lammas Common held by John Swift at Marston Hill, probably the later Cow Common. Another survey, (fn. 12) made in 1740, shows that there had been some inclosure and much concentration of ownership in the hands of the lord of the manor and a few freeholders. The open common had fallen to 44 acres in Ardens and 7 acres in Temple Grafton, and the Cow Common had recently been partitioned, one-tenth to 'the poor' and the rest divided between the four largest proprietors. The open arable of Temple Grafton lay in four fields, named after the points of the compass, and that of Ardens Grafton in four 'quarters'—Town Furlong, Walkers Hill, Lower Field, and Ash Furlong. Concentration continued, and when the parish was finally inclosed under an Act of Parliament (52 Geo. III, c. 37) in 1815 (fn. 13) nearly 90 per cent. of the allotment was made to four proprietors. About 850 acres of open fields and commons were dealt with; half of this amount was assigned to John Fullerton, lord of the manor, and 162 acres in lieu of rectorial tithes to the heirs of Ferdinando Bullock.

The name Temple Grafton is a curious misnomer which first occurs in 1535; for though the Hospitallers held land here, there seems to have been no connexion with the Templars. During the Middle Ages Temple and Ardens Grafton were usually distinguished as Over Grafton, Grafton Superior, Church Grafton, or Grafton Major and Nether Grafton, Grafton Inferior or Grafton Minor respectively. A reference to 'Temple Grafton alias Ardens Grafton' occurs in 1650. (fn. 14)

 

Manors

 

Grafton

GRAFTON was alleged to have been granted to Evesham Abbey by Ceolred King of Mercia in 710. (fn. 15) But it is also said to have been given by Edward the Confessor in 1055, and is included among the 36 manors acquired by Abbot Ethelwig (1055–77); (fn. 16) the 8th-century charter is probably a forgery made about this time to strengthen the title. Of these 36 manors, 28, including Grafton, were seized by Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, quasi lupus rapax, after Ethelwig's death. (fn. 17) Domesday records that before the Conquest Mervin, Scotin, Toti, and Tosti held it freely. It was assessed in 1086 at 5 hides, held by Gilbert of Osbern FitzRichard, (fn. 18) to whom Odo had given it. (fn. 19) Evesham seems to have regained part of the manor after Osbern's death, for Abbot Maurice (1122–30), without leave of his chapter, granted 1 hide here in fee farm to Ralph Boteler of Oversley, (fn. 20) to whose son Robert Abbot Adam (1160–91) gave it in fee. (fn. 21) Grafton is in fact included among the townships in which the abbot claimed privileges in the reign of Edward I. (fn. 22) In 1208 there is mention of a holding of the fee of William de Beauchamp, (fn. 23) whose grandson married Isabel sister and heir of William Mauduit, Earl of Warwick, and was the ancestor of the Beauchamp earls. The overlordship, however, already belonged to the Earl of Warwick in 1243 (fn. 24) and so continued at least until the 15th century, the manor being held of him by the service of half a knight's fee in 1243 and 1268, (fn. 25) of a whole fee in 1316, (fn. 26) and of a quarter of a fee in 1428. (fn. 27)

 

 

Evesham Abbey. Azure a chain with its padlock set cheveronwise between three mitres argent.

The Graftons were the principal landholders during the later 12th century. Robert de Grafton paid 10 marks to the sheriff for default in 1179–80. (fn. 28) Ralph son of William de Grafton died in 1204, when his sister and heir Margaret released all her land in Grafton, except for a hide which she held of the Abbot of Evesham, to Henry de Bereford, (fn. 29) who received the wardship of William and Felice her son and daughter and in return undertook to maintain her during life. (fn. 30) Henry's right was challenged by Ralph Boteler, who, probably acting as lord of the manor, paid a fine to have the lands until the title should be legally determined between him and Henry de Bereford. (fn. 31) In 1208 Margaret was still holding half a hide of Ralph in Grafton (fn. 32) which, with a hide of the fee of William de Beauchamp, she passed to William de Arderne. (fn. 33) At some time before 1221 Henry de Bereford gave the whole fee to William de Arderne, (fn. 34) but probably retained the mesne lordship, as in 1240 he acknowledged the right of Hugh de Arderne to hold of him 3 hides in Grafton by render of a pair of spurs, or one penny, in lieu of the service of half a knight's fee. (fn. 35) When Henry died his property passed to his nephew Henry de Nafford, who was holding the manor of the Earl of Warwick for half a fee in 1243, (fn. 36) as was William de Arderne in 1268. (fn. 37)

The first mention of the Knights Hospitallers here occurs in 1189, when they received a grant of land from Henry de Grafton. (fn. 38) In 1275–6 they were holding 2 carucates—formerly belonging to Ralph and Bernard de Grafton—which were declared to have evaded taxation for forty years past. (fn. 39) In 1316 they held the manor for a knight's fee of Guy de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick. By 1338 they had a Preceptory here, which was united with that of Balsall, (fn. 40) and they continued lords of the manor until the suppression of their Order in 1540.

 

 

Knights Hospitallers. Gules a cross argent.

 

 

Sheldon. Sable a fesse between three sheldrakes argent.

 

The manor of TEMPLE GRAFTON thereupon passed to the Crown and by an Act of 32 Henry VIII was included in the jointure of Queen Katherine Parr. (fn. 41) In 1545, however, it was granted with other estates to William Sheldon and John Draper (alias Mercer) of Temple Grafton (fn. 42) and was allotted to Draper two years later. In 1548 Draper settled the manor on his son Robert, reserving a moiety to his wife Margery for her life, and he died in 1556. (fn. 43) Margery Draper died in 1558 and Robert in 1563, (fn. 44) leaving a son and heir William, who received the manor on coming of age in 1583. (fn. 45) William Draper married Margaret daughter of Anthony Sheldon of Broadway and, having no issue, settled the manor on Brace (or Blaze) Sheldon, his brother-in-law. From him it passed to his son and grandson, both also named Brace. (fn. 46) Brace II, who was found seised of the manor in 1626, was a recusant, and in 1633 two parts of his lands here forfeited to the Crown were granted to his kinsman, William Sheldon, on a lease for forty-one years. (fn. 47) Brace III was holding the manor in 1654 (fn. 48) and died c. 1669, (fn. 49) leaving his daughter Anne as his heir. His younger brother Ralph, who appears as lord of the manor in 1674 (fn. 50) and 1675, (fn. 51) may have been acting as guardian during Anne's minority. Anne married Edward Burdett of Gray's Inn, who died in 1722. (fn. 52) She then granted the manor to the Rev. Thomas Allen and John Cresser (fn. 53) in trust for her son Robert, who, however, died at the age of 16 in the following year. Anne Burdett was still lady of the manor in 1730, (fn. 54) but James Kendall of Conduit Street, London, was holding it in 1731, (fn. 55) and it passed on his death to his widow, who died at Stratford in 1769. (fn. 56) In that year it came into the hands of the Rev. John Fullerton, rector of West Horsley, Surrey, and afterwards of the College, Old Stratford. (fn. 57) In 1852 his son John Fullerton conveyed it to Isaac Hodgson, from whose son it was purchased in 1867 by James William Carlile, (fn. 58) who built the church, the schools, the vicarage, Temple Grafton Court, and many of the cottages in the village. Mr. Carlile, who died in 1892, gave the manor to his daughter Alice, wife of Dominick Samuel Gregg. When Mrs. Gregg died in 1919 her daughter Mrs. Whiteman succeeded to it. In 1921 the estate was broken up, Temple Grafton Court being purchased by Thomas Lonsdale, whose widow is the present owner, and most of the farms by the tenants. (fn. 59)

Between 1226 and 1287 there are references to a tenement in Grafton held of the honor of Richard's Castle, and therefore presumably part of the Domesday holding of Osbern Fitz-Richard. In 1226 John Esturmy granted a carucate of land to William son of Robert de Grafton to hold by the service of a quarter of a knight's fee. (fn. 60) This is doubtless the fifth of a fee held in 1236 of the fee of Stuteville, (fn. 61) for William de Stuteville was then lord of the honor, as third husband of Margaret de Say; and in 1243 William de Grafton's quarter-fee was held of John de Sturmy, who held of William de Curly, who held of Richard's Castle. (fn. 62) In 1287 the hamlet of Nether Grafton was held for a quarter of a fee by John de Sturmy of Robert de Mortimer (fn. 63) grandson of Robert second husband of Margaret de Say. (fn. 64) Robert's son and heir Hugh left no male issue and the overlordship probably passed to the Earl of Warwick.

