Issue Date: 29/09/2019
This family is that of Elizabeth Stewart, grandmother
of Elisabeth Chadwick and great grandmother of Alice (Kirk-Owen) Maitland.
Elizabeth Stewart married Frederick Jasper Chadwick in Canada in 1861. Her
father, Edward Michael, emigrated from Ulster to Ontario, via New York in about
A number of his letters describe his movements and life.
His parents were Ulstermen, originally from Scotland and married into the Pakenham family of Langford Lodge on Loch Neigh. His wife, Jane Renwick Jeffrey (spelling varies!) was of a Scottish family who were from around Wigtown, in the SW of Scotland. Edward spent some time farming at Baldoon, just outside Wigtown, and must have met Jane there. Although Jane’s father was a lawyer in Edinburgh, with land somewhat further East, her mother was from Wigtown.
Jane’s aunt, Jane (Jeffrey) Renwick, was a muse for Robert Burns when she was about 15: the poet was a friend of Rev Andrew Jeffrey, grandfather of Jane (Jeffrey) Stewart.
Edward spent much of his life in Ontario, but finally returned to the Belfast area, where he died. The Pakenham connection is interesting as Edward’s aunt was Kitty Pakenham, who became Duchess of Wellington.
The Pakenham family is more fully described in their own volume.
Gerald Pakenham Stewart of New Zealand wrote a good description of, in particular, the early generations, and extracts are included here.
In the early reign of King James VI of Scotland and of England, James Stewart migrated from Scotland and purchasing Cookstown, county Tyrone and the adjacent lands from one Cook, settled himself at Ballymena, while his brother, Andrew Stewart, ancestor of the Sir John Stewart, of Athenry, created a Baronet, 1803, settled at Gortigal, in the same county James had two sisters, Barbara (married Reverend William Danagh) and Grissel (married Richardson of Clogher). They family resided at Ebrington Terrace, Londonderry.
The last armed resistance of the old Irish to the English invaders was led by Hugh O'Neill, the Earl of Tyrone, and ended in the victory of the English at the Battle of Kinsale in 1601. The Irish were leniently treated, or obtained a negotiated peace (depending on which side your sympathies lie), but Ulster, which before that had been inviolate, was overrun. The Earls of Tyrone, and Tyrconnel were allowed to return to their lands and live among their people, but their status was vastly changed. They, who had been independent princes, were now reduced to being ordinary landlords subordinate to the English regime, and the old Gaelic way of life was gone. The outcome was that in 1607 Hugh O'Neill and 98 others of the old Irish Catholic nobility took ship and sailed from Ireland never to return. This was "the Flight of the Earls" and a turning point in Irish history. All their lands were forfeited to the English crown, and in 1609 the "Plantation of Ulster" was instituted. "The idea of plantation was straightforward. Land was the source of wealth and the basis of power. To take it from the Catholic Irish and give it to the protestant immigrants would at once weaken resistance to English rule and bring into being a protestant community sufficiently numerous, and sufficiently powerful, to keep the peace in Ireland".
James I of England gave grants of forfeited lands to the Established Church as well as to his own supporters. New settlers, some of them English but most of them Presbyterians from Scotland came over to obtain leases of such lands. Although many settlers arrived, there were not enough of them to carry out the Plantation Plan completely, and many Irish were allowed to stay as labourers, as tenants, and some even as landowners.
Sources are shown as footnotes in the format 1,2,3...
Other notes such as email addresses not for publication are given as footnotes in the format i,ii,iii...
The Public Record Office of Northern Ireland has a large number of Stewart related collections.
Try T3007 Stewart papers - letters
T559/36 p86 (PRONI) has a Pedigree of the Stewarts of Killymoon, starting with a Henry Stewart: this should be James Stewart 1.
PRONI Stewart papers D3319-2,7-11.
Stewart-Kennedy Notes: D700 p455/6
GPS: “Stewarts of Ballymenagh, Killymoon & Tyrcallen”. A monograph by GP Stewart, BA LLB, Indian Civil Service till 1947 then to home in New Zealand, 1982. About 30 pps. A copy of this is held in the PRONI and held by A Maitland in a separate volume.
Comments about sequence of male Christian names, James & William: James 1 father William?
EMC: Edward Marion Chadwick - Chadwick History.
EMCO/Ont: EMC - Ontarian Families – Stewart P116, Chadwick P119.
Graves: From research by Ontario Genealogical Society, and
Findagrave site. The grave transcriptions are probably accurate, but the entries often have dates of birth etc, with no indication of the source of these facts, which makes them slightly untrustworthy.
SLP: Succession Lists for Parishes.
Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanae, Hew Scott, new edition, 1917: some clergy records.
OPR: Scottish Old Parish records.
JJF: Genealogy of the Jaffrey-Jeffrey Family, by Helen H. Iver, 1925.
PC sent by Linda Hill, Apex, NC,
4/4/2003. Copy of copy sent to Carl G. Smedberg.
Also included in this package are some copies of notes on Agnes Jeffery and copies of Oaths of Allegiance by William & Alexander Jeffrey on their emigration.
A Separate Wingfield Section is 2.1.8.
Charles Addison: 11/2006, letters re Henry Stewart (1799-64).
An extensive pedigree of the Wingfield family of England and Ireland. (A Charles Wingfield of Shropshire, who must have been of the same family, was an early member of the Midland Gliding Club at the Long Mynd, a club to which Antony Maitland belonged).
Debrett’s & Burkes Peerages etc
A TOPOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF IRELAND,
BY SAMUEL LEWIS. IN TWO VOLUMES. 1887.
Stewart, Henry, Esq., J.P., Tyrcallen, Stranorlar, co. Donegal
Stewart, W., Esq., J.P., Killymoon, co. Tyrone
Private Sources at the National Archives – See Henry Stewart et al.
Private Accessions 1997–2002
FAMILY CHRONICLES (Section I. : Blecklys and Springalls), BY LILIAN CLARKE
Shows a brief confirmation of the Bell line, related to the Springalls. Abt 1900.
McConnells: FACTS AND TRADITIONS, COLLECTED FOR A Family Record
David C Mconnell, 1861. – nothing immediately recognisable
as ours, but some interesting speculations about the clan origins.
The direct line individuals have serial numbers, mainly for ease of reference. They are in the format x.y, where x is the generation number, #1 being Oliver & Isabel Maitland.
Sources: EMC, IGI, Newspaper, Cemetery (ref Wellington History Soc)
Photograph in Chadwick volume.
Parents: Edward Michael and Jane (Renwick) Stewart,
Born: 13/10/1839, Ontario
Married: Frederick Jasper Chadwick, 3 September 1861
Died: 3/8/1894, buried Woodlawn Cemetery, Guelph. (Graves)
Much of the detailed lineage of the Stewarts that follow is from the work by Gerald Pakenham Stewart (Stewart2 file). Other sources are documents in PRONI, newspapers and several papers on the Jeffrey family and EMC papers.
Born: Dublin, 24/9/1797 (GPS522 & SLP)
Died: at Knockbreda, Belfast Dec 2 1883 (SLP). (no will details)
Buried: Glendermot Church, Co Derry.
Parents: Henry Stewart and Elizabeth Pakenham,
Rev. Edward Michael Stewart and Jane Renwick Jeffrey Stewart. Watercolor painting by Agnes Jeffrey, collection of Memorial Art Gallery, Rochester NY
Edward was the son of Henry Stewart
EMS was farming in a small way in SW Scotland, at Baldoon, on the southern edge of Wigtown, near the shore of the estuary where there are still "Baldoon sands" shown on maps. Possibly after a hard winter, by 1832 he had decided it was not a viable proposition. The land was rented from Mr Arbuckle. There was evidently talk and papers about life in North America. He decided to go to Upper Canada with Matthew Arbuckle (the son of his landowner), with whom he may have been farming at Baldoon, to see for himself what Canada was like. He sailed by the "Eagle" on 27 May 1832, from Liverpool. It is not known how long he spent in Canada, but he was presumably in Britain when he was married in September 1833.
His time in Baldoon explains his meeting Jane Renwick Jeffrey, who is said by EMC to have come from Dumfries-shire: her mother, Elizabeth McConnell was probably brought up on Wigtown, where her father (Jane’s grand father) was a lawyer and local landowner. JJF describes her father as an Edinburgh lawyer; but he is consistently referred to as of Allerbeck; he had a farm there, although not a big one by the look of it. No information has appeared about Edward’s marriage except for a reference in the notes of letters received by his parents of congratulations sent and a date in GPS. A collection of drawings and paintings in Jane's sister Agnes's Sentiment Book holds a pencil drawing by Jane of Wigtown from Baldoon: Jane must therefore have been at Baldoon at some time.
A number of Jane's siblings emigrated to North America in the 1830's, the first seeming to be her younger brother, Alexander (at the age of 16). They were mostly in the US, but her sister Isabella married Rev Bold Cudmore Hill of Co Haldiman, Ontario. Another sister, Agnes was a painter. Several of her close relatives were also artists. Who set the trend is unclear.
He, his wife Jane, son Henry William and maid arrived in Canada by February 1835 and lodged for a time with a Doctor. History does not relate where. They were in Cayuga by 1839, when his mother wrote to her nephew, Charles Wellesley, asking him to look out for them.
Note: Mathew Arbuckle was b. 22/11/1804, baptised 16/12/1804 at Kirkinner, near Wigtown, child of Robert Arbuckle and Mary Anderson.
He was in Holy Orders, of Guelph and of Clooney, co. Derry,
SPL: educated Armagh Roy. Sch. by Dr Carpendale, TCD as FC June 7 1813 aged 15. BA 1817, MA 1824, BA Cantab 1820.
1819, Dec 6: Cambridge, December 3, Clerical Intelligence, MA Edward Michael Stewart, incorporated from the University of Dublin.
Stewart, Edward Michael, Adm Fell.-Com. At St John’s, Oct 23, 1819; B.A. incorp. From Trinity college Dublin. [2nd] son of ---Henry, esq of Tyrcallen, Co. Donegal] (and the Hon. Elizabeth Pakenham, eldest dau of Edward Micahel, 2nd Lord Longford). B. 1797 in Co. Donegal. Adm Trinity College, Dublin, June 7 1815 age 15; B.A. (TCD) 1817; MA (TCD) 1824. Of Ballymena Co. Tryone. Married 1833, Jane Renwick, dau of John Jeffrey and had issue. Died 1883 (Burke, L.G. of Ireland; Al.Dubl.; Walford. County Families)
1820, Termoneeny (SLP): Curate, nom Dec 2 (DR)
1822-3: Vicar of Parish of Donaghmore, Armagh.
1824, March 2: Dublin University, Rev Edward Michael Stewart, conferred as MA.
1825, July 5: Petition of Reverend Robert Allen, Presbyterian minister of Stewartstown, and Reverend Edward Michael Stewart, officiating curate of the [Church of Ireland] parish of Donaghendry, County Tyrone, to Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquis Wellesley, Lord Lieutenant, Dublin Castle, requesting a government grant to aid construction of a new school house at Stewartstown, County Tyrone. In support of the venture, they remark, subscriptions of £90 11s have been raised locally and the site itself is being given rent free by the local landlord.
1830, Donaghenry, Armagh (SPL): "appears", curate.
1832, onwards: Canada.
1861 Census, No 1 Guelph, Ont. Stone & frame house, 2 floors.
Edward M Stewart (clergyman, Ireland, Episcopalian, 64), Jane R (wife, Scotland, 56), Agnes Jeffrey (Scotland, 54) Mabell J (ab Co, 25) Elizabeth (ab Co, 22)
1867, Balteagh (SLP):
acted as Temporary Curate residing in Glebe House.
In son Henry's Entry in SLP, refered to as "of Ballymenagh, co Tyrone & Corearn, Donegal"
Barrister at Law.
Went to Canada 1832, but afterwards lived in Derry.
Window to father and son at All Saints, Clooney.
Internet 26/11/00, list of Clergy (Archives of Diocese of Niagara):
1851-59 St Alban's Acton
1858, St George's Guelph, Assistant.
1859 Returned to Ireland
1883, December 2 at Marguerite Terrace, Rev Edward Michael Stewart, MA, father of Rev HW Stewart, Knockbreda Rectory, aged 86 years, Interment at Londonderry, on Thursday. The body to be removed to the Northern Counties Sation at 8-15am tomorrow (Thursday)
MA Cantab, wore black scull cap in later years. Came to Canada about 1832, residing for a time in Cayuga in Co Haldimand; not having at that time any Ministerial charge, he joined the Militia called out to suppress the rebellion of 1837 (French Canadians led by Papineau rebelled in 1837, opposing the union of French and British Canada), and served in the Niagara Frontier where he was captured by the rebels and narrowly escaped being put to death by them; subsequently settled at Guelph as Assistant Minister of St George's Church and resided there many years but ultimately returned to Ireland.
As per lease document held by PRONI under the reference D971/1/E/1, the original lease of land in Ballynadrentagh by Baroness Longford to Thomas McClurg is stated as beginning in the year 1800 and was to last for the life of Edward Michael Stewart. The actual lease document held by PRONI relates to the renegotiation of the original lease following the development of the Antrim to Lisburn railway line which cut across the lands leased by Thomas McClurg. The renewed lease was between the tenants, Elizabeth and William McClurg and the landlord, the reverend Arthur Henry Pakenham.
Letter from EM Stewart to Mother (PRONI D3319/9/4):
My dear Mother,
I will go to Pakenham Hall on tuesday next I know no objection to my going to Tyrcallen with you and Heny. I saw Aunt Bess today Miss Edgeworth & Miss Honora Edgeworth & Master Francis Beaufort Edgeworth paid her a long visit. Miss Edgeworth very condescendingly recognized me and asked particularly for James & I had the honor of handing her to her coach - Mr Edgeworth as she told us is trying experiments on wheel carriages, but he is not able to walk tho' he is much better - I saw Saint Lawrance several times lately he walks very well. George Knox son to the Bishop of Derry got a premium - Willy seemed to think that Marpendale had been beaten but it was no such thing he cut for the premium with Honnor. Dicky Pakenham has not the first Volume of Willy's Demosthenes. pray tell him that me? try & recollect who has it that I may get it from him, that I may bring it with me, that I may read my examinations in it. Pray tell him also that I took proper care, tho' he did not to notify to the proper officers his departure from Colege(?)
I am your afft son EM Stewart.
This letter must have been written about 1814 whilst he was at TCD. The reference to "Aunt Bess" must have been to his spinster great aunt, Elizabeth Pakenham, who died about 1818.
Letter from Edward Michael Stewart re Canada, 1832.
Addressed to Henry Stewart esq, 6 Leinster Sq, Dublin.
Liverpool 12 May (1832)
My dear father,
I have received your letter begun the 10th and ended 11th from Dublin. Dr Wm and I left our friends at Baldoon yesterday morning after breakfast, & Matthew drove us to Garhiestown and saw us off - we had a good passage & came into the smooth water of the river late last night, & up to the quay this morning - Dr Robert was not at home having been called up before 5 this morning - His landlady has received us hospitably & given us a good breakfast & dressing rooms; but not knowing where the lodging which Dr Robert has engaged for me is, I am staying here with all my luggage, which is not a little, till the Doctor comes home. I am particularly glad that you are writing to Matthew Arbuckle himself. I advised and almost entreated him to write to you yesterday, & I hope he may do so; but lest he should not, I will lay before you a calculation he made & shewed me on Wednesday night last.
For his outfit, passage, journey, & expenses in Canada until a purchase can be made, suppose - £100
Expenses of personal establishment for a year, including servant - say £100
Interest on £1000 at 5 percent - 50
The suppose £2000 invested so as to produce immediately 15 percent, for one year = £300 one share of which = £150;
which, subtracted from expenses of first year leaves £100 debt; and every subsequent year proceeds of investment only = personal expenses.
From this it results that either I must ascertain that probable return of £2000 invested in land or otherwise in Upper Canada, will be more than 15 percent, before Matthew Arbuckle can prudently leave Scotland; or some other arrangement must be made. Mr Arbuckle spoke to me about it himself yesterday morning the last thing before taking leave of me, & I only replied that he must know, as well as I, that you would never expect Matthew to do any thing from which he should not have a fair return, and that as Mr Arbuckle himself had told me that he always had hitherto found you disposed to be liberal, so he might reckon upon finding you so still. Having stated this to you, I hope I may take leave of the subject altogether, for it is entirely a matter between you and the Arbuckles, & I do not wish to be a go-between in a case where direct communication between partied is so easy. I have received a newspaper article with an article on Canada marked. I thank my mother for her letter, but do not want any thing that I can think from Dublin.
I suppose from what you say that Beaumaris has met your approbation.
Your very affte.
Dr Wm delivers his respects.
From the foregoing letter, it appears that Edward Stewart was going into partnership with Matthew Arbuckle with £1000 each in land in Upper Canada: Arbuckle hoped to borrow at 5% and reinvest in Canada and return 15% or more to cover his living expenses. He is supposed to have gone to Canada about 1832, this letter may have been written on his way via Liverpool.
This letter is part of a collection "Stewart of Tyrcallen" (Stranorlar, Donegal) papers: PRONI ref D3319/11.
D/3319/10: transcripts in note form of letters received by Henry & Elizabeth Stewart.
12/1831: letter about the price of wheat and storms: Arbuckle's farm.
2/1832: ref W Ferguson's (of Woodhill) book about journey to USA
7/1832: "he (EMS?) had not been living long at Baldoon before he began to be aware that farming in Scotland would never do for him - such farms not profitable and large ones requiring more skill experience and capital to render? than so that he is master of the competition for the land is such that men offer what they know is above the value .... suggests "going to see for myself what sort of place is UC via New York with the intention of returning to report unless we agree that it would be advisable for me to remain longer in Canada & whether it may not be proper to tell Mr Arbuckle that it is not probable I shall stay another quarter at Baldoon.
2/1832: mentions Capt Roxboro who had been 17 years in UC and had land in Niagara: taking his family out.
31/3/1832: sailing Scotland to Bushmills - preparation for Edward & Matthew going.
3/4/1832: "Matthew and I have been looking over Emigrant tracts.
9/5/1832: From Baldoon to Garlieston by steamer to Liverpool and then by railroad to Beaumaris.
22/5/1832: sorry not to see parents before departure across the Atlantic. note "Eagle" sailed 27/5/1832.
Ref Liverpool Mercury about 20 May 1832:
"To be despatched punctually on 26th inst For New York The regular trading first class American ship
Burthen 510 tons, coppered and copper fastened, and sails fast. This ship is now on her second voyage and is equal in every respect to the best of the packets: she has elegant accommodation for ten passengers, and space between decks where a limited number of steerage passengers will be taken.
For terms apply to Captain Lyon on board Princes Dock or to
Wm & Jas Brown & Co.
Notice in the Mercury the following week showing Eagle sailed on the 27th.
10/1833: reference of Henry writing to Mrs Jeffrey.
Letter from "Caroline": I heartily rejoice at your Edwd's happy prospect I delight in his having met with a lass meet for him they have my hearty prayers for time and Eternity.
23/10/1833: other congratulations on Edwards marriage. EMS seems to have been in Britain for 1834.
1816: interesting letter describing grandmother's death (D3319/9/30).
2/1835: "Edwad says they had a prosperous journey Jane Henry-Wlm and their made Patten. They are accommodated at the house of Mr Forde MD. They have a good sitting room and 2 bedrooms off it. We have got 2 tables a bed a chest of drawers a large Basin stand all of Black Walnut a Franklin stove a carpet and 6 chairs. Mr Forde furnishes a bedstead for Eliza and a lot of pegs to hang things on We eat with Mr Forde he is Cardner?? and Jane housekeeper?. Mrs Griffiths is here today Jane and baby having paid them a visit by invitation and were much pleased indeed with the whole family and their new home. It is a great ?? for them to have a doctor so near them in that forlorn Country but her appears happy and nobody can be more than that.
1853: extract from piece about house research in Guelph, Ontario, using as example a house built by Rev Arthur Palmer (see below) ......
This indicates that Palmer was the fourth owner of that property, after the Canada Company, John McDonald (a Canada Company surveyor), and George Tiffany (another Canada Company surveyor). Palmer purchased some 23 acres from Tiffany (the B & S, or Bill of Sale) and Tiffany gave Palmer a mortgage for at least part of it. This does not tell us much about any house on this large property. However, Palmer took out another mortgage for 1800 pounds in September of 1853 from Rev. E.M. Stewart, who happened to be his assistant minister at St. George's. This mortgage was renewed in 1856, and repaid in 1859. Presumably, this money was used to build what Palmer called Tyrcathlen, and which was renamed Ker Cavan in 1928. (see end of this section for more about Arthur Palmer).
The name of the house "Tyrcathlen" must be a bastardisation of the Stewart family home in Ireland.
MARRIED: On the 11th Sept. (1833) at Bellevue, Canandaigua, State of New York, Edward Michael Stewart, Esq. second son of Henry Stewart, Esq. Tyrcallen, county of Donegal, Ireland, to Jane, second daughter of the late John Jeffrey, Esq. Edinburgh.
Married: 12/9/1833 (GPS)
Born: 20/3/1805, died 16/2/1878.
Parents: John Armstrong & Elizabeth Catherine (McConnell) Jeffrey.
(Renwick being the name of her aunt Jane's husband)
Ref EMC: "Jane Renwick, dau of John Jeffrey of Allerbeck, Dumfries" & Mrs Jeans (the latter from the Ancestral File).
Ref GPS: Jane Renwick Jeffrey, dau of John Jeffrey of Allerbeck Dumfries; later information from the GPS family say that her mother may have been "Elizabeth Catherine McConnell daughter of William McConnell of Wigtown, Sheriff Substitute". EMC in Ontarian Families, agrees.
Jane contributed some drawings to her sister Agnes’s Sentiments Book as shown above:
Note on the back of small pastel of woman and girl at Burcher Cottage:
"Mrs Jeffery - formerly Jean Renwick and daughter. Jane Renwick afterwards Mrs E.M. Stewart whose daughter Elizabeth was married to FJ Chadwick." Also on back in pencil "CR Chadwick 1896" (Charlotte Rose (Aunt Nonie)).
This does not agree with information from the Jeffrey family research. It implies that Jane's mother was Christian named Jean and had perhaps been formerly married to Mr Renwick. The mother in the pastel must be Elizabeth McConnell (see under Elizabeth McConnell for another copy and notes).
1998: picture now at the Gables.
This was written about 1896 by Charlotte Rose Chadwick, dau of FJ Chadwick and grand daughter of Jane Renwick.
Ref GPS update, 8/2000:
Born: 20.3.1805, Died: 16.2.1878, Clooney, Co Derry
Buried: Glendermot Church, Co Derry
Parents: John JEFFREY - 524 Elizabeth Catherine McCONNELL - 2966
Issue of Edward Michael & Jane (Renwick) Stewart (SLP refers to 7 children). (IGI has births in Ireland, Donegal)
EAC: FAPC had Uncle Augustus & Aunt Caroline with sons Gussie & Vaux
1/1. Henry William Stewart: (GPS467) Details
Born: 24/9/1834 in either:
Cayuga (SLP) (35m W of Niagara,
ako as Haldimand)
IGI has birth Ballymenagh, Donegal. SLP prob correct.
Family letters imply he was Irish born.
Died: 5/11/1910, Knockbreda (bur also). (SLP).
Listed under Chancellors of Down:
TCD BA 1857, Ord D & P 1858, Toronto.
1860-61, Oak Ridge.
1861-63, Head Master Guelph Grammar School.
1863: Curate, Kilberry, Kildare.
1867: @ Knockbreda, installed as Chancellor of Down, Sept 20.
Married (GPS), 10/4/1860, St George's Church, Guelph:
Frances, 2nd dau of Ven Arthur Palmer, Archdeacon of Toronto and his wife Hester Madeline Crawford.
Born 3/5/1836-26/1/1911 (died Belfast, bur Knockbreda).
1876 Landowners Donegal: Rev Henry William Stewart, address Rathowen, owned 303 acres
ORDINATION at Toronto, on the 25th of January (1858) Mr. Henry
William Stewart, senior Moderator, Trinity College, Dublin,
oldest [eldest?] Grandson of the late Henry Stewart, Esq.,
of Tyrcallen County Donegal, was ordained deacon by the
Bishop of Toronto and appointed assistant curate of Guelph,
and the adjoining districts.
Henry William Stewart was presumably born at Cayuga, County Haldimand in the province of Toronto in Canada, where his father lived before he became Assistant Minister at Guelph, County Wellington, also in Toronto Province, I do not know when he left Canada and went to Ireland but he matriculated at Trinity College, Dublin, in 1852 where he had a distinguished career, obtaining at his degree examination a Senior Moderatorship with Large Gold Medal for coming first of the First Class Honours in "Ethics and Logics", or, as it is now styled, Mental and Moral Philosophy, He also won the Silver Medal for Oratory in the Trinity College Theological Society, and obtained his Master of Arts Degree in 1860 after he had returned to Canada. I should explain that at T.C.D. any B.A, of three years standing could take an M,A, degree on payment of fees which (in my day) amounted to £10! "Intending to devote his life to the Canadian Church," says the obituary in the Belfast Evening Telegraph (18), "he went to the Dominion, and in 1858 was ordained by Bishop ..-Strachan of Toronto for the curacy of Guelph," where in 1860 he married Frances, daughter of the Reverend Arthur Palmer, Archdeacon of Toronto, in St George's Church. Possibly his father, the Reverend Edward Michael Stewart, was still Assistant Minister there at that time. In 1860 also he was appointed to take charge of the mission of Aurora, Oak Ridges and King, three parishes in the Diocese of Toronto, His eldest daughter, my Aunt Frances, who had read his diaries (which have since, alas, gone missing) told me that he often had to ride on horseback 50 miles a day to get from one of his churches to another. “the Reverend gentleman's health broke down under the great strain imposed by his new charge," continues the obituary, "and in 1862 he returned to Ireland, having been offered the parish of Kilberry in the Diocese of Dublin by his grand-uncle the Honourable and Reverend Henry Pakenham, Dean of St. Patrick's, He held this living for only seven months and then was appointed to the parish of Rathowen in County Westmeath "where he laboured for eleven years in that parish with great success,... Canon Stewart was held in the highest esteem by all with whom he was associated in ecclesiastical, public and private circles, and he was especially beloved by his parishioners, in whose welfare he always the keenest interest. An eloquent preacher, a devoted pastor, a staunch friend and a wise counsellor....." He was especially interested in children and wrote some text books for Sunday Schools. In 1897 he was appointed to the Chancellorship of Down Cathedral. He retired in 1908 and died in 1910 at the age of 76. He had a short white beard and was very venerable. His wife, Frances, was a somewhat awe-inspiring and domineering personality. She ran a small school in the Knockbreda Rectory in addition to bringing up her own eleven children. She died in 1911.
Henry William Stewart and Frances had eleven children. The seventh was Pakenham Thomas; his two elder brothers died without having any sons. Notes on all Pakenham Thomas’s brothers and sisters are in Appendix VI.
.....In reporting this, Henry William Stewart, Rector & Rural Dean of Knockbreda, in the Church of Ireland’s Diocese of Down, affirmed "I have seen the document and the seal but of course cannot read them." In 1889 he is reported to have been preaching in the Presbyterian Churches of Belfast, notably Berry Street Church and St. Enoch’s Church, Belfast and it was noted that "He enjoys the confidence of and is warmly recommended by the most eminent men in the Presbyterian Church of Scotland."
In 1890 he was still preaching and lecturing in Belfast as Stewart noted, "He can now speak English fairly well and he hopes to become a naturalized English subject before he goes back to the East." It was at this time that he was taken up by Archbishop Plunket, Anglican Archbishop of Dublin, as Stewart notes that Checkemian was still in Belfast on 5 September 1890 and had visited the Archbishop. Stewart had a high opinion of him, "I believe him to be a sincere man – and to be a man capable of exercising a powerful influence over others ... It is no doubt an ambitious undertaking, but he is evidently a man of great energy and perseverance."
2/1. Edward Michael Stewart GPS473, B. 24/3/1864 D. Knockbreda
22/7/1931, married 19/12/1918
Helen Margaret Imray, dau of George Imray of Culdean, Granton-on-Spey.
Churchwarden Knockbreda, 1900
3/1. Francis Marion Eugenie m Michael Farrar-Bell
2/2. Arthur Henry Stewart, (GPS478), born 1869 M. @ Runnymede,
Kansas, Alice dau of Arthur W.
Mosse of Castletown, Kilkenny.
Arthur Wellesley Mosse, address Ballyconra, Ballyragget, owned 1,350 acres (Landowners Co Kilkenny, 1878, holdings over 1 acre)
3/1. Frances Constance Stewart, MD., born 1891.
2/3. Pakenham Thomas Stewart, born 1871, died 1938, M. 1901
Mary Dupre Fennell, dau of John
George Fennell of Melbourne.
3/1. Mary Fennell Stewart, born 1904.
3/2. Gerald Pakenham Stewart, born 1906,
the author of "GPS", he
died 1998, New Zealand.
His family continues on Stewart 2 (restricted access)
2/4. Rev William Stewart (GPS482), b 1896
Rector of Rillingston. Married:
3/1. Katherine Estelle Stewart,
married Avu Cesare Colliva, an Italian, 2 dau.
3/2. Esme Mary Stewart b.1913 , Noel P. Woodgate-Jones, MP.
2/5. James Robert Stewart, (GPS484), b 1878
3/1. James Robert Stewart, born 1878, M. Kate Payne Dickson
4/1. Joseph Ainslie Stewart, born 1917
2/6. John Alexander Stewart, (GPS486), born 1881
5/1. Tamzin Stewart.
5/2. Rowan Stewart.
2/7. Frances Mary Stewart,
1861-1937, unmarried (SLP & GPS470)
2/8. Jane Charlotte Stewart, GPS471, born 1862,
married 1884 James (Jonas - GPS)
Sealy Poole MD
3/1. Madge Poole, born 1891
2/9. Hester Madeline Stewart (GPS475),
Following from Frederick Pike,
Born 1867, died 1943, Milnthorpe.
Married (believed in Alexandria) 27/9/1894 Lt Octavius Harold Daniel Cmdr RN who was the 8th child of the Rev Robert Daniel who, at the time, was the vicar of Osbaldwick and headmaster of Archbishop Holgate school (which still exists as a well-run comprehensive). He was born 19th March 1869 in St Giles, Yorkshire and died in October 1960 in Milnthorpe, Westmorland (now Cumbria).
3/1. Kathleen Lilla Daniel,
b Knockbreda 20/9/1897, d
M. Geoffrey Owen Pike, (b 20/1/1897-18/1/1959).
10/4/1929, St Mary's Alverstoke, Hants.
4/1. Kathleen Ann Pike, b 21/11/1930, d. 18/9/2005.
4/2. Frederick Owen Pike, b 10/3/1933 (supplied this line 2/2008).
4/1. Madeline Pike, b 10/8/1935
2/10. Kathleen Elizabeth Martha
Stewart (GPS477), b 1867,
died @ Knockbreda 24/8/1892
2/11. Elizabeth Margaret Stewart (GPS480),
m 24/7/1818(!) William son of Victor C. Taylor of Belfast
1/2. Charlotte Jane Stewart, born 26/11/1836,
Became nun in S.A.(GPS530). Died 29/10/1921.
1/3. John Alexander Stewart (GPS531)
Born: 24/7/1838, Cayuza, Canada W.
Educated @ Guelph Grammar School entered TCD July 2 1856 aged 18, BA 1860, MA 1867, ordained 1862, P 1863 Curate Maghera 1863-1872 1872-
1861: Stewart, Rev. Alexander, 97 Donegall Street (Belfast Directory)
1880 Clooney, Perpetual Curate & Incumbent.
Died of Consumption: 21/12/1880, Glandore Cottage Cork age 42.
Window to him and father at All Saints, Clooney.
Married, 1869: Eliza Charlotte Gough (GPS532). B 1840, died 1894, dau of Benjamin Bloomfield Gough GPS460
The following from Nicholas Lloyd 4/2008.
2/1. Edward Pakenham Stewart (GPS575) 18/4/1870-1966
M. Amy Postill (1866-1958)
3/1. Hugh Percy Stewart (9/11/1899-1992),
M 6/9/1925, Helen Ayres
4/1. Barbara Mary Stewart
married Geoffrey Lloyd (11/6/1928-1989).
5/1. Nicholas Lloyd who supplies this line.
4/2. Dau 2, M. Oliver Atkinson (1927-1978)
2/2. Hugh Gough Stewart (GPS577)
2/3. Percy Bloomfield Stewart (GPS578)
2/4. Elinor Mary (Nora) Stewart (GPS580)
1/4. Elisabeth Stewart, b. 13/10/1839. KO05/06
Married Frederick Jasper Chadwick, G Grandfather of Alice (Kirk-Owen) Maitland.
1/5. Pakenham Edward Stewart, b. 9/3/1841, d. 11/11/1861. (GPS535)
Bur Woodlawn Cemetery, Guelph:
3rd son of Rev E.M. Stewart: plot purchased by him.
PRONI D3319/9/76 contains a letter and a small drawing supposed to be a good likeness of "Pakenham" aged 5.
1/6. Katherine Caroline Stewart, 11/7/1842-11/1/1866,
1/7. William McConnell Stewart, 30/3/1844-20/3/1865, (GPS537).
Palmer Family, sons of Venerable Arthur Palmer, who came to Canada from Ireland, 1832. Founded St George's Church, Guelph and presided there for 40 years (1832-74 ref internet), Retired to Ireland, 1873:
Son of Ven. Arthur Palmer (EMS was his assistant minister in 1853):
Arthur Palmer 1841-97 (Ref JS Burnett), returned to Ireland and became a Latin scholar and Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin.
2/1. Uther Palmer, died young
man without issue (ref JSB).
2/2. Arthur Palmer, a civil engineer with the Federated Malay
Railways until late 1920's died
London abt 1945 (ref JSB).
Married, 1st, Dorothy Ward (B. NZ 6/6/1898, d S'oton 1/3/1980).
Married 2nd, Nora Judith Miller, died 2/2/1991, Kent.
3/1. Janet Frances Palmer, born Kuala Lumpur, 1921.
Living in Hampshire 2000.
Married Mr Burnett, both living south of Boston, 10/2000.
4/1. Jeffery S Burnett, born 21/10/1947.
10/2000, resident nr. Boston, Mass.
5/1. Child 1 Burnett
5/2. Child 2 Burnett.
EMC: of Tyrcallen, co .... Ireland.
Parents: William Stewart of Killymoon, co. Tyrone and his w. Eleanor, dau of Sir Henry King, Bart.
Died: Dublin, 13/9/1840, Bur Derryloran. Aged 92, of Leinster St (Dublin).
of Tyrcallen & Corcam, Donegal. BA TCD 1768, Middle Temple 1766, Irish bar 1773. MP for Longford Borough.
See also references to the Tyrcallen Papers in Appendix 2.1.3.
D3319: ".. Land Agent - perhaps accountant - who managed the estate affairs of a number of families from an office in Leinster St, Dublin with a partner, G.C. Swan. He bought the Tyrcallen estate, Starnorlar, Donagel, from the Rev Oliver McCausland in 1789 with a partner, George Whitlocke, of Wokingham, Berks.
MS103 p113, Nat Library Dublin:
Certificate of Arms of Henry Stewart of Stranorlar, Donegal, 2nd surviving son of the later William Stewart of Killymoon. 20/2/1799.
1837: appeared at a meeting in Letterkenny about Poor Law reform.
Henry Stewart of Tyrcallen, County Donegal, is the first one in the family to have had a university education, obtaining a B.A. degree at Trinity College, Dublin, in 1768 at the age of 19. He is also recorded as "of the Middle Temple 1766 and of the Irish Bar 1773; Member of Parliament for Longford Borough". (10) Henry Stewart was a land-agent - "perhaps 'consultant’ would be a better word" (11) and he managed the estate affairs of a number of families including Lord Palmerston's. He was also agent for the second Baron Longford (who became his father-in-law), for Longford's brother-in-law Lord Langford, for his own brother-in-law the third Baron Longford (who in 1794 became the Second Earl of Longford) and for sundry other gentlemen.
In 1793 Henry Stewart married Elizabeth Pakenham who was the eldest daughter of Edward Michael Pakenham, the second Baron Longford whose estates Henry was managing. Elizabeth Pakenham's younger sister Catherine was married by Arthur Wellesley who was later created the first Duke of Wellington of great fame, and so Henry Stewart's sister-in-law became the Duchess of Wellington. Elizabeth herself was on the paternal side granddaughter of the Countess of Longford, an heiress who was created Countess "in her own right" when she inherited (12); on the maternal side Elizabeth was granddaughter of the Viscountess of Langford (not, as we have said before, to be confused with Longford) whose father was Clotworthy Upton, Esquire, mentioned hereinbefore because in 1706 he married Margaret Stewart daughter of the first William Stewart. I suppose that it was by virtue of some or all of these connections that Elizabeth became "the Honourable Mrs Stewart".
Many letters and papers addressed to Henry or the Honourable Elizabeth have survived, and from them it appears that Henry Stewart was held in high regard by his contemporaries.(1 3)
Then in 1793, apparently just after Henry and Elizabeth's marriage, Elizabeth's mother, Catherine Lady Longford wrote to Mrs Stewart of Killymoon, Henry's m6ther. The letter runs: "My dear Madam, Much as I wished to give and receive congratulations I could not think of troubling you with a letter when there was a chance of your having an answer to write, but the bearer of this note will gladly bring me every message of approbation on your new Daughter and to say truth I do flatter myself She is just such a natural affectionate creature as you Dear Madam & Mr Stewart will like; I have often wished that from Killymoon you could see the comfortable happiness of Chatham St. - it is the greatest comfort to me to think my dear Bessie's happiness secure in such a companion as may often be wished for but seldom very seldom found « it is very dark or perhaps I might talk too much of him tho1 to you or Mr Stewart it would be as pleasant a subject as to me, indeed I should find it very difficult to say all that with only justice I think of him. Pray remember me most affectionately to Mr Stewart - do not think of answering this hasty note but by a message which Mr H. Stewart may bring. Adieu, my Dear Madam, your affec e servant C. Longford. Tuesday night." (14)
In 1797 Henry's father William died and his elder brother James (the third of that name) then 55 years of age, inherited the vast Stewart estate. In 1821 James Stewart died and the third William inherited; he was then aged 41 years and by 1830, when his uncle Henry Stewart was 81 years old, this William was so heavily in debt that he petitioned the Irish Encumbered Estates Court for the sale of his lands. The sale did not take place until 1851 and so Henry was spared the stress of seeing the family estate finally lost as he died in 1840 aged 91 years. The story of the last James and the last William and of Killymoon Castle is related in Appendices II and III hereto.
Henry Stewart and Elizabeth had five sons and one daughter. In 1844 Elizabeth apparently tried to get her brother-in-law the Duke of Wellington to use his influence in favour of one of the younger sons, Thomas, who was born in 1802. The Duke's reply to her has survived; it runs: "I enclose a letter to introduce him to Lord Heytesbury to request His Excellency's Notice of him; and protection if he should be found to deserve it, I cannot do more. I must not, I cannot solicit favour from any. I sincerely hope that your son may be found deserving the favour of the Lord Lieutenant. I regret that he relinquished the study of the law. In all times, but particularly these times, the best resource for any man is his own labour and exertion. Believe me yours most affectionately Wellington." In her reply thanking the Duke, Thomas' mother wrote "....being even named by you must be a great advantage to him."
Henry and Elizabeth's eldest son, William (named after his paternal grandfather), entered the Church and married but had no children. When the Stewart Estate was being auctioned off, he made an unsuccessful attempt to buy some of it. Of the other sons only the second, Edward Michael, and the youngest, James Robert, left children. (See Appendix IV for information about James Robert's family)
1844: Tyrcallen Sale – it looks from later newspaper reports that a family called Fenton were there in the 1870’s & 80’s.
In the County of Donegal. Desirable Fee-simple Estate, containing 1,138 statute Acres, including the Residence and Demesne.
Mr. W. W. SIMPSON has received instructions from the representatives of the late Henry Stewart,, Esq., to OFFER for SALE by AUCTION, at the Commercial-buildings, Dublin, on Thursday, the 28th of November, at one o'clock, in one lot, the TYRECALLEN ESTATE (forming part of the manor of Stranorlar), eligibly situate within seven miles of the seaport of Letterkenny, and only six from Castlefin, from whence there is a navigable communication to Londonderry. It comprises a gentlemanly residence, with suitable offices, surrounded by pleasure grounds and plantations, laid out with great taste, and by a beautiful demesne of nearly 500 acres, a great portion of which is planted, together with the townlands of Lismaree, Kilross, Knockfair, Dunwilley, Castlebane, Gortletragh, Mucvaghagarry, and Tellickmoy, the whole containing 1,138 statute acres of arable, pasture, wood and plantation land. The tillaged and pasture surfaces are for the greater part of a fertile and productive description, and the former are adapted to the cultivation of flax, barley, oats, and green crop, of every variety. The mansion and demesne are in hand, the residue of the land is in the occupation of a respectable and Industrious tenantry, at moderate rents. This valuable property is situate in a highly picturesque and respectable neighbourhood, within a few miles of several gentlemen’s seats. It commands a fine prospect over the rich valley of the Fin, and of the extensive mountain range of Barnsmore.—The property may be viewed, and descriptive particulars, with rentals and plans annexed, may shortly be had of Messrs. Stewarts and Kinkaid, 6, Leinster-street, Dublin; of Messrs, Terry, Seymour, and Webb, solicitors, 25, College-green, Dublin; of Henry Stewart, Esq., Tyrcallen,, who resides on the estate; at the place of sale; and of Mr. W. W. Simpson, 18, Bucklersbury, London.
Dublin Directory 1797 & 8:
Henry Stewart agent, 6, Chatham St.
Directory 1800: 6 Leinster Square.
Dublin Directory 1835:
Henry Stewart, esq, 6 Leinster Square.
Agents: Stewart and Kincaid also at 6, Leinster Square.
1837: a member of a meeting on Poor Law in the county of Donegal, HS of Tyrcallen.
Demesne for an early 5 bay, single story, 19th century
shooting lodge, built for Henry Stewart. Set in woodland and parkland, the
house is now derelict. A square stone tower observatory lies on the high ground
to the northeast of the house.
3 km NNE of Stranorlar.
Elizabeth Stewart, From Ancestry.com and myheritage.com
Married: 7 Jan 1793
Born 18/7/1769 (PT)
Parents: Edward Michael & Catherine (Rowley) Pakenham
Died 10/8/1851, Dublin, Bur Mt Jerome (GPS)
On the 10th Inst, at 31, Upper Merion Street, Dublin, in her 83rd year, the Hon. Elizabeth Stewart, relict of the late Henry Stewart esq of Leinster Street, Dublin and Tyrcallen, county Donegal.
The National Library of Ireland has a collection of the Conyingham papers, in which there are a number of Henry Stewart references.
See Pakenham files for full history.
dau of Edward Michael Pakenham, 2nd Baron of Longford. Her sister, the Lady Catherine Pakenham, married Arthur Wellesley, the Duke of Wellington. A brother, Sir Edward Pakenham, was a general in the British army who lost New Orleans to Andrew Jackson in 1815. Left £1000 by her mother, Dowager Countess of Langford.
Letter to Hon Elizabeth Stewart from B Fitzgerald 3 Jan 1837, declining to invest in Cayuga Upper Canada (EMS was there by then).
Rough copy of letter to Charles Wellesley in Canada 22 March 1839 (7?)
My Dear Charles, ... this letter to let you know that my son EM S is settled in Upper C; he may not chance to meet you but if he does, I bespeak your goodwill towards him - He dwells with his wife & their 3 children in a log house. He has settled on land he purchased in the Woods of Cayugar a few miles from York? (Via Hamilton) which is his post town, he has several very respectable neighbours. They have raised a frame church in the village of Cayunga and have a Pious Clergyman to officiate ???? sent out by the Society of H.J.? with Ministers of Our Church to which I believe your cousin Honbl Capt Wellesley is Secretary The Principal Settlers of that place showed themselves Loyal on the first ??? in UC - ???? - I do not know when this may find you may God bless you ?????? with your late uncle L. This family & I .... you showed kindness to my son - remembering your mutual attachment from childhood ?????? approaching marriage. May EH prove such a person as your dear mother could have liked for them. She must be worthy ?????.
Do you sometimes think of your dear mother & the excellent instructions she gave to you both by Precept and example & do you read the bible she gave you & take time to consider that you have a soul to be saved, which the burden? of business and amusement seems to remove from the recollections of so many but I hear from? dear Charles but not from you. - your uncle Hercules & family moved from Langford Lodge last week on their way to Portsmouth where he is to be Governor Genl of the District - There are few now living who dearly loved your excellent mother or more highly value the many admirable qualities of your noble father than your Uncle Stewart & my self. Your AUNT E.
D3319/7/7: Letter re right arm amputation was this EM Pakenham. Also included were letters from General EM Pakenham to Henry Stewart.
D3319/9/..: Letters to Elizabeth Stewart (nee Pakenham) from brothers, in particular Henry addressed her as "Bess". He seemed the closest brother.
Letters from Henry S to Elizabeth were frequent when he was travelling and seemed affectionate.
10/4/1815: letters re death of Elizabeth's father EMP.
Letters from Dr Thos Carpenter about education of boys at Armagh - EMS in 1807 & "little boy" in 1813 (James born 1805?).
Bess was in Cheltenham in 1807 - several letters sent there.. In particular about her 2nd daughter, Harriett Ponsonby, who died after a rapid decline over 6 weeks in 1815 near Dundrum.
Many letters from son Thomas Stewart - Kelso in 10/5/1826, Broom Hall 4/1821.
William Stewart at Churchfield in 1834 (a house belonging to the Casement family of Ballymena). He then moved to Ballycastle. His wife Ann had not been well at this time.
A letter from her brother Longford described the death of Kitty (Pakenham) Wellesley 24/4/1831. She had been ill but seemed to recover, but then relapsed and died peacefully in her sleep.
Elizabeth Stewart was godmother to B. Fitzgerald.
A letter from EMS in Cayuga 28/10/46 about a drawing of "Pakenham" aged 5: a small crayon drawing was attached. (prob EMS's son)
She wrote to nephew Charles Wellesley in Canada if he should meet EMS.
PRONI D/3167/A/42: 1805
Letters from John Nash about cottage design and Curtains.
Issue of Henry & Elizabeth (Pakenham) Stewart:
1/1. Edward Michael Stewart (1797-1883) (EMC & GPS) KO06/11
Issue (GPS only):
1/2. Henry Stewart (re D3319 - GPS727) 1799-1872
Charles Addington has him dying
about 1864, by the dates from a notarised document refers to him as dead by
There are death registrations for Henry Stewart aged 63 in Stranorlar in 1864 (V2P333 & V17P247).
DC, Killygordon, Stranorlar (Donegal):
Died 19/2/1864, Corcam, married, 63, Esquire & Landed Proprietor, Gout in the Stomach during five days, Isabella A Stewart widow of the deceased, Corcam. (from Charles Addington).
Married 1st: Lucy Elizabeth Norris (GPS728), Died: 14.7.1854, Corcam
Bur: Stranorlar. Father: John Norris
Ref Charles Addington[iii].
Henry Stewart was a trustee of the marriage settlement of John Style Norris (1812-1902) (Lucy's brother) and Elizabeth Anne Tonge (1814-85). They were children of John Francis Norris (d 1854) & Henrietta Style. JFN a GG Grandson of Admiral John Norris (6th G Grandfather of Charles Addington).
Henry married, 2nd, 1856: Frances Isabella Anne Style (GPS729)
Father: William Style, Captain - 2969 Of Maidstone, Kent
The Times, 12 Aug 1868, Unpaid dividend in the names of Capt Wm, Style, RN, John Style Norris, Henry Charles Norris, & Thomas Stewart “of Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin, Esquire.”
Capt Style d. 24 Feb 1868 (ref O’Bryne’s A Naval Biographical Dictionary)
Issue of Henry & Lucy Stewart:
2/1. William Norris Stewart (GPS900), b 1836, died young.
1/3. Catherine Stewart(GPS2970)
Died Summerhill, Co Meath, Buried in Summerhill Mausoleum
1/3. Thomas Blakeney Lyon Stewart, born 1802 (GPS459)
Married, 29/3/1857: Anne Penrose (GPS735), Born: 1807
Father: James Penrose
In the 1870s Thomas B. Stewart of Whitegate House, Middleton, county Cork, owned 1,510 acres in county Limerick and 199 acres in county Tyrone. His wife Anne owned 80 acres in county Cork. She was a daughter of James Penrose of Woodhill, county Cork, He was the fourth son of Henry Stewart (died 1840) of Tyrcallen, county Donegal and of the land agency firm of Stewart and Kincaid and a grandson of William Stewart of Killymoon, county Tyrone. Stewart and Kincaid were agents for the Fitzgerald of Mount Blakeney estate in county Limerick and Norton writes that Thomas Stewart succeeded to the Mount Blakeney estate in 1855. His wife Anne Penrose was a niece of Robert Uniake Fitzgerald who was married to Gertrude Blakeney Lyon. Thomas Stewart assumed the additional names of Blakeney Lyon before Stewart and died in 1874. He was succeeded by his brother James Robert Stewart.
In 1786 Wilson refers to Whitegate as the seat of Thomas Travers. It was the home of Mrs Gertrude Fitzgerald (nee Blakeney Lyon), wife of Robert Uniacke Fitzgerald, in 1837 and at the time of Griffith's Valuation when it was valued at £25 and held from Robert U. P. Fitzgerald. The property passed in the mid 1850s to the niece of R.U. Fitzgerald, Anne Penrose, who was married to Thomas Stewart. Still extant and occupied.
1/4. William Stewart, Rev, no issue. (GPS528)
Born: 14.4.1794, Died: 4.5.1858,
Buried: Mt Jerome, Dublin of Tyrcallen, Co Donegal59
Married, 18/12/1816: Anne Eliza Williams (1798-1873) (GPS529)
1/5. James Robert Stewart born 1805. (GPS736)
29.10.1805-10.12.1889 JP and DC
(or DL) for Dublin, MA.
Dublin Dir 1845: 11, Longford Terrace, Monkstown and 6 Leinster Sq.
In the 1870s James Robert Stewart of Gortheitragh, Kingstown, county Dublin, owned 482 acres in county Roscommon and 802 acres in county Longford. He was the fifth son of Henry Stewart of Tyrcallen, county Donegal and his wife Elizabeth Pakenham, daughter of the 2nd Lord Longford.
Married, 27/10/1835: Martha Eleanor Warren
(born 1814-5/5/1865, dau of Richard B. Warren, QC).
Oct 27, at ST Peter’s Church, Dublin, James Robert Stewart, esq, of Leinster Street, son of Henry Stewart, esq, of Tyrcallen, county Donegal, to Martha Eleanor, eldest daughter of Richard B. Warren, esq. K.C.
2/1. Rev Henry Stewart GPS 42, 10.8.1836-189644
Married, 21/8/1861: Martha
(Matty) Angelina HAMILTON - 364
Born: 1834, Drumconrath, Meath, Ireland, died, 1908
Parents: Edward Michael & Martha Anne Fortescue Hamilton
3/1. Edward Hamilton Stewart (GPS 800
3/2. James Robert Stewart (GPS 802
3/3. Martha Louise Stewart (GPS 803
3/4. Emily Gertrude Stewart (GPS 804
2/2. Col. Richard Warren, RE, Stewart GPS 377,
Married, 20/9/1864: Mary Jane CHISHOLM GPS378
3/1. Elizabeth Martha Stewart (GPS 805)
3/2. James Robert Stewart (GPS 807)
3/3. Florence Mary Stewart (GPS 808)
3/4. Dudley Warren Stewart (GPS 809)
3/5. Eleanore Lucy Stewart (GPS 810)
3/6. Edyth Blanche Stewart (GPS 812)
3/7. George Blakeney Stewart (GPS 813)
3/8. Mabelle Stewart (GPS 814)
3/9. Eileen Stewart GPS 815
2/3. James Robert Stewart GPS 379, JP.
Born, 9.8.1839 Died, 1890
Married, 1871: Gertrude Trench - 435 Dau of Frederick William le Poer Trench - 2177
3/1. Florence Emily Stewart (GPS 816)
3/2. Kathleen Stewart (GPS 817)
3/3. Henry Pakenham Stewart (GPS 818)
3/4. Helen Stewart (GPS 819)
3/5. Charles Trench Stewart (GPS 821)
in the South Irish Horse in the First World War), lived in Dun Laoghaire.[iv]
Page 6982, 3rd Sep 1914
SPECIAL RESERVE OF OFFICERS. RESERVE UNITS. CAVALRY. South Irish Horse
The undermentioned to be Second Lieutenants (on probation):- Dated 4th Sept 1914 Charles Trench STEWART,
M. Norah Eileen,
4/1. Thelma Stewart,
She was in the WRNS and was killed (aged 23) on 23 July 1944 while on torpedo dive bombing training, with her husband Sub-Lieut Arthur Jackson, and another officer.
2/4. Edward Pakenham Stewart GPS 457,
Birth, 27.2.1841, Death 1864?
Married, 2/11/1869: Charlotte Henrietta Pim - 495 Died 1907
3/1. Charlotte Eva Stewart (GPS 822)
3/2. Ada Mary Stewart (GPS 823)
3/3. George Pakenham Stewart (GPS 825)
2/5. Augustus Phillip Stewart
(GPS 496), 5/10/1842-1864.
2/6. William Thomas Stewart (GPS 497), 10/2/1844-27/10/1926.
2/7. Elizabeth Martha Stewart GPS498, 12/11/1845-1870, Malaga.
2/8. Emily Lucy Stewart (GPS 500, b. 27/4/1848.
2/9. Rev Robert Warren Stewart, MA (GPS501) born 9/3/1850,
Married, 1876: Louisa Katherine
Smyly of Dublin.
He was a missionary in China & was murdered by Boxers with wife in 1895, some children escaped.
From (8/2004): Dr Ian Welch, PO Box 7034, Farrer ACT 2607, Australia. See his paper: "Nellie. Topsy and Annie" for a description of this event.
Robert and Louisa were not killed by Boxers. They were killed by a sect known as Vegetarians. The Boxer movement was not active in Fukien Province in 1895.
The three boys at the top of your list were in England, at school, at the time.
3/1. Arthur Dudley Stewart (GPS 827)
3/2. Philip Smyly Stewart (GPS 828
3/3. James Robert Stewart (GPS 829
3/4. Mildred Eleanor Stewart (GPS 830
3/5. Kathleen Louisa Stewart (GPS 831
3/6. Herbert Norman Stewart (GPS 832) killed.
3/7. Evan George Stewart (GPS 833)
3/8. Hilda Sylvia Stewart (GPS 834) killed.
2/10. George Francis Stewart GPS 734,
Birth 1.11.1851, Death, 1928.
Married, 28/6/1881, Georgiana Lavinia Quinn - 781, Dau of Richard Robert Quinn.
3/1. Clements George Stewart (GPS 835
3/2. Robert Henry Rynn Stewart (GPS 836
3/3. Mary Selina Stewart (GPS 837
3/4. Ethel Georgiana Stewart (GPS 838
2/11. Arthur Blakeney Fitzgerald
Stewart (GPS 2965, 5/8/1853-1855.
2/12. Caroline Hamilton Stewart (GPS 2770, 19/8/1855-1855.
2/13. Mary Florence Stewart (GPS 782, Birth 19.2.1858
Married, 27/4/1889: Robert
William NORMAN (GPS783)
3/1. Luke Gardiner Norman (GPS839)
3/2. Conolly George Norman (GPS840)
3/3. Robert Warren Norman (GPS2764)
3/4. Georgiana Eleanor Norman (GPS2763)
3/5. Dudley Stewart Norman (GPS2765)
3/6. Patrick Elwyn Norman (GPS2766)
2/14. Arthur Blakeney Stewart (GPS784), 12/9/1860-1879.
1/6. Thomas Stewart.
1/7. Margaret Stewart, married William Reid of Randolphfield, Stirling (ref administration above).
Ref JJF & EMCO
There seems to be few, if any, primary sources for the BMD of this family and the antecedents.
Born: 1768, 25/8/1766, Ruthwell, Dumfries (Findagrave)
Parents: Andrew & Agnes (Armstrong) Jaffrey.
Gravestone: 3rd son of Andrew Jeffrey, minister of Lochmaben.
Died 13/7/1822. In Broughton St, John Jeffrey esq, late of Allerbeck.
Burial: Saint John Episcopal Church, Edinburgh.
Cenotaph: Saint Cuthbert's Churchyard, Edinburgh:
“Of Allerbeck and Balsarrogh, Writer in Edinburgh, The Third son of Rev Andrew Jeffrey DD, Minister of Lochmaben, died 13 July 1822. And of his wife Elizabeth Catherine McConnell Died September 1856”.
An Edinburgh Lawyer, referred to as "of Allerbeck, Dumfries" by EMC.
Quoted as a landowner on Elizabeth’s marriage.
Balsarroch is an old farm, about 7-8 miles NNW of Stranraer, on the B798.
Allerbeck Farm also on OS name index 1848-58: on the east bank of Kirtle Water: A farm house with offices attached all well built slated, & in excellent repair, there is a mill for grinding corn which with the threshing mill is worked by water power. Looks as if it is owned by Sir John Maxwell and lease by John Rome.
Allerbeck Farm between Lockerbie & Gretna, North East of
the A74. DG11 3LU, same one.
Land tax roll for Kirkpatrick, Alderbeck 2 merk half merkland £150, 1781
Was he related to Francis, Lord Jeffrey?
Half Length Portrait of John Jeffrey of Allerbeck 1768-1822 by Henry Raeburn.
A hand written note verso confirms that the portrait was painted by Sir Henry Raeburn in 1812 as 'distinctly remembered' by his daughter Mrs Elizabeth Cunningham sold 4/6/2015 for £17500 by Lyon & Turnbull.
Edinburgh & Leith Directory, 1800, John Jeffrey of Allerbeck, writer, 52 price’s St.
Alexander Jeffrey b to Ann & Alexander Jeffrey, blacksmith, 3/4/1848 at Kilwinning, Ayr
1800: John Jeffrey of Allerbeck, writer, No 32 Prince’s St.
1811: Scots Magazine #73, Proceedings of the Highland Society:
Mr Jeffery of Allerbeck, having had an opportunity of seeing experimental trials of the dynamometer, made at the desire of the society by Mr Innes, gunsmith, upon the principles, and after the mode of Regnier’s, the Parisian mechanician, stated to the meeting that this instrument seemed well calculated to accomplish the objects which the inventor had in view ; in particular, Mr Jeffrey mentioned, that it was extremely well adapted for ascertaining the comparative quality or excellence of ploughs, as it showed, with great precision, the resistance made by ploughs, of different constructions to the draught, when at work, and might thus be the means of bringing that material implement, the plough, to its greatest perfection.
1813: Scots Magazine #75 P496 re JJ of A describing a reaping machine.
The model of a reaping machine, constructed by Mr Smith, of Deanstown-works, Perthshire, and presented by him to the society, attracted much attention. The principle of this machine, and its mode of operating, were explained by Mr W. Campbell, and Mr Jeffrey of Allerbeck, members of the committee, the former of whom had repeatedly seen the machine itself in actual operation. The meeting, on the motion of Mr Graham Dalyell, resolved, that it is proper in this society, at all times to promote and encourage ingenious and useful inventions, especially when connected with the objects of the society, and that Mr Smith's perseverance in endeavouring to construct a machine so important to agriculture,
1814: Elected an ordinary Director of the Hercules Company.
1816: John Jeffrey of Allerbeck Member of the highland Society of Scotland.
Born: 10/1784, Edinburgh.
Parents: William McConnell of Culbae and Elizabeth HannayEMCO.
Died 6 Sept 1856, aged 71 (as Elizabeth C Jeffrey).
CENOTAPH Saint Cuthbert's Churchyard, Edinburgh,
However, she was actually buried in Canandaigua, New York,
A broken grave stone shown on Findagrave has her buried in West Avenue Cemetery, Canandaigua, New York and a note that she appears with her daughter Agnes in the Canandaigua 1855 Census (although I have not been able to verify the latter).
A painting of Elizabeth McConnell and her daughter, Jane, is
at the Maitland’s house. Another copy (right hand above) is owned by Lizzie
The inscription on the reverse of Lizzie Nelson’s copy is more accurate than that on the reverse of the Maitland copy.
“Elizabeth Catherine McConnell and her daughter Jane Renwick Jeffrey
Drawn in crayons by Miss Catherine Jeffrey from an oil in the possession of ?? Cunningham, for Mrs E.M. Stewart left by her to her daughter Charlotte ??
Given to Kathleen Elizabeth Martha Stewart by her loving Aunt Charlotte Jane Stewart
3 Marguerite Terrace January 1884.”
The sisters were mostly artistic, and contributed to Agnes’s Sentiment Book.
Issue (born Edinburgh? Dates mostly from JJF, with some data (issue of these individuals indicated, but not detailed). Some extra details of burials etc from findagrave.com:
1/1. Elizabeth Jeffrey, 6/9/1803,
Married Rev Robert Cunningham of
Stranraer, Scotland. 28/10/1832
The Rev Robert Cunningham achieved much in his life, including founding the Edinburgh Institution for Maths and Language which later became Melville College which is now part of Stewart's Melville College in Edinburgh.
... a plaque in his honour in the house where he lived and died which is now the North West Castle Hotel, Stranraer.
In memory of Rev. Robert Cunningham 1799 - 1883
who lived in North West Castle from 1860 – 1883
Headmaster George Watson’s College, Edinburgh (1826 – 1832)
Founder Headmaster of The Edinburgh Institution for Language and Mathematics, Edinburgh (1832 - 1837),later known as Melville College, amalgamated with Daniel Stewart’s College in 1972 to form Stewart’s Melville College
Vice Principal of Lafayette College, Pennsylvania (1837 – 1839)
Founder Headmaster of Blair Lodge School, Polmont (1841-1851)
“O God! O good beyond compare,
If thus Thy meaner works are fair,
If thus Thy glory gilds the span
of ruined earth and sinful man,
How glorious must that mansion be
where Thy Redeemer shall dwell with Thee”
Presented by The Melville College Trust, November 2005
Issue, inter alia:
2/1. Agnes Cunningham, 23/6/1846-18/08/1896
M. William Armstrong
3/1. Elizabeth Cunningham Armstrong 3/6/1870
M. William Forsyth
3/2. William Buchan Armstrong 12/7/1872
3/3. Robert Armstrong 26/05/1874
3/4. James Armstrong 22/7/1877
3/5. Susan Tait Armstrong 21/10/1879
3/6. John Armstrong 8/5/1882
3/7. Jeffrey Armstrong 21/5/1885
3/8. Louisa Helen Armstrong 16/4/1887.
1/2. Jane Renwick Jeffrey, 20/3/1805, Issue.
1/3. Agnes Jeffrey, 25/11/1806-9/3/1897.
Studied art Edinburgh & London.
Her "Sentiment Book" in the Rare Book Collection of the University of Rochester (1990).
'This sentiment album was kept by Agnes Jeffrey beginning in 1827. Miss Jeffrey was born in Scotland (probably Edinburgh) in 1806 and emigrated to the United States in 1837, settling first in Canandaigua, New York, and then in Rochester. She was an instructor of drawing and painting at the Ontario Female Seminary in Canandaigua for twenty-one years (1838-1859) before removing to Rochester to care for the children of her younger brother, William Jeffrey (1812-1867). Miss Jeffrey remained in Rochester until her death in 1897; she was a resident of the city's Third Ward and is buried in Mt. Hope Cemetery.
Burial: Mount Hope Cemetery, Rochester, Monroe County, New York.
1/4. Catherine Jeffrey, 15/8/1808-6/3/1895
Burial: Mount Hope Cemetery, Rochester, Monroe County, New York.
1/5. Isabella Jeffrey, 1/3/1810, Of York, Co Haldiman, Ont.
She also was an artist, maybe best of all the sisters.
Sep. 1, 1881, Middlesex, Ontario. Burial: Saint John's Anglican Church Cemetery, York, Haldimand-Norfolk Regional Municipality, Ontario.
Married: Rev Bold Cudmore Hill, b 16/10/1799 Limerick, killed falling from horse 1877.
2/1. Jeffrey Hill, Rev of Southampton, Co Bruce, Ont.
2/2. Arundel Charles Hill, Rev, BD Canon of St Paul's London Ont.
Married Emily, dau of Dawson Delamere.
2/3. Renwick Hill, died unm. 1878
2/4. Elizabeth Catherine Jeffrey, died unm 1871.
1/6. William Jeffrey, 22/4/1812-1867, Issue.
B 22/4/1812, Edinburgh, Died
Aug. 1, 1867, Rochester, Monroe County, New York. Buried West Avenue Cemetery,
Canandaigua, Ontario County, New York.
Emigrated to New York, 11/10/1836. Lived in Canandaigua, Ontario County, NY state, for 4 years prior to oath of allegiance, 17/11/1841. Later lived in Rochester, NY. (ref EMCOnt)
Married (1): Caroline Greer, (2) Virginia Haring
2/1. Frederick Jeffrey, killed in action US Army 1861-5.
1/7. Robert Jeffrey, 26/11/1813-29/7/1846, D. Toledo, Ohio,
1/8. Alexander Jeffrey, 10/5/1815, died 31/8/1899.
Was president of Lexington Gas
Business executive of New York and Kentucky, including president of the Lexington (Ky.) City Gas Co.
Emigrated to New York bef 17/11/1831. Later of Lexington, Ken.
Married (1) Delia Wilson Granger 1820-1847 (ref EMCont):
2/1. Julia Granger Jeffrey, 1842-1929.
M. Albert Augustus Porter of Niagara Falls,
3/1. Alexander Jeffrey Porter, m Margaret Maude Langmuir.
2/2. Charlotte Ross Jeffrey 1841-1904
m. Charles Theodore Pierson.
2/3. Betsey Chapin Jeffrey, 1846-1879 m. Nathaniel Beattie Rochester.
Married (2) Rosa Vertner (Griffith) Johnson (1826-1894). Poetess.
2/4. Alexander Jeffrey 1864-1902.
2/5. Dunbar Griffiths Jeffrey. 1866-1892.
2/6. Virginia Abercrombie Jeffrey. 1867-1934
1/9. John Jeffrey, 2/6/1817, Edinburgh,
Architect, engineer, and
businessman of New York, Ohio, and Kentucky.
D 18/2/1881, Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky.
married Georgiana (Wylie) Keats. Of Lexington. Also and artist - his diary survives and is in Ontario.
Parents: James Stewart & Helen Agnew.
Buried: 14.5.1797, Derryloran (now known as Cookstown, Tyrone)
MP, Co Tyrone 1747 - 1768; High Sheriff 1738
Rebuilt Cookstown. Elder for the Presbyterians of Ulster and by 1750 the largest landowner in Tyrone. He also built an aqueduct to bring water to Cookstown from springs high up on his estate, and a weir across Ballinderry River to provide power for his linen mills. Colonel in Militia, raised a corps of artillery volunteers. Killymoon Castle "a superb and beautiful seat with ample and cultivated domains. The old house was burnt down late 18th or early 19th C.66 Nat Library of Dublin has a collection of papers (MS 8734) containing rents rolls for mid 18thC:
a) Undated income:
Freehold Rent: £2287-5-5
Church lands: £2424-9-11
Freehold Rent: £2287-5-5
Church Lands: £2359-5-4
Recd Arrears of Nov 1763: £709-12-10
Recd Rent for Nov 1764: £1168-13-5
Arrears at Nov 1764: £3676-3-11-3/4
Arrears at Nov 1763: £2176-15-3.5
May & Nov 1764 rents: £3370-14-11.25
Note increase in arrears! Document lists all tenants.
1783: ADC to General Earl of Charlemont at a review, as Colonel.
It appears the family ran into financial trouble:
He built Killymoon Castle, designed by John Nash. It passed to his son James and finally to James’s son, William. On the latter’s death in 1850, it was sold by the Encumbered Estates Commission for Ireland: there must have been very high debts.
The estate was well described in the sale particulars in the newspapers of the time.
This William Stewart was only 16 when his father died, but very early in life he seems to have been inspired to rebuild Cookstown, and to rebuild it on a grand scale. By the end of the Seventeenth Century there were only 43 "hearths" left in the town. A map of 1736 shows that only two houses were habitable at that date, and in that year William Stewart, then 26 years old, caused a survey to be made. The original map may be seen in the Public Records Office in Belfast, and superimposed on it is the lay-out of present-day Cookstown streets, Cookstown»s main street was to be after the pattern of the fine broad thoroughfares then being constructed in Dublin, and so it is. Probably this is one of the first examples, outside Dublin of Town Planning in Ireland. The main street reaches out towards Killymoon Castle straight as a arrow flight for a mile and a half; it is 130 feet wide. One unforeseen consequence is that today cars can and do park three and four deep along both sides, still leaving plenty of room for passing traffic, and motorists cannot be persuaded to use the off=3treet car parks. It is hard luck on the inside parkers. (6)
"It was to his mother, rather than to his father, that
William, who planned Cookstown with a vision of future greatness, owed his
inspirations and to his wife that he owed much of his political success",
In 1741 William married Eleanor King, He followed the example of his ancestors in making a judicious marriage. Unlike them, however, he went out of Ulster for his bride, who was the eldest daughter of the Right Honourable Sir Henry King, Baronet, of Rockingham in County Roscommon, an M.P." Sir Henry's brother-in-law became Viscount Powerscourt; it seems as if the Stewarts were rising socially.
In 1747 our William became Member of Parliament for County Tyrone and remained a Member for 21 years. He was also an Elder of the Presbyterians of Ulster, and by 1750 he was the largest landowner in County Tyrone. He also built an aqueduct to bring water to Cookstown from springs high up on his estate, and a weir across the Ballinderry River to provide power for linen mills. "As a result of this fine display of public spirit Cookstown soon became really prosperous, and its population increased rapidly." (8)
In 1779 our Colonel (as he then was) William Stewart, displaying an inherited zeal for gunnery, raised a corps of artillery volunteers. "when in 1778—9 France and Spain, taking advantage of their old rival's trans-Atlantic difficulties" (i.e, the American war of independence) "entered the war on the American side, Ireland, stripped of troops, lay open to invasion. Faced with this danger, Irishmen, or at any rate the Irish protestants, sprang to arms,: All over the country groups of neighbours or public-spirited landlords formed volunteer corps. Volunteering soon became the fashion. The corps were numerous and splendidly uniformed. Reviews and parades were frequent. Gentlemen proudly used their volunteer rank, and Ireland soon abounded with Captains and Colonels," (9)
"Killymoon Castle was at this time one of the most celebrated houses in the county. The “Post Chaise Companion” of 1786 refers to it as 'a superb and beautiful seat with very ample and cultivated domains,' The estate, like so many of its Irish contemporaries, prospered owing to the progress then being made in scientific farming, and to the easy accessibility of limestone for the, land," (8)
The old house was burnt down; it is not clear when this occurred but it was likely near the end of the Eighteenth Century or very early in the Nineteenth. Part of it survived, namely the library and the kitchen, which had been built by this, the second, William, and which have been incorporated in the present Killymoon Castle.
I have an engraving of this William, head and shoulders, which was made in 1786 when he was 76 years of age. He died in 1797-aged 87.
William and Eleanor had eleven children, the eldest being a boy born in 1742 and, of course, called James, who inherited the Stewart Estate. Here however we part company with Killymoon and the Stewart Estate; this James had a son, William, who never married and had no issue, and who became so financially embarrassed that in the end Killymoon and all the Estate had to be sold. "Except, therefore, for the family vault in Derryloran (parish church), the Stewarts of Killymoon have now no connection with the town (Cookstown) or the estate which was so carefully and laboriously collected." (4) It is a sad and salutary tale which we set out in Appendix II hereto.
We are descended from their sixth child, Henry, born in I749. Their other children were Isabella, born in 1745, who was married by John Hamilton; Robert born in 1750 attained the rank of Lieutenant=Colonel in the 59th Regiment and died unmarried in 1774 on service at St. Pierre, Martinique; Edward born in 1750 described as a Merchant of Dublin, unmarried; perhaps he had gone into his Uncle Patrick's business but history does not relate. The youngest was Frances Ann, born in 1764, who was married by George Stewart, Surgeon-General of Ireland, who as far as we know was not a relation; he changed his name to Stuart! There were three more children who died young and unmarried.
Parents: Henry King & Isabella Wingfield
Eldest dau of Rt Hon Sir Henry King of Rockingham, Bt MP, co Roscommon.
Issue of William & Eleanor Stewart: Details
1/1. James Stewart, GPS 766, 1742-1821 Lawyer.
See below for full description of Stewart of Killymoon papers.
Married Hon Elizabeth Molesworth, 6th dau of 3rd Viscount Molesworth.
Ref Nat Library of Dublin: Cost £26-19-11 to register pedigree and Arms 31/3/1809.
1835: Elizabeth Stewart, relict of the late James Stewart of Killymoon, in her 84th year.
Also in collection are a number of letters about support for his election to Parliament 1775. Also letters from AH Trench.
1776, Freeman’s Journal, writes letter soliciting votes.
1787, spoke in a debate on plans for a 2nd university in Dublin.
1792: Spoke in the House in a Bill on Mail Coaches.
1789: in party to the Prince of Wales as regent.
1812: speaking on imports of linen causing apprehension in Northern Ireland.
2/1. Mary Eleanor Stewart (5/9/1775-1866) (GPS856)
Died Miss M.E. Stewart, eldest daughter of the late Mr J. Stewart, of Killymoon, county Tyrone, at Drumshanbo, aged 90, 25th ult. (Feb 1866).
2/2. Louisa Stewart (1778-1850), married HJ Clements (GPS857)
Probably Col Clements, of the
Leitrim Militia, died 12 Jan 1843, woodcock shooting at Ashfield Lodge,
Cootehill. Brother in law to Col Stewart of Killymoon.
3/1. Elizabeth Catherine Henrietta Clements, (1813-27) (GPS890)
3/2. Selina Clements, (1814-92), (GPS2159)
Married Cousin Rev Henry GJ Clements.
3/3. Louisa Clements (1816-79) (GPS2161)
3/4. Mary Isabella Clements (1816-90) (GPS2162)
3/5. Henry Theophilus Clements (1820-1904) (GPS2163)
Married Gertrude Markham. Issue:
4/1. Henry John Beresford Clements (GPS2166)
4/2. Alfred William Clements (GPS2167)
4/3. Robert Markham Clements (GPS2168)
4/4. Marcus Louis Stewart Clements (GPS2169)
4/5. Gertrude Mary Catharine Clements (GPS2170)
4/6. Selina Margaret Maud Clements (GPS2171)
3/6. Catherine Clements, 1822-1830, (GPS2172)
2/3. William Stewart, 1780-1850, (GPS859) never married, &
lost estate. See below under
Stewart of Killymoon papers
“Letters from Ireland announces the death of Colonel Stewart of Killymoon proprietor of the splendid seat and magnificent demesne of Killymoon, county Tyrone, for which proposals of purchase were lately made by Lord Gough. The deceased was for many years a representative for the county Tyrone.
1820: re-elected for parliament for Co Tyrone.
1851: Lord Gough has become the purchaser of the Killymoon estate, I n County Tyrone. The price at which this fine estate has been sold at is stated to be nearly £100,000. Another paper said £91,000 and it yields £4500 pa, some time since the timber alone would yield £20,000.
1835: laying foundation stone for Presbyterian meeting house, Cookstown.
1848: referred to be one of the 3 most popular landlords in Ulster.
Died: on the 2nd inst (Oct 1850), at Killymoon, in the county of Tyrone, aged 70 years, William Stewart esq, late Lieutenant Colonel of the Royal Tyrone Militia, and for many years representative of that county in Parliament.
2/4. James Charles Stewart,
2/5. Richard Stewart (GPS861), of Killymoon, 1835.
Also as Rev. Richard of Drumshanbo (as brother of William and James of Killymoon).
1/2. Henry Stewart, 1744- (Young) (GPS768).
1/3. Isabella Stewart, 1745-1833 (GPS769), married John Hamilton
(10/10/1735-16/5/1811, son of
James Hamilton of Brown Hall, Donegal & Dorothy Green). See Appendix 2.1.5.
Isabella (Stewart) Hamilton & her great-grandchildren James, Isabella and Mary Hamilton. 1829. Artist: Samuel Lover
2/1. James Hamilton died 1805 (GPS12), married Helen Pakenham,
dau of Edward Michael &
Catherine (Rowley) Pakenham
3/1. John Hamilton, 1800-83,(GPS2084)
Married Mary Rose 1823.
4/1. James Hamilton (GPS2086)
4/2. Mary Hamilton (GPS2090)
4/3. Arabella Rose Hamilton (GPS2096)
4/4. Helen Hamilton (GPS2098)
Married, 1858, Mary Simpson
4/5. John Hamilton (GPS2104)
4/6. Catherine Hamilton (GPS2105)
3/2. Edward Michael Hamilton, Rev. died 1861, (GPS2106)
Married, 1838, Mary Anne Fortescue.
4/1. Edward Hamilton (GPS2108)
4/2. John Hamilton (GPS2109)
4/3. Martha (Matty) Angelina Hamilton (GPS364)
4/4. Chichester Hamilton (GPS2113)
3/3. Catherine (Kitty) Hamilton (GPS2114)
Married: Rev. William Henry
4/1. Catherine Helen Foster (GPS2116)
4/2. Arthur Hamilton Foster (GPS2097)
4/3. William John Foster (GPS2122)
4/4. Catherine Wilhelmina (Mina) Foster (GPS2137)
2/2. Abraham Hamilton (GPS758)
2/3. Eleanor Hamilton (GPS2044)
Married: Henry Coddington.
3/1. Elizabeth Coddington (GPS2046)
Married as 2nd wife, rev Thomas
4/1. Robert Henry59 Lindsay (GPS2058)
4/2. Henry Lindsay (GPS2059)
4/3. Thomas Lindsay (GPS2060)
4/4. Edward - Lindsay (GPS2062)
4/5. Hamilton Lindsay (GPS 2064)
4/6. John Lindsay (GPS 2065)
4/7. Frederick Lindsay (GPS 2066)
4/8. William O'Neill Lindsay (GPS2067)
4/9. Ellen Lindsay (GPS2068)
4/10. Bessie Lindsay (GPS 2070)
4/11. Isabella Lindsay (GPS2071)
3/2. Isabella Coddington
3/3. Eleanor Coddington (GPS2056)
2/4. Dorothea Hamilton (GPS2073)
2/5. Henry Hamilton (GPS2074)
2/6. Robert Hamilton (GPS2075)
2/7. William Stewart Hamilton (GPS2076)
Married, 1st, Harriett
3/1. John Hamilton (GPS2078)
3/2. Hans Blackwood Hamilton (GPS2079)
Married: Frances Milford (GPS2080).
4/1. William Hamilton (GPS2081)
Married, 2nd, Miss Blacker. Issue:
3/3. Abraham Hamilton (GPS2083).
1/4. William Stewart, 1746-60, (GPS771)
1/5. Robert Stewart, 1747-94, (GPS772), Lt Col,
died unm. Martinique.
1/6. Henry Stewart, 1749-1840. (GPS525).
1/7. Edward Stewart (GPS773), Birth 28.6.1750, Death 1.2.1833
Married, 31/7/1777: Amelia Anne
Marlar - 774, (17.1.1758-10.3.1816) Daughter of John Marlar, merchant. London
2/1. Anne Stewart (GPS841), b1779.
2/2. Eleanor Stewart (GPS842), b. 1780.
2/3. Emily Stewart (GPS843), b.1781.
2/4. William Stewart (GPS844), b.1782.
2/5. Isabella Stewart (GPS845), b. 1783.
2/6. Edward Stewart (GPS 846, b.1784.
2/7. John Stewart (GPS 847, b. 1785.