Part of the tenement of Ralph Boteler appears to have descended with the manor of Oversley (q.v.) through the Ferrers and Neville families to Sir William Gascoigne, who in 1537 conveyed it to Thomas Cromwell, afterwards Earl of Essex. (fn. 65) After Cromwell's execution it passed to the Crown and in 1541, with other of his estates in this neighbourhood, was granted to Sir George Throckmorton. (fn. 66)

GRAFTON MINOR occurs in a grant to Evesham Abbey by Ufa, Sheriff of Warwickshire, dated 973. (fn. 67) As it is included among Ethelwig's acquisitions ('Alia Graftun') (fn. 68) it may in the meantime have been lost by the monastery, and with Grafton it was seized by the Bishop of Bayeux. It is most probably to be identified with the 3 hides and 1 virgate in 'Graston' which Domesday records among the possessions of William Fitz-Corbucion; Leuric and Eileua held it of him and before the Conquest they had held it freely. (fn. 69) In 1208 Margaret de Grafton passed 3 hides held of the fee of Peter de Studley (or Corbizon) to William de Arderne. (fn. 70) Another William died in 1276 leaving lands in Grafton, amounting to about 3 hides, of which the tenure is not specified, and a fifth of a knight's fee held by Alan de Grafton. (fn. 71) The custody of his brother and heir Richard, an idiot, fell to the Crown and the estate was granted to his widow Agatha to hold in dower. (fn. 72) Richard died in 1279, (fn. 73) and Sir John Wolf, or 'le Low', and Amice his wife (perhaps Richard's sister) remitted their rights in Richard's property to Edward I, (fn. 74) who in 1292 granted it as a manor, together with Knowle and other estates that had formerly belonged to William de Arderne, to Westminster Abbey, to provide obits for the soul of Queen Eleanor. (fn. 75) The abbey's right was challenged in 1332 by Margery widow of Philip le Wolf, (fn. 76) but Westminster remained in possession until the Dissolution. In 1428 it was held as half a knight's fee, (fn. 77) but it is not mentioned in the valuation of 1535 and by that time was probably reckoned as a part of the manor of Knowle. The descent of the property, distinguished after 1540 as ARDENS GRAFTON, since the Reformation has followed that of Temple Grafton.

 

 

Westminster Abbey. Gules two crossed keys or.

A messuage called Allen's land, with about 1,000 acres of land, wood, and heath, is mentioned in 1553 as in the possession of Roger Swift. (fn. 78) The family of Swift had then been settled in the parish for more than two centuries. A William Swift occurs in Grafton in 1327 (fn. 79) and witnesses a grant of land in Church Grafton by John Alleyn to Walter Alleyn in 1334: (fn. 80) John and William Swyft served as collectors of subsidies in Warwickshire in 1434 and 1440 respectively: (fn. 81) in 1545 John Swyfte was holding lands called Ardens in Temple and Ardens Grafton as the former tenant of the Hospitallers and of Westminster Abbey. (fn. 82) Roger Swift's daughter and heir Frances married Edward Kempson of Ardens Grafton. Their son George conveyed the property to his cousin William Kempson in 1623–4. (fn. 83) William's lands were sequestered for recusancy, but his daughter Elizabeth, having been brought up by a Protestant, seems to have recovered full possession. (fn. 84) She married George Ferrers of Solihull, (fn. 85) and in 1676 conveyed the estate to Reason Mellish in trust for George Willoughby, whose sons Francis and Robert sold it to Anthony Charles of Great Alne and Ralph Wagstaffe of Temple Grafton, the possessors of it in 1730. (fn. 86) In 1870 the estate was purchased by James William Carlile, then lord of the manor. (fn. 87)

HILLBOROUGH belonged in pre-Conquest times to Evesham Abbey and is included in the spurious grant of Ceolred of Mercia in 710. (fn. 88) It was certainly acquired by Abbot Ethelwig, (fn. 89) and was afterwards lost to the Bishop of Bayeux. In the Confessor's time Ernui and Lodric held it freely and in 1086 Ernui's portion, of 1½ hides, was held by Urse d'Abitot of the king, and 3½ hides in Binton and Hillborough, formerly belonging to Lodric, were held by Hugh of Osbern FitzRichard, the lord of Richard's Castle. (fn. 90) The latter is perhaps identical with the half-knight's fee in Binton and Hillborough which John Hubaud held of John de Hastings in 1313. (fn. 91)

Although the rights of Evesham are ignored in the Domesday Survey, Hillborough was one of the estates for which the abbot successfully sued 'before the five shires at Gildeneberg' and which the Conqueror restored to him. (fn. 92) Abbot Robert of Jumièges (1104–22) granted it to William de Sevecourt, (fn. 93) from whom it apparently passed to Robert Strecke. (fn. 94) But by the middle of the 12th century Peter de Studley (or Corbizon) and Henry de Montfort, his son-in-law, (fn. 95) seem to have been the chief landholders here. (fn. 96) Henry disposed of his interest to Peter, (fn. 97) and William Corbizon was in 1212 holding a quarter and a tenth of a knight's fee in Hillborough of the honor of Richard's Castle. (fn. 98) In 1235 the manor was held of the honor for half a fee, (fn. 99) perhaps by the Cantelupes who similarly held Ipsley. William de Cantelupe in 1254 died seised of certain rents in Hillborough as part of his manor of Aston Cantlow. (fn. 100) The overlordship, like that of Ipsley, descended with the manor of Aston Cantlow at least down to the reign of Elizabeth. (fn. 101) It was held as two half-fees in 1313 (fn. 102) and as a fee, together with Ipsley, in 1346–7. (fn. 103) In 1349 it is again separately accounted for as half a fee, (fn. 104) but Hillborough and Ipsley together were held by the service only of a quarter of a fee in 1428. (fn. 105)

The family of Hubaud, whose principal seat was at Ipsley, is descended from that Hugh who appears in Domesday as the under-tenant of Osbern Fitz-Richard. Dugdale says that Henry Hubaut recovered 'all that he could lay claim to' in Hillborough from Peter Corbizon (fn. 106) probably about the end of the 12th century. Hillborough remained joined with Ipsley (q.v.) in the family (later called Huband) until 1729, when it was sold to Bowater Vernon of Hanbury Hall, Worcestershire. His son Thomas Vernon succeeded in 1735 and died in 1770, leaving it to his daughter Emma, who married John Phillips. On her death in 1818 the estate descended to Thomas Sprawley Vernon and in 1854 was sold to Henry Beacroft of Droitwich. (fn. 107)

 

 

Hubaud. Sable three fleurs de lis coming out of leopards' heads argent.

A grant of the manor in 1745 includes court leet and court baron, (fn. 108) but there is no evidence that these franchises were ever exercised here.

In 1313 a half-fee in Hillborough was held of John de Hastings by Simon de Hildebury. (fn. 109) He may be connected with Simon de Belne who in 1249 received a grant of a virgate of land here from Robert and Prudence Throckmorton. (fn. 110) The family of Belne was settled at Bidford early in the 14th century and a Robert de Belne occurs in Hillborough in 1332. (fn. 111) There is no further mention of them here, and the holding must have been merged in the Hubaud manor.

Besides Evesham, which was still possessed of rents in Hillborough at the Dissolution, (fn. 112) Bordesley Abbey held land here from the time of its foundation in 1140. Peter Corbizon in that year granted 10 acres of land called Westcroft (fn. 113) and in 1297 the monks acquired from Millicent, widow of Hugh le Fremon, a twenty years' lease of a meadow called Fremoneshomme, lying between Westcroft and the Avon. (fn. 114) That they had also a fish-pond here appears from an undated grant by Robert le Fremon allowing them to pass over his land whenever they wished to repair it. (fn. 115) They held the rights of fishing in the Avon and free passage through the floodgates (but not the fishing in the floodgates) by a grant from Henry de Montfort. (fn. 116) After the Dissolution these fishing rights were acquired by John Draper, though John Hubaud made a claim to them. (fn. 117) Draper left them to his son Richard, from whom they descended at least until 1640, with the advowson of Grafton. They are, however, included with the manor in a deed of 1745. (fn. 118) In 1603 there is mention of a second fishery, which then belonged, with the other, to Leonard Kempson. (fn. 119)

There was a mill in Hillborough, worth 12d. in 1086, but there is no other reference to it until 1571 when it was in the possession of John Hubaud. (fn. 120) He had also a windmill, which is perhaps the same as that marked to the south of Ardens Grafton village on Sheriff's map of 1796. (fn. 121)

 

Church

 

The parish church of ST. ANDREW was entirely rebuilt in 1875 and consists of a chancel with a north organ chamber and vestry, nave, north aisle, and a south-west tower serving as a porch. It is built of lias stone with sandstone dressings, and has tiled roofs.

On the north wall of the chancel is a repainted stone shield of arms of the 17th century with the six quarterings of the Woodchurch-Clarke family, impaling the quarterly coat of De la Hay, Winterbourne, Sheldon, and Ruding. In the organ chamber is a 17th-century oak chest with panelled sides, a carved top-rail, and a panelled lid. Another chest is of the 18th or early 19th century.

The early registers exist only in a very incomplete transcript beginning in 1612.