2/8. James Stewart (GPS 848, b.1786.
2/9. Charlotte Stewart (GPS 849, b. 1787.
2/10. Frances Vere Stewart GPS 850 Birth Date: 1788
Married: Chambre Townshend,
3/1. Horace Townshend (GPS2183)
Married, Mary Susan KIRBY
4/1. Charlotte F. Payne Kirby (GPS2185)
4/2. Mary Stewart Payne Kirby (GPS2187)
2/11. Eliza Stewart (GPS 852, b.
2/12. Susan Stewart (GPS 853, b. 1791.
2/13. Henry Stewart (GPS 854, 1791-1872.
Married: Frances Maria
Atkinson17 - 855, 1798-1873.
3/1. Edward Henry Stewart (GPS 862, 1838-1914).
3/2. Joseph Atkinson Stewart (GPS 863, 1839-1913.
1/8. Rev. Thomas Stewart, (GPS775), 5/1751-27/11/1788.
1/9. John Stewart(GPS776), 5/12/1753-143/1839.
1/10. Helen Stewart(GPS777), b abt 1764.
1/11. Frances Ann Stewart. Birth: 1764, Death: 1.1806
Married, 1764, George Stuart (not
rel, GPS779, 1760-1806)
2/1. Rev. John Stuart (GPS892)
2/2. Eleanor Stuart (GPS893), Married Robert Evans.
2/3. Anne Stuart (GPS895), 1798-1814.
2/4. Frances Stuart (GPS896)
Married: James Robert Whyte -
3/1. James Whyte (GPS760), 9/9/1832-16/3/60.
3/2. George Stewart Whyte (GPS761),
Birth: 6.7.1835, V.C., K.C.B.,
K.C.S.I., K.C.M.G. Notes: Defender of Ladysmith
Married, 31/10/1874: Amelia Maria Bailey - 2681, daughter of Archdeacon (Bishop?) Bailey
4/1. James Robert Whyte (GPS2682)
4/2. Rose Frances Whyte (GPS2683)
4/3 May Constance24 Whyte (GPS 2684)
4/4. Amy Gladys Stewart Whyte (GPS 2685)
3/3. John MA, Whyte (GPS864), b.
3/4. Frances Anne Whyte (GPS 2190)
3/5. Jane Eleanor Whyte (GPS 2191)
3/6. Victoria Isabella Whyte (GPS2192)
Married, 2/11/1854, John Marcus
Of Glenboy, Leitrim.
4/1. John Marcus Clements (GPS2194)
4/2. James Robert Clements (GPS2195)
4/3. George Stuart Clements (GPS2196)
4/4. Charles Henry Clements (GPS2202)
4/5. Henry Victor Clements (GPS2207)
4/6. Katherine Frances Clements (GPS2208)
4/7. Selina Mary Louise Clements (GPS2209)
3/7. Elizabeth Whyte (GPS2212), Death: 30.8.1893
Married, 28/1/1864: Robert James
Death Date: 13.5.1893
4/1. John Alexander Montgomery (GPS2214)
4/2. Francis James Montgomery (GPS2215)
4/3. Janet Maud Montgomery (GPS2216)
4/4. Elizabeth Barbara Isabel Montgomery (GPS2217)
2/5. Rev. George Stuart
(GPS898), Married Katherine King.
2/6. Jane Stuart (GPS2981), died young.
Many sites spell his name Jaffrey, the Scottish minister record has Jaffray, but the cenotaph on the most visible side, his son Robert, is undoubtedly JEFFREY. I will use this spelling.
This family was extensively researched by Helen H. McIver of Washington DC, who published her "Genealogy of the Jaffrey-Jeffrey Family". A copy of this work was given to A Maitland by Linda Hill in 2003, and was in turn a copy of one held by Carl Gustav Smedberg of NY.
Born: Most sources say 1723, but if age at death was 73rd year, it must have been 1722. Age in an image of the cenotaph looks more like 75.
Parents: John (or Andrew) Jaffrey – no source for this!
This is the only possibility found but looks unlikely:
Andrew Jaffrey bap Berwick 21/3/1721 of James.
There were some Jeffreys in the region of Aberdeen, but there is no evidence of any connection
Died: 3/1/1795, Lochmaben, Dumfries, Bur: Saint Mary Magdalene's Churchyard
He was a Church of Scotland minister, ending his time at Lochmaben, about 4 miles west of Lockerbie, on the road to Dumfries. He was a friend of Robert Burns, and Burns visited the Manse a number of times (see the story by Andrew’s daughter, Jean, the muse for one of Burns’s poems).
He wrote a piece on Lochmaben in “The Statistical Account of Scotland: Drawn up from the” ..., Volume 7 on Lochmaben (number XXII) by Sir John Sinclair. 1793.
13/5/1776 delegate from Ruthwell at General Assembly
The Burns Encyclopaedia has this to say:
Jaffray, The Rev Andrew (1723 — 95)
Minister of Ruthwell parish church and later of Lochmaben,
in Dumfriesshire. He was the father of Jean Jaffray (q.v), who was the
'Blue-Eyed Lassie' of 'I gaed a waefu' gate yestreen' (written when she was
15). Burns sometimes stayed at the Manse at Lochmaben on his Excise excursions.
In a letter to the Provost of Lochmaben, Robert Maxwell, dated 20th December
1789, Burns said: 'If you meet with that worthy old veteran in religion and
good fellowship, Mr Jeffry, or any of his amiable Family, I beg you will give
them my best compliments.'
This fine eighteenth century writing table was first used by Robert Burns when visiting his friend, Reverend Andrew Jaffrey at the Old Manse of Lochmaben.
The Manse at Lochmaben.
Cenotaph at Lochmaben (difficult to read, a transcription online is very low resolution – the MI of Scotland has an abbreviated version):
The remains of the Reverend Andrew Jeffrey and Agnes Armstrong his beloved wife are here deposited. The Reverend Mr Jaffray died 3rd January 1795 in the 73rd (looks more like 75 in photo, but the 1871 MI says 73) year of his age. He was ordained 4th March 1753? And was translated to Ruthwell the 17th November 1760 and from Ruthwell to Lochmaben 28th? January 1783?. Mrs Agnes Armstrong died 16 October 1793 in the 60th? Year of her age. Here are also deposited the remains of Mrs Jaffray’s mother Mrs jean Somerville, widow of the Reverend William Armstrong, Minister of Canonbie. She died 3rd April 1790 in the 86th?? Year of her age (this minister was licensed in 1749 And was ordained to the ministry of Tundergarth in 1755 The poet Robert Burns enjoyed his society and had him characterised as ‘a worthy veteran in religion and good fellowship’ Jaffray’s daughter Joan was the heroin of Burn’s son ‘I gaed a waefu' gate’
Robert Jeffrey esquire surgeon in the service of the Honourable India Company second son of The reverend doctor Andrew Jeffrey died September 1792 on his voyage from India to China the 27th year of his age.
ANDREW JAFFRAY. licensed by Presbytery of Kirkcudbright 6th Sept. 1749;
ordained to Tundergarth 6th March 1755; translated to Ruthwell 27th Nov. 1760; presented by David, Viscount Stormont; admitted 28th Jan. 1783 ; D.D. (1793); died 3rd Jan. 1795, aged 72. Characterised by the poet Burns, as “ a worthy old veteran in religion and good fellowship.” He married. 8th Nov. 1762, Agnes, daughter. of William Armstrong, min. of Canonbie, and had issue—William, born 3rd Sept. 1763; Robert, born 17th Feb. 1765; John Armstrong, born 5th Aug. 1766 ; Isabella, born 28th April 1770 ; Jane, born 29th May 1773 (married 1794, ---Renwick, New York), died 1850. She was the heroine of Burns’s song, “I gaed a waefu’ gate yestreen.” Publication—Account of the Parish (Sinclairs Stat. Acc.} vii.).—[Tombst.; Wallace’s Life and Works of Burns, iii., 137.]
An Andrew Jaffray (1650-1720), a Quaker, published a pamphlet in 1677 to the inhabitants of Aberdeen (ref Early English Books on Line. This is probably not relevant.
Married, 8/11/1762, EdinburghFMP:
Parents: William Armstrong & Jean Somerville (confirmed by clerical records)
Died: 16/10/1793MI. This shown given on Andrew’s cenotaph at Lochmaben, 60th year. Daughter of rev William Armstrong.
1/1. William Jaffrey, 1764, died Bruges.
1/2. Robert Jaffrey, born 1766, died 9/1792
1/3. John Armstrong Jeffrey, b 1768
1/4. Isabella Jaffrey, b. 1770, Issue
1/5. Jane Jaffrey, b. 29/5/1774, Ruthwell.
M. 13/8/1791, Lochmaben, William
Renwick, son of James Renwick. (WR born Manchester, England on April 16th 1769
- they came to New York in Oct 1794, where she died Oct 6th 1850 aged 77. She
was daughter of Andrew Jaffray, Great great Grandmother of Daphne
Extract from a Life of Burns.
Miss Jaffray married a gentleman of the name of Renwick and removed to Liverpool, but ultimately settled in New York, where she died, in October, 1850, at the venerable age of seventy-seven years, much regretted by a large circle of friends. A brief memoir of her life was written in America by Mrs. Balmanno, and is included in a collected volume of her writings entitled, “Pen and Pencil,” New York, 1858. Mrs. Renwick was tenderly sensitive in her regard for the memory of Bums, and corrects the errors of one of his biographers in a letter to her sister, dated New York, Nov. 13, 1838, she writes:—“ An article in the Mirror induced me to procure and read ‘ Cunningham’s Life of Bums,' and I think it is, as I predicted, very inferior to that of my departed friend, Dr. Currie, wanting sadly his delicacy and refinement. I can scarcely believe that Bums ever wrote the letter to Provost Maxwell. My dear father was never spoken of but with love and reverence, and he is mentioned as ‘that veteran in religion and good fellowship.’ Cunningham says he received much information from his son Hugh. I never had a brother named Hugh; my own three brothers were William, at that time in the house of Sir Robert Herries, in London; the second, Robert, was at the same period surgeon of an East Indiaman, on board of which vessel he died some time after; and the third, John, prosperous and happy beyond the common lot of man, so that at the period spoken of fortune was using none of them ‘hard and sharp,' as stated by the biographer. He is wrong also in stating that the Poet’s visit was a solitary one at the manse, a statement altogether incorrect. It was after dining in company with the Poet, at the house of Mr. Nicol, who was living at Moffat for the benefit of his child's health, that Bums sent to me the two songs, ‘Willie brew’d a peck o’ maut,’ and ‘The blue-eyed lassie.’ I was then only fifteen,
and sic a wee bit lassie, that Burns danced out with me in his arms, and put me into the carriage to my father, singing, ‘Green glow the rushes 0.' No event of my happy early days that I look back upon with such pride as having sat at the feet of such a man. He was, at the time I speak of, acting the part of an affectionate husband and father, and even envy never spoke evil of him at my father’s fireside, and it was not until many years after, when I had long mixed with a hard-hearted world, that I ever imagined he could do, or had done, wrong. Cunningham says, the name of Willie Wastle's wife is lost; I could tell him who she was, but there is no use in opening old sores. It is a great pity that much more of what he has published had not been lost, also, much that poor Burns never intended to see the light.” Up to the advanced age of 77 Mrs. Renwick adorned a high social position, with all those qualities of heart and mind—all those sweet, captivating amenities of manner—which had, in her youth, when joined to great personal attractions, rendered her one of the most fascinating maidens of Annandale. She is referred to in the “Life and Writings of Washington Irving,” often a guest at her house. All through life she cherished a strong, deep love for Scotland. Writing to her niece from New York, 4th April, 1848, she says:—“If there are any persons near you that recollect Jeanie Jaffray, say to them that my love for the very stones around the old Kirk and manse will only be extinguished by the last scene of all.
I hear that you are living at
Lochmaben, dear Lochmaben! I remember where the very stones and stumps stood
when I left it, and am often, in spirit, by the graves of my beloved parents
and yours. I have forgotten none of those I loved in my youthful days.” Her
son, Professor of Natural Philosophy and Chemistry, in Columbia College, New
York, thus writes of “the last scene of all,” in a letter dated 21st February,
1851:—“It is sufficient to say that she left us full of years and honours,
respected beyond the usual lot of mortals, and beloved by a wide circle of
friends and descendants,”
Issue, inter alia:
2/1. James Renwick (30/5/1792-12/1/1863)
The Renwick family includes
Prof. James Renwick (1792-1863), his wife, Margaret Anne Brevoort Renwick, his
mother, Jane Jeffrey Renwick (1773-1850), his grandfather, James Renwick
(1743-1803), his father, William Renwick (1769-1808), his sons, James Renwick
(1818-1895), Henry Brevoort Renwick (1817-1895), and Edward Sabine Renwick
(1823-1912), and his grandsons, Edward Brevoort Renwick and James Armstrong
Renwick Family papers, 1794-1916. Columbia University Libraries.
Married Margaret Ann Brevoort (issue inter alia)
3/1. Edward Sabine Renwick, 3/1/1823
Email from Allen Hankosky, Texas, 6/2005:
The Renwicks were from New York Are you related to Edward S. Renwick from New York? His father was Professor James Renwick of Columbia Univ. His brother was a leading U.S. architect. He was working on St. Patrick's Cathedral, he designed Vassar College and the Smithsonian institution. Edward's uncle was Captain Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. who sailed around the world for the Smithsonian.
2/2. Robert Jeffrey Renwick
Robert J. Renwick, second son of
William Renwick and Jean Jeffrey, was born in Liverpool, England, November 14,
1793. At the time his father was in charge of the English end of the business
firm. In 1794 the family came to New York. In 1809 Robert graduated from
Columbia and shortly thereafter went into business. On December 6, 1815, he
married Mary Hobart, daughter of William Rhinelander, by whom he had three sons
and two daughters, viz.:
William Rhinelander, Robert Jaffray, Junior, Frederick William, Jane Jaffray who married S. Stanhope Callender and Mary Rhinelander who married Benjamin Lincoln Swan. In 1818 he was a member of the firm of C. G. Smedberg & Co., which dissolved partnership that year. In 1819 he met with reverses and advertised that he was about to claim the benefit of the Insolvent Act. In the latter part of his life Mr. Renwick removed to the farm near Ithaca, New York, purchased by his grandfather James, and there he died in the sixties. His wife died May 3, 1846.—Rhinelander Family in America; The Press. Biographical register of Saint Andrew's society of the state of New York. Vol i Pgs 37-S (1925).
2/3. Agnes Armstrong Renwick
2/4. Isabella Renwick, b. 20/9/1797,
M. Charles Gustavus Smedberg,
3/1. William Renwick Smedberg, 19/3/1839, M Fanny Raymond.
4/1. William Renwick Smedberg,
4th US Cavalry.
3/2. James Renwick Smedberg,
Isabella Renwick, miniature by John Wesley Jarvis.
This may be him!
A listing of duels in California (illegal after 1861):
James R. Smedberg and F. W. Gardner fought at Sausalito with duelling pistols in Aug., 1869; S. was wounded in the hand at the second fire. His second was Col. Stuart M. Taylor; while Howard Crittenden attended Gardener. In this, one of the latest, if not the very latest duel in California, both parties displayed great nerve.
4/1. Agnes Adams Smedberg, M. Max Lee Rosenfeld
5/1. John Rosenberg, b.5/5/1901.
5/2. Caroline Smedberg Rosenfeld, b.21/7/1898
M. William Walter Sunkel.
6/1. Maxine Louise Sunkel, b. 20/6/1922
3/3. Oscar Smedberg (27/12/1781-29/08/1845),
M. 12/6/1860, Alice Tillou
Issue, inter alia:
4/1. Marion Smedberg, b 16/9/1865.
M. 13/9/1887 William Faulkner Bush,
5/1. Oscar Smedberg Bush, M. Phyllis Lloyd Davies
Dau of Gwyllim Lloyd & Ansie (Hastings) Davies[v]
4/2. Julian Kemble Smedberg, b 28/10/1876.
M. 8/3/1913, Lillian Grace Eveline Greene, b. 3/6/1875. He was US consul to Edinburgh 1938
to 1943. Ref Crispin Agnew 1/2011[vi]
5/1. Daphne Green Doveton Tillou Smedberg,
2/5. William Renwick.
2/6. Jane Jeffrey Renwick
Married Charles Wilkes, (1798-1877), the son of John DePonthieu Wilkes and Mary Seton. His aunt was Elizabeth Ann Seton (first American saint). Charles lived with Elizabeth after his mother died and before Elizabeth went to Italy with her sick husband. Charles was a lieutenant in the U.S. Navy when he commanded the U.S. Exploring Expedition of 1838-1842. This book is about this expedition and is full of pictures and drawings. Charles was promoted to Admiral in 1866. His gggrandfather was Israel Wilkes and his great-uncle was John Wilkes, known as "Wilkes No. 45" while he lived in England. (from a book quoted in email 4/2005).
2/7. John Renwick
2/8. Sarah Kemp Renwick
2/9. Agnes Renwick
Sarah Kemp, granddaughter of James Renwick, daughter of "late" Dr John Kemp of Columbia College, mentioned as her cousins, William, John, Jane, Agnes Renwick and Isabella Smedberg and the children of her cousins James & Robert Renwick in her 1820 will. She must therefore have been a daughter of William Renwick's sister.
Sarah was of New York, and left property on Lake Cayuga, Seneca County, and a farm near Newburgh, Orange County, both of which derived from her grandfather, James Renwick.
Born: 30/1/1751, Wigtown
Parents: Alexander McConnell & Jean Christie (from the Bible transcript)
Died 31/5/1829 aged 78, WigtownMI.
This branch of the McConnell family were centred round Wigtown and were an important land owners and officials in the area.
For reasons unknown, none of this family appear on the main parish records, even where other sources show an accurate date. Even William’s birth in 1751 is only found from a much later transcription from his parent’s Bible, donated by his daughter Jane in 1829. Even his death does not appear in spite of a monument in the grave yard, implying that they were members of the established church. There are no relevant wills to be found either, although this does not seem unusual in Scotland in this era. This is discussed under his father’s section.
William McConnell was quoted as being the county’s leading lawyer in about 1800. He was Sherriff Substitute for Wigtown for 35 years and was described as a major landholder in an article on the subscription library in 1795.
He had a property at Culbae, on the B7085 half way between Wigtown and Port William, which seems to have been the most significant as he was usually described as “of Culbae”, but has also had a house & offices just at Kirklandhill, outside Wigtown (which was sold in 1821); the Culbae farm may have come about via the Hannay family.
He was involved in negotiations for the establishment of turnpikes in the county in 1792-6. A letter exists about the work, showing some frustration:
“You were not quite satisfied with the proceedings of last meeting and I did not wonder at it. It was late before the Trustees met, when they did meet the day was wasted with business foreign to the purpose of meeting which caused the revision of the Bill to be done in a hurried manner, but even before it was finished in that hasty manner, Gentlemen tired, droping [sic] off one by one till for a great part of it only three Commissioners were in the room. – At future meetings on this business Gentlemen should attend early, 12 o’clock at the latest – The Bill should be read over clause by clause deliberately – If observations are offered…they should be discussed immediately without going to other matter, which too often happens and shortly minuted… the clause should be referred [to] and, approved, rejected as unnecessary or the like – or altered to purport so and so.
From the land tax rolls, he had other properties in Mochrum & Kirkinner parishes, to the west and south west of Wigtown:
William McConnell Esq. Wigtown The lands of Alticry and Drumblair
Drumblair, from the OS index 1848: 1 mile SW of Doon of May. A farm house one story high and outhouses, all of which is in good repair with a farm of about 412 acres of land attached the greater part of which is coarse land. Occupied by the Widow Stewart, the property of Geo McHaffee esq Wigtown.
Drumblair Moor, W of Doon of May.
A considerable portion of moorland on the farm of Dunblair the surface of which is rocky heathy pasture the property of Geo McHaffee esq Wigton.
Alticry is almost on the coast, on the B7005, WSW from Wigtown.
William McConnell, Of Culbae, esq The lands of Capenoch and Culbae £100 (green notation F993)
O/S 1848 index, scotlandsplaces:
Capenoch ½ mile N of Kildarroch. A good farmhouse & Offices.
Culbae, 5/8 mile SSE of Kildarroch and 1 5/8 mile W
of Drumjargon. A good farm house and out offices.
Kirkinner is a village in the Machars, in the historical county of Wigtownshire in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland. About 3 miles (4.8 km) southwest of Wigtown, it is bounded on the east by the bay of Wigtown, along which it extends for about three miles, and on the north by the river Bladnoch.
It includes Baldoon, where Edward Michael Stewart resided for a while.
Wigtown, Dumfriesshire – An impressive cenotaph in Wigtown.
165 Table Stone Corner broken off
In memory of Elisabeth Hannay spouse of William McConnell of
Culbae, who died 24th April 1794 aged 28 years Honest living, private virtue,
private virtue, beloved and esteemed And also of the said William McConnell Esq
who died 31st May 1829 aged 78. He was Sheriff Substitute of Wigtownshire 35
years And also Helen McConnell youngest sister of said William McConnell and
relict of the Revd Henry Blain, Minister of Stoney Kirk who died at Wigtown on
25th August 1844 aged 97 years
And also John McConnell, Advocate, son of the above William McConnell who died at Fort Erie, Canada in December 1876, aged 82 years.
1795: Edinburgh Jan 5 William McConnell esq, of Culbae is appointed Sherriff Substitute of the county of Wigtown.
1795: William McConnell esq of Culbae as Commissary of the Commissariat of Wigtownshire with founding of the Wigtown Subscription Library.
William McConnell Part of Kirklandhill, £17- Wigtown Parish, (on the west
side of Wigtown centre).
1811: A freeholder of Wigtown, 1st Oct 1811
1821: For Sale, THE DWELLING HOUSE & OFFICES, in the Burgh of Wigton, with the GARDEN and THREE INCLOSURES of the KIRKLANDHILL FEYS, adjoining to the Burgh, all as presently occupied by William McConnell, esq of Culbae.
Issue of William McConnell and Elizabeth Hannay:
None of these appear in any parish record available on line, these have been deduced from other sources.
1/1. Elisabeth McConnell (1784-1856)
1/2. John McConnell, born abt 1794, died Fort Erie, Canada,
December 1876 aged 82.
1/3. Jane Charlotte McConnell, born 4/6/1789 (from tombstone).
In 1829, when she gave Alexander
McConnell’s Bible to be transcribed into the Wigtown parish records.
Died 16/10/1869, “relict of George Ross, barrister, Inner Temple, London” buried Lexington Cemetery Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky, USAFindagrave.
Married 26 inst (April 1817), “George Ross esq of the Inner Temple, Barrister at Law, to Jane Charlotte, daughter of Wm McConnell, esq of Culbae, in the county of Wigtown”.
William’s wife is named on the cenotaph as Elisabeth Hannay, so there is no doubt of her name, but there are now no records of any marriage on the on-line databases (9/2019) At some stage, I noted from the Mormon’s listing:
Elizabeth McDowall Hannay M. William McConnell, 22 DEC 1783 Stoneykirk, (South of Stranraer) but this does not now appear. (IGI)
OPR: John Hannay son of William Hannay and Mary McDowell, Wigtown.
Born Abt 1766MI.
Died 24/4/1794 age 28, WigtownMI. (perhaps in child birth of John)
OPR has an Elizabeth Hannay ch. 7/1/1765, Old Luce of John & Agnes Hannay, a little early, assuming the age at death to be accurate.
The only other option on the OPR is Elizabeth Hanna ch. Stranraer 7/10/1761 – too old.
This is from the line posted on Genealogy.com in 2006, but contains no source information. Much has been verified from the Scottish OPR’s, with the exception of the birth of our Elizabeth. The Hannays were also centred at Sorbie castle, just south of Wigtown.
Parents: Alexander Hannay & Grizel Ross:
The contributor of this line, Shirley Walsh has made a huge number of posts on the web site.
John Hannay & Mary Ross, married 6/10/1737, Old Luce or Glenluce), a Wright in Glenluce, son of Jno Hannay of Gennoch Mary Ross dau of Alexander Ross of Cairnbrock, at Cairnbrock, wit inter alia Alexander Ross, factor to the Earl of Stair (re Dalrymples, Maitland/Armstrong connection)OPR
1/1. Alexander Hannay, bap Glenluce 5/8/1738
Alexander married Grizel Ross 24/12/1764, Old Luce or Glenluce, he the younger of Gennoch She dau of John Ross of Cairnbrock
2/1. Elizabeth Hannay
2/2. Mary Hannay, ch Stoneykirk, 4/12/1769
Mary Hannay m Robert Hannay, Stoneykirk, 27/7/1799
Cairnbrock to the NW of Stranraer, near the coast
Genock Mains on the coast, west of Glenluce, on the NE boundary of West Freugh airfield.
Ref to Thomas Adair of Genoch in Land Tax Rolls Vol3 for Mochrum parish, £80 scots
A newspaper refers to Sir Robert Hannay of Mochrum being awarded the title in 1783.
John Ross, esq, aged 94 died at Cairnbrock 11/8/1789, The Scots Magazine, Volume 51
John Ross esq of Cairnbrock died May? 1825, The Edinburgh Annual Register, Volume 18.
Hannas came from Castle Sorbie, 5 miles south of Wigton. They were an extensive and old family in the area (Hanna’s of Castle Sorbie, by James Hanna of Ohio 1959)
Parents: William Stewart & Margaret Shaw.
Died & Buried: Derryloran, 1726
T559: (Captain) will dated 23/5/1726, proved 21/7/1726.
This James Stewart, born in 1665, "was a very wayward boy in his youth and after an adventurous career in his native land and in Paris, received a commission in the Austrian Artillery. His commission in the Military Museum at Munich is dated January 10, 1703* He took part in the Central European wars and in the Balkan Campaign, and was awarded for his skill in gunnery0 Stewart was a particular friend of Emperor Joseph I, who presented him with a silver mounted sword, still in the custody of a descendant. While in the Austrian Service he fell madly in love with Maria De Salis, who was a niece of Peter De Salis who came to the Court of Queen Anne as envoy and minister-plenipotentiary from the Emperor of Germany. The romance of the gold-braided artillery officer and this young lady ended by her being thrown from her horse in a street in Vienna and fatally injured,
"During Stewart's campaigns in the Balkans he became possessed of the Royal Crown of Bulgaria. This regal relic is described by a writer in the "Public Monitor" thus: 'The Royal Crown of the Bulgars at Killy Moon, the seat of Mr Stewart, was that of Bogoris. The circlet is of four iron plates, with some of the gold and enamels still attached, Mr Stewart has been informed on his travels that a nail of the true Cross is forged within the iron band” (7.)
James Stewart returned to Killymoon and in 1709, 3 years after his father's death, at the age of 44 he married Helen Agnew, daughter of Patrick Agnew of Killwaughter who was a member of another of the leading Presbyterian families of Antrim. They had only three children; the first was a boy, named of course William after his paternal grandfather, born in 1710, In 1711 they had another boy, Patrick, (named after his maternal grandfather) who became a Wine Merchant in Dublin and who married Mary, daughter of Ben Arthur Heywood of Drogheda in 1735; they had no children. The third child was a-.daughter, Margaret, who was married by William Agnew of Killwaughter whom I suppose was a cousin or at any rate a relation of her mother's; they had no children either.
James Stewart died in 1 726 aged 61.
dau of Patrick Agnew of Killwaughter, Antrim.
1/1. William Stewart, (GPS538)
1/2. Patrick Stewart, b. 1711, (GPS762)
a wine merchant, Dublin (also T559)
Married: Mary dau of Ben Arthur Heywood of Drogheda 1735 no issue;
T559: will dated 9/4/1741, proved 26/5/1744.
2/1. Anne Eleanor Stewart, aged 3 in 1741, (GPS881).
Married: Michael Frederick
3/1. Maj Gen. Frederick William Trench (GPS883)
3/2. Rev. Segar Stewart Trench (GPS884)
3/3. Mary Sarah Trench (GPS885)
Married: Sir Compton Domeville. -
4/1. Anne Helena Compton Domeville (GPS786)
Married: Sir Thomas Winnington, MP.
4/2. Elizabeth Louisa Compton Domeville (GPS2219)
4/3. Emily Frances Compton Domeville (GPS2220)
4/4. Frederick Henry Compton Domeville (GPS2221)
4/5. Charles Compton Domeville (GPS2222)
4/6. William Compton Domeville (GPS2223)
3/4. Anne Trench (GPS886)
3/5. Elizabeth Trench (GPS887)
3/6. Sarah Helena Trench (GPS888)
1/3. Margaret Stewart, B.1712, (GPS764)
Married: William Agnew of
Killwaughter (her cousin).
2/1. James Agnew (GPS877).
2/2. Helen Agnew (GPS878), Married Edward Jones.
2/3. Margaret Agnew (GPS879)
Eldest dau of Rt. Hon Sir Henry King of Rockingham, Bt MP, co Roscommon.
(his Brother-in-law became Viscount Powerscourt). The Wingfield family have complied a thorough pedigree starting with Robert de Wingfield who was alive in 1087.
Ref Wendy Reid (for her notes on the Hamiltons, see below):
Sir Henry King, was one of those not very well liked by the Irish. They lived in the town of Boyle, Roscommon, and last year I paid a visit to the house still there. It was destroyed by fire some time ago but has been completely restored and is now a museum to the history of the family and the Earls of Kingston.
3Rd Bt Pc Sir Henry KING (5453) was born at Rockingham, Roscommon, Ireland. He died in 1740.
He 1702-27 MP For Boyle. PC 1733.
Dewin Genealogy: #688 (these reference numbers are included to aid following the extensive genealogy of the Wingfields).
Parents: Edward Folliott & Eleanor (Gore) Wingfield.
She "13th in Descent From Edward I" - Debrett.
1/1. 902. Barron Kingsborough Robert KING (5851).
1/2. 903. 1St Earl Of Kingston Viscount Kingston Edward KING
1/3. Eleanor King. (not in Dewin).
Parent: Rev James Armstrong of Canonbie.
There was a reference for the collection (£1) at Wilton (near Hawick, on A7 NE of Gretna) at the funeral of William Armstrong for the bell and mort cloth, 26 January 1734. Possibly him, with confusion over 1733-34.
He was a minister of Canonbie, about 10 miles NE of Gretna.
Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanae for Conobie show William and his father, James, both at Canonbie:
JAMES ARMSTRONG, admitted to Coldstream; translated and admitted 21st March 1694; died between 16th and 21st April 1719. He married and had issue— William, his successor.
WILLIAM ARMSTRONG, born 1692, 1719 only son of preceding;
licensed by Presbytery of Langholm 23rd July 1718; called 5th May and ordained
13th Aug. 1719; died 27th Jan. 1733. He married Jean Somerville, and had issue—Agnes
(married Andrew Jaffray, D.D., min. of Lochmaben). —[Coldstream Sess.; Tombstone.;
Wodrow’s Anal, and Correspondence.; Scots Mag., lxv.]
The only marriage for James Armstrong in the Scottish OPR was to Jonet Stewart 20/3/1678, Muthill (Perthshire). There is no indication if this is the correct one.
The wife of William Armstrong, confirmed by his clerical records:
One source has her dates as 1705-3/4/1790.
She died 3rd April 1790 in the 85th Year of her age and buried at Lochmaben.
If this was the case, she was probably b. 1706.
OPR has a Jean Somervill b 9/11/1706, bap 19/11/1706, Edinburgh of William Somervill, Wright & Burgess and Christian Turpie. Whilst this does not agree with earlier information, it looks likely, especially because Somervill is not a very common name. No trace of their marriage
On Ancestry, Nugent-Darrow Family Tree shows, but with no sources quoted:
Jean Elizabeth Somerville (1705-3/4/1790) mother of Agnes,
dau of John Somerville & Agnes Veitch;
John Somerville: Died 6 MAY 1734, Bur Caerlaverock, Dumfriesshire, Scotland, north wall of church. Born 1660 (age at death?)
Agnes Veitch Died 14/8/1712 having her 7th child. Probably the same monument as John Somerville. She was born 20 JAN 1680
Longhorslie, Northumberland, Stanton Hall
Issue of William & Jean (Somerville) Armstrong:
1/1. Agnes Armstrong, b 1733
The origins of the Wigtown branch of the McConnells is unknown, but tradition is that they came originally from the Highlands. There was a strong presence in Northern Ireland.
Town Clerk of Wigtown.
The Bible transcript in the Wigtown PR confirms that Alexander & Jean Christie were the parents of our William McConnell, and William’s age at death agrees with this and Jean Christie is named on Alexander’s tombstone in Wigtown. Before this, there is no certainty of Alexander’s origins: as noted under William, the Scottish OPR’s seem to have none of this family in their records, in spite of their being buried in the Church of Scotland grave yard in Wigtown. There are possibilities on the various internet data bases, but none seem to have any primary sources given, so they may all be copies of an original assumption.
Geni.com has him son of John & Elizabeth (Carsen) McConnell, and father of Janet Buchanan, and born 1719.
There is a baptism in Sorbie, 1/12/1719 of John M & Elizabeth CarsenOPR.
Findmypast tomb text transcript has his age at death as 55, i.e. born 1714, but the details on the entry has him born 1719, age 49-50. Which is correct?? The image of the tomb makes it difficult to read, so there may be a transcription error, but it could well be 50, if so 1719 is correct.
John & Elizabeth were married 25/11/1714, Sorbie, John of Whithorn, Elizabeth Carsen in BalltireOPR.
Geni.com has John McConnell born Barr, Ayrshire, 16/3/1691(ancestry), son of Andrew.
Other sources (LDS) have him as the son of John McConnell and Jean Hanna.
Married Jean Christie, 19/3/1739 (from the family Bible in Wigtown PR)
Noted in Caledonian Mercury 20/8/1752 referring to public sale of lands around Wigton, inter alia, Drumblair Culbae and Capenoch, by act of parliament.
1749, April 15, mentioned as Town Clerk for Wigtown.
MI: In memory of Alexander McConnell, late Town Clerk of Wigtown, who died 18th December 1769, aged 55 years. Also Jean Chrystie his spouse who died 5th June 1808 aged 84 yearsFindagrave.
Issue at Wigtown transcribed from a bible into the parish record, 4/9/1829 on the wish of Mrs Jean Charlotte Ross, in Wigtown, daughter of the deceased William McConnell esq, late Sherriff Substitute of Wigtownshire:
1/1. Isobel McConnell, b Friday 29/2/1740
1/2. Alexander McConnell, b Friday 12/6/1741 & died 6/10/1741
1/3. Grizel McConnell, b 22/9/1742 & died 25/5/1743
1/4. Dunbar McConnell, dau, b 6/4/1744, Monday, at 2 in the morning.
LDS has her dying in
Whitechapel, London, Dunbar Randall, 1/3/1795LDS.
Was this her??!!, The Caledonian Mercury Edinburgh,14 Sep 1768,
It may have been even though she was married, as the Scots seemed women of the time seemed to retain their maiden name.
Whereas, William Hunter, some time Merchant traveller in Galloway, and late Shop-keeper in Wigton in Galloway, did within these few days abscond, and leave his house, in company with one Dunbar McConnell, the wife of a Shop-keeper in Wigton, and carried off, along with them, goods and cash to a considerable amount, the property of James Hunter and Company Merchants in Wigton. Whoever can apprehend the said William Hunter and Dunbar McConnell, or either of them, and secure them in any goal in Great Britain, shall, upon their being so secured, receive a REWARD of TEN GUINEAS, to be paid by William Hay Writer to the Signet in Edinburgh, or William Hunter Merchant in Dumfries.
They were traced to Edinburgh, and seen there about ten days ago. Hunter is about twenty-six years of age, five feet eight inches high, wore his own hair, of a light brown colour, tied with a black ribbon, and had on, when in Edinburgh, a light coloured coat. Dunbar McConnell is a genteel thin woman, with red hair, and remarkably pretty.
1/5. John McConnell, B. Wednesday 30th January 1751,
about 4 in the morning and was baptised the next day.
1/6. Jean Charlotte McConnell, b Wednesday about 8 in the
1/7. Janet McConnell b. 3/8/1754 in the morning. Married Buchannan.
1/8. Elizabeth McConnell b. 30/8/1756 and died 30/12/1756.
1/9. Helena McConnell b. 29/12/1759
1/10. David McConnell b. 22/3/1761, died abt 1817 Jamaica.
Married 1st, Mary Ann (re bth of dau 1791) – no other information.
Married, 1st, Martha
Brae, 8/6/1793, Ann Crew, spinsterPR, who died 10/5/1801.
Married, 2nd, 26/4/1808, Sarah Jackson, both widowed, Trelawney, Jamaica, by licencePR, she the widow of Henry Jackson, who she married 19/4/1793.
There is no indication that Sarah was not white.
A daughter of Kemble Booth & Ann Mary Facey, mulatto, born 27/12/1777, baptised 25/3/1780, Trelawney; this has been suggested as the one who married Jackson; it seems to be unlikely, both because of her youth and more significantly, that she was coloured and David certainly was white, and would not have been allowed to marry.
The Trelawney and St James records did not start until 1771 & 1777, so she may still have been the daughter of Kemble, but unrecorded. My research on the Booth family has not found any suitable Sarah Booths. Early Jamaica deeds have many references to Kemble, and probably his father, but these have not been noted. Kemble Booth married Ann Riley, St James 4/5/1772.
Sarah Booth married Henry Jackson in Trelawney, 19/09/1793. They had three sons baptised in Trelawney in 1799: John (later with the middle name Graves or Greaves, born 1795), Kembel (appears as Hempbell in the parish register transcription, later with the middle name Booth, born 1797) and Henry (born 1799).
The will of Sarah McConnell was proved 27/05/1815 and appointed guardians Sarah Jane and Thomas - John Mitchell, Jonathan Brown, Catherine Wilkings and Mary Jane Hawkins.
Recess estate in Trelawney, Jamaica, was registered to the heirs of Mrs McConnell in 1815 and thereafter to her children Thomas and Sarah as trust beneficiaries.
All these are from the Jamaica
PR’s, Trelawney, except Edward.
2/1. Edward Burton McConnell, son of David McConnell, by Nancy Gutteres,
bap Clarendon, 27/11/1783, reputed buried 1785, but nothing in Clarendon.
2/2. Mary Ann McConnell, dau of
David & Mary Ann his wife, born 15/9/1791
2/3. Ann McConnell, dau of David & Ann, born 14/1/1795 Both bap 29/8/1795.
2/4. Jean Frances McConnell, of David & Ann, b 24/12/1796, bap 4/2/1798.
2/5. Amelia McConnell, dau of Charlotte Brown & David McConnell,
a white man, b 14/6/1808, bap 25/6/1809 (of colour). Charlotte Brown, free mustee, bur Trelawney 7/9/1813, aged 40.
2/6. Thomas McConnell, b 25/4/1809, Bap 3/12/1811.
22nd Feb 1836 | 2 Enslaved | £53 3S 0DUCL.
2/7. Sarah Jane McConnell, b. 9/4/1811, Bap 3/12/1811.
Sarah Jane married John Alexander Hamilton 21/06/1843 in St AnneUCL.
Parents: James & Barbara (Lindsay) Stewart.
Died: Derryloran, 1706, T559: will dated 2/11/1727, proved 5/12/1727 Of Killymoon, 1690 MP for Charlmont.
There is a suggestion that
William Stewart, son of the first James Stewart, born in 1625, moved from Ballymenagh to Killymoon and in 1690 he was returned as Member of Parliament for Charlemont. Very little else is known of him.
In 1664. William married Margaret Shaw, daughter of a County
Antrim gentleman. A good Presbyterian, she built a wee Presbyterian Church
(long since in ruins) inside the Killymoon Demesne. Tradition has it that
Margaret bore 21 children to William but only seven are mentioned in William's
Will. (2) The eldest was named James (after his grandfather) and was born in
1665. They had three more sons, but Alexander died young, and John the fourth
child was drowned in the river at Killymoon; Henry the third son became Sheriff
of the County Tyrone in 1711 and died in 1717.
There were three daughters mentioned in the Will: one of them, Margaret, in 1706 was married by Clotworthy Upton, Esquire, of Castle Upton, as his second wife, but she bore him no children and died in 1707. Clotworthy Upton, however, has contributed genes to the Stewarts because Elizabeth his daughter by his third marriage, who was created Viscountess Langford (not to be confused with Longford), was the grandmother of the Honourable Elizabeth Pakenham who was married by our ancestor Henry Stewart in 1793 as will be revealed later. (2) William's other two daughters were Mary of whom nothing is known and Catherine who was married by James Moore of County Tyrone.
William Stewart died in 1706 aged 81.
They were Presbyterians, they seem to have supported the Cookstown Meeting House:
William Stewart of Killymoon discovered an old document which shows that on one occasion the avenue to the Meeting House was blocked and the doors and windows nailed up at the instigation of the then Rector of Derryloran, Rev. John Richardson. For this and whatever other reasons there may have been the meeting-house was pulled down and moved from Oldtown in 1701. They were granted a site at Scotchtown within the Killymoon demesne, largely it is thought, at the instigation of Lady Margaret Stewart. The removal and re-building was accomplished in three months, and Rev. McClure was deeply involved and enthusiastic in this upheaval.
Parents: John Shaw (Dau of a County Antrim Gent).
JS of Glenarm, Antrim. (T559: her cousin was Robert Lindsay)
1/1. James Stewart, born 1665 GPS540,
1/2. Alexander Stewart (d young, bef 1705?) (GPS753)
1/3. John Stewart (Drowned in river at Killymoon) (GPS755)
1/4. Henry Stewart (3rd son, Sheriff of Co Tyrone 1711
d. 7/3/1717) (GPS754).
T559: of Killymoon, will dated 14/12/1714, proved 3/8/1721.
1/5. Margaret Stewart, (GPS756)
Married: 1706 Clotworthy Upton
esq. of Castle Upton as 2nd wife - no issue, d 1707. Clotworthy's dau Elizabeth by 3rd wife created Viscountess Langford: See the
Pakenham Volume 10.4 Clotworthy Upton
Elizabeth's daughter, Catherine Rowley married Edward Michael Pakenham, father of Elizabeth Pakenham who married Henry Stewart.
Dublin Nat Library has a rent roll for "Mr Upton's estates and debts thereon chargeable at the intermarriage with the daughter of Wm Stewart of Killymoon".
1/6. Mary Stewart, no details, d. 4/11/1701 Killymoon.
1/7. Catherine Stewart, married James Moores of Co. Tyrone.
2/1. Catherine Moores, GPS2679, married James Moore.
KO10/167 - Dewin #514.
Parents: Lewis Wingfield
He died on 7 January 1728 at Folliott.
Married, 1st, Eleanor Gore (5439),
daughter of Sir Arthur Gore (142406).
Married, 2nd, Arabella Lloyd (5441).
This Wingfield line from Wingfield.org. and is continued as an Appendix to this volume.
May/June 1690 - Briefed King William on the situation in Dublin just prior to Battle of the Boyne, having come out in a small boat. [Story in Impartial History of Ireland p. 64-66 (1693)].
1695 - Barrister and King's 2nd Counsellor-at-Law.
Held Benburb Castle 1660-76 and represented himself (there being no Lord Powerscourt) successfully in the famous House of Lords case versus S Chappel 13 March 1722 to retain it in the family [19l9 Bm].
1717 - House in William Street, Dublin.
1717 - Inherited Powerscourt Castle.
Eleanor Gore (5439) was born at Newton Gore, Mayo, Ireland. She died in 1703. She Buried Killala Cathedral, Ireland. She Her Father Was Almost Certainly The Commanding Officer OF Lewis Wingfield, Her Father-IN-Law.
Issue of Edward Wingfield Esq and Eleanor Gore:
1/1. Richard Wingfield 687, 1st Viscount Powerscourt
(3rd Creation), born 1697; married Anne Usher (5450); married Dorothy Beresford Rowley (5452).
1/2. 688. Isabella Wingfield,
married 3Rd Bt Pc Sir Henry King (5453).
1/3. 689. Sidney Wingfield (5456)
married Acheson Moore (5455) on 17 April 1723.
Arabella Lloyd was born at Killala,, Ireland. She died on 12 January 1728. She Father Bishop OF Killala. There were no known children of Edward Folliott Wingfield Esq and Arabella Lloyd.
KO11/321 GPS 731
Died & Buried, 1679, Derryloran
Notes: Of Ballymenagh Ref GPS monograph PRONI).
A Presbyterian who migrated from Scotland (Edinburgh ref Ont) early in the reign of James I (abt 1616). Took up residence in Ballymenagh Castle in 1619, bought Killymoon in 1634 from Shane Roe O'Neil, acquired lease of Cookstown in 1666, and built first castle at Killymoon in 1671. Probably from Edinburgh about 1616 Generally supposed to be the younger brother of Capt Andrew Stewart, who came to Ulster with Lord Ochiltree about 1620.
Capt Andrew listed by J Montgomery Seaver as “Stewarts of Athenry”.
The first list of Scottish applicants for Ulster allotments, completed by September 14, 1609. given in volume VIII of the official edition of the Register of the Privy Council of Scotland – some are listed in the Stewart Appendix.
James Stewart, the founder of this family, came across from Edinburgh in Scotland probably about 1616 and obtained leases of land at Ballymenagh in County Tyrone, not far from the site on which Cookstown now stands. (2) He was a Presbyterian but his family and antecedents are obscure. My father tried to trace them without success, and he concluded, as he told me, that James Stewart probably left Scotland for the good of Scotland. On the other hand, Burke's "Peerage and Baronetcy" states that James Stewart was the younger brother of Captain Andrew Stewart who came over to Ulster at that time with Lord Ochiltree. Cosmo Stewart, a descendant of that Andrew Stewart, writing about his family and ours says "They were probably all the same lot, and as far as I can remember, were a genuine branch of the Ochiltree family and who emigrated to Ireland at the first colonisation of Ulster. (Probably turned out!)" (3) (And see Appendix I)
In 1624 James Stewart married Barbara Lindesay of Loughray, County Tyrone; she was a daughter of Robert Lindesay of Leith who had got "a small poor portion” of land at Tullyhogue to plant with new settlers0 This small poor portion, however, comprised 1000 acres. Barbara Lindesay is also believed to have been the sister of the Grand Harbinger of Scotland but I have not found out to what functionary that title was given. Barbara was baptised at South Leith on the 1st November 1608 in the presence of the Bishop of Ross and the Master of' Lindesay„ (5)
In 1633 or shortly thereafter James Stewart took over leases from one Dr Allen Cooke, an English Ecclesiastical Lawyer, and in 1634 he bought the Killymoon Demesne from Shane Roe O'Neill. Presumably Shane Roe O'Neill's lands had escaped forfeiture. Only two miles from-Killymoon was Tullyhogue which had been the crowning place of the O'Neills and where their "inauguration stone" had been until it was destroyed by the English after the Battle of Kinsale. Dr Allen Cooke had acquired leases of land also in the Tullyhogue area in 1620, which leases were subject to the condition that a good house "fit for an Englishman" be built on each. In 1628 Dr Cooke was granted a Charter for a weekly market and two fairs yearly, and he provided a piece of common land for a fair green and market place0 One of the clauses in this Charter reads "So that the rude and rustic people of the said region may be brought to a human and civil mode of living,," The market flourished and it was round this that the original "Dr Cooke’s Town" grew, but in 1633 the Earl of Strafford, King Charles I's Lord Deputy in Ireland took certain stringent measures to control the country which had the incidental effect of ruining Dr Cooke’s flourishing market. Dr Cooke, broken-hearted it is said, then disposed of his leases to our James Stewart, and departed to England. Thus did James Stewart lay the foundations of the Stewart Family fortunes.
It was not all plain sailing thereafter. In 1641 the Irish Catholics rebelled; Royalist troops were sent to quell them and in the process they destroyed an iron smelting plant near Cookstown which was being used to manufacture pikes for the rebels. Regrettably the Royalist troops' desire for loot and arson resulted also in the destruction of Cookstown. (6) A hundred years later James Stewart's great-grandson rebuilt it as will be told in due course. James Stewart was still residing at Ballymenagh and appears to have been unscathed in the 1641 rising.
James Stewart died in 1679; he and Barbara had six children: William the eldest, born in 1625, and five daughters all of whom except the youngest were duly married.
Here it should be mentioned that for the next five generations the Stewarts carried on the confusing custom which prevails in Ulster of "calling" the eldest son after his paternal grandfather, and they carried it to an extreme by not adding any second name. So we find that James Stewart aforesaid begat William aforesaid who begat James who begat William who begat James who begat William who broke the custom because he died in 1850 without begetting anyone. I feel sure that the first James Stewart's father's name was William Stewart.
Baptised: South Leith 1/11/1608 Dau of Robert Lindesay of Leith, small settler (1000 acres) at Loughray Tyrone.
The first list of Scottish applicants for Ulster allotments, completed by September 14, 1609. given in volume VIII of the official edition of the Register of the Privy Council of Scotland:
LINDSAY, MR. ROBERT, in Leith: surety, George Smailholm in Leith: 2,000 acres
Awarded in 1610: ROBERT LINDSAY (in County Tyrone), 1000 acres.
1/1. William Stewart (GPS462 & T559)
1/2. Robert Stewart (T559)
2/1. James Stewart married Catherine. (T559) + 5 dau.
1/3. Catherine Stewart (GPS744)
1/5. Mary Stewart (GPS746), married James Richardson.
1/6. Jane Stewart (GPS748), married Thomas Goodlett.
1/7. Sarah Stewart (GPS750), Married Mr Birkby.
1/8. Anne Stewart (GPS752)
Capt James Stewart of Killymoon
Marriage articles before made with Elizabeth Stewart dau of George Stewart of Orater, co Tyrone, date 4/1693 did grant release to confirm to Walter Dawson and Wm Stewart Currigan townland of Newtown (different ink) and all? in Co Tyrone also the townland of Ardenchon in the Parish of Dalsay Steventon in Kirkcudbrightshire. Robert Stewart my fathers other lands in Scotland forced in remainder for debts of father for life of Elizabeth wife long since dead. Issue living Jane 1st dau = James Stewart alias Foster who has taken the name of Stewart dau Margt = John Scott. Henry Stewart of Caragan grandfather & William Stewart his son & Henry Stewart, son of said Wm Stewart & Agnes Stewart als Lane.
Exec. James Stewart als Foster
Date 3/12/1721 died 1721 (may be 1724).
Published in The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1820-1832, ed. D.R. Fisher, 2009
Available from Cambridge University Press
Stewart’s Whig father James, whose family had long held one of the principal electoral interests in Tyrone, represented his county at Dublin and Westminster from 1768 to 1812. William regained the seat at the general election of 1818 with the support of local magnates and Lord Liverpool’s administration, but sided with opposition in the Commons, except (following his father’s example) on Catholic relief.1 He was again returned unopposed in March 1820, when he signed requisitions for county meetings on George IV’s accession and on illicit distillation.2 He voted against the appointment of an additional baron of exchequer in Scotland, 15 May, and Wilberforce’s compromise motion on the Queen Caroline affair, 22 June, and for economies in revenue collection, 4 July 1820. Having inherited his father’s estate on 18 Jan. 1821, he took six weeks’ compassionate leave, 12 Feb., so it was probably not he, but William Stuart, Member for Armagh, who divided against Catholic claims on the 28th.3 He apparently suggested the temporary postponement of the Irish tithes leasing bill, 15 Mar.4 He voted for repeal of the additional malt duty, 3 Apr., and to disqualify civil officers of the ordnance from voting in parliamentary elections, 12 Apr. 1821. Although by no means a thick and thin attender, during the following three sessions he divided fairly steadily with the Whig opposition on most issues, including for parliamentary reform, 25 Apr. 1822, 20 Feb., 24 Apr., 2 June 1823. He voted against the Catholic peers bill, 30 Apr. 1822. He divided for inquiries into Irish tithes, 19 June, Irish distress, 8 July 1822, the Irish church establishment, 4 Mar. 1823, 6 May 1824, the legal proceedings against the Dublin Orange rioters, 22 Apr. 1823, and the state of Ireland, 11 May 1824. He voted for securing the proper use of Irish first fruits revenues, 25 May, and against Irish clerical pluralities, 27 May, and the Irish insurrection bill, 18 June 1824. He was granted six weeks’ sick leave, 10 Feb. 1825, and apparently missed the rest of the session. The inhabitants of Cookstown congratulated him on his recovery that autumn and early the next year he was reported to be ready to resume his parliamentary duties.5 However, the sole piece of evidence for attendance which has been traced that year was his probable vote against flogging in the army, 10 Mar. 1826.
He confidently asserted in his address that he would be well enough to attend Parliament, nothing came of a rumoured challenge and he was returned unopposed at the general election of 1826.6 He signed the requisition for, but apparently was not present at, the Tyrone Protestant meeting at the end of that year.7 Having also signed the anti-Catholic petition from the landed proprietors of Ireland, he presented his county’s hostile one, 5 Mar. 1827.8 Yet he was listed as an ‘absentee’ from the division the following day and was granted another six weeks’ sick leave on 2 Apr. No evidence of parliamentary activity has been traced for the 1828 session and Planta, the Wellington ministry’s patronage secretary, noted that he was ‘Protestant’ but ‘absent’ at the start of the following year. He missed the Tyrone meeting on 2 Mar., but was credited with a vote (his last) in favour of Catholic emancipation, 6 Mar., and he may have been the Stewart who spoke in its favour, 16 Mar. 1829.9 Late that year it was expected that he would vacate, and his hand was forced by the resolutions passed at a meeting of freeholders in January 1830, when approaches were made to his distant kinsman Sir Hugh Stewart* to replace him. Recognizing that he was ‘incapable of that attendance which the fulfilment of my duties as their representative requires’, he promised them he would resign at the dissolution, and in an address issued from Paris, 8 July 1830, he confirmed his retirement.10 At the general election of 1831, when he claimed to have always been a reformer, he wrote to his mother that ‘were I less poor or stronger I would try my luck once more for Tyrone’, but nothing ever again came of such an ambition.11
In his youth Stewart had lived for some years with Ellen, daughter of Edmund Power of Curragheen, county Waterford, with whom he had had three daughters. She afterwards married John Home Purves, a younger son of Sir Alexander Purves of Purves Hall, Berwickshire, who passed off the children as his own, although, as Greville noted, ‘nothing could be more notorious than the original connection and the real paternity’. Later still she married the Commons Speaker Charles Manners Sutton, so ending her days (in 1845) as Viscountess Canterbury.12 Stewart died at the soon to be sold Killymoon in early October 1850. By his will he left the rest of his Tyrone estates to his unmarried sister Mary Eleanor and thereafter to the family of his other sister Louisa, wife of Henry John Clements† of Ashfield Lodge, county Cavan.13
(RONI D/3167 and D/2966/92/B)
The Stewart of Killymoon papers comprise c.850 letters and papers, 1761-1845, of the Stewart family of Killymoon Castle, Cookstown, Co. Tyrone, principally of James Stewart of Killymoon, MP for Co. Tyrone, 1768-1812, and his wife, the Hon. Mrs Elizabeth Stewart, Molesworth.
James Stewart was the eldest son of William Stewart of Killymoon and Eleanor King of Rockingham, Co. Roscommon. Shortly before embarking on his long parliamentary career, the young James Stewart did the Grand Tour in Europe. A splendid portrait of him (now in the Ulster Museum) was painted in Italy some time in 1767 by Pompeo Batoni, the highly fashionable painter of foreign visitors to Italy and then at the height of his considerable powers. Early the following year Stewart was reported to have left Turin on his way home. The future 2nd Duke of Leinster (eldest brother of Lord Edward FitzGerald) wrote to his mother in March 1768 describing him as 'a gentlemanlike young man, and also very amiable. I know no gentleman better liked than he has been in every town he has passed through.
Stewart succeeded his father as one of the MPs for Co. Tyrone in 1768, retaining the seat continuously and without a contest for the next thirty-two years in Dublin and a further twelve after 1800 at Westminster. It was said of him that 'without place or pension, one shilling of public money has never found its way into his pocket ... during a period of 44 years'. Most county seats in the Irish Parliament, like most of the boroughs, were dominated by great landowning families. Tyrone was unusual at this period in having a large number of independently minded Presbyterian voters, and its great landowners happened to be a loggerheads. Only when faced by a combination in 1812 was Stewart obliged to retire.
Though he himself was a member of the Protestant Ascendancy, as it came to be called, his father was (and remained) a Presbyterian. This was ironic, in view of the fact that Killymoon and over half the Stewart estate was churchland, held on 21-year leases under the Church of Ireland Archbishop of Armagh. Stewart became one of the leading spokesmen in the Irish Parliament for the northern Presbyterians and was instrumental in promoting legislation to mitigate or remove the penal laws which affected them. In particular, he supported the Act (19 & 20 Geo. III, c.6) that repealed the Test Act for Protestant Dissenters, proposed the Act (21 & 22 Geo. III, c.25) declaring marriages by Presbyterian ministers valid, and helped to secure an increase in the "regium donum", the annual grant to approved Presbyterian clergy. The Presbyterians' regard for him was shown not only by electoral support but also, in the usual fashion of the time, by numerous presentations of silver plate.
Stewart was prominent in the Volunteer movement, from its foundation in the late 1770s to its suppression in 1793. He was the close ally of the Volunteer commander-in-chief, James Caulfeild, 1st Earl of Charlemont, was active at Volunteer meetings and parades, and in September 1783 took the chair at the second great convention of northern Volunteer companies in Dungannon, in preparation for the national meeting in Dublin. After Lord Charlemont's celebrated but still mysterious breach with Grattan in 1783, Stewart became Charlemont's principal spokesman in the House of Commons (thanks to the general inarticulacy of those whom Charlemont returned, after Grattan, for the family borough of Charlemont, Co. Armagh). Like Charlemont, and unlike Grattan, Stewart opposed all political concessions to the Roman Catholics; not until the Union had transferred the Irish representation to Westminster did he come round to support of Catholic Emancipation.
By a curious confusion, Charlemont's letters to Stewart almost all passed into the possession of Stewart's younger brother, Henry Stewart of Tyrcallen, Co. Donegal, and passed down that branch of the family (see PRONI, D/3319); the rest of Stewart's papers passed down the female line through Stewart's daughter, Louisa, who in 1811 married into the Clements family of Ashfield, Co. Cavan, later of Lough Rynn, Co. Leitrim. The papers which passed down the collateral male line have been re-united with those which passed down the direct female line to constitute D/3167/1.
In 1772 Stewart married Elizabeth Molesworth, daughter of the 3rd Viscount Molesworth. She was one of the survivors of a tragic fire in London in 1763, where she was living with her widowed mother. Lady Molesworth, two of her daughters and six of the servants were killed. Two other daughters were badly injured when they jumped from upper windows - one had to have a leg cut off after landing on the railings below - and a third was severely burned. Elizabeth Stewart became in 1794 a co-heiress of her late brother, the 4th Viscount Molesworth, and inherited a share of the Molesworth estates in Dublin City, near Swords, Co. Dublin, and in and around Philipstown, King's County. Another sister, Louisa, was married to William Brabazon Ponsonby, 1st Baron Ponsonby, the leader of the celebrated political 'cousinhood' of that name - a connection which strengthened Stewart's links with the Whig opposition, both before and after the Union.
After the Union, Stewart also formed a friendship with the Prince of Wales which has been much exaggerated in family mythology (although the Prince did at least trouble to condole with Stewart's son and successor, William, on Stewart's death in 1821). Stewart is also popularly reputed to have lost Killymoon to the Prince in an unsuccessful bet. This almost certainly apocryphal incident is not documented in the papers, which do however contain some documentation, 1803-1804, about the early 19th century re-building of Killymoon by John Nash, and about the furnishing of it by Thomas Tatham of London, 1809-1810; there are also earlier letters of architectural interest from Frederick Trench (1795) and Robert Woodgate (1801).
A visit to Killymoon
In 1824, when Stewart's widow and the Stewarts' unmarried son, Colonel William Stewart, were living in Killymoon, they invited their Tyrone neighbour, John Burges, '... to pass a few days at this romantic and most beautiful place [as Burges recorded in his diary (PRONI, T/1282/1, pp.10-13)]. It may be well termed so, for I suppose its equal is not to be found in any country for the most perfect combination of wood, water, mountain and undulation of ground.
My brother and I rode there. ... We arrived at the bridge which spans the widest part of the river, famed for its enormous sycamores. At one side is a long glade, richly wooded at its furthest end. On the other you see the castle, at that time nearly shut out by elms of picturesque forms. We passed the bridge and through fine specimens of the old Irish pines, fir, now no more. We gained the park, and soon found ourselves in the apartments allotted for us. ...
[When the dinner gong sounded, they descended] '... the grand staircase, for grand it is ... . Colonel Stewart took the head of the table, and his venerable mother the foot, a lady of the old school, so clever, so agreeable, such a one is not to be seen now, so kind, so anxious to please, so dignified, with the greatest good nature. William Stewart was the Sir Charles Grandison of the day, what some would call fine, but fineness was natural to him and it did not sit unseemly on him. He had the softest voice and the gentlest manner, and with all the courage and prowess of a hero. His gallantries as a man of fashion are well known, the only portion of his character I wish to veil over...
The following morning we lionised this magnificent place. Every walk and drive brought us into new features. The extensive gardens, celebrated for an enormous pear tree, caught our attention. The length of said tree is something immense. Also, I must not forget the huge Portugal laurel and the larch...;. The silver firs are equal to the most luxuriant [?piceas] in the pinetums of the present day. It would be difficult to find such specimens now. The dark green of the foliage and the thickness of the stems seem as if they belonged to some distant hemisphere. The spruce firs, too, are very fine. The grandeur of the timber, particularly the oaks and sycamore, quite give you the idea of a scene of Claude Lorraine's, and that dark, clear river always running rapidly along [?creates] a scene that perhaps might border, without its cheerful and its darling sound, upon the gloomy.'
Killymoon Castle and the estate were sold on Colonel Stewart's death in 1850.
The (Killymoon) papers
As might be expected, James Stewart's papers are at their best in documenting Co. Tyrone elections and politics during the period 1768- 1812, his role in the local Volunteer movement from the late 1770s to the bitter end in 1793, his position as spokesman for the Presbyterians (particularly letters to him from the Rev. William Campbell of Armagh and the Rev. William Crawford of Strabane, Co. Tyrone, urging him to oppose a bill of 1785 to prevent clandestine marriages, which the Presbyterians felt was particularly aimed at marriages celebrated by their ministers), etc, etc.
Mrs Stewart's letters and papers, 1798-1831, which include a copy of her will (1821), principally consist of a run of 337 letters to her, spread over this whole period, from Rebecca Leslie, wife of Colonel, later General, David Leslie, the third son of the 6th Earl of Leven. The Leslies had come to Ireland in 1796 with the Tay Fencibles, a Scottish regiment of which David Leslie was colonel and which had been stationed at Cookstown, where the Leslies met and befriended the Stewarts. The letters begin towards the end of 1797 and become frequent and regular when the Leslies moved with the Tay Fencibles to Carrickfergus in 1798. They mostly contain news of family and social events, but the '98 and '99 letters make many references to the rebellion and its aftermath. A letter of 27 January 1807, for example, comments amusingly on the Marquis and Marchioness of Donegall, '... who have come to Scotland to retrench and to starve, as her Ladyship says, upon £17,000 per annum, "which is all their cruel creditors will allow them", ... are so dashing they quite astonish our sober Scottishies, but our gentlemen have found out that the poor Marquis is very weak and does not understand literary conversation, which is what they feed themselves upon; so they hold him rather cheap and look a little glum at the gold bragg parties which Ly D. has introduced....' During the next thirty years the Leslies served or lived in various places in Ireland and Scotland, and the correspondence between Mrs Leslie and Mrs Stewart continues throughout these years.
The Stewart papers peter out unsurprisingly with Stewart's descendants huddling in Boulogne to escape their creditors. The Stewart finances, always parlous, finally collapsed in the 1840s, so that there was nothing left for Stewart's daughter, Louisa, who had married Henry John Clements of Ashfield in 1811, to inherit when her brother, Colonel William Stewart, died childless in 1850. Some 150 letter to Colonel Stewart's Dublin agents, Messrs Stewart & Kincaid, 1841-1848, documenting the financial difficulties of these last years, will be found at D/2966/92/B.
The above description is mainly based on the content of the archive. However, it also draws on W.A. Maguire (ed.), "Up in Arms: the 1798 Rebellion in Ireland: a Bicentenary [Ulster Museum] Exhibition" (Belfast, 1998), which in turn draws on Professor E.M. Johnston-Liik's 'History of the Irish Parliament, 1690-1800' database.
This material is subject to Crown copyright and, except for personal study, any unauthorised use, copying or mirroring, is prohibited. Permission to publish may be obtained by writing to; Head of Reader Services, PRONI, 66 Balmoral Avenue, Belfast BT9 6NY, Northern Ireland.
Lewis 1842: County Donegal:
STRANORLAR, a market and post-town, and a parish in the barony of RAPHOE, county of DONEGAL, and province of ULSTER; 10¼ miles (W. by S.) from Lifford, and 18 (N. W. by N.) from Dublin, on the road from Strabane to Ballyshannon, and on the river Fin; containing 6114 inhabitants, of which number 641 are in the town. The parish, according to the Ordnance survey, comprises 15,509 statute acres, of which 159 are under water. That part which forms the estate of Sir Edmund Hayes is under an improved system of agriculture, but the other part appears to be neglected. Here appear two veins containing spar, ochre, and apparently lead ore; they are in a limestone rock, and in the vicinity are great bodies of decomposed limestone, forming excellent manure, and some is quarried for building. The stupendous mountains of Barnesmore, alike remarkable for their perpendicular ascent and for their beautifully varied rocks and herbage, form the Gap of the same name, situated at the south western extremity of the parish; through this gap a fine stream flows into Lough Esk, and it is also the pass between the north and west of Ireland, coastwise, and on the leading road to Donegal. The town comprises 116 houses, of which 20 are well built, the remainder being occupied by labourers and artisans. Here is a good hotel; also a market and court house. The market, at which fine brown linen is sold, is held every Saturday; and there are fairs on March 29th, June 11th, July 6th, Aug. 12th, Oct. 10th, and Dec. 9th and 10th. Manor courts are held in the court house before the seneschal on the first Saturday in every month; and petty sessions are held on alternate Wednesdays. The linen manufacture is partially carried on; there are two extensive bleach greens near the town, one belonging to J. Johnston. Esq.; the other adjoining Summer Hill, to J. and C. Johnston, Esqrs. In the neighbourhood are numerous gentlemen's seats, among which are Drumboe Castle, the residence of Sir E. Hayes, Bart., M. P., situated on a pretty lawn in the centre of an improved demesne; Tyrcallen, of H. Stevens, Esq., in a beautiful and extensively planted demesne, on the principal elevation in which the proprietor has erected an observatory; Edenmore, of J. Cochran, Esq., J. P., a neat mansion, in a small but handsome demesne, on the south bank of the Fin; Woodlands, a handsome modern residence, of J. Johnston, Esq., J. P.; Summer Hill, of C. Johnston, Esq.; Glenmore, of C. Style, Esq., a handsome mansion in improved grounds; the Glebe house, of the Rev. T. Fullerton; and Cloghan Lodge, the occasional residence of Sit T. O. Style, Bart., near the romantic waterfall and salmon leap of this name on the Fine.
The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Raphoe, and in the patronage of the Crown; the tithes amount to £485. The glebe house was built in 1812 at a cost of £692 British currency, of which £46 was a loan, and the remainder a gift from the late Board of First Fruits. The church is an old building, to which the same Board, in 1825, granted a loan of £300 for the erection of a gallery. Prior to the 24th of March, 1835, this parish, forming part of the deanery of Raphoe, consisted of the two perpetual cures of Stranorlar and Kilteevock, but by an order in council of the above date it was disappropriated from the deanery, and erected into a separate and distinct parish, or benefice. It was provided, howsoever, that the incumbent should pay to the perpetual curate of Kilteevock the same salary as had been paid by the dean. The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Established Church; there are two chapels, one in the town, and one about five miles westward. There are places of worship for Presbyterians, in connection with the Synod of Ulster (of the third class), for Seceders (of the second class), and for Wesleyan Methodists; also a dispensary. The parochial school has an endowment from Col. Robertson's charity; there is another under the trustees of Erasmus Smith's charity; and four more are aided by subscriptions; in these schools are about 350 children. There are also two private schools, in which are about 130 children; and two Sunday schools.
The Stewart Papers comprise c.2,250 documents (including some volumes) and c.25 outsize maps. They derive from the Tyrcallen branch of the Stewarts of Killymoon, Cookstown, Co. Tyrone: in particular, to Henry Stewart of Tyrcallen, Stranorlar, Co. Donegal (1743-1840), younger brother of James Stewart of Killymoon, M.P. for Co. Tyrone, 1768-1812. For further information about the family, see the calendar of the Stewart of Killymoon papers (D/3167), one section of which was also deposited by Mr H.W.B. and Mr G.P. Stewart. For another related collection, see T/3007.
Henry Stewart's wife, Elizabeth, was a daughter of the 2nd Lord Longford and a sister of the Duchess of Wellington. For this reason, some sections of these papers consist of letters to, as well as from, members of the Longford/Pakenham family, 1755-1846. The letters from the Duchess of Wellington run from 1813 to 1831, and there are earlier 'Grand Tour' letters from Mrs Stewart's and her brother, the 2nd Earl of Longford, 1793-1795. Henry Stewart himself was a land agent - perhaps 'accountant' would be a better word - who managed the estate affairs of a number of families, on a basis which was professional by the standards of the day, from an office in Clare Street and then at 6 Leinster Street, Dublin. The bulk of the archive relates to his clients' (and his own) estate and business affairs.
His most important clients were the 2nd and 3rd Viscounts Palmerston, who owned Irish estates mainly in Cos. Dublin and Sligo. Henry Stewart was not appointed to this prestigious agency until 1784, so the majority of the papers were actually inherited by him from his predecessor, John Hatch. They include: case papers, 1757-1792, about the debt due to the 1st Viscount Palmerston, grandfather of the 2nd, by Robert Roberts of Dublin, who had been the 2nd Viscount's deputy as Chief Remembrancer of the Court of Exchequer in Ireland (an office held by the 1st Viscount from 1727 until his death in 1757, closely followed by that of Roberts). When the 1st Viscount's executors came to settle accounts with his successor as Chief Remembrancer, it was found that there were outstanding balances to the amount of well over £20,000. A long legal battle then followed, and in the end - in 1785 - all Roberts's estates were conveyed to the 2nd Viscount Palmerstone. The title deeds to these estates go back to 1693, and the estates consisted of property in Hanbury Lane (Earl of Meath's Liberty) and Ballsbridge, Co. Dublin, and in Drumcondra, Dublin City, and at Garrynew, Co. Wexford. Included among the title deeds are a copy Prerogative probate (1756) of the will (1755) of Joseph Maddock, Captain in Colonel Stewart's Regiment of Foot, together with a grant of administration (1758) to the will (1757) of Robert Roberts himself.
Other Palmerston estate papers include: a rental, with observations, of the ancestral Palmerston estate in the county and city of Dublin (the residue of Palmerston itself, Chapelizod, Oxmantown Green and Hill and various houses), c.1805; a rental and account, with observations, for the entire county and city of Dublin property, 1821; accounts, 1813-1815, between James Walker, the local receiver of the Co. Sligo rents, and Stewart & Swan (Henry Stewart and his partner, Graves Chamney Swan) for receipts and disbursements on the 3rd Viscount's account; and letters and papers, 1820, 1826, and 1841-1845, all relating to the Sligo estate of the 3rd Viscount.
Papers relating to the estates of other clients include: rentals and accounts, 1822-1851, between Stewart & Swan and their successors, on the one hand, and successive Earls of Longford and Viscounts de Vesci, on the other, relating to the Longford/de Vesci joint estate in Dunleary, Co. Dublin, and in Cos. Cork (Ballyhindon, Glandore and Monkstown) and Limerick; set of detailed accounts, 1797-1800, between the 'Hon. Colonel King [Robert King, later 1st Viscount Lorton] as sole executor to his father, Robert Earl of Kingston, and residuary legatee ... with Henry Stewart Esq., from 24 November 1797 to 30 June 1800'; title deeds, leases and other papers, 1688-1812, about the Co. Limerick property (Ballymorelly, Ballyroan, etc) of Serjeant Richard Benson Warren of Dublin; receipts, rentals, accounts, surveys, correspondence and a notice (1818) about tree-planting, 1800-1824, all relating to the Fartagh estate of James Butler Stopford in the barony of Galmoy, Co. Kilkenny, with a rental of £1,356 per annum in 1823; title deeds, leases, rentals, accounts, surveys and correspondence, 1764-1882, about the estates of Mrs Gertrude FitzGerald, nee Lyon, at Watercastle, Queen's County, and Mount Blakeney, barony of Coshma, Co. Limerick, including a copy of the will (1802) of her father, Thomas Lyon of Watercastle; leases, deeds, rent ledgers, receipts, accounts, correspondence, etc, 1765-1850, all relating to the estates of the Nugent family of Castlerickard, Co. Meath, in Cos. Meath and Westmeath; and papers and voluminous correspondence, 1814, 1827, and 1844-1846, about the estate and financial affairs of the 2nd and 3rd Earls of Howth, and the development of the Howth Castle estate, Co. Dublin, particularly in the mid-1840s.
Papers relating to the running of Stewart & Swan's land agency business include: voluminous, usually biannual (and also with some duplication) balance sheets of the firm, 1804 and 1807-1824, recording the identity of the clients and the huge sums which passed through the books of the firm (presumably the then equivalent of turnover) and which could amount to £90,000 or even £175,000 during the half-year; a printed advertisement for the 'New Brighton' development on the Longford/de Vesci estate between Seapoint and Dunleary, Co. Dublin, c.1820; and copy testimonials to Stewart's efficiency as a land agent from satisfied clients, including the 3rd Viscount Palmerston, 1834.
Papers relating to the private estate and financial affairs of Henry Stewart include: accounts, 1786-1801, between Henry Stewart and George Whitelocke, Wokingham, Berkshire, all relating to their joint purchase of the Tyrcallen estate, Stranorlar, Co. Donegal, from the Rev. Oliver McCausland in 1789 and the subsequent receipts from and disbursements on that property; subsequent Tyrcallen estate papers, 1808, 1819 and 1836-1850, including correspondence about the sale of the estate in the second half of the 1840s; receipts, receipted accounts, vouchers, etc, 1823 and 1828-1840, to Henry Stewart and other members of his family for all sorts of things, among them work on Tyrcallen House (1828), a carriage (1829), work and other expenses relating to Stewart's business office at 6 Leinster Street, Dublin, at various times, his funeral expenses (1840), etc.; and an original bundle of 'Vouchers of the Hon. Mrs [Elizabeth] Stewart's accounts from 1 February 1843 to 31 January 1848 ...'.
Papers about the private estate and financial affairs of Henry Stewart's partner, Graves Chamney Swan, include: deeds, bonds, judgements, accounts and correspondence, 1739 and 1774-1844, about Swan's estates in Drogheda, at Kildavin and Ballypierce, Co. Carlow, and at Bolecreen and Balinclea, Co. Wexford, and those of the Graves, Chamney and Graham families in Drogheda, Cos. Louth and Meath, Cos. Carlow, Wexford and Wicklow, and Dublin City and County, 1668-1799, including 'A rent roll of the real and personal estates of John Graham of Plattin ...', Co. Meath, 1763.
Probably Rev Frederick William Stewart, died 4/1/1884,
admon. 22/2/1884, of Farnham House, Finglas, co Dublin, batchelor, granted to
Margaret Reid, (wf of William Reid) of Randlophfield, Stirling, the sister and
one of the next of kin.
1851: The KILLYMOON Estate.—The creditors of the Killymoon estate, for which it is known that the veteran Lord Gough is in treaty, are desirous of having that noble property put up for public competition, in the hope that there will be as much realized as will pay off the entire encumbrances. Many persons with local interest prefer that the property should not be apportioned in small lots, as, if it were in the hands of one wealthy proprietor, more encouragement would be given to the tenantry and the business of Cookstown. The inhabitants have lately petitioned his Excellency, the Lord Lieutenant, and got the town incorporated under the act, to be governed by commissioners for lighting, cleansing, and watching. They have not yet commenced operations, but will do so as soon as the Encumbered Estates Commissioners will have the Killymoon property disposed of.
The following refers to William (1710)’s grandson William (son of James) who lost the estate, and to his sister Eleanor and nephew Theophilus Clements.
In the Court of the Commissioners for Sale of Encumbered Estates in Ireland.
in the Matter if the Estate of William Stewart, esq, Owner and Petitioner, deceased, continued in the names of Mary Eleanor Stewart, and Henry Theophilus Clements, executors and devisees of the last will and testament of said William Stewart.
Sale postponed to 24 October (1851).
The House of Castle of Killymoon was designed and executed by the late Mr. Nash, at a large expense, about 40 years ago. It is in good order, and contains every accommodation and embellishment which the well- known taste of the architect could produce.
Upon the Demesne there is a profusion of beautiful and valuable timber, of the finest growth, valued some years ago at £23,359 17s. Id. It is watered by two good rivers, in which there is excellent trout fishing; both streams unite under the Windows of the house. The grounds are nearly surrounded by a high demesne wall, which secures its privacy. The woods are well stocked with pheasants and other game. Numerous stocks of wild fowl frequent the rivers, upon which there are two falls of 15 feet each, admirably adapted to drive spinning machinery or bleach mills in that fine flax growing country.
The Gardens and Pleasure Grounds are very extensive and in good order, with a range of 150 feet of Graperies and Peach-houses, in full bearing. The neighbourhood is peaceable, and the inhabitants are orderly and industrious. The timber on the lands adjoining Killymoon and Cookstown (exclusive of that in the demesne) has been valued at £3,562 14s.
It appears that the estate was bought by Mr Cooper, who sold off some timber in 1854.
COUNTY TYRONE, IRELAND.
To be SOLD by Private Contract, KILLYMOON DEMESNE and MANSION-HOUSE,
Within a mile of the Cookstown Terminus of the Belfast and Ballymena Railway, and Eight miles from the Dungannon Terminus of the Portadown and Dungannon Railway, the latter of which affords easy access to Dublin.
The Killymoon Demesne, situated in one of the best districts
in Ireland, and widely celebrated for its picturesque beauty, contains about
600 acres of excellent well-drained, arable, and pasture Land, and is almost
entirely surrounded by a well-built Wall from ten to twelve feet high. The
ground of the Park is beautifully undulated, interspersed with Plantations and
studded throughout with clumps of Forest Trees, and Timber of splendid growth,
and is intersected for the entire length by two rivers, which unite near the
Mansion-house. The Park is entered by four lodges and avenues, at different
points, and contains two valuable Stone Quarries, a Lime Quarry and Kiln, a
Gravel Pit, also a few acres of Bog Turf, and is provided with labourers’
Cottages, and two ornamental Cottages. The Mansion-house (for many generations
the seat of the Stewart family) is of dressed stone, in the castellated style,
and was built by the well-know architect of Carlton House, Joseph Nash, at a
cost of upwards of £70,000. It stands upon rising ground, which forms a natural
terrace, at a short distance from the junction of the two rivers, the views of
which it commands, and is in every way a suitable residence for a nobleman or
gentleman of fortune, no expense having been spared in the decorations,
fittings, and appointments. The principal rooms are 10 feet high, and their
dimensions as follows (the window-frames, folding-doors, and floors, being of
solid Oak):—Reception and Anteroom, 52ft. by 24ft.; Morning Drawing-Room, 26ft.
by 20½ ft.; Entrance Hall, 48ft. by 24ft.; Dining-room, 35ft. by 24ft.;
Library, 35ft. by 24ft.; Breakfast-Room, 20ft. by 20½ ft., &c. The Bed-
Room accommodation comprises 25 Rooms, and Dressing-rooms, and the Offices of
every description are on the most ample scale, consisting of Butlers’ Pantries,
Store-Rooms, Wine and Beer Collars, Washhouse, Laundry, Dairies, Kitchen (35ft.
by 24ft.), Larders, Housekeeper's-Room, Wood, Coal, and Turf Stores, &c.