 

Advowson


There was a church at Grafton in 1086. Both the rectory and the advowson were acquired by the Hospitallers, their earliest recorded presentation being in 1277. (fn. 122) There is no mention of the church in 1291, but in 1338 it was valued at £8, (fn. 123) and three years later at £6 13s. 4d., of which the glebe accounted for £2 13s. 4d. (fn. 124) In 1585 it is included in the general return for the Preceptory of Balsall. (fn. 125)

After the Dissolution the rectory and advowson came with the manor to John Draper and passed from him to his son Richard, who in 1567 was holding them of the Crown for a quarter of a knight's fee. (fn. 126) On Richard's death they were divided between his two sisters Agnes (or Anne) wife of William Kempson and Isabel wife of Richard Gennens. Isabel and her husband conveyed her moiety to Henry Huggeford in 1575. (fn. 127) Anne's descended to her son Leonard, who died in 1603, holding the whole rectory and advowson for a quarter-fee. (fn. 128) George Kempson, son of Leonard, presented in 1633, (fn. 129) and in 1640 he sold both rectory and advowson to Sir Simon Clarke. (fn. 130) After 1633 there was no institution until 1849, the church being served for two centuries either by licensed curates or neighbouring incumbents. Nor until 1870 was there a resident vicar. Meanwhile the rectory and advowson passed to Mark Parker, who had married Sir Simon Clarke's daughter Elizabeth and whose grandson Mark Parker was patron in 1730. (fn. 131) Ferdinando Bullock is mentioned as patron in 1786 (fn. 132) and Francis Ferdinando Bullock presented in 1849. (fn. 133) The latter sold the patronage to James William Carlile about 1875 and it descended with the manor until 1921, when it came into the hands of its present owners, the Diocesan Trustees.

In 1712 the great tithes were owned by Anne Burdett, the lady of the manor, (fn. 134) but by 1730 had once more become united with the advowson in the possession of Mark Parker. (fn. 135) The tithes of Hillborough were separately conveyed in 1623 (fn. 136) and 1650. (fn. 137)

In 1586 the vicarage was worth £20 a year. The vicar, John Frith, was then described as 'an old priest and unsound in religion' whose 'chief trade' was 'to cure hawks that are hurt or diseased'. (fn. 138) By the early 18th century it had become customary for the officiating minister to receive the small tithes as his stipend. (fn. 139) The living was united with that of Binton by an Order in Council of 18 Dec. 1931. (fn. 140)

A chapel in Temple Grafton, formerly belonging to the Hospitallers, was included in the grant of 1545 to William Sheldon and John Draper and was granted by the latter to his son Richard in 1551. (fn. 141) It passed thence to the Kempson family and is last mentioned as being lately in the possession of Leonard Kempson in 1604. (fn. 142)

There was a chapel of St. Mary Magdalen in Hillborough, which was pulled down by John Hubaud, who was accused of having carried away the bells, timber, and ornaments and of converting the profits to his own use. (fn. 143)

Charities


Thomas King, by will dated 1877 bequeathed £180 to the vicar and churchwardens, the interest to be divided among the poor of the parish. The legacy produces £4 14s. 4d. in dividends, which are distributed to aged poor people in coal.

Walker's Charity. A rentcharge of 12s., understood to have been given by a person named Walker for the poor not receiving parish relief, is now paid out of land in Temple Grafton and distributed to aged poor.

Poor's Land. The endowment of this charity, the origin of which is unknown, consists of 3 acres of land at Temple Grafton known as Poor's Land, let in allotments at a yearly rent of £1. A scheme of the Charity Commissioners appoints four trustees to administer the charity for the benefit of the poor.

Footnotes

 

1See under Bidford, p. 51.

2Figured in Add. MS. 29265, fol. 90. A still earlier house lay within the moat of which traces remain north-east of the Court.

3Dugd. 723.

4A stone on the north front bears the date 1605 and the initials G A K, for George and Anne Kempson.

5Cf. maps by Kitchin, c. 1750; Jeffries, 1755; Carey, 1787; Outhett, 1818.

6V.C.H. Warw. i, 337.

7B'ham Arch. Soc. Trans. liv, 14.

8Hardy, Cal. Stratford Gild Accts. 1405–6, 1410–1, 1427–8

9a Plans deposited at Shire Hall, Warwick. Though never constructed, this branch is marked on several maps, e.g. Smith 1804 and 1808. Teesdale, Neele (in Smith's Hist. of Warw. 1830).

10Leadam, Domesday of Inclosures, ii, 405–6.

11a Augm. Off. Misc. Bks. 261, fols. 46–8.

12Terrier and map: B.R.L. 247148. 52 per cent. of the land in Temple Grafton but only 7 per cent. in Ardens Grafton was already inclosed.

13a Copy of Award, with map, at Shire Hall, Warwick.

14Feet of F. East. 1650.

15Chron. de Evesham (Rolls Ser.), 72; Birch, Cart. Sax. i, no. 127.

16Chron. de Evesham, 75, 95; Mon. Angl. ii, 17, 18.

17Chron. de Evesham, 97. It seems possible that these manors had been granted to Ethelwig personally, and that Odo seized them, perhaps on royal instructions, when the next abbot, Walter, tried to treat them as endowments of his house: see Darlington in Engl. Hist. Rev. xlviii, pp. 1–22, 177–98.

18V.C.H. Warw. i, 338–9.

19Harl. MS. 3763, foll. 58 d. Osbern had apparently mortgaged this land to Abbot Ethelwig and, being unable to repay the money, granted it to the abbey, but availed himself of Bishop Odo's inquest to keep both the land and the money: Engl. Hist. Rev. xlviii, 189.

20Cott. MS. Vesp. B. xxiv, fol. 8, 9 d.

21Harl. MS. 3763, fol. 93 d.

22Plac. de Quo. Warr. (Rec. Com), 779.

23Feet of F. (Dugd. Soc. xi), no. 187.

24Bk. of Fees, ii, 958.

25Cal. Inq. p.m. i, 679.

26Ibid. v, 615, p. 405.

27Feud. Aids, v, 191–2.

28Pipe R. Soc. xxix, 101.

29He claimed to be heir of Ralph: Curia Regis R. iii, 144.

30Pipe R. 6 John, m. 17 d.

31Ibid.

32Feet of F. (Dugd. Soc. xi), no. 170.

33Ibid. no. 181.

34Assize R. 948, m. 12.

35Feet of F. Staffs. Mich. 25 Hen. III.

36Bk. of Fees, 958.

37Cal. Inq. p.m. i, 679. Dugd. (p. 722) puts this fee in Ardens Grafton, but the two Graftons appear to have been held together, under several mesne lords, during the 13th century.

38Dugd. 720.

39Hund. R. (Rec. Com.), ii, 226.

40V.C.H. Warw. ii, 100–1.

41L. and P. Hen. VIII, xix (1), p. 645.

42Ibid. xx (1), p. 366 (7).

43Chanc. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cxxii, 3.

44Ibid. cxxxvii, 51.

45Pat. R. 25 Eliz. pt. 18.

46Dugd. 720–1. The Christian name Brace originated from the marriage of William Sheldon to Cicely daughter of Francis Brace of Doverdale. Blaze appears to have been the usual form after c. 1650.

47Pat. R. 11 Chas. I, pt. 26.

48Cal. Committee for Compounding, v, 3205–6.

49Mentioned in Hearth Tax Returns 1667, but not in 1670.

50Recov. R. Mich. 26 Chas. II, ro. 56.

51Ibid. Mich. 27 Chas. II, ro. 28 d.

52Dugd. 721.

53Feet of F. Mich. 11 Anne.

54Dugd. 721.

55Gamekeepers' Deputations (Shire Hall, Warwick).

56Stratford-on-Avon Parish Registers.

57Gamekeepers' Deputations.

58MS. Notes, Rev. J. H. Harvey Bloom.

59Ex inf. Vicar of Grafton.

60Feet of F. (Dugd. Soc. xi), no. 353.

61Bk. of Fees, i, 511.

62Ibid. ii, 948.

63Cal. Inq. p.m. ii, 640.

64G.E.C. Complete Peerage (2nd ed.), ix, 258–63.

65Feet of F.Div.Co. Trin. 29 Hen. VIII.

66L. and P. Hen. VIII, xvi, g. 878 (80). In 1608 the benefit of recusancy of George Throckmorton of Temple Grafton was granted to Sir James Douglas: Cal. S.P. Dom. 1603–10, p. 437.

67Chron. de Evesham, 74; Birch, Cart. Sax. no. 1092.

68Chron. de Evesham, 95.

69V.C.H. Warw. i, 334.

70Feet of F. (Dugd. Soc. xi), no. 178.

71Cal. Inq. p.m. ii, 198.

72Cal. Fin. R. i, 72, 74.

73Ibid. 118.

74Domesday of Westminster Abbey, fol. 437 d.

75Cal. Chart. R. ii, 425–6.

76Domesday of Westminster Abbey, fol. 439.