Excellent Spring Water is laid on. The walled Flower and Kitchen Gardens, with
Lawns and Ornamental Shrubberies, all laid out with the greatest taste,
comprise about 12 Acres (exclusive of several Miles of picturesque walks
through the Park and Woods), and are furnished with a great variety of Flowers
and Shrubs, and contain extensive Vineries, Peach and Fig houses in full
bearing, Conservatory Stove, Mushroom and Forcing-houses, Potting Sheds,
Tool-houses, two excellent Gardener’s Dwelling- houses, Ice-house, &c. The
walls are covered with every kind of choice Fruit Trees in good bearing. The
Timber, which has been most carefully cultivated for several generations, and
is universally admitted to be unequalled in growth and beauty in the country,
comprises Oak, Spanish Chestnut, Ash, Elm, Beech, Purple Beech, Lime, Poplar,
Birch, Tulip Tree, Sycamore, variegated Sycamore, Alder, Maple, Hornbeam,
Walnut, Larch, Pine, Scotch Fir, Silver and Spruce Fir, etc. The power of the
falls of the rivers within the park is estimated at about 100 horse, a great
part of which is taken advantage of by the erection of two Mills, with Water Wheels,
one of which is employed in dressing flax, threshing com, &c., and the
other, 124ft. by 54ft., with new iron Water Wheel, 18ft. in diameter, is
furnished with powerful sawing machinery, and could easily be converted to the
manufacture of linen yarn, which is extensively carried on in the
neighbourhood. The Stables are furnished with Stalls for 25 horses, 4 Carriage
Houses, Granaries, Stores, Saddle House, &c., and the Farm Yard with
extensive sheds for feeding cattle, Piggeries, Kennels, Poultry Yard, &c.
The rivers, which are strictly preserved, abound in trout, and the fishing is
excellent. The covers are well stocked with pheasants, and there is an
abundance of wild fowl; woodcocks are extremely numerous in the season, most of
the under-wood in the covers being laurel. The following is an extract front a
letter written by Sir Joseph Paxton M.P.:_ “I have visited most of the
celebrated country seats in the United Kingdom, and a very large number on the
Continent, and I have never seen one (for the extent of it) more compact, more
perfect in itself, than Killymoon, or where the highest natural beauties have
been more aided by refined taste and judgment.” All the Land is in hand, and
the Title Parliamentary.
For information, apply to Messrs. SWIFT & WAGSTAFF, 32, Great George Street, Westminster, London; or to the Proprietor, Mr. J.D. COOPER, who will afford any further particulars which may be required.
The Estate was again sold by Col Bolton in 1872.
CO. Tyrone. June 14, 1803.
The Right Hon. JOHN STEWART, late Attorney-General in Ireland, M.P., in 1802, for the county of Tyrone, created a Baronet, as above, married Mary, daughter of Mervyn Archdall, of Castle Archdall, co. Fermanagh, Esq., (by Mary Dawson, daughter of Viscount Carlton) and by her (who d. in 1795) had issue: 1. Mary, b. in 1791, d. 1810; 2. Hugh, 6. March, 17931 and 3. Mervyn, b. in 1799.
Andrew Stewart, (commonly styled captain Andrew Stewart,) who, with lord Castle Stewart, to whom he was related, and his (Andrew's) brother James, who afterwards fixed his residence at Ballymona, co. Tyrone, went from Scotland to Ireland about the year 1627: on his marriage, (as hereafter mentioned,) he obtained from lord Castle Stewart the greater part of the manor of Castle Stewart; but he afterwards built, and resided on, another seat, called Gortigil, near Stewart's Town, GO. Tyrone (at a spot immediately adjoining the present residence of the Castle Stewart family,) which has ever since been in possession of captain Stewart's descendants : he served with colonel Robert Stewart, of Fry, in defence of the forts of Dnngannon and Mountjoy in 1641; and at the rising of the rebels at Artrea, or Ardtreigh, co. Tyrone, for the purpose of destroying the protestant families of that county, his house was attacked; but with a few Scots' followers he defended it for two days, when assistance was sent to him from Mountjoy Fort. Captain Stewart m. Sarah, eldest daughter of lord Castle Stewart, (commonly styled lord Ochiltree, and sister to Mary, countess of Suffolk,) by whom (who survived him, and d. in 1687,) he had issue : l. Robert, who had an only child, Janet, who m., in 1684, John Bell, of Mulluntear, esq.; 2. Hugh, (of whom hereafter); 3. James, an officer R. N., who m. ------ daughter of Admiral sir Cloudesley Shovel (A3M: who was responsible for and died in, a major naval disaster in the Scilly Isles), and d. gallantly in battle. Captain Stewart having long been an object devoted to vengeance for the zeal and loyalty he evinced in the royal cause, was, at length, put to death by rebels about the year 1650. Hugh, the 2d son, m. Margaret, daughter of Thomas Morris, of Mountjoy Castle, esq., and had issue, John, of Gortigal, who m. Mary, daughter of ---- Kennedy, and had issue, Hugh and James, and several daughters. Hugh Stewart, the eldest son, in holy orders, rector of Suman, co. Tyrone, m. Sarah, daughter of the rev. Andrew Hamilton, (a relative of the Marquis of Abercorn, from whom he obtained the two valuable parishes of Toboyne aud Donogheady, both in the presentation of the Abercorn family, in Ireland): by his 1st wife, the sole daughter and heiress of sir William Cunningham, of Cunningham Head, in North Britain, and of Castle-Conyngham, co. Donegal, bart., and had issue: 1. John, created a baronet, as above; 2. Andrew, an officer in the service of the East India Company, who fell in an engagement in India; and 3. Henry, in holy orders, rector of Toman, co. Tyrone, m. Sophia, daughter of -— Clossy, of Dublin, esq., and has issue: Henry, John, William, Bagnall, Hugh, and other children; 4. Anne, m. Humphrey Nixon, of Nixon Lodge, co. Cavan, esq.; 5. Sarah, m. William Baillie, of Termsker, co. Tyrone, esq.; and 6 Amelia, d. unm.; and
I. The right, hon. sir JOHN, the eldest son, was created a baronet, as above.
Anns—Or, a lion rampant, within a double tressure, connterflory, gules, within a bordure, gobony, azure and argent.
(also in the Pakenham volume).
From Wendy Reid 27 Jan 2003:
My Hamilton descent is from the 1st Duke of Hamilton. The Hamilton seat of Brownhall in Co. Donegal was founded by John Hamilton, a grandson of the 1st Duke.
He came from the Scottish family whose seat at the time was Broomhill, Lanarkshire. Land in north western Ireland was granted to him and he took possession of lands at Murvagh - just out of Donegal town and near to the coast. The original Brownhall house was built there around 1550 and in 1690 his descendant, James Hamilton, moved the family seat to nearby Ballintra where the present Brownhall house still stands today - and still occupied by the present John Hamilton.
The family maintained the old tradition of naming the eldest son after the grandfather, so since then the line has gone John - James - John - James etc, down to John today.
His eldest son is James.
Fortunately, the family has maintained an unbroken line of ownership of the estate down through the centuries. The estate is not as extensive as it had been back in the 1800's due to debts left by my 4th Great Grandfather, John H, but it stands as one of the few estates still remaining in the original family's hands.
The debts were not down to bad management. That particular John H inherited Brownhall just before the Famine and spent a good deal of the family finances on his tenants. He built several churches, instigated Sunday schools, built a workhouse and mills to create employment at the time.
As a result his tenants did not suffer the same fate suffered by so many others.
A book was recently published about this man and I've sent you a link on it.
His daughter, Mary, married Frederick Courbarron, a farmer from Jersey in the Channel Islands. Her son, Augustus James, eventually settled in Australia in 1888 and I descend from him - my GG Grandfather.
This Hamilton family married with several Stewart families, namely the Killymoon Stewarts. Isabella Stewart, daughter of Col. William Stewart (b.1710) of Killymoon, married John Hamilton and their eldest son, James, married Helen Pakenham.
The John Hamilton of the book is the eldest child of the Hamilton/Pakenham marriage.
You have covered this Stewart line quite well in your site.
I had a look at the line of Eleanor King - wife of William Stewart - of Rockingham. Her father, Sir Henry King, was one of those not very well liked by the Irish.
They lived in the town of Boyle, Roscommon, and last year I paid a visit to the house still there. It was destroyed by fire some time ago but has been completely restored and is now a museum to the history of the family and the Earls of Kingston.
I would like to get back there again and tour the place properly as back then I was 8 months and 2 weeks pregnant and found the two hour tour quite a haul! Very informative though - I just remember constantly looking for somewhere to sit down:)).
At the moment one of my missions is to trace back further on the line of the Killymoon Stewarts, one thing I know is that they are connected to the Athenree Stewarts.
In 1999 there was an exhibition at the Ulster Museum featuring William Stewarts son, James and his "Grand Tour" of Europe.
Another family that married with the Brownhall Hamiltons is the Crightons (Creighton) who were the Earls of Erne.
The James Hamilton, who built the present Brownhall house at Ballintra in 1690, married Jane Creighton, daughter of Col. Abraham Creighton. This family were the owners of Crom Castle in Co. Fermanagh and his grandson was the 1st Earl of Erne.
I don't know how much information, if anything, you would like about the Grenfells. I know on my own tree that I rarely go further back than one generation in families who married in, if for no other reason that the amount of information increases very rapidly indeed if you do otherwise. So unless you ask I shan't do anything. We think the Grenfells are an interesting family, with all sorts of adventurers. One John Grenfell was killed by bush rangers in Australia, but it led the arrest and conviction of the outlaws, so in honour of him they gave the township of Emu Creek the new name of Grenfell. There's Lord Grenfell, of course (not close enough to me ...), and Sir Wilfred, who was my father's first cousin.
If you like, I can send you the section of my family tree relating to the Hamiltons ?.
I have the entire tree on disc - its huge going back to the 1200's - but haven't run it on the computer since I arrived here from Australia in Feb last year.
Henry Jones Ford
This is an extract only
I. The Plantation of Ulster
II. The Land and the People
III. Scotch Migration to Ulster
IV. Formative Influences
V. Emigration to America
VI. Scotch-Irish Settlements
VII. On the New England Frontier
VIII. In New York and the Jerseys
IX. Pennsylvania--The Scotch-Irish Centre
X. The Indian Wars
XI. Planting the Church
XII. On Stony Ground
XIII. The Source of American Presbyterianism
XIV. Expansion South and West
XV. Some Pioneer Preachers
XVI. Scotch-Irish Educational Institutions
XVII. The Spread of Popular Education
XVIII. The Revolutionary Period
XIX. The Birth of the Nation
XX. A Survey and an Appreciation
A. Ireland at the Time of the Plantation
B. The Scottish Undertakers
C. The Making of the Ulster Scot
D. Statement of Frontier Grievances
E. Galloway's Account of the American Revolt
F. The Mecklenburg Resolves
In 1609, six years after the accession of James VI of Scotland to the throne of England as James I. in its line of kings, a scheme was matured for planting Ulster with Scotch and English, and the following year the settlement began. The actual settlers were mostly Scotch, and the Ulster plantation took the character of a Scotch occupation of the North of Ireland. In that plantation was formed the breed known as Scotch-Irish, which was prominent in the struggle for American independence and which supplied to American population an ingredient that has deeply affected the development of the nation. It is the purpose of this work to give an account of this Scotch-Irish strain in the composition of the American people, tracing its history and influence.
The circumstances in which the Ulster plantation was formed had much to do with fixing the characteristics of the breed. The plantation was attended by an ouster of native Irish that is a staple subject of censure by historians who, from the point of view supplied by the ideas of our own times, hold that wiser arrangements might have been made in the interest of all parties. But that was not easy to see then. Francis Bacon is reckoned a wise man but he did not see it. In a letter written in 1601 to Cecil, Elizabeth's famous Secretary of State, Bacon referred to three roots of trouble in Ireland:
"The first, the ambition and absoluteness of the chiefs of the families and septs. The second, the licentious idleness of their kernes and soldiers, that lie upon the country by cesses and such like oppressions. And the third, the barbarous laws, customs, their brehon laws, habits of apparel, their poets or heralds that enchant them in savage manners, and sundry other dregs of barbarism and rebellion."
The policy of making English settlements in Ireland was no new thing. It had been pursued fitfully from Norman times. Bacon did not question it, but he argued that further undertakings of the kind should not be left "as heretofore, to the pleasure of Undertakers and adventurers, where and how to build and plant; but that they do it according to a prescript or formulary." In this way the Government would be assured that the places would be selected "which are fittest for colonies or garrisons, as well for doubt of the foreigner, as for keeping the country in bridle." Bacon had the matter so much on his mind that in 1606 he presented to King James Considerations Touching the Plantation in Ireland written in the highest style of his stately eloquence. He said that among the works of kings two "have the supreme pre-eminence: the union, and the plantation of kingdoms." By a singular favour of Divine Providence "both these kinds of foundations or regenerations" had been put into the hands of King James: "the one, in the union of the island of Britain; the other in the plantation of great and noble parts of the island of Ireland." Adorning his periods with elaborate metaphors in which figured the harp of Ireland, the harp of Orpheus and the harp of David, Bacon expatiated upon the greatness of the achievement "when people of barbarous manners are brought to give over and discontinue their customs of revenge and blood, of dissolute life, and of theft, and of rapine; and to give ear to the wisdom of laws and governments."
At the time this discourse was written the property of the Crown in Ulster consisted chiefly of the abbey lands, and plans were under consideration for settling English and Scotch colonists upon these lands while the Irish lords retained their lands with English title and under English law. But so important did the plantation appear to Bacon, even although thus limited, that he suggested that the King, the better to express his "affection to the enterprise, and for a pledge thereof," should add the Earldom of Ulster to the titles of the Prince of Wales.
Bacon went on to discuss in detail the principles that should govern the enterprise. He thought that "the generality of Undertakers" should be "men of estate and plenty," not that they would go there themselves but that they would have means to engage in the business for the "advancement of their younger children or kinsfolk; or for the sweetness of the expectation of a great bargain in the end." As incentives the lands should be let to them on easy rates and large liberties. Upon the latter point Bacon promptly explains that he does not mean liberties of jurisdiction which "hath been the error of the ancient donations and plantations in that country." He means only "liberties tending to commodity; as liberty to transport any of the commodities growing upon the countries new planted; liberty to import from hence all things appertaining to their necessary use, custom-free." If this wise advice had been acted upon consistently the course of Irish and American history would have been different.
At this time the colonization of Virginia was appealing for support, but in comparison with the Ulster project the Virginia plantation seemed so visionary that Bacon referred to it as "an enterprise in my opinion differing as much from this, as Amadis de Gaul differs from Caesar's Commentaries." He struck the same note in 1617 when as Lord Chancellor of England he addressed the person called to be Lord Chief Justice of Ireland. Bacon remarked that "Ireland is the last ex filiis Europae which hath been reclaimed from desolation and a desert (in many parts) to population and plantation; and from savage and barbarous customs to humanity and civility." He commended the plantations to the special care of the new justice, with the admonition: "You are to be a master builder, and a master planter, and reducer of Ireland."
Bacon's views have been considered at some length because they illumine the ideas with which the statesmanship of the age approached such tasks, and also reveal the origin of some characteristic features of the Ulster plantation. To Bacon's view the tribal system of Ireland with its state of chronic disorder was a remnant of the same barbarism against which Caesar fought in Gaul and Charlemagne in continental Europe. The planting of trusty colonies among uncivilized peoples as garrisons to check their insubordination and as centers from which culture would be diffused was a practice that went back to the times of the ancient Roman commonwealth, had been adopted by many European rulers, and was generally regarded as a well-settled expedient of prudent statesmanship. Nothing in Bacon's remarks indicates any doubt in his mind as to the rightfulness of such a policy in Ireland, although it necessarily involved dispossession of natives.
His only concern was to adopt such measures as would make the policy efficacious. Moreover it should be borne in mind that in that time the feudal principle that the tenure of land is contingent upon personal service to the State had not been overborne by the notions of individual ownership and exclusive right that have since become dominant, although in our own times there are signs of reaction. It seemed altogether fitting that rebels and traitors should be ejected and that the land should be placed in charge of those upon whom the King could rely when he called for service. At the bottom of land tenure was a personal relation between the King and his liege. The State in its modern aspect as a sovereign authority deriving its revenues from systematic taxation and regulating rights and duties by positive law was in process of formation but it was not fully developed until long after the period of the Ulster plantation.
The effect of Bacon's advice in the Ulster arrangements is distinctly marked. To it seems to be due one of the existing orders of English nobility. Bacon deemed it so important "to allure by all means fit Undertakers" that in the memorial of 1606 he suggested that grants of knighthood, "with some new difference and precedence," might "work with many" in drawing them to the support of the cause. Action taken by the King early in 1611 accords with Bacon's advice. The order of baronets, officially described as "a new dignitie between Barons and Knights," was instituted, to consist of gentlemen who should bind themselves to pay a sum sufficient to maintain thirty foot-soldiers in Ireland for three years, the money thus obtained to be kept as a special fund so that it might be "wholly converted to that use for which it was given and intended." The first of these baronets was Bacon's own half-brother, and it appears that Bacon advised the King on points raised touching the dignity and precedence of the new order of nobility. There have been many flings at James I. in this matter of the institution of the order of baronet--it seems to have a special attraction for the sarcasm of writers of popular history--but the record shows that it was inspired by Bacon and was performed by the King as a utilitarian transaction quite in the modern spirit. A similar creation of baronets was planned by King James in 1624 in aid of the colonization of Nova Scotia, the fundamental condition being that each baronet of this class should maintain six colonists for two years. The two classes are still distinguished in their heraldry, all baronets having the right to bear the Red Hand of Ulster on their coat of arms, except those of the Nova Scotian creation who display the arms of Scotland. The order of baronet, although ranking below other orders of nobility in dignity and precedence, may justly claim to possess a distinctly imperial character.
Not long after Bacon's memorial to the King the possibilities in Ulster were enlarged by a series of events which at the same time emphasized the need of vigorous measures. These events serve also to illustrate the clash of cultures that was the underlying cause of Irish anarchy. The accession of James took place just as an uprising aided by Spanish troops had been subdued after more than four years of hard fighting. The submission of the Earl of Tyrone, the chief native magnate of Ulster, whose surrender ended resistance in that province, took place only a few days before James set out from Edinburgh to take possession of the throne of England to which he had just been called. The Irish situation presented an urgent problem to James and his counsellors. That problem, in addition to its chronic perplexities arising from internal conditions, was complicated by foreign influences. The Counter-Reformation was prosecuted with great vigour and success by Jesuit missionaries in Ireland and their plans of making the country an independent kingdom gained the sympathy of Pope Gregory XIII., who accepted the Crown of Ireland in behalf of a nephew. The movement acquired serious importance when Philip II. of Spain gave support to it. He was not inclined at first to have anything to do with the Irish as he was embittered by the way in which crews of wrecked galleons of the Armada had been robbed and murdered on the western coast of Ireland. But English attacks on the coasts of Spain and Portugal, and the support which Elizabeth extended to the provinces of the Netherlands in revolt against his rule, reconciled him to alliances with Irish insurgents, and twice during Elizabeth's reign Spanish forces were landed in Ireland. Hugh O'Neill, the Earl of Tyrone, took a leading part in the dealings with Spain, and he received from the Pope a crown of peacock's feathers. In making his submission he had stipulated for the retention of his Earldom, with its territorial jurisdiction in Ulster, although renouncing his Celtic chiefry. This was done before he had heard of Elizabeth's death, and on hearing the news he is said to have cried with vexation at not having held out for better terms. With such an attitude on his part there was an instability in the Ulster situation, soon to be displayed.
A difficulty with which the Government had constantly to contend arose from the conflicts among the Irish themselves. The chiefs argued that the land belonged to them; the occupants protested that the land was theirs although the chiefs had a customary right to various services and dues in kind. The chiefs quarrelled among themselves as to their rights. Tyrone was incensed against his principal vassal, O'Cahan, who had made his submission before Tyrone gave him leave. O'Cahan's feudal rent, formerly fixed at 21 cows a year, was summarily raised to 200 cows. In support of this demand Tyrone took possession of a large district belonging to O'Cahan. When O'Cahan made his peace with the Government he had been assured that he should in future hold his lands not from Tyrone but directly from the Crown. O'Cahan appealed to the authorities at Dublin, but it was difficult to get Tyrone to appear to answer the charges. When he did so he insulted the Lord Deputy and Council by snatching the papers from O'Cahan's hand and tearing them to pieces. Eventually the King decided to hear the case in England, but instead of obeying the summons Tyrone fled the country, never to return. This action was quite unexpected by the Government as Tyrone had been demanding that he be allowed to plead his cause before the King in person. The affair has never been fully cleared up but it is known that the Government had received information that arrangements were making for another rising with Spanish aid and that Rory O'Donnell, Earl of Tyrconnel, was in the movement. This information did not mention Tyrone; but his cousin, Cuconnaught Maguire, who was in the plot and who had just gone to Brussels on its business, heard there that it had been discovered. Maguire procured a ship with which he sailed to the North of Ireland and on September 4, 1607, took off both Tyrconnel and Tyrone. This was the famous Flight of the Earls by which a great part of Ulster was escheated to the English Crown. Those were times when the more strong and active spirits among the masses of the people preferred to live as fighting men and raiders rather than as industrial drudges, and bands began operations in various districts. O'Cahan himself became disaffected, owing to some claims of the Bishop of Derry to lands in O'Cahan's territory. He drove the bishop's tax gatherers off the disputed lands, defied writs of law and did not submit until a body of troops was about to march on his castle.
While these events were taking place a clash occurred between the English commander at Derry and a neighbouring Irish lord that culminated in another insurrection. Sir George Paulet, commander at Derry, was a dull, incapable and arrogant person who had obtained the command by purchase. In one of the Lord Deputy's reports to the home Government it is said of him that "he was hated by those over whom he had command, and neither beloved nor feared by the Irish, his neighbours." O'Dogherty, lord of Innishowen, collected a number of his followers to fell timber. A rumour reached Paulet that O'Dogherty was out to await the return of Tyrone, and Paulet marched on O'Dogherty's castle. Although O'Dogherty was away, his wife refused to open the gates and showed such an undaunted spirit that Paulet had to choose between attempting a siege with an inadequate force or marching home again, and chose the latter. O'Dogherty wrote a sharp letter of complaint to Paulet, but it was in respectful language and was subscribed "your loving friend." Paulet sent a railing letter in reply, closing with the declaration: "So wishing confusion to your actions, I leave you to a provost marshal and his halter." Although O'Dogherty was greatly incensed he did not refuse to present himself at Dublin to answer for his conduct; and soon afterward he acted as foreman of the Donegal grand jury that found bills for high treason against the fugitive Earls. O'Dogherty, who was young and hot-headed, was worked upon by others so that at last he did engage in a plot that enabled him to take vengeance on Paulet. The details of this affair are particularly instructive from the revelation they make of the sort of experiences that coloured Ulster traditions and stamped the character of the Ulster breed.
O'Dogherty's first task was to procure a supply of arms and ammunition to use against Paulet. He approached Captain Henry Hart, commander of the fort of Culmore guarding the entrance to the Foyle, with complaints that the attitude of the ladies of Derry deprived his wife of society suitable to her rank. He asked Captain Hart to set a good example of social intercourse by coming to dine with him bringing also Mrs. Hart and the children. The request accorded with the conciliatory policy of the Government and the invitation was unsuspectingly accepted. As soon as dinner was over O'Dogherty threatened Hart with instant death unless he would agree to surrender the fort. Hart, a man of the bull-dog breed, flatly refused. His wife and children were brought before him and threatened with death; his wife fell at his feet on her knees, crying and beseeching him to yield. It was urged that by so doing he would save the garrison too, as all would be killed if force had to be used whereas all would be spared if the post were quietly surrendered. O'Dogherty offered to take a solemn oath that he would carry out his promise. Hart reminded him that he was even then breaking the oath of allegiance he had taken not long before; and bluntly declared that he "should never trust oath that ever he made again." But while O'Dogherty failed to budge Captain Hart, he gained his end by the aid of the Captain's wife. In her terror for her husband and her children Mrs. Hart entered into a scheme for betraying the garrison. Accompanied by O'Dogherty and his men, she went to the fort at nightfall, crying out that the Captain had fallen from his horse and had broken his arm. The little garrison ran out to help their commander and O'Dogherty rushed in and took possession.
These events took place on April 18, 1608. Having obtained the arms he needed, O'Dogherty set out at once to attack Paulet at Derry. Although that commander had been warned of danger, he had not taken any precautions and habitually neglected even such routine duty as the posting of sentries. O'Dogherty's men" were inside the fortifications before the noise roused Paulet. He ran out of his own house and hid in one of the other houses where he was finally discovered and killed. The surprise was so complete that the garrison was not able to make much resistance, but Lieutenant Baker with about 140 persons, men, women, and children, took possession of two large houses and held out until noon on the following day. By that time provisions had run short and O'Dogherty had brought up a cannon from Culmore, so Baker surrendered upon the promise that the lives of all with him should be spared. This promise was fulfilled. O'Dogherty slew no prisoners and in the course of his short rebellion no blood was shed by his orders except in actual conflict.
As soon as the Government was able to throw troops into the country O'Dogherty's lieutenants abandoned Derry and Culmore, after setting them on fire. The rebellion was never really formidable although O'Dogherty's energetic movements carried it into several counties. His forces were finally routed and he himself was killed on July 5, 1608. In a report to the home Government Sir John Davies, Attorney-General of Ireland, noted that O'Dogherty's death "happened not only on the fifth day of the month, but on a Tuesday, but the Tuesday 11 weeks, that is 77 days after the burning of Derry, which is an ominous number being seven elevens and eleven sevens." The special mention of Tuesday in this collection of portents is an allusion to an old proverb that Tuesday is the day of English luck in Ireland.
In consequence of these events vast areas were escheated to the Crown, including most of the territory now forming the counties of Donegal, Londonderry, Tyrone, Fermanagh, Armagh and Cavan. It was the good fortune of the Ulster plantation that the man then at the head of the Irish Government as Lord Deputy was an administrator of rare ability. Sir Arthur Chichester, the Lord Deputy, is a typical specimen of the class of proconsuls whose solid characteristics have been the building material of the British Empire. He was born in 1563, the second son of Sir John Chichester of Ramleigh, near Barnstaple, Devonshire. He was educated at Exeter College, Oxford; was an officer in one of the Queen's best ships in the fight with the Spanish Armada in 1588; in 1595 he was employed in a military command in Drake's unfortunate last expedition to the West Indies, and the next year he commanded a company in the expedition of Essex that captured Cadiz; in 1597 he was third in command of a force sent to the assistance of Henry IV. of France, was wounded at the siege of Amiens and was subsequently knighted. He afterward served in the Netherlands and was in garrison at Ostend when he was summoned to duty in Ireland, in command of a force of 1,200 men. The record shows that although only thirty-six when he began his distinguished career in Ireland, he was a veteran thoroughly seasoned by land and by sea.
A characteristic instance of his determination in all matters of discipline took place soon after Essex arrived in Ireland as head of its Administration by Elizabeth's personal favour. Having heard of the good order in which Chichester kept his force, Essex went to Drogheda to review it. Carried away by excitement the scatterbrain Earl led a cavalry charge against the pikemen. Chichester repulsed the horsemen as if they had been actual enemies, and the Earl himself was scratched by a slash from a pike that made him wheel about and retreat. Essex took the affair in good part and on April 28, 1599, appointed Chichester to be governor of Carrickfergus and the adjacent country. Chichester took an active but subordinate part in the war waged against Tyrone and his adherents. On April 19, 1603, shortly after the accession of James, Chichester was made a member of the Irish Privy Council; and on October 15, 1604, he was appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland, although not inducted into office until February 3, 1605. The appointment may be ascribed to the influence of a predecessor in that office, Mountjoy, who was now Earl of Devonshire and the King's chief adviser on Irish affairs, and who well knew the need there was for a strong hand and a cool head at the helm in Ireland. Chichester himself did not seek the office. About five months after assuming it he wrote to the home Government that it would be advisable to put a more eminent man at the head of affairs, "a man of his [Chichester's] estate and fortune being better fit to serve His Majesty in meaner places."
The perusal of Chichester's State Papers impresses one with his virtue in the Roman sense of hard manliness. His concern was always for the discharge of his professional duty; and that formed his moral horizon. He chose means with regard to their efficacy in attaining practical results, offering rewards for the heads of rebel chiefs, slaying their active partisans and wasting the land on occasion, but never indulging purposeless cruelty. He had a low opinion of the character of the native Irish, but he had no animosity and was more disposed to adopt conciliatory measures than the home Government. Indeed, his disapproval of measures to force the Roman Catholics into the Established Church eventually led to his retirement. While bent on repressing disorder and bringing the Irish chiefs under the rule of law, he was also vigilant against abuses in the administration and spared no one. He advised Montgomery, the Bishop of Derry, "sometimes to leave the care of the world, to which he thought him too much affected, and to attend to his pastoral calling and the reformation of his clergy." He showed great powers of sustained application to the literary tasks in which his position involved him, and his numerous State Papers are full, clear, and precise. In view of his previous career this side of his activity is remarkable, for he handles the pen with a readiness unusual in the captains of that age. In filing dispatches from the home Government he not only endorsed them with the date on which they were received but also added a summary of their contents, in a handwriting remarkably bold, clear and regular. The information gathered by his spies included stories of plots to make away with him by assassination or poisoning, but to alarms of that sort he appears to have been incredulous and callous. In the camp or in the office he was ever ready, clear-headed and sensible. In the plantation of Ulster he received a large grant of land and in 1613 he was raised to the Irish peerage as Lord Chichester of Belfast. He had no children and his estates devolved on his brother, Edward, father of Arthur Chichester, first Earl of Donegal.
Another official whose copious and vivid writings add greatly to our knowledge of this period is Sir John Davies. The modernized spelling of his name is here used although in the Irish Calendars it appears as Davys. He was born in Wiltshire, England, in 1569 and took his A.B. degree at Oxford in 1590. His poetical works hold an established place in English literature and his literary ability gives a distinctive lustre to his official papers, but in Ireland he figures as a hard-working administrator. He arrived in 1603 to assume the office of Solicitor-General. In 1606 he succeeded to the post of Attorney-General. From first to last he took an active and prominent part in the Ulster plantation. He was a man of high personal courage and of versatile ability, a fine poet, a voluminous essayist on legal, antiquarian and historical subjects, an eloquent speaker and a vigorous man of action. He held office in Ireland until 1619 and died in England in 1626, after he had been appointed Lord Chief Justice but before he had assumed the office.
The scheme adopted for the plantation of Ulster was not the invention of anyone but was the outcome of the statesmanship of the age. Just such ideas as Bacon expressed in his Considerations presented to King James run all through the State Papers of this period. So early as October 2, 1605, long before the Flight of the Earls, Chichester wrote that the situation "can only be remedied by planting of English and others well affected in fit places." Chichester held that none of the fields in which colonization was then projected equalled Ireland. He remarks that he "knows of many who endeavour the finding out of Virginia, Guiana, and other remote and unknown countries, and leave this of our own waste and desolate, which needs be an absurd folly or wilful ignorance." The allusion to Sir Walter Raleigh's projects is transparent. As a matter of fact both the Ulster and the Virginia plantations took root and bore abundantly, each deeply affecting the other's destiny. On September 17, 1607, less than a fortnight after the Flight of the Earls, Chichester advised the English Privy Council that to bring Ulster to any settled state of order it would be necessary either to plant strong "colonies of civil people of England or Scotland" or else drive out the wild Irishmen to the waste lands "leaving only such people behind as will dwell under the protection of the garrisons and forts which would be made strong and defensible." He strongly recommended the former course although he held the latter to be justifiable. At that period "civil" had a significance for which the term "civilized" would now be employed. The term "civilization" did not get into the vocabulary until long afterward, and so late as 1772 it was resisted by Dr. Samuel Johnson as an unnecessary innovation which he refused to admit into his dictionary. When Bacon and Chichester spoke of introducing civility into Ireland they had in mind substituting legally organized communities for the tribal groups.
The home Government was quite ready to act upon the suggestion and the response was prompt and decided. The Chief Secretary of State was Robert Cecil, a cousin of Francis Bacon. Cecil had served Elizabeth as Secretary of State and had been continued in the position with augmented power by James, who in 1605 conferred upon him the title of Earl of Salisbury. In advance of the action of the English Privy Council, Salisbury wrote to Chichester assuring him of support and on September 29, 1607, the ground plan of the Ulster plantation was thus formulated in a communication from the Privy Council to Chichester:
"For the plantation which is to follow upon attainder, the King in general approves of his (Chichester's) project, being resolved to make a mixture of the inhabitants, as well Irish as English and Scotch; to respect and favour the Irish that are of good note and desert, and to make him (Chichester) specially judge thereof; to prefer English that are and have been servitors before any new men from hence; to assign places of most importance to men of best trust; and generally to observe these two cautions;--first, that such as be planted there be not needy, but of a reasonable sufficiency to maintain their portions; secondly, that none shall have a vast, but only a reasonable proportion; much less that any one of either nation shall be master of a whole country. But before this plantation can be digested and executed, much must be prepared by himself (Chichester), as His Majesty is to be better informed of the lands to be divided; what countries are most meet to be inhabited; what Irish fit to be trusted; what English meet for that plantation in Ireland; what offers are or will be made there; what estates are fit to be granted; and what is to be done for the conviction of the fugitives, because there is no possession or estate to be given before their attainder."
The tenor of official dispatches makes it clear that the Flight of the Earls was regarded as a good opportunity for radical treatment of the Ulster situation, "that those countries be made the King's by this accident," to use Salisbury's own words. By the term "servitors" is meant officers in the King's service in Ireland, who knew the country and had had experience in dealing with the natives. The need of careful management was appreciated by the Government, for in the preceding reign three attempts had been made at Ulster colonization, all ending in total failure. These had been in the nature of grants of territory to individual adventurers who undertook to take possession and bring in tenants, but who were unable to overcome the resistance of the native Irish, desperately opposed to the intrusion of individual holdings in their tribal territory. The Government was determined that the next attempt of the kind should be made in sufficient force.
The information demanded by the home Government was submitted under date of January 23, 1608, in "a project for the division and plantation of the escheated lands," etc., prepared by the Privy Council of Ireland. This is a long document in which for the first time the plantation scheme took definite form. It included a schedule of available lands in the six escheated counties, with a scheme of allotment. The different classes of Undertakers and the size of their holdings to be allowed to them were designated, and the main points of the scheme as finally carried into effect were set forth.
Not long after the transmission of this project the O'Dogherty rebellion broke out. With its suppression work on the project was resumed and in September, 1608, Chichester prepared a detailed statement entitled Certain Notes of Remembrances Touching the Plantation and Settlement of the Escheated Lands in Ulster, which he gave to Chief Justice Ley and Attorney-General Davies as their instructions in sending them to England to confer with the King and Privy Council. This was a soldier's review of the Ulster situation, county by county, noting the force and disposition of the natives, and mentioning the places that should be strongly occupied to guard the peace of the plantation.
The outcome of these reports and conferences was the publication of Orders and Conditions To Be Observed by the Undertakers issued by the King and Privy Council in March, 1609. The preamble sets forth that "many persons being ignorant of the conditions whereupon His Majesty is pleased to grant the said land are importunate suitors for greater portions than they are able to plant, intending their private profit only and not the advancement of the public service." The orders then set forth conditions of allotment and occupation similar in general to those proposed in the project of January 23, 1608, framed by the Irish Privy Council.
From now on the course of events spreads out in Ireland, England and Scotland, and an attempt to follow chronological order would confuse the narrative. A chronology appended to this chapter gives the sequence of events, but comment upon them can be made most conveniently by a topical arrangement.
While the home Government was arranging to responsible Undertakers, the Irish Administration was busy getting the lands ready for occupation. On July 21, 1609, a new commission, with Chichester himself at the head, was appointed to survey the country and mark fit places for settlement. The letters of Davies, who was on this commission, give a picturesque account of its proceedings. It was accompanied by surveyors who worked under guard, for "our geographers," wrote Davies, "do not forget what entertainment the Irish gave to a map-maker about the end of the late rebellion." When he "came into Tyrconnell the inhabitants took off his head, because they would not have their country discovered." The thoroughness with which the commissioners did their work is attested by the completeness of their records. Abstracts of title were made, and detailed maps were prepared, for which there is still so much demand that the British Government issues facsimile copies, with the exception of the map of Donegal which has been lost. On June 5, 1610, Chichester received the King's warrant to prepare a new commission to put the settlers in possession and on August 28, 1610, this commission issued a proclamation that the allotted lands were open for occupation.
Meanwhile Court influence had been exerted to induce the City of London to take part in the enterprise. At that time London was still a medieval city, surrounded by walls the gates of which were shut at a certain hour. The population was less than 250,000, and even this number was regarded as overcrowding the area so as to invite outbreaks of the plague, deaths from which cause in London amounted to 30,561 in 1603. One of the arguments used in support of colonization projects was that they would, draw off surplus population and thus avert the periodical visitations of the plague. The importance of London was very much greater than the size of its population might suggest, for it was the privileged seat of great chartered companies, whose transactions ranged far abroad. In that period a municipal corporation was not so much a governing body in the modern sense as a mercantile body. It was interested in trade for the advantage of the burgesses far more than in administration of public affairs for the benefit of the inhabitants. Judicial and administrative functions were vigorously exercised as an incident of charter privileges and for their protection, but the conception of a public trusteeship for the general welfare was still undeveloped.
It was not until 1684 that the lighting of the streets was made a public function. The dirty and turbulent town was a mixture of squalor and magnificence, but its merchant princes were a recognized power in the State and the King and his Council were anxious to interest them in the Ulster project. One difficulty in the way was that schemes of American colonization were then attracting business adventure. Much was known about Ireland; it was a stale subject fraught with disagreeable associations. Little was known of America, and impressions originally derived from the East attached to it, as the term "West Indies" still bears witness, as also the common appellation of the American aborigines. The mention of Ireland called up notions of hard knocks and poor gains, while concerning America there were vague but alluring notions compounded of traditional belief in the gorgeous opulence of India, of genuine trade knowledge of the value of its products, and of rumours of vast treasure gained by the Spanish in America. Among the corporate powers of the London Company that founded Jamestown in May, 1607, was the right to search for mines and to coin money. No such golden lure could be held out in behalf of Ireland. It was felt that special efforts were necessary to impress upon the City magnates the business advantages to be derived from Irish colonization.
The King had a statement prepared for the purpose entitled Motives and Reasons To Induce the City of London To Undertake Plantation in the North of Ireland. An appeal is made to civic pride by citing "the eternal commendation" gained by Bristol, which city in the reign of Henry II. rebuilt and populated Dublin, and the hope is expressed that "this noble precedent were followed by the City of London in these times." The King desired that London do for Derry what Bristol did for Dublin, and he submits a detailed statement of the natural resources, industrial opportunities and commercial facilities of the north of Ireland, which in view of actual results does not seem to be much inflated. His assertion that materials for the linen trade are "finer there and more plentiful than in all the rest of the Kingdom" was eventually borne out by the establishment of the linen industry for which the North of Ireland has since been famous. This appeal together with the project of plantation as formulated in Orders and Conditions To Be Observed by Undertakers, was sent to the Lord Mayor, who, on July 1, 1609, issued a precept to the chartered companies requesting that they meet to consider the subject and also to nominate four men from each company to serve on a committee to represent the City in the negotiation.
The City companies were apparently reluctant to engage in the enterprise, and a few years later when some differences occurred as to the terms of the bargain, it was officially declared that the City had at last yielded to pressing importunity. The record shows that the companies did not move until a second and more urgent precept was issued, dated July 8, 1609. The companies then sent representatives to meet at Guildhall to discuss the King's proposals and deputies were appointed to answer for the City. Several conferences took place between these deputies and the Privy Council, hut the most that the City magnates would agree to do was to look into the matter. At a conference with the Privy Council held on Sunday, July 30, 1609, it was decided that the negotiations should he suspended until "four wise, grave and discreet citizens should he presently sent to view the place." They were to go at the City's charges and "make report to the City, at their return from thence, of their opinions and doings touching the same."
The official correspondence of that period reveals the solicitude of the King and Privy Council for the successful conclusion of the negotiation with the City. On August 3, 1609, the Privy Council wrote to Chichester notifying him that the City was sending out certain deputies to view the land and instructing him to provide such guidance as would impress upon them the value of the concessions, while "matters of distaste, as fear of the Irish, of the soldiers, of cess, and such like, he not so much as named." These citizens of London, John Brode, goldsmith, John Monroes, Robert Treswell, painter, and John Rowley, draper, doubtless found themselves much courted and flattered by the dignitaries to whom they bore letters of introduction. In a letter of August 28, written from camp in Colerain, to Lord Salisbury of the Privy Council, Davies tells how they were all using "their best rhetoric" on the Londoners. He mentions that "one of the agents is fallen sick, and would fain return, but the Lord Deputy and all the rest here use all means to comfort and retain him, lest this accident should discourage his fellow-citizens."
However flattered the citizens may have been by these blandishments their business keenness was not impaired. On October 13, 1609, Chichester writes that "these agents aim at all the places of profit and pleasure upon the rivers of the Bann and Loughfole." He had endeavoured to meet their demands "whereby he thinks they depart fully satisfied." But the soldier evidently does not repose entire confidence in the disposition of the civic bargainers, for he remarks that "he prays God they prove not like their London women, who sometimes long to-day and loathe to-morrow." But the citizens evidently made a favourable report to the City guilds for in the following January three conferences took place in London between the Government and the City in which the City's representatives showed an eager spirit. The City deputies that went to Ireland were present and the course of the proceedings showed that they had prompted demands beyond what the Government had thought of allowing. The minutes record that on some points there was "much altercation." The representatives of the Government showed an accommodating spirit and eventually an agreement was reached confirmed by articles signed January 28, 1610. In consideration of various privileges the City agreed to levy £20,000 in aid of the proposed plantation. The county of Colerain, thereafter known as Londonderry, was allotted to the City for colonization, and it was stipulated that the city of Derry and the town of Colerain should be rebuilt. The agreement is set forth in twenty-seven articles, concluding with the provision that "the City shall, with all speed, set forward the plantation in such sort as that there be 60 houses built in Derry and 40 houses at Colerain by the first of November following, with convenient fortifications."
Although it was undoubtedly a wise stroke of policy on the part of the King to enlist the powerful City guilds in the enterprise, the mainstay of the Ulster plantation turned out to be the Scottish participation, which does not seem to have been originally regarded as important. Although from the first there was an understanding between Chichester and the English Privy Council that eventually the plantation would be opened to Scotch settlers, no steps were taken in that direction until the plans had been matured. If meanwhile any expectations of a share were entertained in Scotland there was no legal basis for them. Ireland belonged to the English Crown and although the King of Scotland was also King of England, the two kingdoms were then quite separate and distinct. The first public announcement of any Scottish connection with the Ulster plantation appears in a letter of March 19, 1609, from Sir Alexander Hay, the Scottish secretary resident at the English Court, to the Scottish Privy Council at Edinburgh. The tone of the letter shows that he was all agog with the news of the fine prospects opening up for the Scotch. Hay relates that he had been present by command at a meeting of the English Privy Council, at which he was notified that the arrangements for the Ulster plantation had been settled and that the King's Scottish subjects were to be allowed a share. Several members of the Privy Council put down their names in his presence, and the roll of the English Undertakers was already complete.
The articles required that every Undertaker for 2,000 acres should build a castle of stone, which he feared "may effraye our people," but upon inquiry he learned that "nothing was meant thereby bot any litill toure or peill suche as are common in our Bordouris." He was also curious to know how great an area 2,000 acres would be, and was told that it meant a property two miles square of arable land and pasture, without counting attached wood and bog. He suggests to the Council that here is a great opportunity for Scotland, since "we haif greitt advantage of transporting of our men and bestiall in regard we lye so near to that coiste of Ulster." The Scottish Privy Council acted promptly. On March 28 orders were issued for public proclamation of the good things now available upon "certain easy, tolerable and profitable conditions," which the King had offered "out of his unspeikable love and tendir affectioun toward his Majesties subjectis"; and those of them "quho ar disposit to tak ony land in Yreland" were requested to present their desires and petitions to the Council. The King's ancient subjects responded so heartily that by September 14 the allotments applied for by seventy-seven persons amounted to 141,000 acres although Hay had reckoned the Scottish share at 90,000 acres. In the following year the matter of Scottish participation was taken over by the English Privy Council, and when the list of the Scottish Undertakers was finally revised and completed, the number had been reduced from seventy-seven to fifty-nine, and of these only about eighteen had been among the original seventy-seven. Instead of the 141,000 acres applied for, the final award allotted 81,000 acres to Scotch Undertakers.
Military considerations presided over arrangements for the plantation. Hence the scheme provided that the natives should have locations of their own, while the settlers should be massed in districts so that their united force would confront attack. Only the "servitors," a class of Undertakers restricted to officers in the public service in Ireland, were permitted to have Irish tenants. The design was that the servitors should have estates adjacent to the Irish reservations, to "defend the borders and fortresses and suppress the Irishry." This expression occurs in a letter of May, 1609, from the Bishop of Armagh urging a postponement of actual occupation until the following spring, one of his reasons being that it would be dangerous for the English Undertakers to start until the servitors were ready. The lands were divided into lots of 2,000, 1,500 and 1,000 acres, designated respectively as great, middle and small proportions. Each Undertaker for a great or middle proportion had to give bond, in £400 or £300 respectively, that within three years he would build a stone or brick house with a "bawn," fortified enclosure, and he was required to have ready in his house "12 muskets and calivers, 12 hand weapons for the arming of 24 men." The Undertaker for a small proportion had to give bond in £200 that he would build a bawn.
The Scotch and English Undertakers for great proportions were under obligation "within three years to plant or place upon the said proportion 48 able men, aged 18 years or upward, born in England or inward parts of Scotland." Applications for estates were open to three classes: (1) English or Scottish persons generally, (2) servitors, (3) natives of Ireland. The estates of 2,000 acres were charged with knight's service to the King in capite; those of 1,500 acres with knight's service to the Castle of Dublin; and those of 1,000 acres with the tenure of common socage. That is to say the larger estates were held by the military tenure of the feudal system, while the small proportions were simply held by perpetual lease at a fixed rent. The yearly rent to the Crown for every 1,000 acres was 5£ 6s 8d for Undertakers of the first sort, 8£ for the second and 10£ 13s. 4d. for the native Irish. If the servitors should plant their lands with English or Scottish tenants they should pay the same rent as the Undertakers of the first sort. No Undertaker or his assign had the right to "alien or demise any of his lands to a meer Irish, or to any who will not take the oath of supremacy" upon pain of forfeiture.
These particulars are taken from the Carew Manuscripts, which give a summary of the allotments as completed in 1611, making a total of 511,465 acres. Accompanying documents mention by name 56 English Undertakers holding 81,500 acres, 59 Scottish holding 81,000 acres, and 59 servitors holding 49,914 acres. The names of 277 natives are given as holders of allotments in the same precincts with the servitors, aggregating 52,479 acres. In addition Connor Roe Maguire received 5,980 acres and "several Irishmen" are scheduled as holding 1,468 acres, making a total of 59,927 acres allotted to natives. The Carew summary lumps together "British Undertakers and the Londoners" as holders of 209,800 acres. On deducting the 162,500 scheduled to English and Scotch Undertakers in the records accompanying the summary, the London allotments appear to have aggregated 47,300 acres. The remainder consisted of church endowments and lands reserved for public uses such as corporate towns, forts, schools, and hospitals. The College of Dublin received an allotment of 9,600 acres.
The total area appropriated in Ulster for the purposes of the plantation has been a controversial issue and estimates differ greatly, some writers putting it at about 400,000 acres while others contend that it amounted to nearly 4,000,000 acres. Such wide difference on a question of fact shows that passion has clouded the issue. The whole of the six counties includes only 2,836,837 Irish acres, or in English measure 3,785,057 acres. Just how much of this area was allotted to settlers it is impossible to determine exactly, notwithstanding the apparently precise statement made in the Carew records, for it seems that only cleared land was reckoned. The Orders and Conditions say that to every proportion "shall be allowed such quantity of bog and wood as the country shall conveniently afford." The negotiations with the City of London show that in that case large claims were made of privileges appurtenant to the acreage granted, among them woodlands extending into the adjoining county of Tyrone.
Nevertheless there is reason to believe that the Carew computation of 511,465 acres is a fair statement of the actual extent of the lands appropriated for the plantation. The principle upon which the plantation was founded was that the settlers should be massed in certain districts. It appears from a letter of Davies that the commissioners charged with making the surveys were in camp in Ulster nine weeks. In that period of time they could not have done more than to note and map areas suitable for tillage and pasture, and in a report of March 15, 1610, accompanying the transmission of the maps to the English Privy Council a summary is given of land available for the plantation aggregating 424,643 acres. There are also indications that appurtenant rights were strictly construed. The grant of woodlands to the City of London was made with the reservation that the timber was "to be converted to the use of the plantation, and all necessary uses in Ireland, and not to be made merchandize." It was afterward ordered that settlers in Donegal and Tyrone should be allowed to take supplies of timber from the Londoners' lands. The Carew computation of the area allotted exceeds by 86,822 acres the estimate of available lands made by the commission of 1610 which suggests that the Carew computation includes areas of every kind covered by the grants. This conjecture is strengthened by the fact that the articles of agreement with London in 1610 mention only 27,000 acres, whereas the Carew record made in 1611 of the actual distribution charges the Londoners with 47,300 acres.
Further confirmation is supplied by a report made in 1618 by Captain George Alleyne as muster-master of Ulster. It contains the names of all the landholders and the number of their acres, men, muskets, calivers, pikes, halberds and swords. The holdings of the English and Scottish Undertakers are returned as amounting to 197,000 acres, and of the servitors 51,720 acres, a total of 248,720 acres. The same items in the Carew summary aggregate 259,714 acres. So far as it is possible to test the Carew summary it appears to cover the total area appropriated for the occupation and use of the plantation. That is to say, about 18 per cent. of the total area of the six escheated counties, including however all the then desirable lands, was taken from the native Irish proprietors for the purposes of the plantation, but over 11 per cent. of these confiscated lands was allotted to Undertakers coming forward among the native Irish. However opinions may differ as to the morality of the scheme there can be no doubt of the success of the plantation. Ulster had been the most backward province of Ireland. It became the most populous and wealthy.
1605 October 2:--Chichester to Salisbury urging the need of "planting of English and others well affected" in Ulster.
1606 Bacon to James I:--"Considerations Touching the Plantations in Ireland."
1607 September 4;--Flight of the Earls, September 17:--Chichester urges the need of bringing into Ulster "colonies of civil people of England and Scotland." September 29:--Privy Council replies that the King is "resolved to make a mixture of the inhabitants, as well Irish, as English and Scottish."
1608 April 18:--O'Dogherty captures Derry. July 5:--O'Dogherty killed. September:--Chichester sends to the Privy Council "Certain Notes of Remembrances touching the Plantation and Settlement of the Escheated Lands."
1609 March:--The Privy Council issues "Orders and Conditions to be observed by the Undertakers." March 19:--Letter from the Scottish Secretary of State in London to the Scottish Privy Council at Edinburgh announcing that Scots are to share in the Ulster Plantation. March 28:--Proclamation of the Scottish Privy Council inviting applications for Ulster lands. July 14:--Deputies chosen by the London Guilds to confer with the Privy Council on the matter of taking part in the Ulster Plantation. July 21:--Commissioners appointed to make allotments and to mark fit places for settlement. July 30:--Four citizens of London sent at the City's charge to view the country.
1610 January 28:--Articles of Agreement with the City of London for the rebuilding of Derry and the planting of Coleraine. June 5:--Chichester receives the King's warrant to appoint a new commission for Ulster to remove the natives and put the settlers in possession. August 28:--Proclamation from commissioners that allotted are open for occupation.
END OF CHAPTER I.
The racial elements that have gone into the making of Scotland are matters upon which there are sharp differences among specialists in this field. The first chapter of Andrew Lang's History of Scotland gives a statement of the conflicting views that are expressed upon ethnic questions. The great question is: Who were the Picts? An eminent Celtic scholar, Professor Rhys, mainly upon philological grounds holds that they were members not of the Celtic hut of some non-Aryan race, enmeshed by Celtic migration like the Basques of France. Mr. Lang himself concludes that they were simply a Celtic tribe, the ancestors in some degree of the present Highlanders. In Scotland as in England the historical data point to Teutonic and Scandinavian invasion pushing back the Celtic tribes. Mr. Lang points out that there is no marked difference in the racial composition of the people between the Scottish Lowlands and the adjacent parts of England. In both countries the people spoke a language now designated as Early English. The two regions were one geographically. Mr. Lang remarks: "Nothing in the topography of the country contains a prophecy of this separation of the Teutonic or English conquerors of Southern Scotland into a separate Scottish nation. The severance of the English north and south of the Tweed was the result of historical events."
Substantially the same view is taken in T. F. Henderson's history of Scottish Vernacular Literature. He holds that: "The Scottish vernacular is mainly a development of the Teutonic dialect of that Northumbria which embraces the more eastern portion of Britain from the Humber to the Firth of Forth. Here the Saxons obtained a firm footing early in the sixth century, the Cymri being, after a series of desperate struggles, either conquered or forced gradually westward until they concentrated in Cumbria or Strathclyde, between the Mersey and the Clyde, where for some centuries they maintained a fragile independence. . . . The triumph of the Saxon element was finally assured by the great influx of Saxons during the period of the Norman conquest. . . . The Teutonic speech and civilization gradually penetrated into every district of the Scottish Lowlands."
Mr. Henderson points out that "when it first emerges from obscurity toward the close of the fourteenth century, the literary language of the Scottish Lowlands is found to be practically identical with that of England north of the Humber." Early English exhibited three dialects, Northern, Midland and Southern. The Midland dialect became the sole literary language of England, the Northern and the Southern dialects "vanishing almost entirely from English literature." In the Scottish Lowlands the Northern dialect survived and from it the literary language of Scotland was fashioned. In support of these views Mr. Henderson points out that early Scottish, the Scottish of Barbour and Wyntoun (fourteenth century), "differs but slightly, if at all, from Northern English." At a later period the difference became marked.
The matter of ethnic origins has been touched upon, because some writers upon the Scotch-Irish have placed the Picts, the Caledonians and other early inhabitants of Scotland among the forebears of the Scottish settlers in Ulster. But as a matter of fact the settlers were almost as English in racial derivation as if they had come from the North of England. Occasional allusions in the State Papers show that the Government had in mind the English-speaking districts of Scotland and not the Gaelic regions as the source from which settlers should be drawn. Indeed, the conditions were such that the Ulster plantation appeared as part of the general campaign carried on to break down Celtic tribal polity and to extend civilized polity in both Ireland and Scotland. During the O'Dogherty insurrection Chichester wrote to the Scottish Privy Council advising that the sea-passage between Western Scotland and Northern Ireland be guarded to prevent the recruiting of the Ulster rebels by sympathizing fellow-Celts from Kintyre, Islay, Arran, and the neighbouring islands. The Scottish Privy Council on the receipt of the news of O'Dogherty's rising had been quick to perceive the danger of sympathetic disturbance in Gaelic Scotland, and before they heard from Chichester they had issued a proclamation forbidding any aid from the south-western shires to the Ulster rebels on pain of death. In later correspondence, after O'Dogherty's rising had been suppressed, Chichester referred to his own work in Ulster and the work which the Scottish Council had in hand against the Celts of the western Scottish islands as but two branches of one and the same service.
Irish history during this period has been kept under the spot-light so much as to create an impression that English policy in Ireland was somewhat singular in character and was actuated by special animosity. No support to this notion is found in the State Papers. In them the Ulster plantation appears as part of a general forward movement against barbarism. So far as treatment of the native inhabitants goes the measures taken in Ireland seem less severe than those taken in Scotland itself. The reign of James was marked by a determined effort to crush the marauding spirit of Gaelic Scotland and to suppress the feuds that were carried on in defiance of law. An armed expedition to the western islands was fitted out in 1608, and many castles were seized and dangerous chiefs were arrested both in the islands and the neighbouring parts of the mainland. Andrew Stewart, Lord Ochiltree, who was in command of this expedition, became one of the Ulster Undertakers. His name did not appear in the original list, but on returning to Edinburgh, triumphant from his expedition, he was sent to London to make his report to the King. When the revision was made by the King and the English Privy Council of the list of applicants submitted by the Scottish Privy Council, the name of Lord Ochiltree appears as Undertaker for 3,000 acres in County Tyrone.
The steady pursuit of the Clan MacGregor in the main Highlands is an evidence of the determination to crush outlawry at any cost. They are described in proclamations as that unhappy race which has so long continued "in bluid, thift, reif and oppression." The members of the clan were proscribed and the use of the very name was prohibited. The war on these wild clansmen went on for many years. In 1604 Alexander MacGregor of Glenstrae, chief of the clan, and eleven of his principal kinsmen and retainers, were hanged and quartered at the Market Cross in Edinburgh. In August, 1610, a commission of fire and sword against the MacGregors was issued to twenty-eight nobles and lairds in territories surrounding the MacGregor country. By proclamation the King's lieges were warned not to assist any of the clan, their wives, children or servants nor have any intercourse with them. In 1611, after a preamble declaring that the clansmen still persist in their "barbarous and wicked lyff," the Earl of Argyle is commissioned to root out and extirpate all of that race, until, says the King, "they be ather reducit to our obedience or ruitit out of our kingdome." Notwithstanding these energetic measures a report of 1613 says that remnants of the clan have again begun to go about the country "sorning, oppressing, quarrelling, where they may be masters and commanders." "Sorning" is the Highland equivalent of the Irish "coshering," the privilege claimed by the warrior class of living on forced hospitality. The harrying of the MacGregors went on by fits and starts for many years.
Besides these campaigns to introduce the King's law into Celtic Scotland, the Government had to deal with the habits of rapine which had been implanted by centuries of border warfare, and which possessed something of a patriotic character when Scotland and England were traditional enemies. Now that a Scottish King had mounted the English throne the further continuance of border lawlessness became intolerable. It was put down with ruthless energy. The English and Scottish shires which had formerly been "The Borders" were rechristened by James in 1603 as "The Middle Shires of Great Britain" and the administration was put into the hands of ten commissioners, five for each side, each set of commissioners executing their orders through an appointed chief of mounted police. The Scottish State Papers from April, 1605, to April, 1607, contain abundant evidences of the activity of the Scottish commissioners. Their chief of police was Sir William Cranstoun, and with his force of twenty-five horsemen he scoured the Borders, arresting murderers and robbers and bringing them before justice courts held by commissioners from time to time at stated places. At the end of the first year the commissioners give the names of thirty-two persons hanged for their crimes, fifteen persons banished, and above seven score in the condition of fugitive outlaws, who should be pursued with hue and cry wherever they might be found. In October, 1606, fifteen more of these Border outlaws were hanged and by the end of the year the list of fugitives had increased to thirteen score, whose names were to be advertised on the market crosses of all towns and the doors of all parish kirks in all the "in-countrey." The Scottish Privy Council sustained this work with hard resolution. The commissioners reported periodically to the Council, asking instructions upon difficult points, sometimes referring a case in which they think there might be mercy, but in every such case the Council sent back word to "execute justice," which meant that the culprit should be put to death.
Besides hanging and banishing, the commissioners were active in breaking up the nests of outlawry. The houses of thieving families were searched for stolen goods, the iron gates that barred entrance were removed and dragged away to be turned into plough irons. The official record of those who were hanged doubtless fell short of the actual number put to death, for Sir William Cranstoun thought it necessary to obtain an act of indemnity, which was granted by the King, December 15, 1606. It sets forth as its occasion that he had been moved "often tymes summarlie to mak a quick dispatche of a grite mony notable and notorious thevis and villanes by putting thame to present death without preceiding tryall of jurye or assyse or pronunciatioun of ony conviction or dome."
Among the names of malefactors officially returned as having been hanged by order of the justice courts are such good patronyms as Armstrong, Gilchrist, Johnstone, Milburn, Patterson, Scott, and Wallis. This Scott may well have been a kinsman of the great author, for in times when Border lawlessness had been so long extinct as to be susceptible of romantic treatment Sir Walter was pleased to claim Border outlaws as among his forbears. The Lay of the Last Minstrel describes the stronghold of Auld Wat of whom the poet says:
"But what the niggard ground of wealth denied,
From fields more blessed his fearless arm supplied."
Of Auld Wat's bride, Mary Scott, "the Flower of Yarrow," Lockhart relates that "when the last bullock which Auld Wat had provided from the English pastures was consumed the Flower of Yarrow placed on her table a dish containing a pair of clean spurs; a hint to the company that they must bestir themselves for their next dinner." As the Flower of Yarrow married Auld Wat in 1567, the halcyon days of her predatory housekeeping were separated by little more than one generation from the stern suppression of such methods. The effect of the thorough work of King James' commissioners was very marked. The Borders were so tamed and disciplined that in 1610 Chancellor Dunferline was able to assure the King that they had been purged "of all the chiefest malefactors, robbers and brigands" as completely as Hercules had cleansed the Augean stables and that they were now "as lawful, as peaceable and quiet as any part of any civil kingdom in Christianity."
There is evidence that the chronic turbulence of the Borders was not so completely suppressed as would seem from the Chancellor's account, but the opening of safe land-passage for steady trade between the two kingdoms appears to date from that period. The memorials of the period of turbulence were eventually converted by the relieved people into materials for legend and song, but this poetry of the situation did not appear until the prosaic aspect had been established to which Dr. Johnson adverted when he remarked that the noblest prospect a Scotchman could see was the high road that led to England. The enlargement of commercial intercourse and the growth of business opportunity were essential features of the pacification of the Borders, as of all regions brought under the rule of law. Severe and terrifying punishment of crime is an indispensable agency in disciplining a people addicted to rapine, but in compelling them to live by honest industry the law must afford them opportunity.
To complete this account of the conditions in Scotland from which the Ulster settlers derived their habits of thought it should be added that the Ulster settlement was essentially a migration from the Lowlands. The elements of the population to whom the opportunity appealed are displayed by the first list of Undertakers. It was mainly composed of sons and brothers of lairds, sons of ministers, and burgesses or sons of burgesses in the shires south of the Firth of Forth, and nearly all were from the upper tier of those shires from Edinburgh to Glasgow. A few names appear from Border shires, among them Robert Stewart of Robertoun, a parish of Roxburghshire in which was situated Harden Castle, the seat of Auld Wat's power. This Robert Stewart received a grant of 1,000 acres in County Tyrone. A grant of 1,500 acres in the same county was made to Sir Robert Hepburn, a lieutenant of the King's Guard. This was a force employed in the general justiciary work of the Scottish Privy Council, outside of the special jurisdiction of the Border commissioners.
The Scots that flocked into Ulster carried with them prepossessions and antipathies implanted by centuries of conflict with predatory clansmen.
The monkish writer Gildas, A.D. 560, describes the Picts as "a set of bloody free-booters with more hair on their thieves' faces than clothes to cover their nakedness." This might serve as well for a concise expression of Lowland opinion of the Celtic clansmen at the time of the Ulster settlement. The Lowlanders were accustomed to regarding the clansmen as raiders, pillagers, cattle-thieves, and murderers. The abduction and ravishing of women were crimes so frequent as to engage the particular attention of the Government. Hardened by perpetual contact with barbarism, the Lowlanders had no scruples about making merciless reprisals. The people were hard; the law was hard. It was an iron age. One of the acts of the Scottish Parliament at this period declared that every man and woman of the Gypsy race found in Scotland after a certain date should be liable to death and persons giving them accommodations should be liable to fine and imprisonment. Mention of arrests for sorcery and witchcraft is found in the records. The proceedings of the Privy Council for 1608 contain a report by the Earl of Mar of the burning of some witches at Breichin. "Sum of thame deit in dispair, renunceand and blasphemeand, and utheris half brunt, brak out of the fyre, and wes cast in quick in it agane quhill thay wer brunt to the deid." This horrible scene of human misery was evidently viewed with grim composure. There is not a word to indicate that the event was even deplored.
The greater avidity with which the Ulster opportunity was seized in the Scottish Lowlands than in England, which had the prior claim, is to be attributed to the chronic need of Scotland for outlets to the energies of her people. The migrating Scot was a familiar figure in continental Europe. In Quentin Durward Scott gives a romantic picture of the Scottish military adventurer, a type renowned throughout Europe for a shrewd head, a strong arm and a sharp sword. The Scottish trader was quite as well known. There were settlements of Scottish people living under their own laws and perpetuating their national customs in various countries of Europe. William Lithgow, a Scottish traveller who visited Poland in the seventeenth century, reported that there were thirty thousand Scots families in that country. When Sir William Alexander, afterward Earl of Sterling, was urging the colonization of Nova Scotia, an enterprise that came into competition with the Ulster plantation, he remarked that Scotland, "being constrained to disburden herself (like the painful bees) did every year send forth swarms." Many through stress of necessity had been compelled to "betake themselves to the wars against the Russians, Turks or Swedens." Alexander urged that this scattering of Scottish ability should be discontinued, saying:
"When I do consider with myself what things are necessary for a plantation, I cannot but be confident that my own countrymen are as fit for such a purpose as any men in the world, having daring minds that upon any probable appearance do despise danger, and bodies able to endure as much as the height of their minds can undertake."
Together with a long implanted migratory tendency operating to promote Scottish colonization of the territory opened to settlement in Ulster, another cause of Scottish forwardness was facility of access. The North of Ireland could be reached by ferries from the south-western extremities of Scotland which had been purged of their dangerous elements by Lord Ochiltree's expedition. The Scotch settlers had quick transit for themselves and their chattels while the English settlers had to take the risks of a much longer sea-passage beset with pirates.
At this period piracy was a thriving trade, its range including both Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts. Among the outrages charged upon the pirates was that they associated with the Turks, to whom they sold captives, Tunis being a port at which this traffic was carried on.
In a report made to the English Privy Council, August 22, 1609, it is mentioned with satisfaction that John Ward, a pirate chief, had been captured by "the galliasses of the Venetians" with his ship and pinnace and their crews, "whereof thirty-six the next day were hanged in view of the town of Zante, the rest in other places, amongst which number were divers Englishmen." The Irish State Papers contain frequent references to the depredations of pirates on the southern and western coasts of Ireland. Chichester says in his despatches that it was their habit to move from the Spanish coasts to the Irish coasts during the fishing season, to revictual themselves at the expense of the fishing fleet. He mentions that in 1606 the pirates "hath robbed more than 100 sail and sent them empty home."
The traffic that sprang up as a consequence of the Ulster plantation attracted the pirates into the waters between Ireland and England. In a dispatch from Dublin Castle, June 27, 1610, Chichester says:
"The pirates upon this coast are so many and are become so bold that now they are come into this channel, and have lately robbed divers barks, both English and Scotch, and have killed some that have made resistance; they lay for the Londoners' money sent for the work at Colerain, but missed it; they have bred a great terror to all passengers, and he thinks will not spare the King's treasure if they may light upon it."
Chichester had not the means of taking effective action against piracy, his frequent appeals for sufficient naval force failing of proper response from the home Government. This Scottish authorities acted with prompt decision and energy. An entry of June 27, 1610, on the Register of the Privy Council of Scotland notes that an English pirate had appeared on the coast of Ireland opposite Scotland, waylaying boats bound for the Irish plantation. Commission was given to the provost and baillies of Ayr to fit out an armed vessel to pursue the pirates. About the same time pirate ships were seen even in the Firth of Forth. Upon funds advanced by the City of Edinburgh three armed vessels were fitted out at Leith. The pirates had a depot in the Orkneys from which northern position their vessels could make excursions either to the eastern or western coasts of the mainland. An action was fought off the Orkneys in which one of the two pirate vessels was captured but the other escaped by fast sailing. Of the thirty pirates taken alive twenty-seven were put to death. They are constantly referred to in the State Papers as "English pirates" and their names are such as to justify the description. A feature of the official record that casts a curious light on the morals of the times is that the pirates had "one whome thay did call thair parsone, for saying of prayeris to thame twyse a day." This pirate chaplain furnished the Government with much useful information and he was not brought to trial. Piracy of such a serious-minded type must have been a relic of the time when marauding whether by land or by sea ranked as an honorable industry. This pious band perhaps regarded Scotland as a foreign country whose waters were as fair a field for spoils as the Spanish main in Elizabeth's time.
After this affair no notice appears in the Scottish records of any molesting of the sea-passage to Ulster, although mention is made of the presence of pirates in the Hebrides and the Orkneys. The probability is that the pirates found the narrow channel between Scotland and Ireland too tight a place in which to venture and they kept to safer and more profitable cruising grounds in the wide seas. Numerous references continue to appear in the Irish State Papers to their activity and audacity. They established a depot at Leamcon, a land-locked harbour, on the southern coast of Ireland, and at one time in the summer of 1611 they had there a fleet of nine sail together with four captured vessels. They were engaged in fitting up one of the captured vessels as an addition to their fleet, after which they were going to the Barbary coast where they had a market for their goods. They preyed upon the commerce of Holland, France and England impartially and defied the authority of all those Powers with remarkable success. The Dutch, who were particularly energetic in their efforts to crush the pirates, obtained permission from the English Government to pursue them into Irish waters. Three armed vessels were dispatched from Holland to the Irish seas in 1611, but the pirate fleet scattered at their coming to return when the coast was clear. Piratical depredations on the southern coast continued for many years thereafter, and the participation of the Barbary States in the business eventually led to a horrible affair. On June 20, 1631, a squadron of Algerine pirates sacked the town of Baltimore in County Cork, carrying off with their booty more than a hundred citizens of the place, mostly English colonists. Ulster, however, remained untroubled by the pirates after they had been driven out of the North Channel in the early days of the settlement. The South of Ireland was not delivered from the depredations of the pirates until about 1636 when Wentworth's energetic measures made the region too dangerous for them to visit.
In Appendix B will be found a complete list of the Undertakers as provisionally accepted by the Scottish Privy Council, and also the list as finally prepared by the English Privy Council. Although the two lists differ greatly, probably the class of immigrants was not to any corresponding extent affected by the change. It has already been remarked that the first list made up in September, 1609, was chiefly composed of sons or brothers of lairds and burgesses in the Lowlands. There is no name of a Scottish noble in the list of Undertakers. Lord Ochiltree appears as surety for four of the principals, but was not a principal himself at that time. The list as revised in England in 1611 contains the names of five Scottish noblemen, each receiving an allotment of 3,000 acres whereas in the first list the largest allotment was 2,000 acres. Only eighteen of the seventy-seven applicants enrolled in the first list appear in the final list. In view of the usual tenor of the King's proceedings in such matters favour doubtless played a part in those changes, but they cannot all be ascribed to favour.
According to the ideas of those times it was important to interest wealthy and influential noblemen in the success of the plantation. It is a point on which Chichester laid stress in his communications. Since it appears that Lord Ochiltree refrained from applying in his own behalf when the matter was in the hands of the Scottish Privy Council but is included in the list as made up in England it seems fair to presume that influence was brought to bear upon him. And it would also seem likely that the kinsmen and friends in the Lowlands for whom he had been willing to be surety when the first roll was made up might retain their connection with the enterprise under cover of his name. In a dispatch of July 29, 1611, Chichester mentions that Lord Ochiltree had arrived "accompanied with thirty-three followers, gent. of sort, a minister, some tenants, freeholders, artificers, unto whom he hath passed estates." Chichester notes that building and fortifying were going briskly forward, that horses and cows had been brought in and that ploughing had begun.
Other Scotch noblemen had thrown themselves with a will into the work of colonization. The Earl of Abercorn had brought in tenants with ploughs and live stock, and the Earl and his family were already in residence on their Irish estate. Sir Robert Hepburn was also resident, and was building and farming energetically. Mills and houses were going up and tools and live stock were being brought into the country. That there was a great bustle of intercommunication between Scotland and Ulster is evidenced by a petition to the Scottish Privy Council, October 27, 1612. The petitions set forth that in settling on their lands in Ulster they are "constrained and compellit to transporte frome this countrey thereunto, verie frequentlie, nomberis of men for labouring of the ground, and mony bestiall and cattell for plenisching of the same," so that passage between Scotland and Ulster "is now become a commoun and ane ordinarie ferrie," where seamen and boatmen are making rates at their own pleasure "without ony controlment." The public authority of Scotland was neither impotent nor irresolute in such matters. The Privy Council commissioned the justices of the peace along the west sea-coast to "reforme the said abuse in sic forme and maner as they sail hold fittest, and for this effect that they appoint and set down reasounable and moderat frauchtis [rates] to be tane for the transporte of men, bestiall, and goodis to and fra Yreland."
No further mention of this matter appears in the records but the severity with which unlawful exactions were repressed is evidenced by the entry in 1616 of an order that one Patrick Adair should be imprisoned in the Tolbooth of Edinburgh at his own expense during the pleasure of the Council for insolence in demanding custom on certain horses sent to Ireland by the Earl of Abercorn. There is however evidence that as communications became regular and ample criminals made use of the facilities. Entries of October, 1612, and November, 1614, refer to traffickers in stolen goods between Ireland and Scotland and orders are given to keep a strict watch of ports and ferries, "for apprehending of suche personis as in thifteous maner travellis to and fra Yreland, transporting the goodis stollin be thame furthe of the ane cuntrie to the uther."
The energetic scouring of the Scottish Border shires contributed some elements to Ulster plantation that did not make for peace and order. Men proscribed in the Borders would take refuge in Ireland. A proclamation issued in 1618 orders the wives and children of all such persons as have been banished or have become voluntary fugitives into Ireland to join their husbands with all convenient diligence, nor presume to return under pain of imprisonment. To facilitate better control over travel between Ireland and Scotland it was restricted to certain ports, and passports were required.
The situation in the Borders which were the southern tier of Lowland shires throws light upon a saying that is often quoted in histories as indicative of a low state of morality among the Ulster settlers. The authority for it is the Rev. Andrew Stewart, an Ulster minister. He remarked: "Going to Ireland was looked upon as a miserable mark of a deplorable person; yea, it was turned into a proverb, and one of the worst expressions of disdain that could be invented was to tell a man that 'Ireland would be his hinder end.'" As one follows through the state papers accounts of the measures taken by James to rid the Borders of "maisterles men and vagabondis wanting a lawful trade, calling and industrie" and notes the terrible punishments inflicted, branding, drowning and hanging, it is easy to understand how the popular imagination would be impressed. The severe attitude of the authorities is strikingly displayed by the measures taken in August, 1612, when some Scottish companies that had been in Swedish service returned home. It was ordered that "the said soldiers shall, within two hours after landing, dissolve themselves and repair peaceably to their homes, and that no more than two of them shall remain together, under pain of death." To escape from such rigor emigration to Ireland would be a natural impulse among the restless and wayward, and an association of ideas was established that became a text of warning in the mouths of sober-minded people. But there is abundant evidence that both in Scotland and Ireland the authorities were active in precautions against crime and disorder. A frontier has a natural attraction for the misfits of old communities but the evidence when analyzed does not warrant the opinion that the Scottish migration into Ulster was so low in moral tone as has been averred by historians on the testimony of early Ulster divines.
The authorities upon whose word rests the charge of prevailing immorality are the Rev. Robert Blair, the Rev. Andrew Stewart, and the Rev. Patrick Adair. Blair, who arrived in Ireland in 1623, left an autobiographical fragment which was begun in 1663 when he was seventy. In it he gave this account of the early settlers:
"The parts of Scotland nearest to Ireland sent over abundance of people and cattle that filled the counties of Ulster that lay next to the sea; and albeit amongst these, Divine Providence sent over some worthy persons for birth, education and parts, yet the most part were such as either poverty, scandalous lives, or, at the best, adventurous seeking of better accommodation, set forward that way. . . . Little care was had by any to plant religion. As were the people, so, for the most part, were the preachers."
Stewart's account of early conditions is contained in a church history which was begun in 1670 and was left unfinished at his death in 1671. He was minister at Donaghdee from 1645 to 1671, so his account cannot be regarded as contemporary testimony as to original conditions although it has been cited as such. His account has been supposed to derive support from the fact that his father before him was a North of Ireland minister, but the elder Stewart himself did not arrive in Ireland until 1627, and the son was only ten years old when the father died. Even if the younger Stewart is to be credited with information derived from his father, his knowledge does not approach so close as Blair's to the first settlement but nevertheless he paints the situation in much darker colours. Stewart says:
"From Scotland came many, and from England not a few; yet all of them generally the scum of both nations, who, from debt, or breaking and fleeing from justice, or seeking shelter, came hither, hoping to be without fear of man's justice in a land where there was nothing, or but little as yet, of the fear of God. Yet God followed them when they fled from Him. Albeit at first it must be remembered, that as they cared little for any church, so God seemed to care little for them. For these strangers were no better entertained than with the relics of popery, served up in a ceremonial service of God under a sort of anti-Christian hierarchy. . . . Thus on all hands atheism increased, and disregard of God, iniquity abounded with contention, fighting, murder, adultery, etc., as among people who, as they had nothing within them to overawe them, so their ministers' example was worse than nothing; for 'from the prophets of Israel profaneness went forth to the whole land.'"
Adair settled in Ireland, in charge of the parish of Cairn Castle, Antrim, May, 1646. He died in 1694 leaving unfinished A True Narrative of the Rise and Progress of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland. His account of the first settlers is simply a reproduction of Blair's, in almost the same language.
An examination of these several accounts shows that the purpose of the writers was hortatory rather than historical. The motive that set them all writing in their old age was to put on record edifying experiences. Literary composition of this sort instinctively avoids all colours except black and white. It needs strong contrasts to accomplish the desired effect. Hence Dr. Reid, in his History of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, a work written in the genuine historical spirit, while he reproduces Stewart's account, gives the caution that it is "probably a little over-charged."
Doubtless to clergymen of strict opinions there was deplorable laxity of morals among the early settlers of the Ulster plantation, but if one's views are formed upon examination of the official records, it will not be thought that the people settling in Ulster were any worse than people of their class in Scotland or in England. If anything, the comparison is to the advantage of the Ulster settlers. As a matter of fact they showed far more regard for religious establishment than is usual among emigrants. It has already been noted that a minister accompanied the party of settlers brought over by Lord Ochiltree in 1611. By the close of 1625 seven ministers are known to have settled in the country. Neal's History of the Puritans, published in 1731-2, mentions the Ulster plantation as a field in which Puritanism prospered. Referring to the work of colonization carried on by the London companies, Neal said:
"They sent over considerable numbers of planters, but were at a loss for ministers; for the beneficed clergy of the Church of England, being at ease in the enjoyment of their preferments, would not engage in such a hazardous undertaking, it fell therefore to the lot of the Scots and English Puritans; the Scots, by reason of their vicinity to the northern parts of Ireland, transported numerous colonies; they improved the country and brought preaching into the churches where they settled; but being of the Presbyterian persuasion, they formed their churches after their own model. The London adventurers prevailed with several of the English Puritans to remove, who, being persecuted at home, were willing to go anywhere within the King's dominions for the liberty of their consciences."