77Feud. Aids, v, 192.

78Dugd. 722.

79Lay Subsidy Roll 1327 (Midland Record Soc. v), p. 29 (supplement). Included in Hillborough in L.S.R. 1332 (Dugd. Soc. vi), 81.

80Peto Collection 853 (Birthplace, Stratford-on-Avon).

81Cal. Fin. R. xvi, 191; xvii, 148.

82L. and P. Hen. VIII, xx (2), g. 266 (7).

83Dugd. 722; Visit. Warw. 1619 (Harl. Soc. vii), 411–12. The 1682 Visitation (Harl. Soc. lxii, 47) makes William the son and heir of Edward Kempson and Frances Swift.

84Cal. Committee for Compounding, v, 3229.

85Described as of Baddesley Clinton in 1682 Visitation.

86Dugd. 722. By that time the holding must have greatly diminished, for in 1740 Luke and Daniel Wagstaffe held only 74 acres between them (Terrier, B.R.L.).

87MS. notes, Rev. J. H. Harvey Bloom.

88Chron. de Evesham, 72.

89Ibid. 95.

90V.C.H. Warw. i, 337, 338.

91Cal. Inq. p.m. v, 412.

92Cott. MS. Vesp. B. xxiv, fol. 28; cf. Chron. de Evesham, 97.

93Cott. MS. Vesp. B. xxiv, fol. 8.

94Ibid. fol. 9.

95Wm. Salt Soc. iii, 203.

96Dugd. 722.

97Ibid. 723.

98Red Bk. Exch. (Rolls Ser.), 604.

99Bk. of Fees, 509.

100Cal. Inq. p.m. i, 340.

101Ibid. ix. 118; Chanc. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), 28 (142); ibid. 208 (202).

102Cal. Inq. p.m. v. 412.

103Cal. Close 1346–9, p. 582.

104Cal. Inq. p.m. ix, 118.

105Feud. Aids, v, 191–2.

106Dugd. 723.

107MS. notes, Rev. J. H. Harvey Bloom.

108Recov. R. Trin. 18 & 19 Geo. II, ro. 46.

109Cal. Inq. p.m. v, 412.

110Feet of F. (Dugd. Soc. xi), no. 686.

111Lay Subsidy Roll (Dugd. Soc. vi), 81.

112Monast. Estates in Warwicks. 1547 (Dugd. Soc. ii), 119.

113Dugd. 722; Cal. Chart. R. ii, 64–5 (confirmation).

114P.R.O. Anct. Deeds, B. 4142.

115Ibid. B. 4146.

116Dugd. 723.

117E. Chanc. Proc. bdl. 1005, nos. 62–5. Cf. also Ct. of Req. bdl. 12, no. 114.

118Recov. R. Trin. 18 & 19 Geo. II, ro. 46.

119Fin. R. 2 Jas. I, pt. 1, no. 32.

120Feet of F. Trin. 13 Eliz.

121Twenty-five Miles round Birmingham.

122Giffard's Reg. (Worc. Hist. Soc.), 93.

123Camden Soc. (1855), pp. 41–2.

124Non. Inq. (Rec. Com.), 445.

125Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), iii, 92.

126Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cxliii, 6.

127Pat. R. 27 Eliz. pt. 8.

128Fine R. 44 Eliz. pt. 2, no. 7; ibid. 2 Jas. I, pt. 1, no. 32.

129Reg. Thornborough, fol. 90.

130Feet of F. East. 16 Chas. I.

131Dugd. 721.

132State of Diocese of Worcester 1782–8 (in Diocesan Registry); also gives names of curates 1758–1825.

133Reg. Pepys, fol. 75.

134Feet of F. Mich. 11 Anne.

135Dugd. 721.

136Feet of F. Trin. 21 Jas. I.

137Ibid. East. 1650.

138A. Peel (ed.) The Seconde Parte of a Register, ii, 167.

139Dugd. 721.

140London Gazette, 149–51.

141Cal. Pat. Ed. VI, v, 217.

142Fine R. 2 Jas. I, pt. 1, no. 32.

143Ct. of Req. bdl. 12, no. 114.

From: 'Parishes: Temple Grafton', A History of the County of Warwick: Volume 3: Barlichway hundred (1945), pp. 94-100. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=56989. Date accessed: 04 November 2008.



GREAT ALNE

GREAT ALNE is a parish, on the river Alne, from which it derives its name, and has a station on the branch line of the Great Western railway from Alcester to Bearley, 2 ½ miles north-east from Alcester and 100 from London, in the South-Western division of the county, Barlichway hundred, Alcester petty sessional division, union, county court district and division, Alcester rural deanery, Warwick archdeaconry and diocese of Worcester. The chapel of St. Mary Magdalen is a small and plain building of stone in mixed styles, consisting of chancel, nave, west porch, and a low western turret containing one bell: the east window is stained and there are 243 sittings. The register dates from the year 1611. The living is a chapelry, annexed to the rectory of Kinwarton, joint net yearly value £270, including 102 acres of glebe and residence, in the gift of the Bishop of Worcester, and held since 1908 by the Rev. Eustace Havergal M.A. of St. Edmund Hall, Oxford, who resides at Kinwarton. The manor formerly belonged to the Abbey of Winchcomb, in Gloucestershire. Great Alne Hall is the residence of Arthur Lucas  Chance esq. J.P. who is lord of the manor, and, with Sir Nicholas William George Throckmorton bart. of Coughton Court, the chief landowner. The soil is sand and marl; subsoil, sand and clay. The chief crops are wheat, barley, turnips and beans. The area is 1,757 acres of land and 7 of water; rateable value, £2507; the population in 1911 was 363.
Verger, Frederick Westbury.
Post & Telegraph Office:—
Mrs. Clara Edwards, sub-postmistress. Letters arrive from Alcester, Warwick¬shire, by cycle post at 7.15 a.m. & 3.40 p.m.; dis¬patched at 5.25 p.m. & Sundays, g a.m.; no Sunday delivery. Aston Cantlow, 2 miles distant, is the nearest money order office

Public Elementary School (mixed), with mistress's house, situated on the confines of the parish & serving also for the parish of Kinwarton; it will hold 120 children; average attendance, 60;....mistress

Railway Station, Thomas Stacy, station master & goods agent


PRIVATE   RESIDENTS.

Chance Arth. Lucas J.P., Great Alne Hall
Dolben Misses
Green Misses
Gunn Henry Samuel
Hancox John James, Arden house
Jephcott Richard H
King George C
Neale T. Rose cottage
Purton Misses
Smith Edwin
Spencer John, The Knoll
Spencer William,  Manor farm


COMMERCIAL.

Edwards Clara (Mrs.), shopkeeper & sub-postmistress
Edwards Edwin, assistant overseer & collector of rates
Finnemore Edward, farmer ,
Greenhill Albert George, Mother Huff Cap P.H
Hancox   Henry,   farmer,   Crockett's farm, Alne hills
Jeffcoat William, farmer
Lane Benjamin, farmer, Alne hills
Moore Ethel (Miss), shopkeeper
Phillips Fanny (Mrs.), farmer, Alne hls Rutter John Henry, Boot P.H ;
Shaw William, farmer, Alne hills
Spencer,    Son   &   Hancox,   millers (water & steam)
Spencer William, farmer, Manor farm

The Enclosure Awards for Haselor Parish 1767

Warwickshire

 

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7.     Enclosure Awards for Haselor Parish 1767

 

The Award Orders Rules Regulations and Determinations of the commissioners for putting in Execution an Act of Parliament made in the sixth year of the reign of his present Majesty King George the Third intitled an Act for dividing and inclosing the Open Commons common Fields common Meadows and commonable Lands and Grounds of and in the Manor of Haselor and Walcot and of and in the Manor of Upton Haselor in the Parish of Haselor in the County of Warwick~

                   Whereas it is in and by the said Act of Parliament recited that there are lying and being within the said Parish of Haselor in the County of Warwick and in the Townships Villages Hamlets of Walcot and Upton Haselor comprized within the Manor of Haselor several large open Commons common Fields common Meadows and commonable Lands and Grounds generally denominated Haselor Walcot and Upton Haselor Common Fields common Meadows and commonable Lands and Grounds which are computed to consist of Forty three Yard Lands and to contain together Fourteen Hundred Acres or thereabouts and that the Right Honourable Francis Earl Brooke of Warwick Castle and Earl of Warwick is Lord of the said Manors of Haselor and Walcot and is seized of or intitled unto divers Lands Hereditaments in the said Parish of Haselor and is also intitled to part of the Great and small Tythes arising within the said Parish of Haselor or to some Modus or Composition in lieu thereof and also to Thirteen Yard Lands and a half a Yard Land lying dispersed in the open Commons common Fields common Meadows and commonable Lands and Grounds within the said Parish and that Sir Robert Throckmorton of Great Coughton in the said County of Warwick Baronet is Lord of the Manor of Upton Haselor aforesaid and is also seized of or intitled to one small parcel of Land in the said Common Fields and also to one Water Corn Mill and Right of Common thereto belonging in the said Common Fields common Meadows and commonable Lands and Grounds within the said Parish and that the Kings most Excellent Majesty in right of his Crown of Great Britain is seized of the perpetual Advowson Right of Patronage and presentation of and in the Parish Church or Chapel of Haselor aforesaid and that the Reverend Stephen Nason Clerk is Chaplain or Curate of the Church or Chapel of Haselor aforesaid and in right of his Chaplinship or Curacy is intitled to one House and one piece or parcel of Old Inclosed Land and is also intitled to the Sum of Six Pounds Thirteen Shillings and four pence as and for a Modus or Composition annually due and payable to the said Curate or Chaplain and his Successors for ever from several parcels of Land lying in the said open Commons common Fields common Meadows and commonable Lands and Grounds of and in the said Parish of Haselor part of the Ten Yard Lands hereinafter mentioned to be belonging to John Haynes Gentleman and that the said John Haynes is seized of intitled to Ten yard Lands and is also intitled to part of the Great and small Tythes and John Lane William Spires John Gibbs Brook Woodcock Elisabeth Haynes Sarah Heming and divers other persons are the Owners and proprietors or are possessed of all the remainder of the Great and small Tythes of Right due and Yearly arising and renewing within the said Parish of Haselor or else to some Modus or Composition in lieu thereof

                   And Whereas it is in and by the said Act and also recited that the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick Sir Robert Throckmorton Baronet John Haynes John Lane John Heming Brook Woodcock Richard Harris John Gibbs Elisabeth Haynes Sarah Heming and divers other persons are the Owners and proprietors or are possessed of all the said open Commons common Fields common Meadows and commonable Lands and Grounds lying in the said Parish or Townships of Haselor Walcot and Upton Haselor several of which proprietors Leases for Lives or Years determinable upon Lives under the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick and the said several owners and proprietors in respect of their several Lands are intitled to and so enjoy Common of Pasture for their Cattle in over and upon all the said Common Fields common Meadows and commonable Lands and Grounds at stated times in the year by a determinate stint and in certain proportion

                   And Whereas by Virtue of and under certain leases granted by the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick or some or one of his Ancestors John Huband of Abbotts Morton in the County of Worcester yeoman John Lane of Walcot aforesaid and John Heming of the said Parish of Haselor yeoman were Lessees for Lives or for years determinable upon Lives of several Messuages therein mentioned and also of several Lands and Right of Common therein mentioned also of One Yard Land and half a Yard Land with the Common Rights and Appurtenances thereunto belonging then in the possession of the said John Huband and also of One Yard Land and half a Yard Land with the Common Rights and Appurtenances thereunto belonging then in the possession of the said John Lane and also of One Yard Land and half a Yard Land with the Common Rights and Appurtenances thereunto belonging then in the possession of the said John Heming

                   And the Said John Huband John Lane and John Heming having agreed to surrender and give up their respective Leases unto the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick to the intent that the said Lands and Rights of Common therein respectively comprized or other Lands in Lieu thereof might be set out and allotted unto and for the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick and his heirs in manner and subject to the several payments in the said Act mentioned

                   And that the said Commissioners or any three of them are thereby Authorized and required to set out and Allot either the Premises Comprized in the said three several Leases respectively or any part or parts thereof or any other Lands in Lieu thereof or any part thereof unto and for the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick his Heirs and Assigns in part of the Allottment or Allottments thereby directed to be made to him by virtue of the said in part recited Act for or in respect of the said Lands or Grounds and Right Of Common which the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick was seized of or intitled to in the said open Commons common Fields common Meadows and commonable Lands and Grounds so intended to be inclosed as aforesaid and that immediately upon such Allottment being made and such Award or Instrument being executed as therein is mentioned or so soon thereafter as the said Commissioners or any three of them should Award the said several and respective Lease and Leases and the respective Estates and Interests of the said John Huband John Lane and John Heming in the premises therein respectively comprized which should be then subsisting and to come therein should cease determine and be utterly void and in Consideration thereof and in bar of and full Satisfaction and Compensation for such their respective Estates and Interests as aforesaid the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick his Heirs and Assigns should Annually pay to the said John Huband John Lane and John Heming or their Assigns during their several and respective Lives the several and respective Sums in the said Act mentioned reference being thereunto had may more fully and at large appear

                   And Whereas since the passing of the Act of Parliament by three several Deeds or Instruments in Writing bearing date respectively on or about the Fourth Day of December last for the Consideration therein respectively mentioned the said John Huband John Lane and John Heming Did absolutely Grant bargain sell assign surrender and yield up unto the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick his Heirs and Assigns for ever their several and respective Leases herein and in the said Act of Parliament mentioned to be by them held respectively of the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick for Lives or Years determinable upon Lives as in and by the said in part recited Deeds reference being thereunto had may more fully and at Large appear

                   And Whereas it is in and by the said Act of Parliament enacted that all and every the said open Commons common Fields common Meadows and commonable Lands and Grounds lying and being in the said Parish of Haselor should be divided set out and allotted by Edward Gibbs of Stratford upon Avon in the County of Warwick Esquire Richard Taylor of the Borough of Warwick Gentleman John Whateley of Wootton Park in the Parish of Wootton Wawen in the County of Warwick Gentleman Lewis Bradley of Henley in Arden in the said Parish of Wootton Wawen Gentleman and Joseph Crump of Evesham in the County of Worcester Gentleman Commissioners appointed in and by the said Act and their Successors in the manner and subject to the Rules orders and directions in and by the said Act ordered established appointed and prescribed

                   And it is thereby further enacted that a true and perfect survey and Admeasurement should be made of all and every the said open Commons common Fields common Meadows and commonable Lands and Grounds within the said Parish of Haselor so directed and intended to be inclosed as aforesaid and that such Survey and Admeasurement should be reduced into Writing and the Number of Acres Roods and Perches belonging to each proprietor at the time of such Survey should be therein set forth and specified and that the said Survey should be laid before the Commissioners or any three of them at all or such of their Meeting to be had in pursuance of the said Act as they should think necessary and if required by them should be verified upon the Oath or Oaths of the person or persons making the same and their respective assistants which Oath or Oaths the said Commissioners or any three of them were thereby impowered to Administer

                   And it is thereby further enacted that the said Commissioners or any three of them should have full power and Authority and they are thereby Authorized and required at any time or times after the said Survey should be made and laid before them as aforesaid before the first Day of December in the year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Sixty Six or as soon thereafter as conveniently might be divide set out ascertain Assign Award Allot and appoint all and every the said open Commons common Fields common Meadows and commonable Lands and Grounds intended to be inclosed as aforesaid unto and amongst the several Persons intitled to and interested in the same and in proportion to their several and respective shares Interests Rights of Common Tythes and other properties in and over the same and as much as might be for their mutual convenience subject nevertheless to the Rules orders and directions therein contained concerning the same

                   And it is thereby further enacted that the said Commissioners or any three of them should in the first place set out ascertain and Assign unto and for the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick John Haynes John Lane William Spires John Gibbs Brook Woodcock Elisabeth Haynes Sarah Heming and others entitled to the said Great and small Tythes or any Modus or composition for the same respectively Yearly arising or renewing within the said parish of Haselor and to their several and respective heirs and assigns in such distinct and seperate plots and parcels of Land and Ground within and being part of the said open Commons common Fields common Meadows and commonable Lands and Grounds so intended to be inclosed as aforesaid ( the Roads therein and hereinafter directed to be made being first taken out and the Ground therein also directed to be set out for Stone Gravel and Marle pits being first deducted ) as in the Judgment of the said Commissioners or any three of them Quantity and Quality considered should be equal in Value to one Seventh part thereof and that then said Commissioners or any three of them should divide and Allot the said Seventh part unto and amonst the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick John Haynes John Lane William Spires John Gibbs Brook Woodcock Elisabeth Haynes Sarah Heming and others so entitled to the said Great and small Tythes or any Modus or composition for the same respectively and their several and respected Heirs in such shares and proportions as the said Commissioners or any three of them should adjudge and determine to be an Equivalent Compensation for their several and respected Rights and shares therein and that the same should be in Lieu and full satisfaction of all such Tythes Modus's or Compositions as aforesaid over and above and exclusive of the Allottments to be made to them respectively in lieu of their several and respective Lands and Rights of Common as therein is mentioned