This reference to the Puritan complexion of the ecclesiastical arrangements made along with the Ulster plantation accounts for the acrimony with which pioneer ministers, writing in their old age, described the situation in which they began their fruitful labours. That situation did not exist however because the Ulster settlers as a class were worse than the other people, but because exceptionally high standards had been set up, measured by which morals that elsewhere might have passed without much reprobation were regarded as abominable. Such an epithet as "atheism" when employed by religious zealots must be taken with allowance. It may mean really no more than an indifference which however culpable from the ministerial view-point was far from implying actual atheism. It may be noted that Stewart couples the charge of atheism with "disregard of God." That is to say the people were atheists because they neglected the ordinances of the church as construed by Puritan clergymen. Blair in his autobiography mentions incidents that show that atheism could hardly have been prevalent. He remarks that on the day after he landed in Ireland he met some Scots with whom by way of conference he discoursed the most part of the last sermon he had preached. He speaks of finding several ministers in the field, and of hours spent "in godly conference and calling on the name of the Lord." Alongside of such fervour the behaviour of the common people doubtless seemed cold and indifferent, and Blair describes them as "drowned in ignorance, security and sensuality." Yet he says the people were much affected by two sermons he preached on the same day, "one sermon on heaven's glory and another on hell's torments." It was suggested to him that as some of the people that dwelt far from the kirk returned home after the first sermon, he should thereafter preach of hell in the morning and of heaven in the afternoon. In fine, his autobiography gives such an account of successful ministry as to indicate that the people were not a bad sort when judged by ordinary standards, and that upon a fair scale of comparison with new settlements in any country they really stood high in their concern for religion and their attachment to ecclesiastical order.
They certainly were tractable, for the relations that have come down from this period show that the ministers were able to establish a strict discipline. Blair tells how he made evil-doers make public confession of their sins. The Rev. John Livingston who was called to Ireland in 1630 thus describes the process of church discipline in his time:
"We [i.e. the session] met every week, and such as fell into notorious public scandals we desired to come before us. Such as came were dealt with, both in public and private, to confess their scandal in the presence of the congregation, at the Saturday's sermon before the communion, which was celebrated twice in the year. Such as after dealing would not come before us, or coming, would not be convinced to acknowledge their fault before the congregation, upon the Saturday preceding the communion, their names, scandals and impenitency were read out before the congregation, and they debarred from the communion; which proved such a terror that we found very few of that sort."
This was not an isolated case, for Livingston mentions that "there were nine or ten parishes within the bounds of twenty miles or little more, wherein there were godly and able ministers." Both Blair and Livingston speak of the extraordinary appetite of the people for religious exercise. Livingston says:
"I have known them come several miles from their own houses to communions, to the Saturday sermon, and spending the whole Saturday's night in several companies, sometimes a minister being with them, and sometimes themselves alone in conference and prayer. They have then waited on the public ordinances the whole Sabbath, and spent the Sabbath night in the same way, and yet at the Monday's sermon were not troubled with sleepiness; and so they have not slept till they went home. In those days it was no great difficulty for a minister to preach or pray in public or private, such was the hunger of hearers."
All this, in less than twenty years after the colonization of Ulster began, certainly does not exhibit a community prone to atheism and immorality. It is evident that ecclesiastical control over the people was promptly applied and was speedily effectual, and it was a control of a strict Puritan type. The development of this characteristic was promoted not only by the fact that the North of Ireland served as a refuge for Puritan ministers harassed by Episcopal interference in Scotland and England, but also by the fact that at this time the established church in Ireland had a strong Puritan tincture and the bishops there were friendly and sympathetic in their attitude toward the Presbyterians. The low state of the Established Church at the time of the accession of James had been somewhat retrieved by the appointment of good bishops and diligent pastors, trained under Puritan influence. During Elizabeth's reign Cambridge University had been a centre of Calvinistic theology and Puritan doctrine. The famous Richard Cart-wright, sometimes called the father of English Puritanism, was a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Dublin University, founded in 1593, drew upon Cambridge University for its staff of professors and their influence upon the Irish Church was very marked. The articles of religion adopted by the Church of Ireland in 1615 are printed in full in Neal's History of the Puritans as a Puritan document. Blair, Livingston and other Presbyterian ministers accepted Episcopal ordination after a form made to meet their approval. Neal says:
"All the Scots who were ordained in Ireland to the year 1642, were ordained after the same manner; all of them enjoyed the churches and tithes, though they remained Presbyterian and used not the liturgy; nay, the bishops consulted them about affairs of common concernment to the church, and some of them were members of the convocation in 1634."
Looking back upon the situation in the plantation period from the standpoint of our own times, the remarkable thing now appears to be that the people were so spiritually minded. In the time when Blair used to preach his sermons on heaven's glory and hell's torments, both on the same day, it may have seemed deplorable indifference that some of the people were satisfied to hear only one; but what surprises one now is that there should have been so many willing to make long journeys to give whole days to hearing sermons. Such devotion is hardly intelligible until the general circumstances of the times are considered. Previous to the spread of popular education, the rise of journalism, and the diffusion of literature, the pulpit was in most places the only source of intellectual stimulus and mental culture. It was like the well in the desert to which all tracks converge, whereas now some sort of supply is laid to every man's house.
The nervous disorders that are apt to result from immoderate states of religious introspection and emotional fervour were early manifested in Ulster under the excitements of Puritan exhortation. In describing a revival under Blair's preaching Stewart says: "I have seen them myself stricken and swoon with the word--yea, a dozen in a day carried out of doors as dead, so marvellous was the power of God smiting their hearts for sin." Such scenes before long produced religious vagaries that gave trouble. Blair in his autobiography gives a long account of his dealings with Glendinning, described as "lecturer at Carrickfergus." Glendinning settled himself at Oldstone, near the town of Antrim, where "he began to preach diligently, and having a great voice and vehement delivery, he roused up the people and waked them with terrors." But Blair notes that he "was neither studied in learning, nor had good solid judgment." Indeed, it would appear that the man became deranged, judging from the strangeness of the doctrines he began to preach. "He watched much and fasted wonderfully, and began publicly to affirm that he or she after they had slept a little in bed, if they return themselves from one side to another, could not be an honest Christian." Blair gives a long account of a struggle he had with Glendinning to keep him from putting his foot in the fire to show that it would have no power to burn him. Glendinning professed to know when the Judgment Day was to come and he taught people to save themselves by "a ridiculous way of roaring out some prayer, laying their faces on the earth." Glendinning finally left the country, giving out that he had a call to visit the Seven Churches of Asia.
The educated clergy who directed the interests of early Presbyterianism of Ulster set themselves firmly against religious ecstasies that tended to folly and disorder. Blair described some manifestations at Lochlearn in 1630 as "a mere delusion and cheat of Satan." It seems that there were persons who "in the midst of the public worship fell as mourning, and some of them were afflicted with pangs like convulsions." Their case excited sympathy at first but as conference with them disclosed no spiritual value in such experiences they were before long sharply rebuked. Blair tells how a woman of his own congregation "in the midst of the public worship, being a dull and ignorant person, made a noise and stretching of her body." He forthwith denounced the exhibition as the work of the lying spirit and charged it not to disturb the congregation. Blair notes that after this rebuke nothing more of the kind occurred, "the person above mentioned remaining still a dull and stupid sot." One can hardly be mistaken in thinking that these early experiences had much to do with developing in Ulster Presbyterianism its characteristic insistence upon the importance of having an educated clergy. We may therefore descry here the initial impulse of important educational activities in the United States ensuing from Ulster emigration.
These accounts of early conditions by the pioneer clergy are tantalizingly curt in their references to the industrial situation. Blair remarks that when the plantation began "the whole country did lie waste; the English possessing some few towns and castles, making use of small parcels of near adjacent lands; the Irishes staying in woods, bogs and such fast places." After mentioning the influx from Scotland he observes: "The wolf and widcairn were great enemies to these first planters; but the long rested land yielded to the labourers such plentiful increase that many followed the first essayers." These brief references are all that Blair has to say about the conditions that the planters had to endure, but they cast a flashlight on the situation. A relief map of Ireland shows that elevations above 500 feet are more thickly clustered in Ulster than in any other part of Ireland except the south-western extremity. Three highland masses whose general direction follows rather closely the sixth, seventh and eighth meridians of longitude stretch across Ulster from the north to the great central plain of Ireland. Between and about these highlands are lake basins and river valleys terminating in short coastal plains. At the time of the settlement forests and swamps occupied much of the country.
Ancient Ireland was a densely wooded country. State papers of 1529 represent the districts in which English law prevailed as being everywhere surrounded by thick forests. From time to time the Government had to cut passes and take measures for their maintenance. During the wars of Elizabeth it was a proverb that "the Irish will never be tamed while the leaves are on the trees," meaning that the winter was the only season in which the Irish could be descried and pursued in the woods. "Plashing" is mentioned as a great obstacle to the movement of the troops, by which was meant the interlacing of the tree trunks with under-wood so as to render the forest paths impassable. The Government sought to reduce these woodland areas, with such success that by the time James succeeded to the throne the central plain of Ireland was nearly destitute of woods; but extensive forests still remained in Ulster, in the counties of Tyrone, Londonderry, Antrim and Down, particularly on the east and west shores of Lough Neagh, and the territories adjacent.
Almost everywhere the lands occupied by the planters were in reach of the "fast places" in which Blair speaks of the "Irishes staying." The planters had to pasture their cattle near coverts in which wolves prowled or marauding natives lurked. Blair speaks of the wolf as a great enemy. Its ravages were so great that so late as 1652 under Cromwell's Government a bounty of six pounds was offered for the head of every she wolf. Grand jury records mention payments for killing wolves as late as 1710, and they were not wholly extinct until about 1770. The "widcairn" mentioned by Blair is a corruption of wood kern. From the reference to this enemy it appears that although Chichester had shipped out of the country many of the fighting men many still remained behind, still trying to live their old lives as a privileged class to whom tribute was due. The planters thus lived in a state of siege. Thomas Blenerhassett, whose Direction for the Plantation in Ulster describes conditions at this period says: "Sir Toby Caulfield's people are driven every night to lay up all his cattle, as it were, in warde; and do he and his what they can, the woolfe and the wood kerne (within caliver shot of his fort), have oftentimes a share." Gainsford, another writer of this period, mentions that it was an Ulster practice in 1619 "to house their cattle in the bawnes of their castles where all the winter nights they stood up to their bellies in dirt."
Such hazards powerfully impelled the settlers to build securely. In the official survey made by Nicholas Pynnar in 1619 such entries appear as the following:
"On the allotment of Lord Aubigny, held by Sir James Hamilton, is built a strong castle of lime and stone, called Castle Aubigny, with the King's arms cut in free stone over the gate. This is five storeys high, with four round towers for flankers; the hall is 50 feet long and 28 broad; the roof is set up and ready to be slated. Adjoining one end of the castle is a bawn of lime and stone, 80 feet square, with two flankers 15 feet high, very strongly built."
"John Hamilton has built a bawn of lime and stone, 80 feet square and 13 feet high, with round towers for flankers; he has also a stone house, now one storey high, and intended to be four, being 48 feet long and 24 broad; besides two towers, which are vaulted, flank the house. Also a village of eight houses adjoining the bawn, inhabited by British tenants, a watermill and five houses adjoining it."
Pynnar says that at that time there were in Ulster "in British families 6,215 men, and upon occasion, 8,000 men, of British birth and descent for defence, though the fourth part of the lands is not fully inhabited." Of buildings there were "107 castles with bawns, 19 castles without bawns, 42 bawns without castles or houses, 1,897 dwelling houses of stone and timber, after the English manner, in townredes, besides very many such houses in several which I saw not."
This estimate of the number of men able to bear arms of course implies a much larger population when the women and children are taken into the reckoning. The number of houses also points the same way. Inasmuch as the settlers took their families, and families were apt to be large in those days, the statistics given by Pynnar indicate that from 30,000 to 40,000 colonists were then settled in the country. Pynnar classes together English and Scotch as "British" but he gives details which show that the Scotch were much the more important element. He remarks that "many English do not yet plough nor use husbandry, being fearful to stock themselves with cattle or servants for such labours," and he goes on to say that "were it not for the Scottish, who plough in many places, the rest of the country might starve."
From the very first the Scotch took the lead in the settlement. In a report written in November, 1610, Chichester describes the English Undertakers as:
"For the most part, plain country gentlemen, who may promise much, but give small assurance or hope of performing what appertains to a work of such moment. If they have money, they keep it close; for hitherto they have disbursed but little, and if he may judge by the outward appearance, the least trouble or alteration of the times here will scare most of them away. . . . The Scottish come with greater port and better accompanied and attended, but it may be with less money in their purse; for some of the principal of them, upon their first entrance into their precincts were forthwith in hand with the natives to supply their wants, or at least their expenses, and in recompense thereof promise to get license from His Majesty that they may remain on their lands as tenants unto them; which is so pleasing to that people that they will strain themselves to the uttermost to gratify them, for they are content to become tenants to any man rather than be removed from the place of their birth and education, hoping, as he conceives, at one time or other to find an opportunity to cut their landlord's throats; for sure he is they hate the Scottish deadly, and out of their malice toward them they begin to affect the English better than they have accustomed."
Even apart from the ease of access enjoyed by the Scotch, Ulster opportunities were more attractive to the Scotch than to the English whose experience and habits did not fit them so well to endure the hardships. The Rev. Andrew Stewart dwells on this in his account of early conditions, remarking:
"It is to be observed that being a great deal more tenderly bred at home in England, and entertained in better quarters than they could find here in Ireland, they were very unwilling to flock hither, except to good land, such as they had before at home, or to good cities where they might trade; both of which in these days were scarce enough here. Besides that the marshiness and fogginess of this Island was still found unwholesome to English bodies, more tenderly bred and in a better air; so that we have seen in our time multitudes of them die of a flux, called here the country disease, at their first entry. These things were such discouragements that the new English come but very slowly, and the old English were become no better than the Irish."
By the "old English" Stewart means the descendants of English formerly settled in Ireland. In every age they have shown a marked tendency to melt into the general mass, making Irish nationality so composite in character that it would be hardly more accurate now to describe the Irish people as Celts than to describe the English people as Angles or Saxons. The conflicts of which Ireland has been the scene have been more political and religious than racial, and the political and religious differences have caused undue emphasis to be put upon racial differences. Even the preservation of the Celtic language and customs in some regions is no guarantee of race purity, for there is abundant evidence that descendants of early English settlers have adopted Irish speech and ways.
According to the original scheme only the class of servitors whose houses were to possess the character of military posts were to be allowed to have Irish tenants. It was the intention to remove the native Irish from the lands assigned to the Scotch and English Undertakers. But this part of the scheme, to which Chichester had always been opposed, proved to be impracticable. In a report made in July, 1611, the English Privy Council is informed that "experience tells the Undertakers that it will be almost impossible for them to perform the work they have undertaken, if the natives be removed according to the general project, for when they are gone there will be neither victuals nor carriage within twenty miles, and in some counties more." In view of this situation the removal had to be deferred and as time went on the obstacles increased. The Irish were willing to pay for the use of pasture lands and the newcomers found that the readiest way of turning their holdings to account was to let them out. Pynnar, writing in 1619, observes that "the British, who are forced to take their lands at great rates, live at the greater rates paid to them by Irish tenants who graze." He adds that "if the Irish pack away with their cattle the British must either forsake their dwellings or endure great distress on the sudden." Those considerations did not relax their force and the removal of the natives, although from time to time announced as settled policy, was never actually attempted.
The practice by the Undertakers of letting the lands was particularly marked in the large tracts assigned to the London companies. Pynnar in his report made in 1619 says: "The greatest number of Irish dwell upon the lands granted to the City of London." He explains this by pointing out that the lands are "in the hands of agents, who, finding the Irish more profitable than the British, are unwilling to draw on the British, persuading the companies that the lands are mountainous and unprofitable, not regarding the future security of the whole."
The behaviour of the London companies became the subject of an official inquiry, which incidentally produced a curious and beautiful record of the state of the plantation in the County of Londonderry in 1622. The survey was made under a royal commission to Sir Thomas Phillips and Richard Hadsor. The editors of the Calendar of State Papers, 1615-1625, say of the commission's report:
". . . . in it the state of every building, public and private, is portrayed in colours, giving a picture of the liveliest kind. There are views of Londonderry and Colerain, with all the houses in the streets and other buildings, the ramparts, etc. And on the proportions of the several London companies are drawn not only the several manor houses, but those of the freeholders and farmers, besides the cage-work houses in course of building, but yet unfinished."
In their report the commissioners call attention to the preponderance of natives and to the need of larger settlements of British "which would prevent many robberies and murders daily committed by the Irish, to the great terror of the few poor British already settled." Of one place the commissioners remark: "This plantation, albeit it is the strongest and most ablest of men to defend themselves, yet have they sustained great losses by the wood kerne and thieves." Of another place the commissioners report: "The few British that inhabit this proportion live so scattered that upon occasion they are unable to succour one another, and are daily robbed and spoiled and driven to leave the country." The military importance of the forests at that period is indicated by the urgent recommendation that there be "large passes cut through the woods to answer each several plantation."
In 1624 Sir Thomas Phillips made a petition to the King in which he charged the London companies with "defects and abuses ... by which they have brought the country into an almost desperate case." He declared that "their towns and fortresses are rather baits to ill-affected persons than places of security, besides the few British now planted there be at the mercy of the Irish, being daily murthered, robbed and spoiled by them."
The London companies eventually incurred heavy penalties on conviction of default, but no great change took place in the general situation. The plantation instead of being a substitution of British for Irish, as originally intended, assumed the character of an incursion of British landlordism among the Irish. The mass of the natives were not displaced but became tenants and labourers upon the lands they used to regard as their own. And this appears to have been the case not only in Londonderry County but throughout Ulster. An official return made in 1624 gives the names of 629 Irish tenants in County Fermanagh alone.
The settlers thus lived surrounded by a hostile population, with almost daily risks from raiders and in almost constant alarm of a general rising. In 1615 a plot for the surprise and burning of Derry and Colerain was formed, but was frustrated by the arrest of many of the conspirators. According to the cruel practice of the times torture was used to extort confessions. The authorities were too alert and the military precautions too extensive to admit any opportunity for a general rising at that time. But there appears to have been more or less marauding going on all the time. In an official report of March 27, 1624, the writer mentions that many thefts and robberies were being committed by bands operating in the counties of Tyrone and Londonderry. He adds: "I know well that this is a trifle to speak of in this kingdom, where such courses have been frequent, and where there are now many others in several counties upon their keeping, as we call it here." The phrase "upon their keeping" may be taken to denote such as adhered to the old order, what had once been tribal privilege now taking the form of rapine.
A Discourse upon the Settlement of the Natives in Ulster which was submitted to the Government in 1628 gives this account of the situation at that time:
"Whosoever doth know Ulster and will deal truly with His Majesty must make this report of it; that in the general appearance of it, it is yet no other than a very wilderness. For although in many of the proportions, I mean of all kinds, there is one small township, made by the Undertakers which is all, yet, the proportions being wide and large, the habitation of all the province is scarce visible. For the Irish, of whom many townships might be formed, do not dwell together in any orderly form, but wander with their cattle all the summer in the mountains, and all the winter in the woods. And until these Irish are settled, the English dare not live in those parts, for there is no safety either for their goods or lives, which is the main cause, though other reasons may be given, why they do not plentifully go thither, and cheerfully plant themselves in the province."
These perils and difficulties almost put an end to the settlement of English in Ulster. Their home conditions were not of such urgency as to force them out into such a field. It was different with the Scotch. More accustomed to emigration than the English of that period, more inured to hardships, more capable in meeting them, they held their ground, throve and spread, giving to the Ulster settlement a Scottish character. Exact figures as to population are not attainable. No proper census of Ireland was taken until 1821; prior to that time there are only estimates. All authorities agree that Ulster increased rapidly in population, both in the native stock and in the planted stocks. Wentworth, who was Lord Deputy of Ireland from 1623 to 1640, estimated that there were at least 100,000 Scots in the North. The historian Carte, whose work although published in 1736 is based upon such diligent study of documentary sources that it still ranks as a leading authority, estimates that in 1641 there were in Ulster 100,000 Scotch and 20,000 English. When it is considered that Pynnar in 1619 reported only 6,215 men settled on the plantation, so great a growth in the next twenty years seems almost incredible. It is to be observed however that the estimates include not only the population of the six escheated counties covered by the plantation scheme, but also Antrim, Down and Monaghan in which settlements of Scotch and English took place before the plantation of 1610. After making all allowances for possible exaggeration, it is certain that within thirty years from the beginning of the plantation there was a large Scotch population in the country.
END OF CHAPTER III.
 After this chapter had been written a valuable history appeared entitled The Ulster Scot, by the Rev. James Barkley Woodburn of Castlerock, County Derry, Ireland. This work may be commended as a fair and well-informed history of Ulster.
Mr. Woodburn, however, makes a statement in regard to racial origins with which I am unable to agree. He holds that there is little or no racial distinction between the Ulster Scots and the Irish people in general and that "the Ulsterman has probably as much Celtic blood as the Southerner." In support of this averment he argues that the regions of Scotland from which the Ulster plantation drew settlers were predominantly Celtic. Mr. Woodburn's argument was the subject of thorough consideration by the Rev. Professor James Heron of the Assembly's College, Belfast, in an address delivered at that institution on April 9, 1910. This address, which makes a thorough and complete analysis of this intricate subject, will be found reproduced in Appendix C of this book.
The first list of Scottish applicants for Ulster allotments was completed by September 14, 1609. The following is the list as given in volume VIII of the official edition of the Register of the Privy Council of Scotland:
ADAMSON, JAMES, brother of Mr. William Adamson of Graycrook [Craigcrook]: surety, Andrew Heriot of Ravelston: 2,000 acres.
AITCHISON, HARRY, in Edinburgh: surety, Mr. James Cunningham of Mountgrennan: 2,000 acres.
ALEXANDER, ROBERT, son of Christopher Alexander, burgess of Stirling: surety, his said father: 1,000 acres.
ANDERSON, JAMES, portioner of Little Govan: surety, John Allison in Carsbrig: 1,000 acres.
ANDERSON, JOHN, burgess of Edinburgh: surety, Thomas Anderson, burgess there.
BELLENDEN, JOHN, son of the late Justice-Clerk Sir Lewis Bellenden: surety, Sir George Livingstone of Ogilface: 2,000 acres.
BELLENDEN, WILLIAM, also son of the late Sir Lewis Bellenden: surety, Mr. John Hart, younger, in the Canon-gate: 2,000 acres.
BORTHWICK, DAVID, chamberlain of Newbattle: surety, George Thorbrand, burgess of Edinburgh: 2,000 acres.
BROWN, JOHN, in Gorgie Mill: surety, Harry Aikman, in Brumehouse: 2,000 acres.
CARMICHAEL, DAVID, son of James Carmichael of Pottishaw: surety, Mr. John Ross, burgess of Glasgow: 1,000 acres.
COLQUHOUN, MR. MALCOLM, burgess of Glasgow: surety, Alexander Colquhoun of Luss: 2,000 acres.
COUTTS, ROBERT, of Corswoods: surety, John Coutts, skinner, burgess of Edinburgh: 1,000 acres.
CRANSTOUN, NATHANIEL, son of Mr. Michael Cranstoun, minister of Cramond: surety, Robert Wardlaw in Edinburgh: 1,500 acres.
CRAWFORD, DANIEL, goldsmith in Edinburgh: surety, George Crawford goldsmith there: 1,000 acres.
CRAWFORD, DAVID, son of Andrew Crawford of Bedlair: surety, Robert Montgomery of Kirktown: 2,000 acres.
CRAWFORD, JAMES, goldsmith, burgess of Edinburgh: surety, Archibald Hamilton of Bairfute: 2,000 acres.
CRAWFORD, ROBERT, of Possil: surety, John Montgomery of Cokilbie: 2,000 acres.
CRICHTON, ABRAHAM, brother of Thomas Crichton of Brunstone: surety, said Crichton of Brunstone: 2,000 acres.
CRICHTON, THOMAS, of Brunstone: surety, Mr. James Cunningham of Mountgrennan: 2,000 acres.
CUNNINGHAM, ALEXANDER, of Powton: surety, George Murray of Broughton: 2,000 acres.
CUNNINGHAM, JOHN, of Raws: surety, James Guidlet in Strabrock: 2,000 acres.
DALYRYMPLE, JAMES, brother of Dalyrymple of Stair: surety, George Crawford, younger of Auchincorse: 2,000 acres.
DOUGLAS, GEORGE, of Shiell: surety, Douglas of Pumpherston: 2,000 acres.
DOUGLAS, JAMES, of Clappertoun: surety, George Douglas of Shiell: 1,000 acres.
DOUGLAS, WILLIAM, son of Joseph Douglas of Pumpherston: surety, his said father: 2,000 acres.
DUNBAR, ALEXANDER, of Egirness: surety, George Murray of Broughton: 2,000 acres.
DUNBAR, JOHN, of Avach, surety, David Lindsay, Keeper of the Tolbooth of Edinburgh: 2,000 acres.
FINLAYSON, MR. JOHN, heir apparent of Killeith: surety, John Dunbar of Avach: 2,000 acres.
FORRES, JOHN, in Dirleton: surety, Walter Ker of Cocklemill: 2,000 acres.
FORSTER, WILLIAM, in Leith: surety, John Forster in Edinburgh: 1,000 acres.
FOWLER, WILLIAM, merchant-burgess in Edinburgh: surety, James Inglis, skinner, burgess of Edinburgh: 2,000 acres.
GUIDLET, JAMES, in Strabrock: surety, John Cunningham of Raws: 2,000 acres.
HAMILTON, CLAUD, of Creichness: surety, Archibald Hamilton of Bairfute: 2,000 acres.
HAMILTON, GEORGE, of East Binnie: surety, Mr. Edward Marshall, clerk of commissary of Edinburgh: 2,000 acres.
HAMILTON, ROBERT, of Stanshouse: 2,000 acres.
HAMILTON, ROBERT, son of the late Gilbert Hamilton: surety, Gavin Hamilton of Raploch: 2,000 acres.
HEPBURN, ALEXANDER, of Bangla: surety, Sir Robert Hepburn of Alderstoun: 2,000 acres.
HOME, ROBERT, of Blackhills: surety, Mr. John Home of Swansheill: 2,000 acres.
INGLIS, THOMAS, younger of Auldliston: surety, James, Lord Torphichen: 1,000 acres.
IRVING, ROBERT, at the mill of Cowie: surety, Edward Johnston, younger, merchant in Edinburgh: 2,000 acres.
JOHNSTONE, JOHN, bailie of Water of Leith: surety, Daniel Coutts in Dairy Mill: 2,000 acres.
KER, WALTER, of Cocklemill: surety, John Forres in Dirleton: 1,500 acres.
LAUDER, ALEXANDER, son of William Lauder of Bellhaven: surety, his said father: 2,000 acres.
LINDSAY, MR. JEROME, in Leith: surety, David Lindsay, keeper of the Tolbooth of Edinburgh: 2,000 acres.
LINDSAY, MR. ROBERT, in Leith: surety, George Smailholm in Leith: 2,000 acres.
LIVINGSTON, SIR GEORGE, of Ogilface: surety, John Crawford of Bearcrofts: 2,000 acres.
LOCKHART, STEPHEN, of Wicketshaw: surety, Thomas Weir of Kirktoun: 2,000 acres.
McCLELLAN, HERBERT, of Grogrie: surety, George Murray of Broughton: 2,000 acres.
McCULLOCH, JAMES, of Drummorell: surety, George Murray of Broughton: 2,000 acres.
McGILL, M. SAMUEL, burgess of Glasgow: surety, Robert Gray, brother of Patrick, Lord Gray: 2,000 acres.
MAC WALTER, PARLANE, of Auchinvennell: surety, Alexander Colquhoun of Luss: 2,000 acres.
MARJORIBANKS, THOMAS, son of Thomas Marjoribanks of Ratho: surety, John Marjoribanks, apparent of Ratho: 2,000 acres.
MELDRUM, JOHN, brother of the Laird of Seggie: surety, Ramsay of Balmonth: 2,000 acres.
MELVILLE, JAMES, son of John Melville of Raith: surety, James Melville of Fodinche: 2,000 acres.
MONTGOMERY, ROBERT, of Kirktown: surety, Robert Crawford of Possill: 2,000 acres.
MOWBRAY, WILLIAM, son of John Mowbray of Groftangry: surety, his said father: 2,000 acres.
MURE, JAMES, portioner of Both-Kenner: surety, Cuthbert Cunningham, provost of Dumbarton: 2,000 acres.
MURRAY, GEORGE, of Broughton: surety, Alexander Dunbar of Egirness: 2,000 acres.
ORROCK, CAPTAIN DAVID: surety, Lord Ochiltree: 2,000 acres.
PONT, MR. TIMOTHY, minister: surety, Alexander Borthwick of Nether Laich: 2,000 acres.
PURVES, THOMAS, in Bald: surety, John Purves, cordiner in Edinburgh: 1,000 acres.
RAMSAY, ALEXANDER, brother of Thomas Ramsay of Balmonth: surety, Meldrum of Seggie: 2,000 acres.
ROSS, MR. JOHN, burgess of Glasgow: surety, James Carmichael of Pottishaw: 1,500 acres.
SMAILHOLM, GEORGE, in Laith: surety, Mr. Robert Lindsay in Leith: 2,000 acres.
STEWART, HARRY, of Barskimming: surety, Lord Ochiltree: 2,000 acres.
STEWART, JAMES, of Rossyth: surety, William Stewart of Dunduff: 2,000 acres.
STEWART, ROBERT, uncle of Lord Ochiltree: surety, said Lord Ochiltree: 2,000 acres.
STEWART, ROBERT, of Robertoun: surety, William Stewart of Dunduff: 2,000 acres.
STEWART, ROBERT, in Edinburgh: surety, William Stewart of Dunduff: 2,000 acres.
STEWART, WILLIAM, of Dunduff: surety, Lord Ochiltree: 2,000 acres.
TARBET, JAMES, servitor to the Earl of Dunfermline: surety, Thomas Inglis, younger of Auldliston: 1,000 acres.
THORBRAND, ALEXANDER, son of George Thorbrand, burgess of Edinburgh: surety, his said father: 1,500 acres.
WATSON, MR. JAMES, portioner of Sauchton: surety, John Watson, portioner of Sauchton: 2,000 acres.
WATSON, JOHN, portioner of Sauchton: surety, James Crawford, goldsmith, burgess of Edinburgh: 2,000 acres.
WEIR, THOMAS, of Kirktoun: surety, Stephen Lockhart of Wicketshaw: 2,000 acres.
WILKIE, JOHN, burgess of Edinburgh: surety, James Murray, burgess there: 2,000 acres.
WOOD, ANDREW, brother of John Wood of Galstoun: surety, his said brother: 2,000 acres.
THE SECOND LIST
The Scottish Undertakers who were actually granted allotments in Ulster were those on the list made up in 1610 by the King and his English Privy Council sitting in London. The following schedule is taken from Vol. IX of the Register of the Privy Council of Scotland:
UNDERTAKERS FOR 3,000 ACRES EACH
LUDOVIC STEWART, Duke of Lennox (in Donegal County).
JAMES HAMILTON, Earl of Abercorn (in County Tyrone).
ESME STEWART, Lord D'Aubigny, brother of the Duke of Lennox (in County Cavan).
MICHAEL, BALFOUR, Lord of Burley (in County Fermanagh).
ANDREW STEWART, Lord Ochiltree (in County Tyrone).
UNDERTAKERS FOR 2,000 ACRES EACH
JOHN CLAPEN (in County Tyrone).
SIR JAMES CUNNINGHAM, of Glengarnock (in County Donegal).
SIR JAMES DOUGLAS (in County Armagh).
SIR ALEXANDER HAMILTON (in County Cavan).
SIR CLAUD HAMILTON (in County Tyrone).
SIR JOHN HOME (in County Fermanagh).
SIR ROBERT MacLELLAN, of Bomby (in County Donegal).
UNDERTAKERS FOR 1,500 ACRES EACH
------------ BALFOUR, Younger of Montquhany (in County Fermanagh).
SIR THOMAS BOYD (in County Tyrone).
WILLIAM FOWLER (in County Fermanagh).
JAMES HAIG (in County Tyrone).
ROBERT HAMILTON (in County Fermanagh).
SIR ROBERT HEPBURN, late Lieutenant of the King's Guard in Scotland (in County Tyrone).
GEORGE MURRAY, of Broughton (in County Donegal).
WILLIAM STEWART, brother of Lord Garlies (in County Donegal).
SIR JOHN WISHART of Pitarro (in County Fermanagh).
UNDERTAKERS FOR 1,000 ACRES EACH
HENRY AITCHINSON (in County Armagh).
ALEXANDER AUCHMUTIE (in County Cavan).
JOHN AUCHMUTIE (in County Cavan).
WILLIAM BAILLIE (in County Cavan).
JOHN BROWN (in County Cavan).
-------------- CRAWFORD, of Liefnoreis (in County Tyrone).
JOHN CRAIG (in County Armagh).
ALEXANDER CUNNINGHAM, of Powton (in County Donegal).
CUTHBERT CUNNINGHAM (in County Donegal).
JAMES CUNNINGHAM (in County Donegal).
JOHN CUNNINGHAM, of Granfield (in County Donegal).
SIR JOHN DRUMMOND, of Bordland (in County Tyrone).
ALEXANDER DUNBAR (in County Donegal).
JOHN DUNBAR (in County Fermanagh).
WILLIAM DUNBAR (in County Cavan).
JAMES GIBB (in County Fermanagh).
SIR CLAUD HAMILTON (in County Cavan).
CLAUD HAMILTON (in County Armagh).
GEORGE HAMILTON (in County Tyrone).
ALEXANDER HUME (in County Fermanagh).
WILLIAM LAUDER (in County Armagh).
BARNARD LINDSAY (in County Tyrone).
JOHN LINDSAY (in County Fermanagh).
ROBERT LINDSAY (in County Tyrone).
ALEXANDER MACAULAY, of Durling (in County Donegal).
JAMES MACCULLOCH (in County Donegal).
SIR PATRICK M'KIE (in County Donegal).
-------------- MONEYPENNY, of Kinkell (in County Fermanagh).
JOHN RALSTON (in County Cavan).
GEORGE SMAILHOLM (in County Fermanagh).
JOHN STEWART (in County Donegal).
ROBERT STEWART, of Haltoun (in County Tyrone).
ROBERT STEWART of Robertoun (in County Tyrone).
SIR WALTER STEWART, of Minto (in County Donegal).
WILLIAM STEWART, of Dunduff (in County Donegal).
JAMES TRAIL (in County Fermanagh). PATRICK VAUS (in County Donegal).
These individuals are mainly from a Wingfield History, with additions from the LDS records and others.
Born circa 1623.
Parents: Edward & Ann (Cromwell) Wingfield
He died After Sep 1673 Before 16 at Scurmore, Sligo, Connaught Ireland.
2ND Son Lewis Was Called Richard IN Father’s Will. He Under Age 21 IN 1632.
1638 - Received £1000 from father's will.
Commonwealth (Roundhead) soldier in his teens.
Received £400 in Viscount Powerscourt's will.
1660 & 1661 - Commissioner of Ordinance collecting money (40s or 10s) for Army in Co Sligo and Co Mayo.
21 Jan 1661 - Received Charles II's pardon for fighting on the other side in the English Civil Wars.
1665 - Lieutenant in Militia, flourishing at Scurmore.
(Sources: Wingfield Memorials, 40; 1816-1820 Records of Ireland Pp249-300 Soc of Generals; C & P (Irld) 39: 1660-62/188 -1669-70 P 553).
Married Sidney Gore (5433), daughter of Capt, Sir Paul Gore (142401). Sidney Gore (5433) was born at Manor Gore, Donegal, Ireland. She died in 1677. Lewis Wingfield May Have Been Called Richard (2nd Son) Debrett. She Sister OF Sir Ralph Gore, Ancestor of Earls OF Ross.
1/1. 514. Edward Folliott Wingfield Esq (5440).
married Eleanor Gore (5439); married Arabella Lloyd (5441).
1/2. 515. Lewis Wingfield (5442).
1/3. 516. Thomas Wingfield (5443)
Died Without Issue - Sources-Wingfield Memorials P 41 And Debrett.
1/4. 517. Anne Wingfield (5444).
1/5. 518. Isabella Wingfield (5445).
1/6. 519. Eleanor Wingfield (5446).
Parents: Richard & Honora (O'Brien) Wingfield
Died on 22 April 1638 at Carnew, Wicklow, Ireland.
Distinguished Against The Rebels.
Lived Butler Lane Dublin.
Of Carnew, County Wicklow and Butler land, Dublin until he inherited Powerscourt, "With Lands and Jewels". Knighted 1603.
1615 in Lord Deputy Chichester's funeral procession at Carrickfergus (Vls J. Of Arch.v 9/105)
1636 - Inherited much land from mother, Honora (O'brien) Wingfield. Bought much land in County Wicklow. Served Charles I in Sundry Employments of Trust. (Hist of Powerscourt. 145)
Anne CROMWELL (5427)
Born at Okeham.
Parent: Lord Edward Cromwell (142400), at Tickencote, Rutland.
Died on 11 July 1636. Buried at Templebecan, Wicklow, Ireland - Alias, Stangonal, Alias Powerscourt.
1/1. 375. Francis Wingfield (5430)
Under 22 in Nov 1631 - Still
Living 16 April 1638 -.
He OF CO Clare And CO Limerick, Ireland. Died Without Issue.
1/2. 376. Anthony Wingfield (5431) died in 1653 at London.
Citizen and wool merchant of
1638 WILLED £800 BY FATHER, SIR EDWARD Wingfield. IN WILL (16TH MARCH 1653) LEFT ESTATE FIFTY FIFTY TO BROTHERS LEWIS AND CROMWELL.
HE STATED THAT HE WISHED TO BE BURIED AT POWERSCOURT (BETHAM WILLS 4, PRO)
1/3. 377. Capt Lewis Wingfield (5432), born circa 1623;
married Sidney Gore (5433).
1/4. 378. Edward Wingfield (5434)
1638 willed £800 in father's will. He Not Mentioned in grandmother Honora's will of 1650. He Not mentioned in brother Anthony's will in 1653.
1/5. 379. Cromwell Wingfield (5435)
Born at Newcastle, Wickow, Ireland. Died after January 1705.
He OF Kilmurry & OF Newcastle, CO Wicklow, Tenant OF Thomas Mallet AT Robertstown, CO Limerick 1650.
SOURCES OF INFORMATION ON CROMWELL Wingfield (RN5435):
1634 LEFT £6000 BY HIS GRANDFATHER, MARSHAL Wingfield
1638 LEFT £800 BY HIS FATHER, LEWIS Wingfield.
1650 LEFT LANDS AND £200 BY GRANDMOTHER, HONORA Wingfield.
660 COMMISSIONER FOR ORDINANCE - CO WICKLOW, IRELAND.
1662 RENT COLLECTING FOR LORD ORRERY
1664 TENANT OF LORD ORRERY AT BALLYMALLOW AND RUSSELL (ORRERY PAPERS 37)
1683 MENTIONED IN LADY ORRERY'S LETTER. [SOURCES: ORRERY PAPERS 19,37,297].
1/6. 380. Christiana Wingfield (5436)
Married Henry Hartestongue
Husband Was Counsellor And Then A Judge.
STANDISH HARTESTONGUE IN ORRERY LETTERS 10 MAY 1683 TO DOWAGER COUNTESS CALLS CROMWELL Wingfield HER COUSIN. [P 277]
(CONNECTED TO BROWNLOWS AND MORE THAN ONE LORD MAYOR OF LONDON, LATER EARLS OF LIMERICK). [BETHAM WILLS, PRO].
1/7. 381. Richard Wingfield Esq (5437),
Born 1621 at Powerscourt, Wicklow, Ireland; married Elizabeth Folliott (5438).
Parents: George & Ratcliffe (Gerrard) Wingfield, #108
Flourishing at Robertstown Castle County Limerick (Opposite Shannon Airport) 1592-1619.
"Hath a castle, a fair store house".
1599 on Earl of Essex's Ulster Expedition
1600 Also of Ballycullen, 2 m west of Ashkeam now a Georgian house.
1606 30 Aug Tenant of Sir Richard Boyle's at Tullow County
1613 a House at Smithstown, County Clare (his wife's property)
1614 of Castel Cragge, County Limerick - 4100 acres
Married Honora O'Brien (5425), daughter of Teige O'Brien (142399), in 1590.