                   And it is also in and by the said Act mentioned that there are certain pieces of Old Inclosures Messuages Orchards or Gardens within the said Parish of Haselor out of which the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick John Haynes John Lane William Spires John Gibbs Brook Woodcock Elisabeth Haynes Sarah Heming and others have a right of Tythe or some Modus's or Composition in Lieu thereof and that the said Commissioners or any three of them should and might Assign and Allot unto the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick John Haynes John Lane William Spires John Gibbs Brook Woodcock Elisabeth Haynes Sarah Heming and others and respected Heirs and Assigns out of such plots and parcels of Land which should in pursuance of the said Act to be Allotted to such Proprietors of the said Old Inclosures Messuages Orchards or Gardens chargeable with Tythe as aforesaid so much and such part and parts of the said Lands and Grounds as in the Judgment of the said Commissioners or any three of them should be deemed an Equivalent or Compensation for such last mentioned Tythes or any Modus or Composition payable for the same

                   And it is thereby further enacted that the said Commissioners or any three of them should have full power and Authority to set out altogether one entire portion or parcel of the said open Commons common Fields common Meadows and commonable Lands and Grounds for and in lieu of the several parcels of Land which are therein mentioned to be chargeable with the payment of the said Sum of Six Pounds Thirteen Shillings and Four Pence and Allot such entire portion or parcel of Land unto the said John Haynes in part of his share of the Lands to be allotted to him by virtue of the said Act which said entire portion or parcel of Land is therein directed to be of the full yearly value with the several parcels of Land charged with the said Sum of Six Pounds Thirteen Shillings and Four Pence and should for ever after such Allottment made as aforesaid be charged and chargeable with the said yearly sum and that the same should be paid to the said Stephen Nason and his Successors by half yearly payments in such manner and at such times as the said Commissioners or any three of them should in that behalf award

                   And it is hereby further enacted that all and every person and persons to whom any share and Allottment should be Assigned as therein is mentioned that they should Inclose Hedge Ditch and Fence the same within such time as the said Commissioners or any three of them should direct and appoint and that all such Hedges Ditches Gates Stiles Drains and Fences so to be made for the dividing and Inclosing such shares and Allottments respectively as aforesaid should be made and for ever thereafter maintained and kept up by such person and persons and in such manner as the said Commissioners or any three of them should direct

                   And it is thereby further enacted that the said Commissioners or any three of them should set out and appoint Publick and Private Roads or Ways through the new Inclosures and Allottments to be made as aforesaid and the assizes and Breaths thereof so that all such Publick Roads or Highways should be and remain Sixty Feet Broad at the least between the Ditches ( Except Bridle Roads and Foot Ways ) in Case any such should be set out by the said Commissioners And that the Soil of the Publick Roads so to be set out as aforesaid should be vested in the Lords of the said Manors in lieu of the Soil of the Old Roads that shall be discontinued to be used as such And that after such intended Division and Inclosure should be made as aforesaid all the grass and Herbage growing and renewing on the said Roads and Ways so to be set out and appointed as aforesaid should belong to such of the said proprietors to whom the said Commissioners or any three of them should Allot the same Exclusive of all other persons whatsoever

                   And the said Commissioners or any three of them are thereby empowered to direct or alter the Course of any Springs Streams or Currents of Water within any part of the said open Commons common Fields common Meadows and commonable Lands and Grounds so intended be Inclosed as aforesaid and to direct order and award all or any of the said Springs Streams or Currents of Water to be Carried and Conveyed in such Courses and through such Lands and Grounds parcels of the Lands thereby intended to be inclosed as they in their discretion should think proper

                   And it is thereby further enacted that it should and might be lawfull to and for the said Commissioners or any three of them ( if they should think it necessary and proper ) to ascertain and leave unallotted any parcel or parcels of Land and Ground part of the said open Commons common Fields common Meadows and commonable Lands and Grounds so intended be Inclosed as aforesaid not exceeding in the whole the Quantity of three acres as and for Publick Stone Gravel or Marle pit or pits and that the same should be Fenced in and the Fences thereof kept in repair as the said Commissioners or any three of them should direct or appoint

                   And it is thereby further enacted that as soon as conveniently might be after the said Commissioners should compleated and finished their partitions and Allottments of the said open Commons common Fields common Meadows and commonable Lands and Grounds thereby directed to be divided and inclosed as aforesaid pursuant to the purport and directions of the said Act they or their successors or any three of them should Form and draw up or cause to be formed or drawn up an Award or Instrument thereof in Writing which should express and contain the quantity in Statue Measure of Acres Roods and Perches contained in the said Lands Grounds and Premisses intended to be inclosed as aforesaid and the quantity of each and every part and parcel thereof which should Assigned and Allotted to each of the persons intitled to and interest in the same and a discription of the situation Buttalls and Boundaries of the same parcels and Allottments respectively and proper orders and directions for the Fencing and mounding the same and keeping the said mounds and Fences in Repair and also for making and laying out proper Roads Ways and Passages in over and through the same premises and should also Express and contain such other orders Regulations and determinations as should be proper and necessary to be inserted therein conformable to the Tenor and purport of the said Act which said Instrument should be fairly Ingrossed or Written on parchment and Signed and Sealed as aforesaid be Inrolled either with the Clerk of the Peace for the County of Warwick or in one of his Majestys Courts of Record at Westminister to the end Recourse might be had to the same by any person or persons interested in the said intended Inclosure and the several Partitions Divisions and Allottments so to be made by the said Commissioners or any three of them in and by the said Award or Instrument should be and are thereby declared to be binding and conclusive unto and upon all and every the Parties Interested therein and intitled to the Lands and Grounds and Premises intended to be divided and Inclosed as aforesaid

                   And Whereas it is in and by the said in part recited Act further enacted for the more convenient laying out Disposition of the several open Commons common Fields common Meadows and Grounds within the said Parish of Haselor upon making the said intended Division that it should and might be Lawfull to and for any of the Proprietors of the said open Commons common Fields common Meadows and Grounds to be divided and Inclosed as aforesaid to exchange all or any of his her or their Messuages Tenements Ancient Inclosures or other Lands or Grounds within the said Parish for any other Messuages Tenements Ancient Inclosures or other Lands or Grounds within the said Parish so as all and every such Exchange and Exchanges be made within the Consent and Approbation of the said Commissioners or any three of them and be Ascertained and Specified in the Award or Instrument thereby directed to be made and Inrolled by virtue of the said in part recited Act due reference being thereunto had may more fully and at large appear

                   And Whereas We the said Commissioners in the said Act named before We Acted in the Execution of the Powers thereby given did respectively take and subscribe the Oath of the said Act mentioned divers Meetings have been held by us the said Commissioners in order to put the Act in Execution due Notice of which said Meetings ( Except Meetings by adjournment ) have been publicly given in the Parish Church or Chapel of Haselor aforesaid or have been affixed upon the said Church or Chapel Door of the time and place of every such Meeting as the said Act directs and We the said Commissioners have caused a true exact and perfect Survey and admeasurement of the said open Commons common Fields common Meadows and commonable Lands and Grounds within the said Parish of Haselor so directed and intended to be inclosed as aforesaid which said Survey is reduced into Writing and the number of Acres Roods and Perches belonging to each Proprietor therein set forth and Specified pursuant to the directions of the said Act and the said Survey have been duly laid before us the said Commissioners who have fully considered the same and Approved thereof

                   And We having also carefully viewed and Examined the said open Commons common Fields common Meadows and commonable Lands and Grounds and the Quantities and Qualities of the respective Lands and Grounds belonging to the several Proprietors and owners thereof and having made a just and impartial Estimate of the value of the said open Commons common Fields common Meadows and commonable Lands and Grounds and of the respective properties of the said several parties concerned and Interested therein

                   And We the said Commissioners having also carefully and deliberately Examined and considered the several Allegations made before us and on the part and behalf of all the parties interested in the said intended Inclosure and having duly informed ourselves of the Rights and Claims of the several proprietors and all and singular matters and things relating to the Inclosing and to the several Exchanges of Land made by virtue of the said Act and necessary and proper to be considered in relation thereunto and having settled ordered adjusted and determined the same and having also duly settled and determined all other matters and things relating to the said intended Inclosure and Exchange and to the division and Allottment of the said Tythes Lands and Grounds according to the purport and true meaning of the said Act of Parliament Now these Presents Witness that We the said Commissioners ( by virtue and in pursuance of the said in part recited Act of Parliament and of the several Powers and Authorities thereby to us given ) have Awarded ordered Allotted set out assigned and appointed and by these presents Do Award Order Allot set out Assign and Appoint All and singular the said open Commons common Fields common Meadows and commonable Lands and Grounds called Haselor Walcot and Upton Haselor Common Fields common Meadows and commonable Lands and Grounds in the Parish of Haselor aforesaid and hereinafter particular mentioned and described to the several Persons hereinafter named in such shares and proportions manner and form and subject to such rules orders and Regulations as are hereinafter mentioned expressed and declared of and concerning the same ( that is to say )

                   To the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick All that Allottment piece or parcel of Land as the same is now Admeasured and set out containing by Statue Measure Exclusive of Roads and Highways Two Acres Two Roods and Thirty Seven Perches lying and being together within the Manor of Haselor and Walcot aforesaid in a certain Field called Between Towns Field and bounded on the North East by Lands hereinafter Allotted to the said John Heming on part of the North by Lands hereinafter Allotted to the said John Gibbs on the South East and South West by Lands hereinafter Allotted to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick which said Allottment piece or parcel of Land is by us Allotted set out Appointed to and for the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick in lieu of and full Compensation for his Great and small Tythes Modus's or Compositions whatsoever issuing or arising or due or payable to him out of One Yard Land lately purchased by the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick of and from James Kettle of the Borough of Warwick in the County of Warwick Clerk

                   Also to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick All that Allottment piece or parcel of Land as the same is now Admeasured and set out containing by Statue Measure Exclusive of Roads and Highways Twenty Two Acres Two Roods and Fifteen Perches lying and being together in the said Field called Between Towns Field bounded on part of the North East by Lands hereinbefore Allotted to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick on other part of the North East by Lands hereinafter Allotted to the said John Heming on part of the South East by Old Inclosed Lands and an Allottment hereinafter Allotted to the said John Heming on the other part of the south East by Old Inclosed Land belonging to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick on part of the South West by the Church Yard of the Parish Church or Chapel of Haselor aforesaid on part of the North West on the other part of the South West and on the other part of the South East by Old Inclosed Lands belonging to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick on the other part of the North West on the other part of the South West and on the South by an Allottment hereinafter Allotted to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick in the Manor of Upton Haselor on part of the West and on the North by Old Inclosed Land belonging to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick and on the East by Lands hereinafter Allotted to the said Brook Woodcock and the said John Gibbs and on the other part of the East by an Allottment hereinbefore Allotted to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick

                   Also to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick All that Allottment piece or parcel of Land as the same is now Admeasured and set out containing by Statue Measure Exclusive of Roads and Highways Two Hundred and Two Acres and Seventeen Perches lying and being together in certain Fields called Thoroughters Watergall and Micknill Fields Bounded on part of the South West by Old Inclosed Lands belonging to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick on the other part of the South West on part of the North West and on part of the North East by Old Inclosed Land belonging to the said Elizabeth Haynes on the other part of the North East by an Allottment hereinafter Allotted to the said Elizabeth Haynes on the other part of the North East and on the other part of the North West by an Allottment hereinafter Allotted to Mary Hollis otherwise Melley on part of the North on the other part of North West on the other part of the North and on the other part of the North East by the said Allottment hereinafter Allotted to the said Elisabeth Haynes on part of the East and on other part of the North by an Allottment hereinafter Allotted to the said John Lane on other part of the North East by Old Inclosed Lands in the Parish of Billesley on the other part of the East on the South, South East on other part of North and North East by a Wood called Withecomb Wood on the other part of the East on the other part of the South East on the South and on the South West by Lands hereinafter Allotted to the said John Heming and Robert Bradshaw

                   Also to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick All that Allottment piece or parcel of Land as the same is now Admeasured and set out containing by Statue Measure Exclusive of Roads and Highways One Rood and Twelve Perches lying and being together in certain Lane heretofore called Carpenters Lane bounded on the North West by Old Inclosed Land belonging to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick and on the South East by Old Inclosed Land belonging to the said John Heming

                   Also to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick All that Allottment piece or parcel of Land called Cam Meadow as the same is now Admeasured and set out containing by Statue Measure Exclusive of Roads and Highways Four Acres Two Rood and Thirty two Perches bounded on the South West by a certain Meadow called Rigdale Meadow belonging to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick on the South East by a certain Meadow called Spearches Meadow hereinafter Allotted to the said John Heming on the North East by a Publick Road or Highway leading from Stratford upon Avon in the County of Warwick to a certain place called Great Alne Ford in the said County on the North and on the North West by a brook called Small Brook otherwise Alne Brook

                   Also to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick All that Allottment piece or parcel of Land as the same is now Admeasured and set out containing by Statue Measure Exclusive of Roads and Highways One Hundred and Thirty Three Acres Two Roods and Twenty nine Perches lying and being together in certain places called Haselor and Walcot Hills Barlichway Bush Leys otherwise Barlichway Slade bounded on part of the West on part of the South and on the other part of the West by Lands hereinafter Allotted to John Haynes on the other part of the South on part of the South West on the other part of the South on part of the South East and on other part of the South all along by Lands in the Lordship of Grafton to a certain Lane at Barlichway Bush and from the said Lane on part of the North East on other part of the South East and on part of the East by Lands in the Lordship of Binton to the South East Corner of a Wood called Masters Wood on part of the North on the other part of the East on the other part of the North on the other part of the East on the other part of the South East on other part of the South by the said Wood called Masters Wood on other part of the East to an Allottment hereinafter Allotted to the Duke of Dorset on other part of the North by the said Turnpike Road leading from Stratford upon Avon aforesaid to Alcester aforesaid on other part of the South West on part of the North West and on other part of the North East by a certain Wood called Hemings Wood otherwise West Grove belonging to the Right Honourable the Earl Salisbury on the other part of the North East and on the other part of the East by a Wood belonging to the said William Spires on other part of the North West by an Allottment hereinafter Allotted to the said William Spires

                   All which said Five last mentioned Allottments pieces or parcels of Land are by us Allotted set out and appointed to and for the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick in Lieu of and full Compensation for Eight Yard Land Right of Common or common of Pasture and also in lieu of a certain piece or parcel of Land taken by the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick of the said John Lane in Exchange for One Messuage or Dwelling House and Orchard with the Appurtenances in Walcot in the Tenure or Occupation of Francis Cook Widow and also in lieu of a certain piece or parcel of Land taken by the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick of the said William Spires in Exchange for a certain Inclosed Ground called Mitch Croft and also in Lieu of a certain piece or parcel of Land taken by the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick of the said Elizabeth Haynes in Exchange for a certain piece or parcel of Land of equal value as hereinafter is more particularly mentioned and also of all other Rights and Properties belonging to him the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick in the open Commons common Fields common Meadows and other Commonable Lands and Grounds lying and being in the said Manor of Haselor and Walcot intended to be inclosed as aforesaid

                   And as to the Fences to be made for the Inclosing seperating and dividing of the said several Allottments by us Allotted to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick as aforesaid We do hereby Award order direct and Appoint that the Hedges Ditches Mounds and Fences of the said Two first Allottments to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick on that part of the North and East lying between the Allottments hereinafter Allotted to the said John Heming and John Gibbs on other part of the East by the said Allottment hereinafter Allotted to the said John Gibbs on other part of the North and on the West by Old Inclosed Land belonging to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick on part or the South West on the South and on other part of the North West by a certain Meadow called Pillham Meadow hereinafter Allotted to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick shall be made repaired maintained and kept in Repair now and at all times for ever hereafter by the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick and the owners and proprietors of the said two first described Allottments for the time being

                   And that the Hedges Ditches Mounds and Fences of the said Third Allottment to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick on that part of the North East adjoining to Lands hereinafter Allotted to the said Elisabeth Haynes on other part of the North East and on the North West by an Allottment hereinafter Allotted to the said Mary Hollis otherwise Melley on part of the North on the other part of North West on the other part of the North and on the other part of the North East from the East Corner of the said Allottment hereinafter Allotted to the said Mary Hollis otherwise Melley to a Gate at the North West Corner of a Furlong called Hool-hunt Furlong on part of the East on the South East and on other part of the South West by Lands hereinafter Allotted to the said John Heming along to the South West Corner of a Furlong called Lipper Pit Furlong on other part South West from a Gate at the South East Corner of a Furlong called Dingle Furlong by Lands hereinafter Allotted to the said John Heming and the said Robert Bradshaw to the South West Corner of the said Allottment hereinafter Allotted to the said Mary Hollis otherwise Melley shall be made repaired maintained and kept in Repair now and at all times for ever hereafter by the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick and the owners and proprietors of the said third described Allottment for the time being

                   And that the Hedges Ditches Mounds and Fences of the said Fourth Allottment to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick on both Ends thereof shall be made repaired maintained and kept in Repair now and at all times for ever hereafter by the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick and the owners and proprietors of the said Fourth described Allottment for the time being

                   And that the Hedges Ditches Mounds and Fences of the said Fifth Allottment to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick on all parts and sides of the said Meadow called Cam Meadow shall be made repaired maintained and kept in Repair now and at all times for ever hereafter by the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick and the owners and proprietors of the said Fifth described Allottment for the time being

                   And that the Hedges Ditches Mounds and Fences of the said Sixth Allottment to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick from the South West Corner of a certain place or piece of Land called Upper Banstey hereinafter Allotted to William Spires on part of the West on part of the South and on the other part of the West by the Allottment hereinafter Allotted to the said John Haynes on the other part of the South on the South West on other part of the South on the South East and on other part of the South all along by the Lordship of Grafton to the Lane at the said Bush called Barlichway Bush except such parts of the said Fences as have been usually made and kept in repair by the Owners and Occupiers of Lands in the said Lordship of Grafton on the East by an Allottment hereinafter Allotted to the said Duke of Dorset and on the North by the said Turnpike Road leading from Stratford upon Avon aforesaid to Alcester aforesaid shall be made repaired maintained and kept in Repair now and at all times for ever hereafter by the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick and the owners and proprietors of the said Sixth described Allottment for the time being