Born at Smithstown, Limerick, Ireland. Grandfather 1ST Baron Inchiquin, Died 1557,
Descendant OF Brian Boroimhe, King OF Ireland. She Buried Abbey OF Ennis, Co Clare.
1650 "OF Smithstown, CO Limerick.
1/3. 254. Sir Edward Wingfield (5426),
born at Ireland; married Anne Cromwell (5427).
1/2. 255. Lady Honora Wingfield (5428), born 1596;
married Sir Donogh Macconner O'Brien (5429).
Parents: Lewis & Margaret (Noone) Wingfield.
1525 - Living, no sons. Brother Richard to pay 40s P.A. from Bishop Sutton's will if RW the eldest survivor.
1538 - Mugged in London by Mr Thomas Martell and servants. King Henry VIII's council took up his case.
1538 - Living in Wooley. (Derby Collection 6688,BM) this was probably Wooler in Northumberland from whence came the Worcester Wingfields in the 16th Cent. (See Nash's "Worcester" [London, 1782, W Tree; Worcs R.O.]
Father Lewis' will PR 1526 held in Hants Record Office, Winchester, Extant 1989.
Married Ratcliffe Gerrard (5421), daughter of Sir Gilbert Gerard (142398), on 18 July.
Ratcliffe GERRARD (5421) died on 9 September 1634. She Father Master OF Rolls TO Queen Elizabeth. SOURCES OF INFORMATION ON RATCLIFFE GERRARD WINGFIELD (RN5421):
Not mentioned in father's will, although a son, Ratcliffe, yet this Ratcliffe Gerrard married post 1592 "Thomas Wingfield of Easton next Letheringham"
1/1. 165. Richard Wingfield (5424), married Honora O'Brien
Born at Letheringham, Suffolk,, England.
Parents: John & Elizabeth (FitzLewis) Wingfield
Died after 1526.
Married Margaret Noone (5297), daughter of Henry Noone (142375),
Maiden Name Possibly Derby (Records 142).
1/1. 104. John Wingfield (5414) died after 1538.
1538 LEFT HOUSE BY GRANDSON, SIR
ROBERT Wingfield, PC.
1537 1 OF 3 SENT TO CAMBRAI [FRANCE] BY HENRY VIII TO ASSASSINATE CARDINAL REGINALD POLE WHO WAS GODFATHER OF HIS FIRST COUSIN THOMAS MARIA Wingfield 1. 1537 SENT PRESENT OF A WHOLE DEER (TO CALAIS?) BY QUEEN JANE (SEYMOUR). [LISLE LETTERS BY MURIEL STLLORE-BYRNE] CHICAGO, 1981.
APRIL-MAY 1537 WITH THE EMPEROR'S TROOPS WITH HIS COUSIN FRANCIS HALL OF LINCS [LISLE LETTERS IV, 302].
1/2. 105. Sir Richard Wingfield (5415),
married Christiana Fitzwilliam (5416).
1/3. 106. Thomas Wingfield (5417).
ALSO MENTIONED IN FATHER'S WILL IS "GODFREY Wingfield SQUIRE" ONE OF HIS EXECUTORS - UNIDENTIFIED, AND ANOTHER SON ROBERT Wingfield.
1/4. 107. Catherine Wingfield (5418) married Anthony Pounds
1/5. 108. George Wingfield (5420), married Ratcliffe Gerrard 1/6. 109. Godfrey Wingfield (6003) Executer of Lewis Wingfield's
Will Dated 1525. Lewis Died 1526. He Other Executor was Sir Robert Wingfield.
1/7. 110. Robert Wingfield (6045)
Mentioned in father Lewis' will as younger brother of George Wingfield 5420.
31 Knt of the Bath (5040)
Born circa 1428 at Letheringham, Suffolk, England.
Parents: Sir Robert & Elizabeth (Goushill) Wingfield
Died on 10 May 1481.
Buried at Letheringham, Suffolk, England.
He married Elizabeth FitzLewis (5041), daughter of Sir John FitzLewis (85805) and Anne Montacute (85806), circa 1450.
Elizabeth FitzLewis (5041) was born circa 1431 at Essex, England. She died circa 1497 at Letheringham, Suffolk, England. She was buried at Letheringham, Suffolk, England. She Name may be Elizabeth FitzLewis Wingfield.
1/1. 46. Sir Robert Wingfield (5153), born CA 1476-1515;
Married Lady Joan "Mary" Clinton (5154).
1/2. 47. Sir Edward Wingfield (5147) married Anne Widvile
daughter of Earl of Kent Richard Widvile (142336).
He Died without issue.
1/3. 48. Henry Wingfield (5149)
died in 1500 at Rendlesham, Suffolk. Buried at Letheringham, Suffolk. He A Priest.
1/4. 49. Sir William Wingfield (5150)
Married Jane Waldegrave (5151), daughter of Sir Thomas Waldegrave (142337). He died on 4 December 1491 at Letheringham, Suffolk. He was buried at Letheringham, Suffolk.
1/5. 50. Sir Thomas Wingfield (5152) died at Bosworth.
1/6. 51. Sir Richard Wingfield (5303), born CA 1441-1461
Married Duchess of Buckingham Katherine Woodville (5302); married Bridget Wiltshire (5304).
1/7. 52. Walter Wingfield (5155) married Female McWilliam.
1/8. 53. Sir John Wingfield (5294), born CA 1430-1479;
Married Margaret Durwarde (5295).
1/9. 54. Lewis Wingfield (5296),
born at Letheringham, Suffolk; married Margaret Noone.
1/10. 55. Capt Sir Edmund Wingfield (5298),
married Margaret Ashwell Wentworth (5299).
1/11. 56. Sir Humphrey Wingfield (5300), married Ann
1/12. 57. Sir John Wingfield (5145),
born c1450 at Letheringham, Suffolk; married Anne Touchett.
1/13. 58. Anne Wingfield (5305) married John Echingham.
1/14. 59. Elizabeth Wingfield (5306) A Nun.
1/15. 60. Katherine Wingfield (5307) married Robert Brewse.
1/16. 61. Elizabeth Wingfield (5308)
married Francis Hall (5309), son of Thomas Hall (142382) and Alice Bromswell (142383).
Parents: John & Margaret (Hastings) Wingfield
Born in 1403 at Letheringham, Suffolk, England.
Died on 21 November 1451 at Letheringham, Suffolk, & was buried at Letheringham, Suffolk.
This is the last Will of Sir Robert Wingefeld Knight made a Cambridge the 6th day of October the reign of king henry the vi after the conquest xxxi. In the beginning he prayeth his Feffees that they would make astate after his decease to Elizabeth his wife of the Manor of Lederingham with all the lands tenements Rents and services with all the appurtenances lying in divers Towns to the said Elizabeth term of her life with her dower of all my other Manors lands tenements Rents and services Being in the Shire of Suffolk outsept Caldwaller. And also he prayeth his Feffees that they will make astate to John his Son to him and to his Heirs male of his body lawfully begotten of the Manors towns and with the Reversion of the Manor of Lydringham with all the lands tenements Rents and services in foresaid which the said Elizabeth holdeth term of Life to him and to his Heirs male of his body lawfully begotten. And in case the said John die without issue male of his body coming that then all the sid Manors lands tenements Rents and services with the appurtenances Remain to Robard the son of said Sir Robard to him and to his Heirs male of his body coming. And for Default of Issue male of his body coming that then all the said Manors lands tenements Rents and services remain to Thomas the son of the said Sir Robard to him and to his Heirs male of his body coming: And for Default of issue male of his body coming that then all the said Manors lands tenements Rents and services Remain to William the son of the said Sir Robard to him and to his Heirs male of his body coming and for Default of issue male of his body coming that then all the said Rents tenements and services Remain to Havy the son of the said Sir Robard to him and to his heirs male of his body coming. And for default of issue male of his body that then all the said Manors lands tenements Rents and services Remain to Elizabeth and Ann and Katherine daughters of the said Sir Robard to have and to her Heirs male of her body coming. And for Default of issue male of her body coming to Remain to the Right Heirs of said Sir Robard Wingefeld.
page 2 missing
profits of the Manor of Westale the first year after his death shall all go to pay his Debts and to reform his apperstiences (?). And after this Done he prayeth his Feffees to make astate to John his son to him and to his Heirs male of his body coming the Remainder of the said Manors As the Manor been aforesaid. Also the said Sir Robert Will that John his Son a Relic of the holy Cross and a piece of Silver with a [tonerkill] to him and to his Heirs male of his body coming as the Manor been aforesaid. Also I will that John my Son nought attempt nor be about to break my Will upon pain of my Curse. And the Residue of all my goods without or left my Will performed then I Will It be done for me and mine [Annatere] by the Advice of my Executors. In Witness whereof to this present Writing I have put to my Seal the Day and year abovesaid.
Probate granted 21 of the month of November AD 1454.
Right hand Margin - Last Wish(es) pf
Sir Robert Wing [felde], Knight.
Lady Elizabeth Goushill (5035), daughter of Sir Lord of Hault-Hucknall Derby, Robert Goushill (27653) and Duchess Elizabeth Fitzalan (44415), circa 1430.
Born in 1404 at Arundel or Heveringham, Notts.
Died after 1443.
1/1. 31. Sir Knt of the Bath John Wingfield (5040),
born circa 1428 at Letheringham, Suffolk, England; married Elizabeth Fitz Lewis (5041).
1/2. 32. Sir Robert Wingfield (5050) was born circa 1431.
married Anne Harling (5049), daughter of Sir Robert Harling Knt (142312) and Jane Gonville (142313). He died before 23 November 1481 at Rushforth, Suffolk, England. He was buried at Rushforth, Suffolk, England.
1/3. 33. Sir Henry Wingfield, born c1434, Orford, Suffolk,
Married Alice Harte (5051); married Elizabeth Rookes (5053).
1/4. 34. Sir Richard Wingfield (5047) was born circa 1435.
died at Letheringham, Suffolk, England. He was buried at Letheringham, Suffolk, England.
1/5. 35. Sir Thomas Wingfield (5043) was born circa 1438.
married Mary Clifford (5042), daughter of Sir Roger Clifford (142307) and Joan Courtenay (142308). He married Phillipa Tiptoft (5044), daughter of Sir John Tiptoft (142309). He died at Letheringham, Suffolk, England. He was buried at Letheringham, Suffolk, England.
1/6. 36. Elizabeth Wingfield (5058), born circa 1438;
married Lord Paulet (5939); married Sir William Brandon
1/7. 37. William Wingfield (5048) was born circa 1440.
died in 1510 at Letheringham, Suffolk, England. He was buried at Letheringham, Suffolk, England.
He Died without issue - Served in France.
1/8. 38. Katherine Wingfield (5056) was born circa 1444.
married John Bonville (5846).
1/9. 39. Anthony Wingfield (5045), born circa 1446;
married Mary Duke (5046).
1/10. 40. Agnes Wingfield (5057), born 1448 at Orford, Suffolk,
married John de Fremingham (5196).
1/11. 41. Alice Wingfield (5054) B. c1450 Orford, Suffolk.
1/12. 42. Margaret Wingfield born circa 1452. Unm.
15, of Letherigham
Born circa 1345 at Letheringham, Suffolk.
Parents Thomas & Margaret (de Boville) Wingfield
Died in 1389, buried at Letheringham, Suffolk.
MP For Suffolk. Knighted 1389. Slim, Droopy Moustache.
1383-89 Member of Parliament for Suffolk.
Held Cleervands Manor, Framlingham; Lee, Cheshire; Gisloham, Lowestoft, Stamford. For Which One Quarter and One Sixth of a Knight's Fee, Commanded When Required Guards at Framlingham Castle.
Margaret Hastings (5030) was born circa 1355 at Elsing, Norfolk, England, daughter of Sir Hugh de Hastings (54407) and Anne Le Despenser.
She married Sir John Russell (54495), son of Robert Russell
Died & buried in 1397 at Letheringham, Suffolk,
Father's Brass at Elsing Church. Moated House Still Extant.
The Hugh Hastings Brass Is the Most Famous in England
1/1. 20. John Wingfield (5031) buried at Letheringham, Suffolk.
Summoned AS A Graduate Before Richard II[Proc. 47/127/1]. Died Without Issue.
1/2. 21. Sir Robert Wingfield (5032),
born circa 1370 at Letheringham, Suffolk, England; married Elizabeth Russell (5033).
Parent: John Wingfield
11. Sir John Wingfield of Letheringham
Born: circa 1328 at Letheringham, Suffolk, England.
Died: in August 1378 at Letheringham, Suffolk, England. He was buried at Letheringham, Suffolk, England.
Lanky, Monkish Looking, His Monument Is in Wingfield Church.
1346 Fought at Crecy [Salt Xvi,96] (Edward Iii Defeated the French). In the Retinue of Earl of Arundel.
Left 12 Silver Spoons and 6 Pieces of Plate and De Brews' Armour Which Was "Never to Leave the Family."
Held Metton and Hasketon.
1347 Keeper of Bromfield for the Black Prince
Married, before 1345.
Margaret DE BOVILLE
born at Letheringham, Suffolk, England.
daughter of Sir John de Boville (54403) and Petronella Scales
Married (1): Sir William Carbonell (142302).
She died at Letheringham, Suffolk, England.
Her married name was Wingfield.
Miserere of Margaret and Her Husband, North Choir, Norwich Cathedral (Carved Wooden Busts)
Held Falcons Hall, Rickinghall.
The two known children of Sir, Knt of Letheringham Thomas7 de Wingfield (5022) and Margaret de Boville (5023) were as follows:
1/1. Elenor Wingfield born Suffolk, England.
She married Sir Knt William Hoo (5925).
1/2. Sir John Wingfield,
born circa 1345 at Letheringham, Suffolk, England; married Margaret Hastings (5030).
7. Lord of Wingfield
7. Sir Lord of Wingfield John WINGFIELD
Born: circa 1305 at England.).
Parents: John Wingfield
Died: circa 1358.
Sir John Wingfield Held Lands in:
Yorks (Nettons, balne, 8 Miles East of Pontefract, of John of Warren, Earl of Surrey) 220 Acres
Hants (Crondall, near Farnham)
Norfolk (Maidestone, near Frettenham)
Suffolk (Hurts Hall, Saxmundham; Saxlingham).
Married: Elizabeth Honypott (5016), daughter of John Honypott Esq (54532) and Juliana Unknown
Elizabeth HONYPOTT (5016) was born circa 1309 at England. She died CA 1298-1388. She Honypott Arms: 8 Torreauxes, 3,2,2 And 1.[Vis. Norfolk 1563] There is Still A Honeypot Farm at Wingfield Today.
1/1. 10. Sir John Wingfield, Lord of Wingfield (5020),
Born at Saxmundham, Suffolk, England; married Elenor or Alianore de Glanvyle (5021).
1/2. 11. Sir Thomas DE Wingfield, Knt of Letheringham (5022),
born circa 1328 at Letheringham, Suffolk, England; married Margaret de Boville (5023).
5. Sir Lord of Wingfield & Dennington
Born circa 1279 at England.
Parents: Thomas de Wingfield
25th April 1279 Going Beyond the Seas with Edward I Was William De Brews, of Stowlangtoft, Suffolk Who Nominated John Wingfield and Richard De Brews as His Attorneys until Christmas. (Reyce 257)
1290-1302: Alice Wingfield Sister of Ada, of next Manor to Holt, Norfolk Widow of Walter De Wingfield was Heiress of Robert De Bringhurst (Near Rockingham Castle). (Vch Leics 82; Iro De 221-4).
1308 & 1310 Letitia De Wingfield, of Darsham and Syleham Presented to Hulverton Church by the Countess of Norfolk (Alice De Hemnonia. (F of F, Suffolk, 1189-1482, Rye 1900). Letitia De Wingfield's Daughter Married Sir Hugh Hercy of Grove, Yorks. [Vis-Yorks 1584/5].
He married Ann "Peach" Peche (5010), daughter of Sir John of Peche's Manor Peche (54530), before 1305.
Sir John Peche of Peche's Manor, Diss (Blomford V18) Had Sir Ralph's or Curple's Manor, Helmenham and Flixton (Blomford V, 185)
1302 Hugo Peche Was One of two Knights (MPs) for Suffolk. [Reyce 257]
1310-12 John Botetourt, Governor of Framlingham Castle. [Hawes 36]
1/1. 6. Giles Egidius Wingfield (5014)
Lord of Stradbroke "The
Born at England. He died without issue.
1272 PARSON OF Wingfield. PATRON WAS GILES LE RUS. [ALDWELL 55]
1299 PARSON OF CHICKERING [BM AD 7260 CHARTERS]
1321-1338, or later. RECTOR & PARSON OF EARSHAM. PRESENTED 1321 BY THOMAS DE BROTHERTON, MARSHAL OF ENGLAND [ROT. ORIG I, 184 V7; BM 33247 ORIG 669]
1338 HAD UP BY HIS NEPHEW FOR POACHING RABBITS.
1/2. Sir Lord of Wingfield John Wingfield (5012),
Born circa 1305 at England; married Elizabeth Honypott (5016).
1/3. 8. Richard Wingfield (5011), Lord of Dennington,
born 1305 at Suffolk, England; married Female Unknown (5015).
1/4. 9. Roger Wingfield (5013)
born after 1306 at England. He died at Brinston/Badingham/ Weighton. HE WAS EDWARD I'S CLERK OF THE WARDROBE,
WHICH MEANT EFFECTIVELY THE MINISTER IN CHARGE OF THE WAR OFFICE, THE FOREIGN
OFFICE AND THE TREASURY, AND ONE OF THE EIGHT MOST POWERFUL MEN IN THE COUNTRY.
HE LIVED AT BRINSTON, NEAR ALTHORP, AND AT BADINGHAM, SUFFOLK, AND AT WEIGHTON,
1306 - 1314 CLERK OF THE WARDROBE
1308 - 1310 HIGH STEWART OF ALL KNIGHTS TEMPLARS LANDS IN ENGLAND
1310 TOOK ALL TEMPLARS IN LINCOLN CASTLE TO THE TOWER OF LONDON
ROGER W. OF BISHAM, BERKS, WHERE ROBERT DE BRUCE'S WIFE WAS HELD CAPTIVE.
1312 DELIVERED UP ORFORD CASTLE.
1313 RECEIVED FARMS OF KING'S FAVOURITE, PIERS GAVESTON
1314 OVERSEAS WITH EDWARD I AND IN DUNGANNON, IRELAND. WAS THEN THE KEEPER OF THE PRIVY SEAL, WHICH HE WAS CARRYING WITH HIM WHEN HE WAS CAPTURED AT THE BATTLE OF BANNOCKBURN IN 1314
T.F.TOUT: CHAPTERS IN MEDIAEVAL ADMINISTRATIVE HISTORY VOLS I & V (OF VI), LONDON (1928-30).
4. Lord of Wingfield and Westerfield
Born in 1280 at England.
He died circa 1322.
R and A Buried at Priory Church, Woodbridge, Suffolk [Copinger II,369]
Wife's uncle was Thomas Weyland, Chief Justice, 1257, Was accused of taking fines for Breaking Assize of bread and ale at Middleton, near Dunwish, Suffolk. Sacked 1289. Banished to Tower. (Parker III).
1248 and 1256 Henry III visited Framlingham Castle disguised as a monk.
He married Alice Weyland (5008),
daughter of Sir Nicholas Weyland (54399). Born CA 1189-1248 at Cromer, Norfolk. She died CA 1220-1329.
In 1248, 1254, 1256 and 1257 Henry III [1216-72] Called on Those Holding £15 Worth of Land to Take Order of Knighthood and Accompany Him to Wars in Gascony, France. Included Sir Nicholas, Sir William and Sir John De Weyland, Sir William and John De Bovile; Sir William, Robert, -, Hugh Peachie [Reyce 63-66]
1257 Famine and Pestilence
1270-1288 Nicholas De Weyland Held Garboldisham, Norfolk and Lands near Sudbury, Suffolk and Shipham and Cromer. [Blomfield's Norfolk Iii, 478; 1, 172; Copinger Ii, 369;1,96
1275 Alice Held Cromer for a Pair of White Gloves a Year [Blomfd Iii,478].
1/1. 5. Sir John DE Wingfield, Lord of Wingfield & Dennington,
born circa 1279 at England; married Ann "Peach" Peche (5010).
Born CA 1146-1216 at England. He died CA 1183-1292.
Parents: Robert & Joan (Falstaff) Wingfield
He was styled "Of Wingfield Castle" [Reyce'S Breviary], Although The Castle was not built of stone until 1385.
He married Joan Falstaff/Falstolf (5006), daughter of Sir John Falstolfe (54397), CA 1172-1248.
Born CA 1152-1219 at England. She died CA 1183-1298. Her married name was De Wingfield.
Father's Descendant (?) Married to Sir John Falstolfe 1398, Squire to Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk.
Kirkley Falstolfe's Hall Believed Part of the Dowry Passed in 1552 from Descendant, Anthony Wingfield, K.G. To Daughter Mary. [Copinger V, 83]
Ancient Seat of the Falstolfes Was at Kimberley, Norfolk.
1/1. 4. Lord of Wingfield and Westerfield Thomas4 DE Wingfield
(5007), born 1280 at England; married Alice Weyland (5008).
1/1. 3. Robert DE Wingfield, born CA 1146-1216 at England;
married Joan Falstaff/Falstolf.
(Robertus de Campo Venti)
Born at England. He died at England. He was buried at
Was Living C. 1087, 1100;
Was Witness to Deed of the Nedhams, Temp. Henry I (1100-35). (Source: Norris' Collections)
Main Wingfield Manor 1087: the Extent of the Land Was 3 and a Half Miles by Half a Mile = 240 Acres. This Was Held by a Freeman and Worked by 7 Bordars.
24 Acres of Glebe : Manor Enfeoffed 1086 by the Abbot of Ely to Roger Bigod (Father of the Earl of Norfolk) of Framlingham Castle, 1101.
Domesday Book: 1086 "In Wighafelda a Freeman by Commendation and Soche [Held] 10 Acres Valued at 20 Pence.
Landholders Summoned to Salisbury to Pay Homage to William the Conqueror."
Gough's "Sepulchral Monuments", Vol Ii, Mentions a "John Wingfield, Two Generations Before 1087".
1/1. 2. John de Wingfield (5003), born at England;
married Female Unknown (5004).
22/10/2000: Added Burnett family.
13/11/2000: added detail to Perrott family.
6/6/2001: resaved from/to HTML/Word
28/10/2001: edited GPS family out, Index added.
1/5/2002: Misc notes.
8/2/2003: Isabella Wingfield Link
16/6/2003: Jeffrey family from Linda Hill
5/8/2003: More Jeffrey & split off appendices
28/3/2004: Renwick/Kemp Will & Links
27/8/2004: Rev Robert Stewart
26/4/2005: Andrew Jaffrey descendants
25/5/2006: duel by James R Smedberg
23/6/2007: Wingfield line & reformatted + small changes.
10/8/2008: Added Debretts.
19/9/2011: Charles Trench Stewart issue.
13/10/2015: web frame
29/9/2019: extensively edited and extended from internet
[iii] London, Ont. N6A 4VB, 11/06
 (AM from PRONI info 8/1999, with extra from JJF)
Baptised Kirkinner, Wigtown, 16/12/1804, son of Robert & Mary Arbuckle.
Robert Arbuckle under sequestration, 1822, farmer & cattle dealer of Kirkinner.
 Alumni Cantabrigienses: A Biographical List of All Known Students, Volume 2, pt 6 1752-1900.
 The (British) Guardian, 17 Mar 1824.
 NAI REFERENCE (Ireland): CSO/RP/1825/755
 Belfast Newsletter 5 Dec 1883.
 Belfast News-Letter (Belfast)03 Dec 1883,
 The Belfast Newsletter, Tuesday, 5 November, 1833; CMSIED 300064
 Births, Marriages & Deaths with Co. Donegal, Ireland & New York, U.S.A. Connections, 1829-69 Personal Notices of Births, Marriages and Deaths Extracted from the Londonderry Sentinel.
 From Google images. Jeffrey, Agnes: Sentiment Album. From an exhibition: The Genteel Pastime: 19th-Century Watercolors by the Ladies of the Jeffrey Family.
 The Belfast Newsletter, 1858; CMSIED 9804841
 Belfast News-Letter (Belfast, Antrim, Northern Ireland)17 Apr 1900,
Fri, 09 May 2008
She was my maternal great Aunt by the name of Lydia Christine Malcolm. She appears to have married John Alexander Stewart 5/4/1904 (possibly Belfast?) and they seem to have had a son Henry William Basil.
I have always thought there was a connection between Lydia's Stewart marriage and her brother's emigration to New Zealand. He was James Black Malcolm and emigrated from Belfast in 1878 on the Lady Jocelyn as part of an Ulster Plantation emigration scheme set up by George Vesy Stewart. George was of the Stewart of Athenree family which I understand has connections to the family you have put up on your site. James Malcolm I believe belonged to the Enniskillen Dragoons at one stage, I understand a Stewart regiment.
I am in regular contact with the archivist in Kati Kati, NZ (I was B in NZ) where the Athenree Stewarts settled. One of my Malcolm relatives is buried next to Adela Stewart who was the wife of Capt Hugh Stewart. I am in touch with some of the descendants of this family in NZ. I see on your web site that Pakenham Thomas Stewart, brother in law to our Lydia, also spent some time in NZ so he may be the family connection to the Ulster settlement scheme I have been looking for. My great grandfather was Duncan Malcolm of Belfast, Lydia Stewart's father.
Fri, 16 May 2008 From:
I have spent a number of years hunting for a maternal blood relative whom I knew only as Lydia Christina Stewart. I was told she was the sole executrix of my great great grandfather, Duncan Malcolm's (of Belfast) Will (poss dated early/mid 1900s). I was told by family years ago that Lydia had married well and I assumed she was Duncan Malcolm's daughter, the more so because I think her mother was Christina Black/Malcolm.
I believe it is she (named as Lydia Christine Malcolm, dau of Duncan Malcolm of Belfast) that I have found in your web site. You show that Lydia married John Alexander Stewart (b 1881 to Henry Wm Stewart and Frances Palmer) in 1904. Duncan Malcolm was a room paper merchant in Victoria Street, Belfast, from the early 1860s until the early 1900s so far as I can find. I understand he was quite well off.
For some reason, Duncan had cast his son (James Black Malcolm, my great grandfather) from his estate. We had been told that James had been a 'naughty boy' but, as happens in families, a veil seems to have been drawn. One story was that he might have been drummed from the army, another that his father purchased his release due to rising tensions in Europe at the time. James apparently trained as an accountant. He went to Kimberley S Africa and then to New York from where his father brought him home. In 1878 his father sent him to NZ as 'cadet' as part of the Stewart of Athenree's Ulster Plantation private settlement scheme in Kati Kati (Bay of Plenty, North island).
I have always strongly felt there was some relationship between the Malcolms and the Stewarts but could never establish it. It seems the Athenree and Killymoon Stewarts are related in some way. There might also be a link thru the Inniskillen Dragoons which James allegedly belonged to for a bit and which I understand was a Stewart regiment.
Christina's sister, Jessy (?Cameron) Malcolm married John Bain, a JP in Belfast; their daughter, also Jessy, married into the Lord/Earl of Essex's family (the Cecils). So the Malcolm clearly had friends in high places (the girls were supposedly very beautiful - Jessy Bain had been known as the Belle of Belfast).
I have attached a couple of pictures: the man with moustache is James Black Malcolm, brother to Lydia Christina Malcolm who married John Alexander Stewart. The other picture is of his son, Guy Cameron Malcolm, James' son, and my maternal grandfather. All so sad because James' three other children died quite suddenly in their late teens: I think the two daughters from that terrible Asian flu that swept the world around WW1, and the other son, Francis, from a fall at school that damaged his spine. Grandpa said his mother used to say no one knows what real sadness is until you have lost several of your children. So, Guy was their sole surviving child and doted on his parents. He was wonderful to them as an adult as they had had a tough life. I understand that the oftimes roguish James, was also a very loveable and likeable Irish character. I found an obit to him in a 1924 NZ newspaper the other day that stated ' A well-known resident, Mr James Black Malcolm, died at his residence yesterday .. (in Mt Eden, Auckland). I recall Grandpa telling me that his father used to take part in Irish Protestant marches in Auckland and I think he belonged to an Orangemen's Masonic order as well. Grandpa, I think was a Grand Master but I need to check on this again.
Yes, I came to Australia from NZ when we married. My husband, Arthur, is Sth African and we met at University in Auckland. We are both geographers. Our 2 sons Mark and Andrew, were born here and both are married, one living in Perth with his family, where we also live, and the other, with his family in Houston, Texas. We have five grandsons aged from 4 to 9 years of age. Arthur is a retired academic and we now enjoy retirement to the fullest, having been able to travel while we can - Antarctica and Mongolia.
My great great aunt Lydia Malcolm did indeed marry John Alexander Stewart in Knockbreda Parish Church, Belfast, 23 Sept 1903 at Belfast Register Office before witnesses David Crighton and Mary Orr. John Stewart was shown as a tea merchant of Knockbreda Park, Belfast, son of Rev Henry William Stewart, a Church of Ireland clergyman. Lydia also shown of Knockbreda Park, daughter of Duncan Malcom, wall-paper merchant. But oddly, they were married again on April 5, 1904, at the Church of Ireland parish church of Newtownbreda, Knockbreda by her father (I wonder if this is meant to be by her f in law? - will have to wait until I get the documents) with the Witnesses being Duncan Malcolm and William Stewart. John was shown as 22 and Lydia 32. You get the feeling the registry office marriage did not meet with the approval of Rev Stewart -- or indeed Lydia's father who supposedly was a Plymouth Brethren!
But, But ..... I am also wondering if there was more to it as I think you show a birth of Henry William Basil Stewart in 1903. Could he have been born them prior to or soon after their registry office marriage?
Also an earlier census entry suggests that Lydia was b in 1867, even earlier than her marriage certificate suggests.
I had been told by a Malcolm aunt of mine that Lydia married twice. She did indeed --- but to the same man!!
They married first in a registry office in the City of Belfast in Sept 1903; then again in April 1904, this time with John's father Rev Henry Stewart officiating at his parish church in Knockbreda, Belfast. The other witness to this marriage was Lydia's father, widower Duncan (who one record sent me shows him to be a Plymouth Brethren!! - the rest of his family were church of Ireland or Presbyterian from what I know so far). So its looks as tho some respectability was visited upon the couple in 1904. She was a good deal older than John at marriage - he 22 and she 32 (tho maybe even 37 as earlier data suggest). Added to this is a possible son, Henry William Basil born to them in 1903 - but there are no firm dates for this.
The couple's name comes up again on the death certificate for Lydia's father, Duncan Malcolm, at Inverloch/Inverlock, Ballycultra, Belfast in July 1913 when Duncan dies at age 86 and 3/4 yrs (of pneumonia). The name Inverloch is curious because that was where my grandfather told me Duncan Malcolm was born in Scotland (c 1825) -- but I can find no place of that name there (except Inverlochy Castle nr Fort William or Loch Inver on the N West coast of Scotland ). I have also found a James Stewart living at Inverloch, Marino, around the same date -- probably in the same household? (John did have a brother James who married poss after 1913 as he has a son, Joseph, b 1917).
Also confirmed in a copy of Duncan Malcolm’s Will of 1901 was the fact that his daughter Lydia (then still single) was the sole beneficiary and executrix of his estate.
Thu, 25 Oct 2007 From
I was doing a search of the internet for descendants of William Hyde from Belfast and I've come across William Henry Basil Stewart b 1903 who married Josephine P. Bottomley.
I wonder if you know anything about this couple and whether they had any children? I believe that Josephine many have been the daughter of William Gray Porter Bottomley and his wife Josephine Hyde.
I was told yesterday that one of Josephine Hyde's sisters who married into the Peacocke family adopted a girl called Pat, (born in 1902) after she was orphaned. Josephine Hyde Bottomley died in 1902, perhaps in childbirth so we think perhaps Josephine P. Bottomley is also the orphaned 'Pat'. It seems likely as the cousin who emailed me yesterday said that 'Pat' had married "Basil Stewart".
 Freeman’s Journal, 16 Sept 1840.
 The Freeman's Journal (Dublin) 05 Aug 1837
 The Morning Chronicle (London)04 Nov 1844,
 Freeman’s Journal, Dublin, 5 Aug 1837.
 Belfast News-Letter (Belfast) 13 Aug 1851,
 Birth, Marriage & Death Notices, Stranorlar, Co Donegal, 1823 to 1869
Extracted from personal notices inserted in the STRABANE MORNING POST, LONDONDERRY STANDARD & LONDONDERRY SENTINEL
 Belfast News-Letter (Belfast)30 Oct 1835
 The Monthly Magazine: Or, British Register ..., Volume 54 (Google)
 Allerbeck Farm between Lockerbie & Gretna, East of the A74. DG11 3LU.
 Records Ordnance Survey Name Books Dumfriesshire OS Name Books, 1848-1858 Dumfriesshire volume 33 OS1/10/33/51. scotlandsplaces.gov,uk
1. Orig. a certain weight of gold and silver estimated in monetary terms and used as a money of account from early times with the value of two thirds of the pound Scots or 13 shillings and 4 pence Scots which by the 18th c. was equivalent to 131/3d. sterling. A silver coin of this denomination was coined at intervals from the reign of James VI in 1578 to that of Charles II. As a money of account the name persisted into the 18th c., freq. as a collective pl., and still exists in some archaic legal usages, otherwise only hist. See also Half-Merk. In I.Sc. the merk referred to was orig. the slightly lighter Norwegian mark and the calculations of land-values under 3. were on that basis.
A unit of land assessment, being the area which orig. had the annual value of one merk, varying in extent according to the productivity of the soil in question. Usu. in comb. merkland, markland. Now only hist. except in place-names.
 The Edinburgh and Leith Directory, to July 1800
 The Scots Magazine and Edinburgh Literary Miscellany, Volume 76, Part P235.
 Findgrave has born 10/1785, Edinburgh. OPR does not have this birth.
 Copy of Oath of Allegiance on file
 Copy of Oath of Allegiance on file
 Robert Hunter (British, 1715–1780). http://www.artnet.com/artists/robert-hunter/portrait-of-william-stewart-of-killymoon-ZNa1TS31PMSu2ASNAUb7GQ2
 The Belfast Mercury or Freeman's Chronicle, 05 Aug 1783,
 Portrait of James Stewart (1741-1821) of Killymoon, Co Tyrone, three-quarter length, wearing a gold braided coat of characteristic `Batoni` red.
By family descent; by sale to Clements family (1930's or 40's); Sotheby's, London, 10 July 1991, P & D Colnaghi & Co. Ltd., https://www.artfund.org/supporting-museums/art-weve-helped-buy/artwork/7013/portrait-of-james-stewart-of-killymoon
 The Bristol Mercury and Daily Post, Western Countries and South Wales Advertiser (Bristol, England)09 May 1835
 The Times (London, Greater London, England)25 Apr 1787, Wed
 The Waterford Herald (Waterford, Waterford, Ireland)29 Mar 1792, Thu
 Pittsburgh Weekly Gazette (Pennsylvania)16 May 1789,
 The Freeman's Journal (Dublin, Dublin, Ireland)18 Apr 1812
 The Pall Mall Gazette (London)01 Mar 1866,
 The Morning Post (London) 18 Jan 1843.
 The Standard (London, Greater London, England)05 Oct 1850
 The Freeman's Journal (Dublin)30 Mar 1820.
 Belfast News-Letter (Belfast, Northern Ireland)12 Mar 1851,
 Belfast News-Letter (Belfast, Antrim)18 Aug 1835,
 The United Irishman (Dublin)15 Apr 1848,
 The Morning Chronicle (London, Greater London, England)07 Oct 1850, Mon
 Burns Scotland has DoB 1723
 MI of Scotland confirms 73rd year. Writen in 1871, so should be accurate.
 The Caledonian Mercury (Edinburgh,)13 May 1776, Mon
 Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanae New Edition, Hew Scott vol 2 1917 P214.
 Ancestry, Nugent Darrow Tree. 9/2019.
NRS, GD46/17/7, William McConnell to Keith Stewart, 3 December 1792.
The Interest of ‘North Britain’: Scottish Lobbying, the Westminster Parliament, and the British Union-State, c.1760-c.1830 PhD thesis, 2016. Andrew Mackley.
 Land Tax Rolls
Valuation rolls have been compiled in Scotland since at least the early 17th century by the Commissioners of Supply, the body of landowners in each county responsible for collecting the land tax. The principal purpose of these land tax rolls was to record who owned which property (worth more than £100 Scots), how much each property was worth in terms of annual rent, and what the owner’s liability was in terms of taxation based on the rental value. Rolls for each county were compiled only sporadically and those for the 17th century and early 18th century normally list the estate names not the names of the owners. From the mid 18th century land tax rolls became more
 The Caledonian Mercury (Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland)05 Jan 1795
 (Jstor The Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America
Vol. 103, No. 4 (DECEMBER 2009), pp. 455-495 (41 pages) Mark Towsey)
 Land tax rolls for Wigtownshire, volume 03 E106/34/3/34 (1799, Wigton)
The Caledonian 27/12/1821:
Wigtonshire, To be Sold by private bargain
THE DWELLING HOUSE &
OFFICES, in the Burgh of Wigton, with the GARDEN and THREE INCLOSURES of the
KIRKLANDHILL FEYS, adjoining to the Burgh, all as presently occupied by William
McConnell, esq of Culbae
Also A Freehold qualification in the County of Wigton
For particulars apply to Messrs Todd Romanes W.S. Edinburgh; or to John Black, writer, Wigton Wigton, Dec 15 1821.
16/2/1822: The following subjects will be sold by public roup, within the courthouse of Wigton on Friday 5th day of April 1822 at one o’clock afternoon.
Description the same as 27 Dec.
 The Morning Chronicle, London, 30 Apr 1817, Wed
Rev. Andrew Ross of Barsalloch, Kirkcolm Parish, Wigtownshire
By Shirley Walsh July 29, 2006 at 05:37:02
In reply to: Rev. Andrew Ross
Jillian Healy 7/03/04
Mary ROSS m.1737 to John Hannay. Ante-nuptial settlement
26-29 Oct 1737.
In 1764 their son, Alexander Hannay, m. Grizel ROSS, daughter of John ROSS of CAIRNBROOK, parish of Kirkcolm, Wigtownshire, Scotland.(refer 1782 map below). Ante-nuptial settlement 24 Dec 1764.(John ROSS b.1777 was son of Rev. Andrew Ross.
Rev. Andrew Ross (bc.1720-1740 ?) was brother of another Grizel ROSS bc.1720-1740 ?).
Rev. Andrew ROSS (see map 1782 below) had dau who m. Thomas ADAIR (son of an AGNEW).
Rev. Andrew ROSS also had a dau Jean who m. John RUSKIN.
John ROSS of CAIRNBROOK descendants were Antarctic navigators Sir John ROSS (1777 – 1856) who m. 1816 Christian Adair and his nephew Sir James Clark ROSS (1800 - 1862), both of Balsharroch, (Balsarroch / Barsarroch / Barsarrock, Barony of Corswall ) Wigtownshire.
Grizel ROSS and Alexander HANNAY had 2 dau, Mary and Elizabeth.
Mary, m. Dr. Robert HANNAY, of Capenoch and Culbae, Wigtownshire, who was later a Collector at Portpatrick.
Elizabeth HANNAY married Wm. McCONNELL, afterwards Sheriff of Wigtown.
Rev. Andrew Ross and Grizel Ross were
said to be children on George Ross of Balsarroch.
 The Caledonian Mercury (Edinburgh, Scotland)27 Sep 1783, Sat
 New Edition, Hew Scott vol 2 1917, P229
 Wigtownshire Charters.
 The Story of Presbyterianism in First Cookstown
 Belfast News-Letter (Belfast)16 Apr 1851,
 Belfast Newsletter 6 Aug 1851
 Belfast News-Letter (Belfast) 03 Jul 1860,
 Belfast News-Letter (Belfast, Antrim, Northern Ireland)31 Jul 1872,
 Debrett’s Baronetage of England, 1815. P1120, Stewarts