                   Also to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick All that Allottment piece or parcel of Land as the same is now Admeasured and set out containing by Statue Measure Exclusive of Roads and Highways One Hundred and Seventy Five Acres Two Roods and Twenty seven Perches lying and being together within the Manor of Upton Haselor in certain Fields or places called Broadway Field the Lench Pillham Meadow the Cow Pasture the Heaths Honey Meadow part of Hobfurze part of Little Ham Meadow and Atcham Meadow bounded on the South or South East by the Publick Road or Highway leading from Walcot to Alcester aforesaid to the South East Corner of an Allottment hereinafter Allotted to Nathaniel Quinton and on part of the West and South by the said Allottment hereinafter Allotted to the said Nathaniel Quinton on other part of the West and South by Old Inclosed Lands belonging to Hoo Mill on the South West on other part of the West and on part of the North by the said Brook called Small Brook otherwise Alne Brook on part of the North East and on the North West by Lands hereinafter Allotted to John Haynes on other part of the North East and on other part of the North by the Allottments hereinafter Allotted to Thomas Cooper and William Phillips Samuel Tidmash Sarah Heming and Richard Harris on part of the West by the said Allottment hereinafter Allotted to the said Richard Harris on the other part of the North East on other part of the North and on the South East by the Second Allottment hereinbefore Allotted to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick on part of the East by Old Inclosed Lands belonging to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick on part of the South by Old Inclosures belonging to the said Thomas Cooper and William Phillips on other part of the West by the Road leading from Upton Haselor to Alne Ford aforesaid and on part of the North West by an Allottment hereinafter Allotted to William Dark which said last mentioned Allottment piece or parcel of Land is by us Allotted set out and Appointed to and for the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick in Lieu of and in full Compensation for his Five Yard Land and also in Lieu of Half a Yard Land in the Common Fields of Upton Haselor taken by the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick of the said Elizabeth Haynes in Exchange for half a Yard Land in the Common Fields of Haselor and Walcot aforesaid and also in lieu of a certain piece or parcel of Land taken by the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick of Sir Robert Throckmorton in Exchange for a certain piece or parcel of Land called Lady Croft as hereinafter is more particularly mentioned and also in lieu of all Rights of Common or common of Pasture and all other Rights and properties belonging to him in the said open Commons common Fields common Meadows and commonable Lands and Grounds lying and being in the said Manor of Upton Haselor intended to be Inclosed as aforesaid

                   And as to the Fences to be made for the Inclosing seperating and dividing of the said last mentioned Allottment by us Allotted to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick as aforesaid We do hereby Award order direct and Appoint that the Hedges Ditches Mounds and Fences of the said last Allottment to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick from the Road leading from Upton Haselor aforesaid to Alne Ford aforesaid on the South or South East by the Road leading from Walcot aforesaid to Alcester aforesaid to the South East Corner of an Allottment hereinafter Allotted to the said Nathaniel Quinton on part of the West and part of the South by the said Allottment hereinafter Allotted to the said Nathaniel Quinton on other small part of the West by the said Road leading from Upton Haselor aforesaid to Alne Ford aforesaid and on the South East by an Allottment hereinafter Allotted to William Dark shall be made repaired maintained and kept in Repair now and at all times for ever hereafter by the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick and the owners and proprietors of the said last described Allottment for the time being

                   To the said William Spires All that Allottment piece or parcel of Land as the same is now Admeasured and set out containing by Statue Measure Exclusive of Roads and Highways Nine Acres Two Roods and Nineteen Perches lying and being together within the Manor of Haselor and Walcot aforesaid in Colley Croft Upper Dinge and Grey Wheatlands within a Field called Oathill Field bounded on the North West by a Garden belonging to a certain House called Dennis's House and Old Inclosed Land belonging to the said William Spires on part of the North East on part of the East and on other part of the North East by an Allottment hereinafter Allotted to the said John Gibbs on part of the South West and on other part of the South East by an Allottment hereinafter Allotted to the said William Spires on other part of the South West on the North West and on the West by an Allottment hereinafter Allotted to the said John Haynes which said Allottment piece or parcel of Land is by us Allotted set out and Appointed to and for the said William Spires in Lieu of and full Compensation for his Great and small Tythes Modus's and Compositions whatsoever issuing out of a Yard Land and a half and a Homested belonging to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick late in the Occupation of the said William Spires

                   Also to the said William Spires All that Allottment piece or parcel of Land as the same is now Admeasured and set out containing by Statue Measure Exclusive of Roads and Highways Sixty Five Acres Three Roods and Twenty Eight Perches lying and being together in the said Field called Oathill Field bounded on part of the North East by the said Allottment hereinbefore Allotted to William Spires in lieu of his Tythe on part of the East and on other part of the North East by an Allottment hereinafter Allotted to the said John Gibbs on part of the South by the said Wood called Hemings Wood otherwise Westgrove on other part of the South and on other part of the East by Old Inclosed Land belonging to the said William Spires on other part of the South by the Sixth Allottment hereinbefore Allotted to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick on part of the West on the North and on other part of the West on the South West and on the North West by Lands hereinafter Allotted to the said John Haynes which said Allottment piece or parcel of Land Together with the Close hereinafter mentioned to be Granted to him by the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick in Exchange for open Field as aforesaid is by us Allotted set out and Appointed to and for the said William Spires in Lieu of and full Compensation for One Yard Land and half and Right of Common or Common of Pasture and all other rights and properties belonging to him the said William Spires in the said open Commons common Fields common Meadows and commonable Lands and Grounds lying and being in the said Manor of Haselor and Walcot intended to be Inclosed as aforesaid

                   And as to the Fences to be made for the Inclosing seperating and dividing of the said Two Allottments by us Allotted to the said William Spires as aforesaid We do hereby Award order direct and Appoint that the Hedges Ditches Mounds and Fences from the North East Corner of an Old Inclosure belonging to the said William Spires to the North East Corner of a certain place called Colley Croft by an Allottment hereinafter Allotted to the said John Gibbs and from the South West Corner of a certain place called Upper Dinge to the said Wood called Hemings Wood otherwise Westgrove ( Except Eleven Chains and Fifty Six Links at a certain place called Gramway hereinafter directed to be made by the said John Gibbs ) on the South by Lands hereinbefore Allotted to the said Francis Earl Brooke and Earl of Warwick on part of the North by the said Turnpike Road leading from Stratford upon Avon aforesaid to Alcester aforesaid and from the North side of the said last mentioned Road on the South and South West to a certain place called Grey Wheatlands by Lands hereinafter Allotted to the said John Haynes shall be made repaired maintained and kept in Repair now and at all times for ever hereafter by the said William Spires and the owners and proprietors of the said last described Allottment for the time being

                   To the said John Gibbs All that Allottment piece or parcel of Land as the same is now Admeasured and set out containing by Statue Measure Exclusive of Roads and Highways Two Acres Three Roods and Twenty Eight Perches lying and being together within the Manor of Haselor and Walcot aforesaid in the said Field called Oathill Field bounded on the South West by Lands hereinbefore Allotted to William Spires on part of the South East by Lands hereinafter Allotted to the said John Gibbs on part of the North East by Lands hereinafter Allotted to the said Brook Woodcock on the North West by Old Inclosed Land belonging to the said Brook Woodcock on part of the West on other part of the North West by Old Inclosed Land belonging to the said John Gibbs which said Allottment piece or parcel of Land is by us Allotted set out and Appointed to and for the said John Gibbs in lieu of and full Compensation for his Great and small Tythes Modus's or Compositions whatsoever issuing or arising or due or payable to him out of half a Yard Land belonging to the said William Spires

                   Also to the said John Gibbs All that Allottment piece or parcel of Land as the same is now Admeasured and set out containing by Statue Measure Exclusive of Roads and Highways Fifty Two Acres One Rood and Fourteen Perches lying and being together in the said Field called Oathill Field bounded on part of the West on part of the South West on part of the North West on the other part of the South West by an Allottment hereinbefore Allotted to the said William Spires on part of the South by the said Wood called Hemings Wood otherwise Westgrove on part of the East by the Road leading from Walcot aforesaid to Barlichway Bush aforesaid on other part of the South by the said Turnpike Road leading from Stratford upon Avon aforesaid to Alcester aforesaid on other part of the East on part of the North and on the North East by an Allottment hereinafter Allotted to the said Brook Woodcock on other part of the North West by the said Allottment hereinbefore Allotted to the said John Gibbs

                   Also to the said John Gibbs All that Allottment piece or parcel of